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eeond Part
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Noted Aviators Discuss the Dangers of Aerial Navigation in Heavier



1 ips Key to

Success of their Model

Accident of Last Friday Does Not Daunt Them and Final Tests for Flight to Alexandria and Back May be Made This Week
by the rest of us hJehbcows and a Now propellers sad fluids such ac water and air have been lultmstn fee some time Ia the Wright maehtoe that intimacy is both perpendfcalar and horizontal per m the propellers and horizon ¬ tal in the two natal planes It is a nelicoMal field day Any way tee wind hits the machine it lads a hettcoM ready to meet it and rec ¬ ognises an oM friend Aa stated before


seen bar dangerous There are some accidents that cant bo prevented yeti may be going along at a fair rate of The steering speed In an automobile

Dangerous That


on what



gear may break and you may be thrown into a ditch and killed You may be sleeping In a Pullman ocach protected by aM the safety appli- ¬ ances known in the railroad business But from the fact that the human band eaters into every artificial thing that la made the train may run into an open switch and scores of persons may lose their lives No indeed I do not feel that I take my life In my hand VerY time I go up In aa aeroplane I do not think there is anymore danger in It than there is in trav-¬ eling along aa ordinary road at the speed of an aeroplanes flight If I did I wouldnt be nyteg in aeroplanes Cool In Time of Danger For all the world as if danger to life were no more emotional a thing than a M spark plug OrvIlle Wright who has hardk more than recovered from a sheer plunge itl seventyfive feet in which he was severely injured and Lieut Self ridge was killed answered my question and atasked kim it be did not feel the possibility when he atarted on a light that death might claim him ae a result of It He and Wilbur were finishing their evening meal in the diningroom of the Raleigh The dishes had been cleared were both toying with away and plates of chocolate ice creamI had asked them a number of things but with the question as to the danger of what they were doing I felt that I was getting at the root of a very large fund of curiosity Also in Orvilles answer I hoped to vet a Mght on the question of the pose the two aviators have been charged with aseumlsg the attitude of Bettsaadency that has been laid at then door TIM answer was as unaffected as any statement could be
lee cream-






Myer OrvWea position indicated that be had thrown out his arms to prevent the army max from jumping If what you say about the effect of why was the frame te true I asked September so the fall m the accMent



Control Steering

Accident n DInnppointnient
spoke with entire simplicity but as if he were discussing a matter be had thought out for himself long before and would a little rather not go into again He and Wilbur seemed a trine disappointed over the accident of Friday afternoon m which the aklde were smashed and the lower right wing tip batty tern IlL landing sifter tltt engine had stopped at a altitude of eightyfive feet It was simply a t ase of bard luck said Wilbur If Orvllle had noticed theMe of the tree soon enough the tending would have been made without a jar and without injury of any kind The stop- ¬ ping of the engine is nothing to worry about Turning to Orvlfe I asked And do you mean tjo say that if you were ist feet hi the ale fat would be per-¬ fectly willing to shot off the engine of your own accord just tor the ten of gIld lug te the ground Orville

machine were ins mite in the air when Easy to Land Osrtainry answered the younger the engine stopped it could get to the cirradius cumference of a circle of six toother If for any reason I wasted to or twelve miles diameter miles area of The shut off the motor I shouldnt give it a

replied Orville I have dover said that there lc no danger when toe steer lag apparatus goer wrong which i what happened then There may out be dan- ¬ ger I believe from the way the machine acted and the nature of the accident to the upright steering planes that if we had been fifty feet farther from the ground we should have tended without injury to ether of us and probably not to the if the steering mechanism gets day out of order it tea question However we heard oftmteated the pore shirty of such an event as tar as it it possible to eliminate anything of that nature in aeropkudng or in anything else The condition that allowed that accident to happen has been entirely corrected and we can think of nothing else In rea ¬ son that can affect our steering appar- ¬ atus Can Find Landing Place Figures of wonderful poestbfttties went brought overt In the discussion of a dee cent without power froth a high altitude Starting from the fact that m gUlag down the distance forward is six tunes the distance down It te sees that If the

anon a ckcte fc ftt JSjuare n las nearly asset At that be came down a minute the ua had set and twice a great as tint af ifc District Of or two later Colometby Ute redaa sf the contest no time wu aJn other words if an aeroplane com- counted attar that He had gasoline menced to glide from a point one mile in enough tIMe to Jroep hint up a half hour the air and over the center of the District it could choose Its tending place hanger Meyer In the teats to e belt at a anywhere in the District or over Mr the gov ¬ the near firtvc to border In Maryland or Virginia Descent against the wind would be even osier lID t contract enough gncolhie will than descent with it since the wind has earned 1n die tank by the Irma ol a sustaining elect operating exactly like for a flight of IS mOM snectfieattea an equivalent speed produced by the pro- which at the rate of forty miles an hour pellers In coming down against the wind meats an excurshm of more than three the eagle of slant could therefore be de- hours Orriliee record of one hour and creased and the point of landing removed fourteen minutes was made new Septo a greater distance tember It JaM a few nays before the Plights of such a height have not been accident up to attempted by the Wright brothers the present time This fact to right In- SECKET OF THEIR SUCCESS line with their policy of not trying mote POUND IN THE WING TIPS than one new thing at a time The more one sees of their consistent adherence to thfemMttcy tho morn err realise the al- ¬ 11 t WrlPt brotlt Il most infinite variety of things they may era lit this country and Koroae were the stilt accomplish They are holding back- subject of the next question There are a lot of little brain sprouts growing nice- a number of them applying to different ly that have never seen the light of of the machine but especiallypublicity and a lot of seeds that are featuresfundamental principle of warping to the waiting for a dance to be planted the main planes to obtain lateral equi- ¬ Went Up 3 0 Feet librium It ta here that the genius of the The highest level reached by the Wright inventors has found fonn In an appar- ¬ aeroplane se far was tapped by Wilbur ently staple method of twtstmg the cor- ¬ In France He went to a height of about ners up and down To the casual eye Ml feet Orvilles record Is MB feet It looks Mfc a mere matter of pulling a Fort Meyer in the tests test tau few wires and changing a slightly cnrved Either one has any otter reoonfl made by surface of cream related stretched a heaviertbaftalr machine beaten with over wooden ribs But la those wing tips plenty to spare The worlds record for as the rear corners of the mate plane time la the air was made by Wilbur are called Is shrouded the secret seem hi France when be stayed up two hours had tried toe generations to discover beand twentyone mutes by the oOcial fore the Wright brothers got aa idea aad


qty let




seemd thought There ta absolutely no way the machine cut get into trouble through the stopping of the propellers A series of dips and glides would bring me to the ground as easily as If I were moving under full power In place of the engine the speed would be gotten by slanting the forward planes downward a little until the machine accumulated speed Then the front the slanting descent planes could be set level again and the aeroplane would glide until the slacken- ¬ ing of its velocity necessitated another downward dip Successive repetitions of this process is all that is necessary to a sate landing Wouldnt the nature of the ground you were over have a great deal to do with the safety of the lading I asked ft would be hard to imagine a situation in which a landing could not be made without danger to the aviator at least said Orville In extreme cases the machine might be damaged but they would be very rare The control of the aeroplane allows a wide latitude in the selection of the place of landing The angle at which the machine would glide smoothly to the earth is nine or ten de- ¬ grees with the horizontal In other words if I dropped one foot I should move for ¬ ward about six But it is possible to dip down very sharply and recover with the forward planes then dip again and recover again By this time the forward travel would be greatly diminished


a unique attitude of the brothers with regard to their own safety and that of their machine came freai Wilbur He was answering a ques ¬ tion as to what could be done if the ma- ¬ chine were traveling at a height say of 1M feet above a solid forest miles in ex- ¬ tent when the engine refused to work Even If you have to come down on tree tops there is no danger to speak Sup- ¬ of to the aviator he answered pose you could And no opening and came There are lots shown in the foliage harder things in the world than foliage wing tip hit the side of a tree It throwing the machine over and pitching It to the ground the aeroplane Itself would be damaged but the operator would be saved by the framework con- ¬ necting the planes Right here is one of the novel ideas hold by the Wright brothers that the framework is a great element of safety hi extreme emergencies I had asked h the fact that the aviator was surround ¬ ed by wooden braces and taut wires did not meet he was trapped beyond all hope of saving himself Safe in the Machine The Wright brothers held on the other band that it is the beet thing in the world for the operator to stay with the machine to be trapped as I had ex- ¬
A statement showing pressed it The man is in the center of the whole thing Wilbur explained Nothing can hit him Any blow any Jar is expended on the frame or 09 the wings and loses Its force there If the blow is heavy enough it might wrook the machine but it could not injure the operator In connection with this point it will be remembered that when the bodies of Lieut Self ridge and Orv1Ue Wright were taken out from under the aeroplane last September on the parade ground at Fort

Landing In a Forest


the aeroplane steed one omy teat week A man rauie up to Orville Wright tetrodcced hiiHUtlf explained that he had a flying machine he wanted to try and asked It be might have the use of tIM starting derrick Orville saM certainly If his machine was not an infringement of brothers Orvc he kwRS Ike the tofeteenta W- the Wright patent The man was sure k Complicated Steering Gear eft already tried to explain that to wasnt There was no dealt shoe tt en- ¬ Since the swing tips en the inside of the prove It be twelve newspaper men te other places tirely different Finally to curve are then trarettag mote slowly than and they have aR gotten It wrong I showed Orville a drawing OrvfiBe pteeed his finger an tIDe point ta tile others and hence gang less upwu1 guess Its to chalk up another one pressure that ride ef the machine tends I toot a of paper aad wrote the drafting te a to fan The wing tips are thereupon Vera you are he said down the gist of what I understood their fundamental patent to cover Then WU surface used to regulate lateral balance warped downward at a greater angle bw took At and changed a few wordy The patent on that te art to increase the pressure and correct t srhlsn was Tnerv he said thats about the alas OrriOe liked Mm If Ids ¬ patented He said It was Orrtte asked low of balance That side of the maof It chine starts to rise sad with the levers him where he got the patent paper rend The Well I dont know anything about left as they are tine aeroplane would turnright patent covers all sue The nl ald the ssau but I a somersault over its long dtet netoos To ce fitl far W of regulating lateral patents myself balance by the ale of wing tips or the showed my drawings to a patent attor- maintain equilfhrhnn at that pots the ney surd he fixed it up for sae planes are warped the other way until sustaining surfaces or separate aax Hlnry plane adjustable to different The man did not use the Wright broth ¬ balace is regained angler to right and left of the ccater err starting derrick These operations give an insight Into of the ninchiBe principle te the Wright the skill shown by the Wright brothers The ring quite pos- I machine to tip enough It Is It was brief very little understood In te the manipulation of then sensitive sible that a number of inventors who what understanding there te of it the eraft There te no chance for an aerial try to place their machines on the mar- ¬ Lradatioiia are like the tense Of a circus The cooperatba between mind ket in the future will lad it brutally calliope for fertility One man watching bride must be instant accurate and and hand as it stands It makes in- ¬ the machine fly at Fort Myer last Thurs- as sensitive as the machine itself AS brief For fringements of all other aeroplanes hat day said te an seriousness that the up Wilbur and Orville Wright explained mi- ¬ have ever made successful lights Heli ¬ anddown movement of the pesky thing nutely the details of the thong of r a copters are a different branch of the was regulated by throwing out ballast wings to me they made nothing of the aerial tree Bat as regards aeroplanes or picking it up ebe might have added skill required I asked if there would net the principle covered te the Wright pat- ¬ They dent come like that very often be a notable Increase te the sportsmen ents h they be enforced te so broad who lacked their peculiar cool nerve that up to the present time JIG machine By those who watched the aeroplane their long association with the machine has Mea made to SIr that did not em- being put together the water cooler was and their coufltetent cauttoe where cau- ¬ body K If their patent stands the strata called everything trot a medlelm chest tion was a virtue the Wright brothers seem to haw to a folding bed the trips at night Pass True to his colors Orville said heavierthanair navigation by the hair tag through the ranks of those who have It would not be dangerous If they had a general Idea that the planes te skim- proper instruction in the operation of an Howe Other Are Balanced were not too bold through the sir are aa uprIM June Bug for Instance deigned ming kick Acre are others Ovenhave ar¬ aeroplane and if they If they took risks ta the handling of ft wino ward by Ute Aerial Experiment Jrived at sane sot of an lisa of the that should not be taken they might get ot which Alexander Graham Bell te pres- ¬ warping ot tile nrdces They are oa into trouble traverse equiI risen the trail The aeroplane has come to stay It is ident maintains not perfect and may not be for many by means of four triangular auxtttery I IUc Propeller Blades years hut man has become muter of the plantS pivoted so that they may be operAs a matter of tact the two large been a dream since the ated from the aviators seat The Far living sinuous thhept capa- air which has ctrilbmtions dawn Until an early days of man aeroplane which won the Grand ble of being by a touch on the hy human ingenuity we can communi ¬ Prix of the Aere Club of FraMe te ceders Into a surface having me- term cate with Mars the airship wilt no doubt < one mte January MS with a flight a propeller blast TIle ssarde OIl a pro stand as the highest deTrtupmiut of t ute and twentyeight oocomky te which potter Made to called a heUcoht by the Inventive genius time it covered somewhat more that a kilometer is bateaced by mesas of a box tail in the rear of the two main surfaces The Qirard aeroptene which looks like a Malay pagoda or a Japanese tea house depends oa balancing sur- ¬ faces the sole use of which te claimed by the Wrights te their letters patent And 90 it goes All down the line of a aeroplanes that have really iowa tileBy JULmN D SARtT sdsos eis at the end of a hundred yards ways roil Is controlled or the s all destine lateral balance to maintained by the use With tie speed fit and elvewa brain and human Oon beyondsome semblance titerm on unknown bt very Eke It an aeroplane- the of planes or surfaces of one bind or sad a Scientific men and inventors sped the ugh the air it was a aloe s- of arnuad more than SW feet below anether commenced As the have remarked that the Wright patents thing cunning eentlesb of two malt to23at a oR Its mad machinethe operator pace Jacluii are exclusive and give them the entire horizontal Dianne two ttctle hetiaosrtal whang body had learned to breath with field so far as aeropteatog ta now known planes In front two Mlle vertical planes the very framework of his craft exerte l or even guessed at belled sad two propellers revolving In the slightest wrist pressure on old o th ¬ a Patent Covers What levers slanting the forward planes downalmost invisible circles To answer a question I had asked as ward With the graceful dip of a swal- ¬ The patented meteorite was far front low the aeroplane scooped a long arc to the exclusiveness of patents WMhur the earth a thing apart from It up is out of the air regaining its speed An- ¬ picked up his tea cream spear and lIeN the quiet atuMsphere where the atfuteeas other touch on the lever and it floated t it toward me Again the dip the long gusts below are not known To horizontally Supper he said that up to a cer- ¬ of the the aviator perched In his aerial seat scoop the recovery the glide It was tain time spoons had been shnaly aat the features of the surface beneath him very simple slabs sad that then somebody came were hWnstteet Here a deeper shadow The aviator glanced at a map he had along lied get the WM Of IIIPIIIg a belhim It tiny ribbon placed conveniently beside of which was worked a golly There a a strange map the like hud low surface at the end He could get showed s stream Acres were pin pricks never before been seen tithe upon the a patent be The older brother then held up the te tint layout and square miles were earth or in the air It was issued use an of aeronautical society for the spoon so that I could see the slits la- little stars than pencil dots Aside froM the vibrant breathing of the aeronauts and contained references t the end of k be continued I Suppose that later machine and the metalthroated blare land marks nature of the earths sur- ¬ somebody got the idea of putting these of the exhaust the aviator might have face local habits of the wind routs courses names of cities and s slits in the end of the spoon for certain on the Milky of water host of other facts for the use of a man purposes That would be an Improve- been sitting comfortably music of the in just such a position as the one wWay listening to the ment and would be paieutabie Hut the only thing the second fellow could get spheres One hand rested lightly en a vas ow giancta at it This is more than I had promised a patent on te the sttt arrangement ta lever controlling the forward planes by the end and sine the list fellow owns which be regulated his elevation The myself muttered the aviator AeropUn lag has its inconveniences after all I I the patent t on the spoon itself where other held two closeset lev rs connected a He cant by wires with the wing tips or out- ¬ had planned to keep an engagement does the second Arms tend make slits in the end of a spoon with¬ I ward corners of the mate planes In the Baltimore loalght My map shows thatI am about over the center of the Dis- ¬ spoon He te helpless out hawing the as badly as a nipple without the bottle I wing tips beat the heart of the secret trict of Columbia It also shows a rail- ¬ The fellow with the silts has got to go of his flight for it vas they which con- way station a few miles OWl the line to the fellow with the spoon and make trolled the toll of Is ship The hands Into Maryland FU sUde down there and some sort of an arrangement with him I of the driver moved no more than those hop aboard a tram So the dips the recoveries the slides Wilbur leaned back la his chair and of an expert bicycle rider an the handle In the rushing wind there was went on As tee aviator neared the sur allowed a good nature smile to crease bars nothing to deflect the sktanumg planes face of the earths be looked out for a the sides of his aquiline face of a hair So youve got the spoon and aM that the breadth something went wrong The good place to tend near the station near- the saw one ahead of him On the other aeroplane inventors last get I Suddenly There was a gap In ing it he was forced to Increase the a gla engine coughed Is the slits I asked M roar of explosions of his dips to prevent being carried be- ¬ Well answered Wilbur seriously rte the almost continuous dont know now of any practical method ta the cylinders The motor gagged and yond but that was easily done He of flight In which the balancing surface with a final kick at the propellers died Lauded so liiitiy that his runners would moment the sudden silence seemed hardly have broken a pane of glass lying does not have to be used thats aH For Improvements ef another sort may be more deafening than the roar It followed on the Sold In his glide to the ground But they are the Was the operator terror stricken Did from a mile in the air he had passed out patented of cows be with what philosophy he could muster of the District and into the State of slits An Incident showing how inventors have up consign himself to a swift and terri ¬ 1 Maryland or had traveled an equivafollowed the Wright principle occurred at ble plunge through space with uneon lent of six miles across country

gave up the business of repairing blot deli In Dayton Ohio After some dJotunsiou te which I was trying te get my linger nails into a slip- ¬ pery question Wilbur grinned stepped his ice cream a couple of tines with this convex side of his spoon and said to his

have always been able to around fluids so the wind hasnt a chancel with the Wright flyer It just rubs up1 against It and pore If hv could speak it would say Advance friend You have Here given the countersign heUcoid was where the bicycle repairers stepped out and the wizards stepped IlL Always Work IR Harmony Wires naming front levers bt the hand eT the aviator are connected to the rear earners of both the upper and lower planes the flues rnamYW down from the upper plane and up front the lower to pulleys near the center of the aeroplane Staee toe wires are run through and since the planes bave Ie act ta conjunction on account of the rigid braeee between them to pull down on one pair of corners Is to push p on the opposite pair at the other side of the machine When the wins tips on see side are pulled a greater with the down wind the pressure an them becomes greater and that side of the aeroplane tends to rise These deflections cannot be noticed by spectators below when the chine is in the air although at dose range the warp tag to plainly to he seen The corners of the planes are hinged ta the frame to allow the dedertioa When the aero plane ie seen te flight dipping like a bird at the curves soaring as evenly as a ship la a quiet set It is bard to think that tear operatiana taU place at the will of the man at the levers in order to maintain the t Uh iua that leaks so easy The forward horteoatal planes which govern the vertical movement are oper- ¬ ated by one lever When a curve is t be made the rudder pianos are turned iikr those of a water cart te the direction of the intended course