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LAL BAHADUR SHASTRI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT

DELHI

TRAINING MANUAL

SPAIN
SUBMITTED TO: Ms. SHIVDASINI SINGH AMIN
DATE: 10th August11

SUBMITTED BY: GROUP 11 SONAM AHUJA 104/11 ANKITA AGARWAL 106/11 KUMAR SOMIL 108/11 VENKAT RAMANA REDDY 110/11 NISHANT TANEJA 112/11 MANISH THAKUR 114/11

CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CULTURE OF SPAIN 2.1. PEOPLE AND THEIR VALUES 2.2. INTERPRETATION OF DIFFERENT COLORS 2.3. FESTIVALS, EVENTS AND CELEBRATIONS 2.4. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS 3. LIFESTYLE 3.1. CLOTHING 3.2. DINING ETIQUETTES 3.3. HEALTH AND SAFETY 3.4. TRAVELLING 4. SOCIAL AND CORPORATE BEHAVIOR 4.1. GESTURES 4.2. GREETINGS 4.3. TIME CONSCIOUSNESS 4.4. GIFTING 4.5. TOPICS OF CONVERSATION 4.6. INTERACTION BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN 4.7. BODY LANGUAGE 4.8. BUSINESS CULTURE 4.9. COMMUNICATION CHECKLIST Dos & Donts

4.10. COMMON WORDS, PHRASES AND PRONUNCIATION 5. 6. 7. CULTURE SHOCK BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURES 7.1. QUIZ 7.2. FLASH CARDS

1. INTRODUCTION Spain (Spanish: Espaa) is a diverse country sharing the Iberian Peninsula with Portugal at the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. It is the country with the second-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites, after Italy, and the largest number of World Heritage Cities. Spain is considered an exotic country in Europe due to its friendly inhabitants, relaxed lifestyle, its cuisine, vibrant nightlife, and world-famous folklore and festivities. Among many places worth visiting are Spain's thriving capital Madrid, the vibrant coastal city of Barcelona, the famous "Running of the Bulls" at Pamplona, major Andalucian cities with Islamic architecture, like Seville, Granada and Crdoba, the Way of St. James and the idyllic Balearic and Canary Islands. It is a democracy organized in the form of a parliamentary government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a developed country with the twelfth largest economy in the world by nominal GDP, and very high living standards (20th highest Human Development Index), including the tenth-highest quality of life index rating in the world, as of 2005. It is a member of the United Nations, European Union, NATO, OECD, and WTO.

With surface area exceeding half a million square kilometers and it is the second largest territory in Europe after France. With 40 million people inhabitants, Spain also has the fourth largest population in Europe.

2. CULTURE OF SPAIN 2 . 1 . S PANIS H PE O PL E AND T H E IR VAL UE S The Spanish are generally friendly, helpful, and individualistic. They enjoy conversation and giving advice to family and friends. The Spanish have a strong sense of personal pride alongside the spirit of individualism. They often consider it their duty to correct errors as they see them in others. Spanish people feel it is very important to project an impression of affluence and social position. Regional pride and devotion are strongly held values and increasingly expressed. The family is the basis of the social structure and includes both the nuclear and the extended family, which sometimes provides both a social and a financial support network. The structure and the size of the family vary. The family are very important in Spain. Divorce rates are low. The father is traditionally the undisputed head of the home. Generally the wife is responsible for caring for the house and children.

2.2. INTERPRETATION OF COLORS

COLOR

SIGNIFICANCE

EXAMPLES

BLACK

Power, death, piety

Bulls, Catholic faith Condemned Inquisition prisoners during

YELLOW

Treason

GREEN

Racy, sexy, cheap, agriculture Blood, aggression

Off-color humor, vineyards Scarves, flamenco dresses, bullfighting

RED

GREY

Strength

Rock of Gibraltar

WHITE

Pure

Bridal dresses

2.3. FESTIVALS, EVENTS AND CELEBRATIONS Some major festivals celebrated are: La Tomatina - Valencia Tomato Fight Festival August. Bunol Valencia. Every year around 30, 000 people descend on the Spanish town of Bunol (in the Valencia region of Spain) to throw more than 240,000 pounds of tomatoes at each other as part of the La Tomatina festival. Tamborrada de San Sebastian/The San Sebastian Drum Festival. January. San Sebastian, Basque Country. A march to the deafening sounds of drums, as groups of drummers parade through the city on the night of the first day of the year. The next morning, the "Tamborrada Infantil" (Child Drummer's Ceremony) is celebrated. Feria de Abril/April Fair April. Sevilla, Andalucia. Shortly after Holy Week, the Seville Fair opens, brimming over with joy and full of

spectacularity. The fair blazes with multicolored tents, wreaths and paper lanterns outlined against the sky. Fiesta de Verano August. Malaga, Andalucia. This festival in Malaga usually starts the second Friday of August with spectacular fireworks. The fair takes place during bullfighting season, so one can see a magnificent contest in the afternoon. Fiestas de la Vendimia Riojana/ La Rioja Wine Festival September (around the 21st, the Day of San Mateo). Logrono, La Rioja. The harvesting festival of one of the most renown wine regions in Spain. The Rioja is the center of a very important wine culture. Dia de Santiago July 25. Santiago de Compostela, Galicia. Celebration of the patron Saint of Spain. Fireworks, parades, televised mass. National holiday. Fiestas Patronales de La Virgen de Gracia September. Albacete, Castilla y La Mancha. With more than 400 years of tradition behind them, the Fiestas of Caudete are celebrated every year to honour its Virgin, La Virgen de Gracia. The main components are the fireworks, gunpowder, music, procession, and flower offering to the Virgin. LIST OF NATIONAL HOLIDAYS IN SPAIN

DATE

ENGLISH NAME

January 1

New Year's Day

March or April

Good Friday

May 1

Labour Day

August 15

Assumption

October 12

Fiesta Nacional de Espaa

November 1

All Saints Day

December 6

Constitution Day

December 8

Immaculate Conception

December 25

Christmas Day

2.4. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS There are many customs and traditions attributed to Spanish culture, which are especially evident during the many festivities and celebrations. Many have evolved during the years but still have their roots in times long gone by.

Flamenco is most commonly found in the Spanish region of Andalusia. It started out as the typical music and dance of the gypsies that inhabited the south of Spain.

The Roman Catholic religion is still very much a central part of life for many Spaniards, as can be seen in the many religious festivals, parades and celebrations that are held in honor of the Madonna and patron saints.

Bullfighting in Spain is something very Spanish undoubtedly one of Spains most recognized cultural features, this old art form is becoming more and more controversial as many animal rights groups speak out against it. Nevertheless, the bull fights and bull runs in Pamplona never fail to draw large crowds, not only from Spain itself but from other parts around the world.

Mealtimes are important to Spaniards. Eating is not only about the delicious dishes typical of Spain but also about socializing a great way to get together with family and friends and enjoy their company. In Spain, friends and family always come first.

3. LIFESTYLE 3.1. CLOTHING

Appearance is very important to the Spanish people. Even for casual occasions they like to dress elegantly. Shorts are not worn in public by men or women, unless one is at a beach resort, and it is during the day. Long pants are worn at night at beach resorts by men. A woman who wears shorts in public may be thought of as a person advertising her body. Men and women wear elegant accessories, such as good watches and jewellery. In Spain, it is important to project good taste in apparel. One will find many women whose bag matches exactly her shoes. A good real leather handbag for a woman is a must in Spain. Spaniards consider that bathing costumes, skimpy tops and flip-flops or sandals with no socks are strictly for the beach or swimming pool, and not for example, the streets, restaurants or shops. BUSINESS CLOTHING Businessmen wear well made, conservative suits and ties, even during summer. Men should wear suits in black, navy blue and dark gray, and ties made from quality materials. The female business professionals should strive to dress with the utmost modesty, as Spanish women are expected to avoid drawing attention to their physical sexuality and tend to emphasize their femininity through their immaculate clothes and hair. Women can also wear business suits with a blouse; dresses are acceptable as well. Women often wear smart, highquality skirts, dresses or pantsuits, with stockings in fall and winter. As in other countries, dark colors and heavy fabrics prevail in winter, light colors and lightweight fabrics in summer. Besides the ubiquitous jewelry, scarves are common accessories and high-heeled shoes are the standard. Professionals should be well-groomed (i.e. neat hairstyles, clean nails), and clothes should be professionally pressed. .Designer clothes and brand names are noted with approval.

Good shoes are very important in Spain. The Spanish manufacture high quality leather shoes in the greatest variety of styles, so they are very conscious when looking at the shoes the other person is wearing. Shoes should always be well cleaned. 3.2. DINING ETIQUETTES

Spain's eating and drinking culture is one of its greatest attractions, and a very communal one, with people rubbing shoulders in tapas bars and cafs, and a whole range of eateries from simple workers' lunch cafs to some of the worlds finest and most innovative gourmet restaurants. TABLE MANNERS: Remain standing until invited to sit down. Always keep your hands visible when eating. Keep your wrists resting on the edge of the table. Do not begin eating until the hostess starts. Use utensils to eat most food. Even fruit is eaten with a knife and fork. If you have not finished eating, cross your knife and fork on your plate with the fork over the knife. The host gives the first toast. An honored guest should return the toast later in the meal. It is acceptable for a woman to make a toast. Indicate you have finished eating by laying your knife and fork parallel on your plate, tines facing up, with the handles facing to the right. Do not get up until the guest of honor does. Spaniards don't waste food. It is better to decline food rather than leave it on your plate. TIPPING Staff doesnt expect tips except in tourist areas, where a service charge may be added to the bill. Hotel and restaurant bills usually include a 7% tax. A common practice in almost all restaurants is to leave a 5-10% tip including tour guides. Taxi drivers expect tips of 10-15% and usually charge baggage by the piece.

SMOKING Spaniards are among the heaviest smokers in Europe; one will just have to accept that it will probably be impossible to persuade a smoking colleague to abstain from the habit even at the dining table.

3.3.

TRAVELLING

Land Travel - Spain has an extensive road grid covering close on 212,500 miles (340.000 kilometres), and of this total 4,375 miles (7.000 kilometres) represent highways (toll motorways, freeways and dual-carriageways).

This highway network, a great part of which is toll-free, makes it possible for the visitor to drive in comfort from the Pyrenees all the way down to Andalusia, either along the Mediterranean coast or, alternatively, inland via Madrid, the nation's communications node by virtue of its central position. A comprehensive network of petrol stations and roadside rest areas offer the widest possible range of en-route services.

The public coach service is comfortable and efficient, with different lines covering longdistance routes on a regular timetable. There is also a good network of bus and coach companies catering for short-distance travel and sightseeing trips.

Taxis, which are likewise comfortable and efficient, are subject to the fare shown on the meter. In some cities there is a luxury-style service, known as grandes turismos, charging higher rates. For this type of hire, it is advisable to settle the fare in advance.

4. SOCIAL AND CORPORATE BEHAVIOR 4.1. GESTURES

The Spanish, and others from countries around the Mediterranean, are known to make a fair bit of use of gestures when theyre talking. In conversation, Spaniards may not only stand uncomfortably close, but may also pat your arm or shoulder. Indeed, a wide range of gestures accompanies all conversation and the more animated the discussion the more the Spanish will gesticulate. Below are some common Spanish gestures and their meanings: 1. Fingertips kiss- done by putting your thumb and the rest of your fingers together, raising them to your lips as if kissing it and tossing your hand into the air. It is a sign of approval or praise in Spain. 2. Cheek screw- done by making a fist, sticking out your forefinger and screwing it in the cheek. In Spain, this is used to describe a man as being womanish or effeminate.

3. Esto es muy dificil- it means, "It is very difficult." This is done by putting your thumb and index finger together and shaking it. 4. Ese seor tienne mucho dinero- "That person has lots of money." This is done by rubbing your thumb with the rest of your fingers. 5. If you want to indicate that a place is packed with people (est lleno de gente) you hold one or both hand in front of you with the fingers pointing upwards and open and close them quickly.

6. If youre broke estoy a dos velas (down to two candles) you can show this by moving your index and middle fingers down your face on either side of your nose from just below your eyes.

7. To show that you think someone is being very lazy qu huevon/huevona, you hold both hands in front of you as if holding something large and heavy in each one and move them up and down.

8. If someone is being cheeky, you can show what you think of them by tapping your cheek with your hand. The spoken equivalent of this gesture is cara dura (lit. hard face).

4.2.

GREETINGS

Initial introductions with Spaniards are always formal: extend a brief but firm handshake, while maintaining eye contact and saying buenos das or buenas tardes depending on the time of day. Buenos das is used until 2:00 pm or so, and Buenas tardes is used from then on. Always preface a telephone call or a meeting with a polite greeting. Men will continue to shake hands on all subsequent occasions. Women will embrace and kiss; you may also observe professional women greeting particularly close [male] colleagues in this way. In the company of friends, it is also common for men to hug or pat each other on the back as well as shaking hands.

Spaniards, though, are perhaps less likely to insist on going through the same rituals when parting than, say, the French. Interpersonal relationships are very important to Spaniards, and there is a strong emphasis on respect for elders. So when meeting or introducing yourself for the first time to a Spaniard, one should make sure that you follow the proper meeting etiquette. Handshakes can be offered to all present including any children. One must make sure to greet the oldest people present first. However if one is familiar with their Spanish counterparts one can expect a kiss on both cheeks, left to right, or hugging from a woman and a short embrace or pat on the back or arms between men. Once a firm friendship has been established, Spaniards are much less reserved and more engaging. Personal space is also much closer in Spain than many countries people will often stand close together when chatting or in serious discussion. Although one may often refer to their Spanish counterparts as Senor or Senora, the formal titles of Don and Dona can also be used. In some Latin American countries these terms are reserved for nobility but this is not always the case in Spain.

Some common expressions of greetings in Spain are listed below:

Hola Hello, hi This greeting is suitable in both formal and informal contexts. Adis Goodbye An informal alternative in many areas is chau (sometimes spelled ciao, from Italian).

Cmo ests? Cmo est? How are you? The first form (which is informal) normally would be used with someone you know on a first-name basis or when speaking with a child. The second form generally would be used in other situations.

Muy bien, gracias Very well, thank you. Buenos das Good day, good morning In some areas, a shortened form, buen da, is used.

Buenas tardes Good afternoon, good evening In most areas, buenas tardes should be used in the early evening in preference to buenas noches.

Buenas noches Good night Unlike the English translation, buenas noches can be used as a greeting as well as a farewell.

4.3.

TIME CONSCIOUSNESS

The Spanish attitude towards time is notoriously flexible. Nothing is done in a hurry but whatever needs doing gets done. So, if a waiter does not come to ones table immediately, he should not be condemned for poor service but accepted that he does not appear to be in any hurry because he assumes that the guests are not in a hurry.

The Spanish daily timetable is also alien to most visitors. Although wider use of airconditioning is hastening change, old habits die hard and most Spaniards enjoy an active social life out of doors in the cool of the evening and into the night. You should not be surprised to see young children still up at midnight and you should not be annoyed if your colleagues stay out drinking into the early hours. The Spanish day is not rigidly structured; it is not divided crudely into work or play but the two are interwoven throughout the 24-hour cycle. This flexible attitude is epitomized by the habit of ir de tapas--indulging in a series of tasty, different little dishes throughout the course of the day.
Most Spanish offices close from 2:00 to 5:00 in the afternoon and then stay open until 8:00 pm. Most banks, however, do not open again in the afternoon. A number of offices implement a special schedule during the summer, opening earlier and closing for the day at 2:00 or 3:00 pm. Most Spaniards take some kind of vacation or holidays during the month of August, quite possibly for the whole month. Accordingly, you shouldnt plan on doing business during the month o f August. Many Spaniards dont work on Friday afternoons either, so dont plan on scheduling meetings or business during that time. The same is true for the day or days preceding or following a holiday (da festivo). A number of Spaniards may take this time off to create an extended holiday known as a puente (literally, a bridge). See more about puentes at Holidays in Spain. For a meeting or gathering, Spaniards may be a few minutes late. This is normal and dont think anything of it. You, however, should not be late. As a foreigner, you may be held to a higher standard. Especially if youre German.

The Spanish have a relaxed view of time, but while doing business in Spain it is important to arrive for meetings on time. Spaniards will want to spend time getting to know you before doing business, so remember that many times the first meeting is simply to start the relationship. Do not get offended if you are interrupted when speaking it is very common, so is having several people speaking at once.

4.4.

GIFTING If one is invited to a Spaniards house, the Spanish gift giving custom is to bring a host/hostess gift such as chocolates, dessert items such as pastries, or a bottle of high quality wine.

Flowers are only sent for special celebrations, if gifting flowers they should be given in odd numbers, except for thirteen which is considered unlucky. If the home one is invited to has children, then it is considered polite if the guest brings a small gift especially for them. When receiving a gift, one should open it immediately and in front of the gift giver. Gifts must be beautifully wrapped. Gifting dahlias, chrysanthemums, white lilies or red roses is considered inappropriate.

BUSINESS GIFT GIVING CUSTOMS There is a tradition in Spain of companies giving their employees a hamper or basket of food and drink at Christmas [families and friends exchange presents on the Feast of the Epiphany (6 January)]. In ordinary Spanish business culture, however, gifts are usually given only at the conclusion of successful negotiations. When offering any gift, one should ensure that it is a high-quality item [perhaps a brand-name] and that it is finely wrapped; it should advertise ones company name only if it is a fine pen or a tasteful desk accessory. One should not give anything too extravagant as ones generosity may be perceived as a bribe.

If one can travel prepared, representative local artefacts and coffee-table books about ones home region will usually be appreciated as gifts. University or sports team shirts and caps can be good choices for colleagues' children.

If unprepared, a bottle of fine brandy or whisky will always be appreciated.

4.5.

TOPICS OF CONVERSATION Conversation about family and mutual acquaintances is a good topic as much effort is made by Spaniards to establish some form of personal connection through mutual acquaintances. Much time is spent at the beginning of a new relationship feeling out each others references. Since in Spain business relationships reflect a greater degree of personal trust and friendship, the trustworthiness of even a friend of a friend can be relied on and transferred through your friend to you, and vice versa.

Travels, leisure, holidays are a good topic for conversation. However avoid giving minutely detailed descriptions of your holidays. As Spaniards are fun loving, adventure seeking people sports is another topic for conversation. As with many social events in Spain, participation is usually more important than ones technical interest in an event.

4.6.

INTERACTION BETWEEN MEN AND WOMEN

One may find that interaction between men and women in Spain differs slightly from other countries. Here, physical contact is more. To Spaniards, greetings and farewells are a big deal. MACHISMO IN SPAIN Traditionally, Spanish men have been known for their macho and chauvinistic behavior towards women. This however, has changed drastically over the last years and much less of this sort of attitude is seen nowadays.

Even so, standards are not what you may expect to find in the U.K. or in the U.S. and women, especially if traveling alone, can expect flirtatious comments to be called her way.

This is referred to as and is quite common not only in Spain, but also in Latin American countries. Although this may seem rude or annoying, generally no harm is meant and is simply a natural way for men to express their admiration for women.

These flirtatious comments are called "piropos", and some of the most common include the traditional mi amor! or guapa!

While it is acceptable for a visiting businesswoman to invite a businessman to dinner in a business context, it is still extremely difficult for a Spaniard to let a woman pay for his meal. He will expect to pay.

DATING IN SPAIN Dating and courtship rules have gradually been changing throughout the world as time has gone by. This is evident in some countries more than others. Even though Spain is considered a modern country, one will still find that many of the Spanish are still more traditional in this aspect. Caballerosidad, Spanish for chivalry or gentlemanly courtesy is still common throughout Spain and women can expect to have doors held open for them, to be helped out of their coats, to be allowed first on elevators etc. Even so, especially among teens, it is becoming more and more common for both girls and boys to ask each other out and split the cost of the evening's outing and entertainment. 4.7. BODY LANGUAGE

It is proper for men to cross their legs; it is considered unfeminine for women to. Never touch, hug or back slap a Spaniard you do not know well, unless a friendly Spaniard touches you first. Stretch your arm out, with your palm downward, and make a scratching motion toward your body with the fingers to beckon for someone. The ok sign is considered obscene in Spain. Men and women always shake hands. Both men and women use the abrazo to greet; women may accompany that with a cheek kiss. Spanish communication is considered high context. It is an indirect communication; they use the nonverbal communication codes a lot. In Spain the message is important, and has a big weight in the dialogue.

In Spain normally silence is seen as nonfunctional and they speak during the interaction. Spaniards generally stand at a much closer physical distance when conversing than foreigners may be accustomed to. It would be considered rude to step back. Spaniards also tend to speak a lot with their hands, gesturing for emphasis. It would also be considered rude to mimic them. Generally both men and women enjoy each others company and may openly acknowledge this with a dazzling smile, and be warm and flirtatious. This may not necessarily mean anything though and can be considered as being part of Spanish nature. Most Spanish body language is self-explanatory--shrugs of indifference, shaking the hands downwards for emphasis, the universal gestures of contempt, etc.--but you shouldn't hesitate to ask a trusted colleague if you have difficulty understanding certain unfamiliar gestures. It is common to see people hug in public; couples kiss in public, women interlock arms with men while walking in the street. Public physical contact is considered normal within certain limits. 4.8. BUSINESS CULTURE

WORKING HOURS In Spain, the hours that a shop and business may be open to the public are regulated by the government. Shops are usually open from 9:00 am to 1:30 or 2 pm, then from 4:30 or 5 pm until 8 pm, Monday through Friday, and Saturday morning. Large department stores are open all day. Professional offices usually open from 10 to 2, then from 4 to 7, though it is becoming more common for businesses to stay open through the traditional siesta hours. Banks are open from 10 to 2, and then by law, they can choose either to open one afternoon a week, or on Saturday morning. In August, when most people take their vacations, office hours change to 8 am - 3 pm. STRUCTURE AND HIERARCHY IN SPANISH COMPANIES Hierarchy and position are extremely significant in Spanish business culture. For this reason it is advised to work with those of equal rank rather than with someone of a lower business status. The distinct hierarchical structure of Spanish businesses means the authority to make decisions rests with the individual in highest authority. Subordinates are respectful of authority and are generally far removed from their superiors. Spanish business culture advocates subordinate initiative where problems are dealt with at lower levels first before approaching superiors for assistance. WORKING RELATIONSHIPS IN SPAIN An essential part of conducting business in Spain is establishing personal contacts.

Generally speaking, the Spanish prefer to do business with those they are familiar with, therefore obtaining personal contacts enables the negotiation process to advance more swiftly and successfully.

Establishing solid business relationships and building colleague rapport is a vital concept in Spanish business culture. Effective business negotiations and decisions are frequently based on trust and personal feelings, as well as concrete evidence.

The Spanish close sense of personal space and animated means of expression and communication can be seen as part of this emotion directed culture.

MEETINGS AND PRESENTATIONS Appointments are mandatory and should be made in advance, preferably by telephone or fax. Reconfirm in writing or by telephone the week before. The printed material required for meeting should be available in both English and Spanish. Not all businesspeople speak English, so it is wise to check if you should hire an interpreter. Most Spaniards do not give their opinion at meetings. Therefore, it is important to watch their non-verbal communication. Face-to-face contact is preferred to written or telephone communication. It is best to display modesty when describing your achievements and accomplishments. Communication is formal and follows rules of protocol. In the first meeting, Spaniards will want to become acquainted with you before proceeding with any business, so you should be accommodating and answer any questions about your background and family life. You may be interrupted while you are speaking. This is not an insult; it merely means the person is interested in what you are saying. Spaniards will really check to see if you are honest and reliable, to know they can place their trust in your products or business before starting a relationship. It is unlikely that a meeting will stick closely to a detailed agenda. Negotiations in Spain tend to be quite open with one party taking the lead, but agreements can be flexible and you will probably need to persevere in order to ensure that commitments are put into effect. Hierarchy and rank are important. You should deal with people of similar rank to your own. Decision-making is held at the top of the company, since this is a hierarchical country. Spaniards do not like to lose face, so they will not necessarily say that they do not understand something, particularly if you are not speaking Spanish. You must be adept at discerning body language. Spaniards are very thorough. They will review every minute detail to make certain it is

understood. First you must reach an oral understanding. A formal contract will be drawn up at a later date. Spaniards expect both sides to strictly adhere to the terms of a contract. Spanish presentations can tend to be long-winded; expect it and don't get frustrated. If you're female, don't be surprised if they compliment you and tell you look good. You can compliment them back if you feel like it or just say thanks. There's no culture of political correctness in Spain. BUSINESS CARD Business cards are a very important aspect of any business, and the Spanish value the business card as a first means of contact. Though Spaniards are a very stylish people, they are also very conservative in business. The business card should not be too flashy. White or ivory card with an elegant font in either black or gold flake will be the best. Include all pertinent information including:

Name Position Phone Number E-Mail Address Business Name Business Address Hours of Contact

BUSINESS CARD ETIQUETTE While presenting the business card these basic tips should be remembered:

Begin with basic business etiquette:


o o

Introduce yourself by name then association. Shake hands using the two hand method (shake with the left hand and grip their right forearm).

Have your business cards for your trip produced with Spanish on one side and English on the other.

Hand your business card to your contact with the Spanish side showing. Palm the card as you hand it to your contact (hold the card in your palm not by the corners) to promote a handshake.

If entering a place of business hand your card to the receptionist with the Spanish side showing.

4.9.

CHECKLIST DOs & DONTs DO remain patient in all dealings with your Spanish counterparts. The Spanish are sometimes noted for their relaxed approach to business and Spanish bureaucracy can be frustrating.

DO try to maintain a friendly and personal atmosphere during negotiations. In order to be effective in Spain, Spanish business culture also requires a sense of self-dignity, consideration and diplomacy.

DO use basic titles of courtesy, Mr, Mrs, or Miss, followed by the surname, and professional titles, such as Dr, where known. Particularly with older counterparts or those in the south of Spain. Care should also be taken in using the correct surname as Spaniards have two, their father's first surname and their mother's first surname. Normally the father's surname is used on its own.

If you are asked personal questions (e.g. family, personal experiences) take that as a cue that these topics are favourable small talk topics.

DON'T expect to enter into business discussions at the start of a meeting. Your Spanish colleagues will want to establish a familiar environment on which to build new business relationships. This may include asking personal questions regarding your family life and background.

DON'T presume that business can be explicitly discussed over meals, it is generally considered a sociable activity and therefore you should wait until your Spanish colleagues initiate such conversation. Despite this, business lunches and dinners are a vital part of business life in Spain as a means through which to establish trust and future business relationships.

DON'T display signs of over assertiveness or superiority. Your Spanish counterparts will appreciate a more modest approach to business negotiations.

4.10. COMMON WORDS, PHRASES AND PRONUNCIATION

Common Spanish Words and their Pronunciation SPANISH Yes No Please Thank you Hello/Good day Goodbye Excuse me Where? Good Bad Near Yesterday Today Tomorrow Si No Por favour Gracias Hola Adios Con permiso Donday Bueno Malo Prox-eemo Ayer Hoy Manana PRONUNCIATION Si Noh Por fabor Grath-yass Ola Ad-yoss Con pairmeeso Donde Bwayn Mal Proximo Ah-yehr Oy Mah-nyah-nah

SOME USEFUL PHRASES: SPANISH Do you speak Englsih? I dont understand Spanish. Habla usted ingles? PRONUNCIATION Ah-blah oo-sted een-glehs

No (lo) entiendo muy bein Noh (loh) ehn-tyehn-doh mwee byehn el espanol. el es-pah-nyol.

5. CULTURE SHOCK Culture shock is the difficulty people have adjusting to a new culture that differs markedly from their own. Some examples of Culture shock for an Indian can be: Evening meals or dinner are taken late in the evening usually around 21:00-22:00 hrs. Spanish consider mid-day meals as their biggest meal in any given day. Spanish have two family names. They are used to being called by their first names when engaging in day-to-day conversations. Shop clerks and salesmen are usually unfriendly. Spanish believe there are no rewards for being customer-friendly. Staring at people is not rude in Spain. Spaniards do not put a great emphasis on time. Life is more laidback and relaxed and nothing is done in a hurry. It's rather common for people to interrupt you while you're talking however it is not to insult but rather to show interest or attention to what you are saying. Do not expect to see a "No Smoking" sign on restaurants or bars because Spaniards love to smoke. It is a common notion in Spain that people who complain about smoking are "afraid of life". MANAGING CULTURE SHOCK

Become involved in the local culture. Find out about the current events of your host country, take advantage of opportunities to interact with locals, become involved with a community activity, attend events that are not typically for tourists, etc. If you demonstrate

an interest in learning about all aspects of the culture, the entire community will become your teacher and you will become a part of that community in the process. Keep an open mind. Food, religion, thought patterns, and social habits will seem strange, but allow yourself to be open to not only understand them, but to participate and try new things. Spend time reflecting on your daily encounters in order to deepen your understanding of your experiences and host culture. Communicate with your hosts to develop a positive relationship. Be courteous, respectful, and aware of cultural differences and taboos. Practice your Spanish. Don't be afraid to make mistakes, because they are a great way to learn. Seek out new experiences. Eat at local restaurants or pubs instead of American restaurants. Limit the time you spend with other Americans and English speakers. Avoid locations heavily visited by tourists. Discourage yourself from negatively comparing your host country to the India. Instead of looking at these new environments, customs, and behaviours with criticism, try to understand what makes your host country tick. Remember, it is not good, it is not bad, it is just different. Above all, have fun. This is the experience of a lifetime. You are not a tourist, but a participant in a global encounter with the amazing opportunity to learn about another culture, another way of life, and another person on the other side of the world. Talk to a consultancy member. We are always available to help you get through any difficult moment you may experience while abroad.

6.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOOKS Spain is Different - Helen Wattley Ames (2nd edition) Kiss, bow, or shake hands: the bestselling guide to doing business in more than 60 countries Terri Morrison and Wayne A. Conaway. Avon (2006) Mind your manners: managing business cultures in the new global Europe - John Mole. London; Yarmouth (2003) The global etiquette guide to Europe : everything you need to know for business and travel success - Dean Foster EBSCO HOST

PAPERS Colours Across Cultures: Translating colours in Interactive marketing communications Mario De Bortoli & Jess Maroto Intercultural Communication Checklists Spain - Alexia & Stephan Petersen

WEBSITES http://www.lonelyplanet.com/spain http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2878.htm https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sp.html http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/spain-country-profile.html http://www.spainexpat.com/spain/information/important_links_to_spanish_government_sites/

7. ANNEXURES 7.1. TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE

STATE TRUE / FALSE FOR THE FOLLOWING: 1. During business lunches and dinners different ranks within a Spanish company often dine together.

2. In Spain, crossing your fingers is a friendly gesture that can symbolise "protection" or "good luck".

3. Whilst conducting business negotiations it is common to experience interruptions or individuals speaking simultaneously. By interrupting Spaniards are showing genuine interest in the discussion

4. The North American symbol for "OK", making a circle with the index finger and thumb is considered vulgar in Spain.

5. In accordance with Spanish business culture, it is customary to offer a gift at the outset of any form of business negotiation.

6. Wearing shorts and t-shirt while going to the market is acceptable in Spain.

7. Asking personal questions even during first meeting is normal in Spain.

8. Appointments are not necessary to be made for a business meeting. 9. Spaniards also greet one another by kissing and hugging and are known to do so even if they are being introduced to a stranger.

10. Keeping hands in pockets during a conversation is often seen as odd and rude. 7.2. SNAP SHOT OF FLASH CARDS