=
Lenses: Rays thru center keep going straight. Rays arriving parallel go thru far focus on convex lenses, and the back trace goes thru the near focus in concave lens.
Mirror: Rays thru 2F bounce straight back. Rays arriving parallel go thru the focus on concave mirrors, and the back trace goes thru the focus on convex mirrors.
Right Hand Rule: Used for positive current. Thumb is +particle / +current, fingers are magnetic field lines, and palm is force. Use left hand for particles / current.
V Ir c =
A changing flux induces a current in a wire. The direction of the current is the opposite that specified by the right hand rule.
The current induced in the wire generates its own magnetic field, which is opposite to the field that caused the emf.
Study Guide and Review Physics Overview 1
Energy Overview
Energy is a central concept that connects the various strands of physics. Through the Work Energy Theorem
and the Principle of Conservation of Energy a host of equations and possibilities help generate solutions.
Work Energy Theorem
Work is a change in any energy
W Energy = A
Work, in the center, is equal to any change in energy around the circle. For
example:
( )
2 1
2
W K m v = A = A so ( )
2 1
cos
2
F d m v u = A
g
W U mg h = A = A so cos F d mg h u = A
W Q mc T = A = A so cos F d mc T u = A
E
W U qV = A = so cos F d qV u =
Conservation of Energy
Energy can change forms
i f
Total Energy Total Energy =
Any energy around the circle can change into another energy around the
circle. For example:
( )
2 1
2
m v mg h A = A so
2 2
1 1
2 2
i f
i f
mgh mv mgh mv + = +
( )
2 1
2
qV m v = A A charge accelerated by charged plates
( )
2 1
2
m v mc T A = A If the kinetic energy of an object turns to heat
Newtonian Mechanics
Power: If work and energy are important, then any variable that has work / energy in its equation is equally important.
Power is the rate that work is done or that energy is delivered, expended, or used. So from power we can get work and energy,
and from work and energy we can get power. One easy way is to set time to 1.0 s. Then power and work / energy have the same
value, but different units. If you find the time later in the problem just multiply or divide by the time to solve as necessary.
Modern
Physics
Thermal
Physics
2
1
2
K m
g
U mgh = v =
cos W F d u =
2
1
2
s
U k = x
Q mc T = A
Q nc T = A
E hf =
1 2
g
Gm m
U
r
=
hc
E
=
2
1
2
c
U C = E
U q = V
V
1
2
c
U Q = V
Electricity & Magnetism
Study Guide and Review Physics Overview 2
MOTION OF A SINGLE OBJECT: Relevant Kinematics, Force, and Energy
Start a problem by asking What is the object doing?, then What is causing it to do that?.
What direction is it moving in (if two find x and y components)? Is it moving at constant v (this includes v = 0)? Is it accelerating? Force? Energy change?
See if energy solves the problem first. Then think force and kinematics.
Most common usage is boxed. But, the most common usage is often a special case. Knowing the overall equations and logic will allow you to solve any scenario.
Situation Kinematics Force Energy
Constant Velocity
Need constant velocity
x
v
t
=
or
x vt =
Always think sum of force
0 F =
Forces are vertical, while
motion is horizontal
g
F mg =
cos
N
F mg u = 0
o
slope
N
F mg =
Inertia only. No force. No energy needed.
cos W F d u = Where u is the angle between F and d vectors.
cos90
o
W F d =
0 W =
Accelerating in x
Use Kinematic Equations
x ox
v v at = +
( )
2 2
2
x o o x
v v a x x = +
2
1
2
o ox
x x v t at = + +
In projectile motion
ox
x v t =
There is a sum of force
F ma =
x p retarding
x x
F F F =
example
x p fr
x
F F F =
A force through a distance.
cos
x x
W F d u = Where u is the angle between F and d vectors.
cos 0
o
W F d = No retarding forces present
W F d = This time work is done, so there is a A energy.
W Energy = A
( )
2 1
2
W K m v = A = A The only thing changing is velocity, so K is changing.
Accelerating in y
y o y
v v gt = +
( )
2 2
2
y o o y
v v g y y = +
2
1
2
o o y
y y v t gt = + +
Horizontal projectile or
dropped object
2
1
2
y gt =
y g retarding
y
F F F =
example
y g air resistance
F F F =
y y
W F h = Includes retarding forces
g
W F h = No retarding forces
g
W U mg h = A = A Height is changing, so U is changing.
( )
2 1
2
W K m v = A = A Velocity is changing, so K is changing.
( )
2 1
2
mg h m v A = A
2 2
1 1
2 2
i f Energy conserved.
F
N
d or x
F
g
v
F
ret
F
N
F
g
a
d or x
F
P
i f
mgh mv mgh mv + = +
F
ret
F
g
g
h or y
Study Guide and Review Physics Overview 3
Situation Kinematics Force Energy
Inclines
Kinematic Equations Apply
x ox
v v at = +
( )
2 2
2
x ox
v v a x x = +
o
2
1
2
o ox
x x v t at = + +
y o y
v v gt = +
( )
2 2
2
y o y
v v g y y = +
o
2
1
2
o o y
y y v t gt = + +
Motion is parallel to slope
Acceleration down the slope
is caused by the addition of
F
g
and F
N
. The resultant of
these two vectors is F
g
sinu.
Since the natural motion is
down the slope set that
direction as +. In some
problems it is useful to
reverse this (if the object is
going up hill).
sin
g retarding
F F F u =
cos
N
F mg u =
Work and energy can work parallel, in the x, and in the y
W F d =
Force and distance vectors form similar triangles.
x x
W F d = Work depends on F and d being parallel.
y y
W F d = So any pair of parallel vector will solve the problem
( )
2 1
2
W K m v = A = A
g
W U mg h = A = A
( )
2 1
2
mg h m v A = A
2 2
1 1
2 2
i f
i f
mgh mv mgh mv + = +
Down a curve
Kinematics Fail
The net force is changing
as the vectors F
g
and F
N
change. In addition the
direction is changing.
Acceleration is changing.
The Kinematic Equations
are designed for changing
velocity, but only work for
uniform (constant)
acceleration.
Force Fails
The net force is changing as
the vectors F
g
and F
N
change.
Energy is directionless.
( )
2 1
2
W K m v = A = A
g
W U mg h = A = A
( )
2 1
2
mg h m v A = A
2 2
1 1
2 2
i f
i f
mgh mv mgh mv + = +
A very important case.
2
1
2
bottom
top
mgh mv = No initial velocity moving to a height of zero.
Pendulum or Swing
h R y =
2 2
y R
y
x
a
F
ret
F
N
F
g
Less steep, a
decreaseing
Steep slope, large a
a = 0
constant
velocity from
this point on
cos x R u = =
Kinematics Fail
See accelerating down a
curve above.
The velocity is zero at
either end.
The velocity is greatest at
the lowest point
Force Fails
See accelerating down a
curve above.
The restoring force is greatest
at the ends, as is the
acceleration.
The restoring force is zero in
the middle, and so is the
acceleration.
Energy is directionless.
( )
2 1
2
W K m v = A = A
g
W U mg h = A = A
2
1
2
bottom
top
mgh mv = If it has no initial velocity and goes all the way down.
At the ends it is all potential no motion, in the middle it
is all motion no potential.
h
y
x
R
Study Guide and Review Physics Overview 4
Situation Kinematics Force Energy
Object on string,
Vertical loop
Tangential Velocity
Instantaneous velocity is
tangent to the circlular
motion.
2 r
v
T
t
=
Acceleration is toward
center, centripetal.
2
c
v
a
r
=
Center seeking.
Force is centripetal, F
c,
is the
sum of force in circular
motion. Toward center is +.
Find tension at the top.
c T g
F F F = +
Find tension at the bottom.
c T g
F F F =
Unlike previous scenarios, the object definitely has velocity at the top.
There is a height difference from top to bottom, but the object has speed at
the top as well. And the bottom may not necessarily be the lowest point in
the problem
2 2
1 1
2 2
f
i
top top bottom bottom f
i
mgh mv mgh mv + = +
Object on string,
Horizontal loop
Tangential Velocity
Instantaneous velocity is
tangent to the circlular
motion.
2 r
v
T
t
=
Acceleration is toward
center, centripetal.
2
c
v
a
r
=
Center seeking.
Force is centripetal, F
c,
is the
sum of force in circular
motion. Toward center is +.
Find F
c
by adding vectors (tip
to tail). Then solve for F
T
.
2 2
T c g
F F F = +
No work is done
cos W F d u = Where u is the angle between F and d vectors.
cos90
o
W F d =
0 W =
At any instant the direction of motion (tangent to the circle) is perpendicular
to the center seeking F
c
, the F
T
, and the F
g.
And for one revolution there is no total displacement from the origin, since a
single revolution brings you back to the starting point.
Object turning on
flat surface
Tangential Velocity
2 r
v
T
t
=
2
c
v
a
r
=
Why is there circular motion?
Object not sliding off disk, or
car turning on a road.
c fr
F F =
No work is done
See above.
Roller Coaster
Need uniform slope
Kinematics only work on
sections that have
constant slope.
If the track is curved try
energy.
Force centripetal in the loop.
To find the speed needed to
have passengers feel
weightless at the top of the
loop
c g
F F =
Energy works everywhere, with its directionless advantage.
You can solve for any point A using any other point B. Use the complete
equation. The car will usually have both speed and height at every point.
An exception is the lowest point on the track, or if it starts with zero velocity
at the top of a hill (this is unlikely since rollercoasters dont stop at the top of
each hill). If it has velocity and height at the top you need to include both.
2 2
1 1
2 2
A A B B
mgh mv mgh mv + = +
v
a
c
F
T
F
c
F
g
F
T
F
T
F
g
F
fr
F
g
Study Guide and Review Physics Overview 5
Situation Kinematics Force Energy
Spring
Kinematics Fail
See Down a curve, and
Pendulum above.
The velocity is zero at
maximum +/ x
(amplitude)
The velocity is greatest at
x = 0
Force Fails
See Down a curve, and
Pendulum above.
The restoring force is greatest
at maximum +/ x
(amplitude).
The restoring force is zero at
x = 0, and so is the
acceleration.
Energy is directionless.
( )
2 1
2
W K m v = A = A
( )
2 1
2
S
W U k x = A = A
If it starts at maximum x (amplitude) and it converts all the springs energy
into speed of the object pushed / pulled by the spring
2 2
1 1
2 2
kx mv =
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
i i f f kx mv kx mv + = +
m
m
m
x +x x=0
Particle accelerated
by electric field
Potential difference.
Velocity increases.
Positive charges go in the
opposite direction.
But, + particles are more
massive, dont accelerate
as quickly, and have lower
final velocities.
The force of the electric field
F qE =
Electromagnetism: New forms of energy, but energy is still conserved.
W Energy = A
2
1
2
W K mv = A =
E
W U qV = A =
2
1
2
qV mv =
2 2
1 1
2 2
i f
i f
qV mv qV mv + = +
Charged particle
parallel to plates
It acts like a projectile
xo
x v t =
2
1
2
y at = get a from F
Electric field is perpendicular
Particle is forced toward the
plate with opposite sign.
F
E
q
= F qE =
F ma = ma qE =
Work is done in the direction of the electric field.
W F d =
W qE d =
Charged particle in a
magnetic field
Path curved by field.
If the field is large enough
the particle will follow a
circular path.
2 r
v
T
t
=
2
c
v
a
r
=
Forced to center by field.
c B
F F =
2
v
m qvB
r
=
No work is done
cos90
o
W F d =
0 W =
At any instant the direction of motion (tangent to the circle) is perpendicular
to the center seeking F
c
, and the F
B
.
v
Study Guide and Review Physics Overview 6
Collisions
Momentum is always conserved in a collision
Know the following equations
A A B B A A B i i f f
m v m v m v m v + = +
B
2 objects before, 2 objects after
( )
A A B B A B A i i f
m v m v m m v + = +
B
2 objects before, 1 objects after
( )
A B AB A A B B i f f
m m v m v m v + = + 1 objects before, 2 objects after
If there are more than two objects add ,
C C
m v
D D
m v , etc.
If the collisions happen in two dimensions, x and y, turn all vectors into x
and y components. Solve for the result in the x direction and then solve for the
result in the y direction. Take the final x and y and use Pythagorean Theorem
to find the overall resultants.
mv
If the object has momentum it also has kinetic energy.
Total energy is also conserved, but energy changes forms.
Perfectly elastic collision (An idealized unrealistic case)
Kinetic energy is conserved in this rare case.
Use these two equations together (System of 2 equations & 2 varibles).
A A B B A A B B i i f f
m v m v m v m v + = +
2 2
1 1 1 1
2 2
2 2 2 2
i i
A A B B A A f B B
f
m v m v m v m v + = +
Inelastic Collision (The common type)
Kinetic energy is lost or dissipated.
There is less kinetic energy after the collision.
/ lost dissipated i f
K K K =
(Note this is the opposite of change in kinetic energy. Change in
kinetic energy is K
f
K
i
. The value is the same, but the sign is
reversed.)
2 2
/
1 1 1 1
2 2
2 2 2 2
i i
lost dissipated A A B B A A f B B f
K m v m v m v m v
   
= + +
 
\ . \ .
The kinetic energy lost often turns into heat from the impact
/ lost dissipated
K mc T = A
Circular Motion
The key to circular motion is to ask:
What is causing it to stay in a circle?
Centripetal means center seeking
The direction of motion is toward the center
Any force pointing to the center is a positive force.
Any force pointing away from the center is a negative force.
Force Centripetal is the sum of forces in these problems
It is not drawn on free body diagrams since it is the net force.
Any force (gravity, tension, friction, normal, magnetic, etc.) can contribute to F
c
Possible equations
c g
F F = To find minimum speed at the top of a roller coaster loop.
c fr
F F = Object is revolving on a horizontal surface, or a car turning.
c T
F F = If a (horizontal) string spins the object in a horizontal circle.
2 2
c T g
If an object at the end of a string is spinning through the air
and gravity pulls the string down from the horizontal.
F F F =
c T g
F F F = + An object (at the top) spinning at the end of a string in a
vertical circle.
c T g
F F F = An object (at the bottom) spinning at the end of a string in a
vertical circle.
c N
F F = Inside an amusement park ride (Gravitron)
c B
F F = For a charged particle in a magnetic field.
Substitute and solve.
2
c
v
F m
r
=
Velocity is Tangential
The instantaneous velocity is tangent to the circular motion.
2 r
v
T
t
= T is the period, the time for one revolution.
If the object is released (the force stops working) then the object will move at
this velocity in a direction tangent to the circle at the time of the release.
Study Guide and Review Physics Overview 7
Study Guide and Review Physics Overview 8
Rates and Graphing
A change in a variable as a function of time (in seconds).
In the graphed examples the y intercepts and slopes would depend on
where the problem started and on how fast the rate is changing.
Constant Velocity: change in position
d
v
t
=
Velocity is the slope (derivative) of distance time graph
0 v = v + v
Acceleration: change in velocity
v
a
t
A
=
Distance increases (or decreases) in an exponential manner.
a + a
Acceleration is the slope (derivative) of velocity time graph
a + a
Areas Under Curves
Velocity is the area (integral) under the acceleration graph.
Displacement is the area (integral) under the velocity graph.
*** Work is the area under the force distance curve.
*** Work is the area under the pV (pressure volume curve).
Rates and Graphing
Power: Work (and any form of energy) done in a time t
W
P
t
=
Remember you can convert directly to work (or energy) from power if you solve
the problem using 1 second for time. (Example: 100 W, means 100 J in one
second). If you get information about time later in the problem, just multiply by
the amount of time to find the actual total work (or energy). Example: If the
proceeding 100 W was delivered for 1 minute, then 100 J were delivered each
second for 60 s. So 6000 J of work (energy) was done, used, or delivered.
Current: amount of charge moving through a point in a circuit
Q
I
t
A
=
Current stays the same in a series circuit. All the resistors are in
line. Its like a traffic jam on one road with no alternate routes. All the cars are
going the same speed on the entire road, so the amount of cars passing any
point in a certain time interval is the same everywhere.
Current adds in a parallel circuit. The electrons have multiple
pathways to choose from. If 100 C arrive at a fork in the circuit they must split
up. Due to conservation of charge, the amount of electrons in the parallel
paths must add up to the amount of electrons arriving at the fork.
emf: change in flux (magnetic field thru an area)
t

c
A
=
Remember, current can only be generated by a changing flux. So a closed
loop of wire must move through the field, or the loop must be getting larger, or
the loop must be rotating.
Loop moved thru Bar moved, enlarging loop Loop rotates
cos B A
t
u
c
= B v c =
cos B A
t
u
c
=
d d d
t t
d
t t
d d
t t
v
t
v
t
Isothermal Line 0, U so Q W A = =
Isobaric Line W p V = A
V
p
t
c
t
c
t
c
Advanced Placement Physics Kinematics in One Dimension
Kinematics Study of Motion
Distance Total distance traveled from start to finish.
Displacement Straight line distance between the start point and ending point of the problem.
Speed A scalar quantity (no direction specified) that shows the rate that distance d is covered.
Instantaneous The speed at an instant in time. Right now. Your speedometer reading when you glance it at.
Average The total distance divided by the total time for the entire trip.
Constant If the same speed is maintained over the entire trip
Velocity A vector quantity consisting of magnitude and direction. Displacement x divided by time.
Acceleration Change in velocity (change in displacement and/or direction)
Kinematic Equations
You can only use the constant velocity equation when there is no acceleration. If acceleration is present (Question
contains terms such as: starts from rest, final velocity of, accelerates, comes to rest, etc.), then you must use the
three Kinematic equations in the highlighted boarder boxes below.
Speed Constant Velocity Average Velocity Acceleration
s
d
v
t
x
v
t
or x vt
o
x x
v
t
o
v v
a
t
2
o
v v
v
Another Way of Looking at Average Velocity
One of the four Kinematic Equations. But it is mostly used in
conjunction with the above equations to derive the next three
equations. Occasionally it is useful in problems.
o
v v at
Velocity
Rearranged the acceleration equation from above. Useful for
determining v, when a and t are given. However, if any three variables
are available and the fourth is needed rearrange this as necessary.
2
1
2
o o
x x v t at
Position
Key equation to determine distance when a is involved. Used
extensively in falling body problems. Its derivative is the velocity
equation above.
2 2
2
o o
v v a x x
When no time is given
When v, a, and/or x are known, but no information is given about t,
then this can be used to solve for the unknown variable.
x
o
initial position, x final position, v
o
initial velocity, v final velocity, a acceleration, t time
Problem Solving Strategy
1. Draw a picture (Mental or on Paper)
2. List known and unknown variables.
a) Caution; some may be extraneous, and are not necessary to solve the problem.
b) Often either the starting or ending point is at rest, meaning a value of zero.
3. Do necessary conversions.
4. Choose an equation that can be solved with the known variables.
a) This equation may or may not be the answer you are looking for.
b) It may provide a new variable for use in another equation.
c) This may lead to a succession of equations.
+ or ????: + & can be used to indicate direction, and/or acceleration (+) or deceleration ().
9.8 m/s
2
Be careful here. Does this mean the object is decelerating (slowing) or does it mean that the object is
moving along a negative (perhaps the y) axis? It would depend on the problem. For an object moving on the x axis it
would mean decelerating. For an object falling along the y axis, due to gravity, it means the object is accelerating, but
in the downward direction (+9.8). In forces it is easier to use 9.8 m/s
2
as a positive number.
Study Guide and Review Kinematics in One Dimension 9
Falling Bodies
Displacement: 0
o
y Initial position. We can choose the reference frame / coordinate axis.
If the object 0 y ends the problem at the same elevation it started at.
If the object y ends the problem at a higher elevation than it started.
y If the object ends the problem at a lower elevation than it started.
Velocity, initial: If it is dropped v
o
0 from rest.
If v
o
fired upward.
If v
o
fired downward.
Velocity, final: At the moment it reaches maximum altitude, right before falling back to earth. v 0
If it hits something on the way up and never reaches max altitude (Rare problem). v
On the return trip. v
If it lands at the same elevation that the problem began at. v v
o
Acceleration: g m 9 8
2
. s
Projectile Motion
Motion in two dimensions happens simultaneously.
In the x direction the velocity is constant, with no acceleration occurring in this dimension.
In the y direction the acceleration of gravity slows upward motion and enhances downward motion.
Both happen simultaneously, however they can be analyzed separately using vector components.
The following review of variables can be overwhelming to memorize. It is much easier if you think it
through or draw a pictorial representation.
Angles: All angles are measured from East. Above the horizon is positive, below negative.
Displacement: 0
o
x
0
o
y
x The x is always positive.
If the object 0 y ends the problem at the same elevation it started at.
If the object y ends the problem at a higher elevation than it started.
If the object y ends the problem at a lower elevation than it started.
Velocity, initial: Splits into components, v
o
cos
o o x
v v , sin
o o y
v v
In every problem, we choose to fire it in the positive x direction.
ox
v
If 0
o y
v fired horizontally.
If fired at a positive angle (above the horizon).
o y
v
If fired at a negative angle (below the horizon).
o y
v
Velocity, final:
x ox
v v Since there is constant velocity in the x direction, initial and final are the same.
At the 0
o y
v top of the trajectory
If the object hits something on the way up. Not used in problems very often.
o y
v
On the return trip.
o y
v
v Resultant from adding vectors and v . Has an angle not a + or . v
x x
o
Acceleration: g m 9 8
2
. s
Study Guide and Review Kinematics in One Dimension 10
Graphing Motion Name __________________________
Kinematics WS ___ Date _____________ Per _______
1. A car travels at a constant 20 m/s for 10 s. Fill in the table showing the cars displacement from the origin at the end of
each second. Then graph the motion.
t (s) d (m)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
d
t
2. What is the slope of the curve plotted? __________
3. How does this compare to the velocity, given, in number 1 above?
4. Complete the table showing the cars velocity at the end of each second. Then complete the velocitytime plot.
t (s) v (m/s)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
v
t
5. Find the area under the curve for the first 5 seconds. __________
6. How does this compare to the displacement, for the first 5 seconds, in number 1 above?
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Graphing Motion 11
7. The slope of the displacementtime graph is ____________________.
8. The slope of the velocitytime graph is ____________________.
9. The area under the accelerationtime graph is ____________________.
10. The area under the velocitytime graph is ____________________.
Answer the next series of questions using the following displacementtime graph.
11. How far does the object travel during the first 5 seconds (1 to 5 s)? __________
d
(m)
5
10
15
20
30 25 20 15 10 5
t (s)
12. How far does the object travel during the second 5 seconds (5 to 10 s)? __________
13. How far does the object travel during the third 5 seconds (10 to 15 s)? __________
14. How far does the object travel during the fourth 5 seconds (15 to 20 s)? __________
15. How far does the object travel during the last 10 seconds (20 to 30 s)? __________
16. During which time interval(s) is the object standing still?
17. Does the car ever accelerate in this scenario?
18. Draw the velocity time graph for the above scenario.
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Graphing Motion 12
Answer the next series of questions using the following velocitytime graph.
20
19. During which interval(s) is the object accelerating? _______________
20. During which interval(s) is the acceleration the greatest? _______________
21. During which interval(s) is the object standing still? _______________
22. During which intervals does the object have the same speed? _______________
23. What is the displacement during interval A? _______________
24. What is the displacement during interval B? _______________
25. What is the displacement during interval C? _______________
26. What is the displacement during interval D? _______________
27. What is the displacement during interval E? _______________
28. Draw the accelerationtime graph for the above scenario.
v
(m)
5
10
15
30 25 20 15 10 5
C
D
B
E
A
t (s)
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Graphing Motion 13
Complete the series of graphs: displacementtime, velocitytime, and accelerationtime.
29. 30. 31. 32.
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Graphing Motion 14
33. 34. 35. 36.
37. 38. 39. 40.
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
d
t
v
t
a
t
Advanced Placement Physics Kinematics in Two Dimensions
X Component Equation Equations Given on Test Y Component Equations
2
1
2
o o
x x v t at
ox
x v t
2
1
2
o o
x x v t at
2
1
2
o o y
y y v t gt
2
4.9
o y
y v t t
x ox
v v a t
x ox
v v
o
v v at
y o y
v v gt
2 2
2
x o o x
v v a x x
x ox
v v
2 2
2
o o
v v a x x
2 2
2
y o o y
v v g y y
2
19.6
y o y
v v y
X Variables Common to both X & Y Y Variables
0
o
x
o
v 0
o
y
x y
cos
o o x
v v
t
sin
o o y
v v
cos
x o o x
v v v
y
v
0
x
a
2 2
x y
v v v
9.8 g
Strategies that work most of the time.
When no time is given. Finding time is the key to all falling body or projectile motion problems
1
st
solve for v
2 2
2
y o o y
v v g y y
y
this can be +/ , but is usually minus
2
nd
use v from above to get t
y o y
v v g t
y
3
rd
ox
x v t use t from above to solve for range, x
(Alternative:
2
1
2
o o y
y y v t gt , and the quadratic, followed by
ox
x v t )
When time or range x is given. This makes the problem easy since velocity is constant in the x direction.
1
st
ox
x v t Given time solve for x . Given x solve for time.
2
nd
2
1
2
o o y
y y v t gt Once you have time this is easy, and you dont need the quadratic.
When an object is dropped or fired horizontally 0
o y
v and y
o
0.
y o y
v v g t t becomes v g
y
2
1
2
o o y
y y v t gt becomes y g
1
2
2
t
These versions are time savers, particularly the last one, since it now no longer requires the quadratic formula.
Study Guide and Review Kinematics in Two Dimensions 15
PROJECTILE MOTION
Time is ruled by gravity and height. Most problems require y variables and y equations to solve for time. From
time distance in the x direction and the final v can be determined.
Study Guide and Review Kinematics in Two Dimensions 16
x
o
v
o
x
v v
holds true for all projectile motion problems.
o x
x
v v
Horizontal
0
o
y
v
cos
o o
x
v v
Downward
sin
o o
y
v v
cos
o o
x
v v
Upward
sin
o o
y
v v
2 2
x y
v v v
At top: v
y
=0, v=v
x
=v
ox
v
x
v
y
Lands on level ground v
y
=v
oy
Going down
v
y
Going up
+v
y
+v
oy
v
ox
+
Lands above axis +y
Lands on axis y = 0
Land below axis y
+/v
y
means 2 possible ts at
altitudes above ground
t
up
= t
down
for objects
returning to
ground level
Max. y
Solved by setting v
y
=0
2 2
2
y o o y
v v g y y
v
2 2
x y
v v v
v
y
v
x
y
= 0
V
ox v
oy
v
oy
since down angle means 
v
o
v
2 2
x y
v v v
v
x
v
y
y
Advanced Placement Physics Force
Force Any push or pull
Newtons 1
st
Law Law of inertia (Restatement of Galileos principle of inertia)
Newtons 2
nd
Law = F ma
Newtons 3
rd
Law Equal and opposite forces. For every action force there is an equal & opposite reaction force.
Forces come in action  reaction pairs.
E F Key to all problems. E F
x
E F in x direction on traditional coordinate axis. E F
y
E F in y direction.
E F
,,
E F parallel to a slope (direction of motion). E F
E F perpendicular to slope.
F ma = Sum of force is Net Force. You may need to solve for a using the kinematic equations, then solve
for force, or given force you solve for a and then use it in the kinematic equations to find v, x, or t.
Strategy on force Problems:
1. Draw FBD.
2. Set direction of motion. What would the object do if it could? Considered this the positive direction.
3. Using the forces listed below write the EF equations relevant to the problem. In what direction is the problem
moving? What matters, the x or the y direction? The parallel or the perpendicular direction? Any force vectors in
the FBD pointing in the direction of motion are positive while any vectors the other way are negative.
4. Substitute known equation, (forces like F
g
become mg).
5. Substitute for EF. Ask yourself what the sum of force should be based on the chart below. Is the object standing still,
moving at constant velocity, or accelerating. Substitute zero or ma for EF.
1 v = 0 Av = 0 a = 0 EF = 0
2 v = +/ a constant value Av = 0 a = 0 EF = 0
3 v increasing or decreasing Av = +/ a constant value a = +/ a constant value EF = m a
6. Plug in and solve. (All values including 9.8 are entered as positives. The negative signs were decided when setting
up the sum of force equation. Plugging in 9.8 will just turn a vector assigned as F
g
into a positive. You decided its
sign based on the way it was pointing relative to the problems direction of motion. Dont reverse it now!)
F
P
Push or Pull.
F
g
Force of gravity.
g
F mg =
F
T
Tension is a rope, string, etc. This force has no equation. You either solve for it, or it cancels, or its given.
F
N
Force Normal. A contact force, always perpendicular to the surface. (On a tilted surface use E F
, ,
&
E F
)
F
fr
Friction force.
fr
F F
N
= Always opposes motion. Static friction: not moving. Kinetic friction: object moving.
F
ar
Force of air resistance. This force has no equation. You either solve for it, or it cancels, or its given.
F
c
Force Centripetal. It is the EF in circular motion problems. So F
c
can be any force that keeps an object in circular
motion. .
c g c N c T c fr c B
F F F F F F F F F F etc = = = = =
It can also be two or more of these added together. The direction of motion is toward the center. So any force
directed toward the center is positive and any force directed outward is negative.
The key in using any of these equations is to ask yourself: 1. What is causing the circular motion? 2. Then set up
the equality. 3. Substitute known equations. 4. Solve.
F
B
Force due to a magnetic field. This force is perpendicular to the field and perpendicular to the velocity of the
particle. So any charged particle will move in a circle. Use the right hand rule for positive charges or positive
current, and use the left hand for negative charges or electron current.
F
any subscript that make ssense to solve the problem
Normal force: Gravity pulls the object down the slope and into the slope. If we only consider the motion into the
slope (perpendicular), the object has no perpendicular velocity. So the EF
= 0. Then the
surface must push upward, equal and opposite to the perpendicular gravity component.
Named the normal force, it is a contact force and operates perpendicular to any surface.
It must counter only the component of gravity perpendicular to the surface.
u
u
F
g
F F
N g
= cosu
F F
N g
= cosu
Where u is the angle between F
g
and F
g
. It is also the tilt angle
of the surface measured from the ground. Substituting mg for F
g
.
F mg
N
= cosu
Flat surfaces u = 0
o
,
F F or F m
N g N
= g =
Study Guide and Review Force 17
Friction: opposes motion. Motion is always parallel to a surface, so friction always acts parallel.
Static Friction: Friction that will prevent an object from moving. As long as the object is standing still the force of
friction must be equal to the push, pull, component of gravity or other force that attempts to move the object. (If
there is no force attempting to cause motion, then there can be no friction).
Static friction is the strongest type of friction since the surfaces have a stronger adherence when stationary.
Kinetic Friction: Friction for moving objects. Once an object begins to move breaking static frictions hold, then the
friction is termed kinetic. Kinetic friction is not as strong as static friction, but it still opposes motion.
Coefficient of friction: a value of the adherence or strength of friction.
k
for kinetic friction and
s
for
static friction.
fr N
F F =
so F mg
fr
= u cos
Force Parallel: Motion on a slope is parallel to the slope. F
g
and F
N
are at an angle to each other leaving a gap of
magnitude sin
g
F u when these two vectors are added tip to tail. sin
g
F u is not a force by itself, it is the sum of
force when F
g
and F
N
are added together. It is not part of the FBD. It describes the motion of the object parallel to
the slope, if no other forces are acting on it. What if we sum the
forces in the direction of motion (which is parallel to the slope)?
sin
g
F u is down the slope and positive, since objects generally want
to go down hill (direction of natural motion is positive). Any force
opposing the natural downward motion is a retarding force and is
negative. So uphill is negative.
F F
N g
=
We need an overall sum of force in the F direction.
sin
g retarding
F F F u E =
What do you use for force retarding? It could be friction F
fr
, air resistance F
ar
, a rope holding up the slope F
T
,
someone pushing up the slope F
P
, or a combination of forces. Substitute the appropriate F and solve.
Friction on the slope: Friction is the retarding force in the scenarios discussed above.
1. No friction.
(What will the object do? Accelerate EF = ma)
sin
g retarding
F F F u E =
sin 0
g
F F u
E =
ma mg
sinu =
sin a g u =
2. v = 0 or v is constant.
(No acceleration EF = 0)
sin
g retarding
F F F u E =
0 sin
g fr
F F u =
cos sin mg mg
u u =
cos sin u u =
tan u =
3. Accelerating with friction present.
(Accelerates so EF = ma)
sin
g retarding
F F F u E =
sin
g fr
F F F u E =
sin cos ma mg mg
u u =
sin cos a g g
u u =
( ) sin cos a g u u =
sin
g
F u
u
u
F
g
cosu
sin
g
F u
F
g
N
F
sin
g
F u
u
u
F
g
F F
N g
= cosu
fr
F
sin
g
F u
u
u
F
g
F F
N g
= cosu
fr
F
F
g
N
F
fr
F
F
g
N
F
fr
F
sin
g
F u
u
u
F
g
F F
N g
= cosu
Study Guide and Review Force 18
Complex Force Problems
Set direction of motion as positive. If you are not sure what the direction of motion will be take a guess. If the
problem returns negative values for the final result, you were wrong, the problem went the opposite of your prediction.
Vertical & Horizontal
Tension is the same for both blocks. Rearrange to get
equations in terms of tension, then set them equal so
tension cancels. Then substitute and solve.
= F F F
A T frA T
frA B
B
B
= F F F
B gB
T A
F F F = +
T gB
F F F =
A frA gB
F F F F + =
cos
A A B
m a m g m g m a u + =
cos
B A
A B
m g m g
a
m m
u
=
+
Pulley
If it doesnt say which is more massive, pick one. In this
case I picked B as the heavier object and used this to set
the direction of motion. Find what does not change, T, and
rearrange in terms of this. Set the equations as equal,
substitute and solve.
A T g
F F F
A
=
B gB T
F F F =
T A
F F F
gA
= +
T gB B
F F F =
A gA gB B
F F F F + =
A A B
m a m g m g m a
B
+ =
B A
A B
m g m g
a
m m
=
+
Friction on horizontal surfaces
1. Friction is the only force in the horizontal direction.
fr
F F E =
g
F F E =
ma mg =
a g =
2. When friction and the forward force are equal. Object
can be standing still or moving at constant velocity.
P fr
F F F E =
0
P fr
F F =
P fr
F F =
P
F mg =
3. When friction is not strong enough to prevent the object
from accelerating anyway.
P fr
F F F E =
P
ma F mg =
P
F mg
a
m
=
Incline
I picked m
A
as moving down the slope, so m
B
moves up.
Tension prevents m
A
from sliding down the slope and is
therefore acting like friction. If there was friction it would be
another arrow opposing motion down the slope. Just
subtract it as well. F
g
and F
N
are at angles to each other
leaving a vector gap of F
g
sinu (see previous page)
sin
g retarding
F F F u =
sin
A gA T
F F F u =
B T gB
F F F =
sin
T gA A
F F F u =
T B gB
F F F = +
sin
gA A B gB
F F F F u = +
sin
A A B
m g m a m a m g
B
u = +
( )
( )
sin
A B
A B
g m m
a
m m
u
=
+
+F
N
F
fr
F
g
+F
T
m
A
Direction
of Motion
A
+
B
F
T
+F
g
m
B
F
TB
+F
TA
+F
gB
B A
B A
F
gA
+F
T
F
g
F
N
F
T
m
A
Direction of
Motion
+
u
m
A
m
B F
g
F
m
N
B
F
fr
m
A
F
g
+F
N
F
fr
m
F
g
+F
P
A
+F
N
F
fr
m
F
g
+F
P
A
Study Guide and Review Force 19
Study Guide and Review Force 20
Vertical Circular Motion
A ball at the end of a string is
swung in a vertical circle. Any
force pointing to the center is
positive centripetal force, while
force vectors pointing away from
the center are negative
centripetal force. Sum the
forces. Look for the force that is
the same, and set up an equality.
c g T t
F F F = +
op
F
c g T bottom
F F F = +
T top c g
F F =
T bottom c g
F F F = +
2
T top
v
F m m
r
= g
2
T bottom
v
F m
r
= + mg
r
Horizontal Circular Motion
A penny on a circular disk
rotating horizontally. What
keeps it from flying off?
Friction. Something must be
keeping it going in a circle.
Otherwise it would move in a straight line. Friction is the
only candidate. No force is pushing it out of the circle (If
friction let go the penny would move due to inertia in a
direction tangent to the disk. It would not move out from
the center of the circle, since no such force is present in
this problem.) Force centripetal is the sum of forces for
circular motion.
c f
F F =
2
v
m m
r
= g
v gr =
or
2
v
rg
=
Magnetic Field
Force on a charged particle
A charged particle moving in a magnetic field will
experience a force causing it to follow a curved path
and be deflected from its original course. If the force is
strong enough the particle can be made to follow a
circular path.
sin
B
F qvB u =
q is the charge on the particle. See constants table.
v is the velocity of the particle.
B is the magnetic field strength.
u is the angle between the velocity and magnetic field.
Force on a current carrying wire
The magnetic field can also move a current carrying
wire. The wire can jump.
sin
B
F BI u =
B is the magnetic field strength.
I is the current in the wire.
is the charge on the particle
u is the angle between the velocity and magnetic field.
The Right Hand Rule is used to determine the direction of
deflection of the charged particles in the top scenario and
the direction of movement of the wire in the bottom
scenario.
How do you choose the right equation?
q is for charged particles, and length of wire.
Lawn Mower
Pushing with 90 N at 45
o
Constant speed. 0 = F
Solve for the Retarding Force
. x P r x
F F F =
et
.
0
P ret x
F F =
.
90 cos45 63.6
o
ret Px
F F N = = = N
Solve for the Normal Force
y P N y
F F F
g
F = +
N y P y
F F F
g
F = + +
( ) ( )( )
220
2
0 90 sin 45 16 9.8
o
N
F N kg = + + m s N
(
=
Solve for F
p
to accelerate from rest to 1.5 m/s in 2.5 s
2
6 . 0
5 . 2
0 5 . 1
s m
t
v v
a t a v v
o
o
x x
x x x x
=
= + =
( )( ) N s m kg ma F
x x
6 . 9 6 . 0 16
2
= = =
You need this force to accelerate, but you still need to
overcome the retarding force.
. x P r x
F F F
et
=
. P x x
9.6 63.6 73.2
ret
F F F N N N = + = + =
But you arent pushing in the x direction. You need the
push at 45
o
to generate 73.2 N in the x direction.
cos 45
o
P push x
F F =
73.2
104
cos 45 0.707
P x
push o
F N
F N = = =
F
g
F
T bottom
F
T top
F
g
F
F
ret
F
g
N F
P
F
P
F
N
F
ret
F
g
Advanced Placement Physics Circular Motion, Gravity, & Satellites
Frequency: How often a repeating event happens. Measured in revolutions per second. Time is in the denominator.
Period: The time for one revolution.
1
T
f
=
Time is in the numerator. It is the inverse of frequency.
Speed: Traveling in circles requires speed since direction is changing.
Velocity: However, you can measure instantaneous velocity for a point on the curve. Instantaneous velocity in any
type of curved motion is tangent to the curve. Tangential Velocity.
Projectile Motion Circular Motion Satellite Motion
The equation for speed and tangential velocity is the same
2 r
v
T
t
=
Acceleration: Centripetal Acceleration. Due to inertia objects would follow the tangential velocity. But, they dont.
The direction is being changed toward the center of the circle, or to the foci. In other words they are
being accelerated toward the center.
2
c
v
a
r
=
Centripetal means center seeking.
Force: Centripetal Force. If an object is changing direction (accelerating) it must be doing so because a
force is acting. Remember objects follow inertia (in this case the tangential velocity) unless acted upon
by an external force. If the object is changing direction to the center of the circle or to the foci it must be
forced that way.
c c
F ma =
2
c
v
F m
r
=
1. As always, ask what the object is doing. Changing direction, accelerating, toward the center, force centripetal.
2. Set the direction of motion as positive. Toward the center is positive, since this is the desired outcome.
3. Identify the sum of force equation. In circular motion
c
F is the sum of force.
c
F can be any of the previous forces.
If gravity is causing circular motion then
c g
F F = . If friction is then
c fr
F F = . If a surface is then
c N
F F = .
4. Substitute the relevant force equations and solve. For
c
F substitute
2
v
m
r
Gravity
1 2
2 g
m m
F G
r
=
and F m
g
g = combined are mg G
m m
r
=
1 2
2
simplified is
2
m
g G
r
=
r is not a radius, but is the distance between attracting objects measured from center to center. Is the problem asking for
the height of a satellite above earths surface? After you get r from the equation subtract earths radius. Are you given
height above the surface? Add the earths radius to get r and then plug this in. Think center to center.
Inverse Square Law: If r doubles (x2), invert to get and then square it to get . Gravity is its original value so
F
g
is of what it was and g is of what it was. So multiply F
g
by to get the new weight, or multiply g by to get the
new acceleration of gravity. If r is cut to a (x 1/3), invert it to get 3 and square it to get 9. Multiply F
g
or g by 9.
Apparent Weight: This is a consequence of your inertia. When an elevator, jet airplane, rocket, etc. accelerates
upward the passenger wants to stay put due to inertia and is pulled down by gravity. The elevator pushes up and you feel
heavier. Add the acceleration of the elevator to the acceleration of gravity
g apparent
F mg = + ma . If the elevator is going
down subtract
g apparent
F mg = ma . If the elevator is falling you will feel weightless 0
g apparent
g a so F = = . This same
phenomenon works in circular motion. Your inertia wants to send you flying at the tangential velocity. You feel pressed
up against the side of the car on the outside of the turn. So you think there is a force directed outward. This false non
existent force is really your inertia trying to send you out of the circle. The side of the car keeps you in moving in a circle
just as the floor of the elevator moves you up. The car is forced to the center of the turn. No force exists to the outside.
However, it feels like gravity, just like your inertia in the accelerating elevator makes you feel heavier. You are feeling gs
similar to what fighter pilots feel when turning hard. It is not your real weight, but rather what you appear to weight,
apparent weight.
Study Guide and Review Circular Motion, Gravity, & Satellites 21
Keplers Three Laws of Satellite Motion
1. Satellites move in elliptical orbits. The body they orbit about is located at one of the two foci.
2. An imaginary line from the central body to the orbiting body will sweep equal areas of space in equal times.
3.
2 3
1 1
2 2
T r
T r
   
=
 
\ . \ .
Compares the orbit of one satellite to another (i.e. you can use the earths orbit to solve for any
other planets orbit. Remember, in this case r is not the radius of earth, but rather the earth sun distance.
Rotation
All parts of an object are rotating around the axis. All parts of the body have the same period
of rotation. This means that the parts farther from the central axis of rotation are moving
faster. So if we look at some of the tangential velocities diagramed at the right, we see that
they are in all directions and vary in magnitude. So we need a new measurement of velocity.
Collectively all the velocities are known as the angular velocity, which is a measure of the
radians turned by the object per second. Because the period is the same for the various
parts of the rotating object, they move through the same angle in the same time. In rotation
the parts of a rotating body on the outside move faster. They need to travel through the same number of degree or
radians in the same amount of time as the inner parts of the body, but the circumference near the edge of a spinning
object is longer than close to the center. So the outer edge must be moving faster to cover the longer distance in the
same time interval. (This differs from the circular motion of the planets, which are not attached, and therefore not a single
rotating body. The planets move in circular motion individually. Here the inner planets move faster. The planets closer to
the sun must move faster in order to escape the gravity of the sun. They also travel a shorter distance and therefore have
the shortest period of orbit).
All the equations for an object in circular motion hold true if we are looking at a single point and only a
specific point on a rotating object.
Rotating objects have rotational inertia and an accompanying angular momentum, meaning that a rotating object will
continue to rotate unless acted upon by an unbalanced torque, & a nonrotating object will not rotate unless acted upon
by an unbalanced torque.
Torque: The force that causes rotation. In rotation problems we look at the sum of torque (not the sum
of force). But it is exactly the same methodology.
sin rF t u =
Strongest when the force is perpendicular to the lever arm (since sin 90
o
equals one).
Balanced Torque: The sum of torque is zero. No rotation.
Unbalance Torque: Adding all the clockwise and counterclockwise torque does not sum to zero. So there is
excess torque in either the clockwise or counterclockwise direction. This will cause the object to rotate.
1. As always, ask what the object is doing. Is it rotating or is it standing still?
2. Set the direction of motion as positive. It will either rotate clockwise or counterclockwise. If you pick the wrong
direction your final answer will be negative, telling you that you did thing in reverse. But, the answer will be correct
nonetheless. If it is not moving pick one direction to be positive, it really doesnt matter. But the other must be
negative, so that the torque cancels.
3. Identify the sum of torque equation.
clockwsise counterclockwsise
t t t =
or
counterclockwsise clockwsise
t t t =
4. Substitute the relevant force equations and solve (examples assume clockwise was positive direction)
Rotating you get some + /  ( ) ( )
sin sin
clockwsise counterclockwsise
rF rF t u u =
( )
Not Rotating ( )
0 sin sin
clockwsise counterclockwsise
rF rF u u =
Angular momentum: Depends on mass (like regular momentum) and it also depends on mass distribution. As an
ice skater brings their arms closer to the body they begin to spin faster, since the mass has a shorter distance to travel.
Angular momentum is conserved. The radius gets smaller, but angular velocity increases (vice versa as the
skater moves arms outward). A galaxy, solar system, star, or planet forms from a larger cloud of dust. As the cloud is
pulled together by gravity its radius shrinks. So the angular velocity must increase. These objects all begin to spin faster
and faster. That is why we have day and night.
Study Guide and Review Circular Motion, Gravity, & Satellites 22
Advanced Placement Physics Work, Energy, Momentum, and Oscillations
Understanding the relationships between All Forms of Energy, Conservation of Energy, and
Work Energy Theorem are extremely essential for success on the AP Exam. The review
here is very limited, since this critical information is given substantial emphasis in the
course overview. Often energy is either the only way to progress in an AP Free Response
problem, or it is the easiest (quickest) way to solve the problem. Students who have a
thorough understanding of energy will achieve success on the AP Exam and arrive at
college as a more accomplished physics student.
Energy is conserved: It cannot be created or destroyed, but it can change forms.
Can energy be lost? No! Lost energy goes to the environment. A car (system) looses energy due to air resistance, so air
molecules (environment) gain energy and move faster. Energy is conserved.
When we did kinematics, problems might have started at 205.65 m from where we were standing. But, to make it easier
we said the problem started at 0 m. For energy pretend the system has zero internal energy initially. Then only worry
about the other forms of energy. We can then solve for how much the internal energy changes in the problem.
Work An object or problem has a certain amount of energy starting the problem (potential energy due to position and/or
kinetic energy due to motion). Remember were pretending internal energy is zero. Think of work as the energy that
is added (+W) to the system or subtracted (W) from the system. If you add a force to something that is standing still
it will begin to move a distance. This requires positive work, the product of the force used and distance moved.
W Fs cos
Force applied over a distance. Force and distance must be parallel. Note: this does not mean the
x axis which cos usually goes along with. is the angle between direction of motion and applied force.
Work is the Area Under the Force Distance Curve: This is the integral of the force distance function in a
calculus based course. But, our functions will be simple enough to allow us to use geometry to find the area.
Kinetic Energy
K mv
1
2
2
Energy of moving matter. Note that doubling mass doubles kinetic
energy, but doubling velocity quadruples kinetic energy. So you car at
60 mph is 4 times more lethal than at 30 mph.
Potential Energy
Gravitational Depends on height. Consider the lowest point in the problem to be zero
height. This isnt correct, but who wants to add the radius of the earth to
every number in the problem. Radius factors out at the end anyway.
U mgh
Electric Energy of a particle experiencing an electric potential. U qV
E
Spring
U k
S
1
2
2
x
Energy of a compressed spring with spring constant k.
Capacitor
U QV CV
C
1
2
1
2
2
Energy of capacitor.
Energy of Photons E h pc Used in modern physics
Work Energy Theorem
Work put into a system = the change in energy of the system. If you do work on a system you add energy (+W). If
the system moves to a lower energy state (dropping a bowling ball on your toe), then the system does work on the
environment (W). It can transfer energy to the environment. The bowling ball has W while your toe gets +W (toe
gets energy)
W U
E
W U
s
W U
W K
W Q
heat energy
etc.
But, what if the energy changes from zero to some amount or from some amount to zero.
W U W U
E
W U
s
W K
W Q
heat energy
etc.
Work and workenergy theorem are great for changes in energy, when energy moves from one thing to another or is
added or subtracted. But what if a system doesnt exchange energy with the environment or another system. What if
it has certain types of energy in the beginning of the problem, but it has a different amount of each energy at the end?
Study Guide and Review Work, Energy, Momentum, & Oscillations 23
Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can change form and be transferred.
Study Guide and Review Work, Energy, Momentum, & Oscillations 24
f
f
The big picture:
i i i i f f f
Internal Energy K U Any other energy Energy K U Any other energy
However, the problem may only talk about two forms of energy.
As an example: If the problem only involves Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy
then substitute known equations
i i f
U K U K mgh mv mgh mv
i
i
f
f
1
2
1
2
2 2
Here are some other possibilities: The first is accelerating charges, the second is for springs.
qV mv qV mv
i
i
f
f
1
2
1
2
2 2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2 2 2
kx mv kx mv i i f
2
f etc.
The following formulas are specific short cuts usually applied when there are two extremes in the problem.
Gravity
mgh mv
1
2
2
A mass m starts at the highest point and ends at the lowest point, or vice versa.
Electric qV mv
1
2
2
When a charge q is accelerated by charged plates with a potential difference V.
Spring
1
2
1
2
2
kx mv
2
If a compressed spring extends to the equilibrium position, or vice versa.
Electrons h m
1
2
2
v When energy of a photon is transferred to an electron, or vice versa.
Collisions E E E E
i i f 1 2 1 2
f
Can be used by itself and with conservation of momentum below.
K K K K K
i i f f dissipated 1 2 1 2
b gd i
In collisions total energy is conserved, but kinetic energy is not.
Unlike momentum, kinetic energy can decrease in collisions which are not perfectly elastic. But where does it go? The
deformation of colliding bodies turns into heat (internal energy). So if you take the Kinetic energy at the start, it will equal
the kinetic energy at the end plus the amount of kinetic energy dissipated. The energy dissipated is conserved: transfers
to internal energy.
Power: Rate at which work is done. Powerful machines do more work in the same time, or the same work in less time.
P
W
t
P Fv
Work or Energy delivered as a rate of time.
It involves work. Making this another of the very important concepts.
As an example you can go from energy to work to power then to voltage and current P IV
Energy and time: Think Power when you see energy and time, Joules and seconds.
Momentum inertia in motion. Measure of how difficult it is to stop an object. p mv
Impulse Trade off between time taken to stop and force needed to stop. Ft p
Conservation of Momentum Total momentum before a collision must match total momentum after. Not given
on the AP exam. One object might be standing still at the start or after.
Completely Elastic Collision: Bounce off completely. mv m v mv m v
i i f 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
f
m v m v v m m
i i f 1 1 2 2 1 2
b g
Inelastic Collision: The objects stick together, mass adds, one velocity.
Oscillations
Period
T
f
1
Time for one revolution, measured in seconds
Frequency The number of revolution, turns, vibrations, oscillations, rotations per second.
Springs
Restoring force displace a spring and it will return to equilibrium, center. F k x
k is the spring constant, the minus sign is not mathematical
Period of a spring
T
m
k
s
2
Depends on mass of object attached to spring and k.
Pendulum
T
g
p
2
Depends on length of the pendulum and g.
Advanced Placement Physics Thermal Physics
Temperature: Average KE of the particles. Depends on average speed only of particles (atoms or molecules)
A bucket of water at 50
o
has the same temperature as a cup of water at 50
o
Thermal Energy: Average KE and the mass of the particles Depends on speed and the mass of the particles.
A bucket at 50
o
has more thermal energy than a cup at 100
o
. Bucket of $50 bills has more money than a cup of
$100s. While the particles are going faster in the cup, there are so many more in the bucket.
Heat: Transfer of energy between objects that have different temperatures. The direction of heat flow depends on
temperature. From hot objects (more energy) to cold objects (less energy).
Thermal Expansion: As objects are heated the molecules move faster and they expand. This is why the liquid in a
thermometer rises when heated. It is how a thermostat works. It is why there are gaps in sidewalks, bridges, & railroad
tracks. It is why they dont fill bottles to the top, they might explode if the liquid expands to much.
o
T o A = A
Gives the change in length. The original length is multiplied by
o
o , the coefficient of linear expansion,
and the change in temperature.
How long will a 5 m section of steel railroad track expand (
6
12 10 o
= , from table 131, p 343) to if it is heated from
15
o
to 25
o
C?
( )( )( )
6
5 12 10 25 15 0.0006
o
T m o
A = A = =
so it will be 5 0.0006 5.0006 m m m + =
Kinetic Molecular Theory: Gas molecules collide with each other and their surroundings.
1. Large number of gas molecules (N) moving in random directions and a variety of speeds.
2. They are far apart, with the separation distances being vast compared to the diameter of each particle.
3. Molecules obey laws of mechanics. They attract each other, but we ignore this since the speeds and KE are huge.
4. Collisions with each other and container walls are assumed to be perfectly elastic. Conservation of p and KE.
 The higher the temperature the faster the molecules move. The particles vary in speed, so we can only measure an
average. Half will be going faster and half slower than the average. Average KE is a reflects thisspeed.
3
2
B
KE k T =
Average KE = 3/2 (Boltzmans Constant, 1.38x10
23
)(Temperature in degrees Kelvin)
We can calculate the speed of the molecules on average
3 3
B
rms
k T RT
v
M
= =
The Root Mean Square Velocity = Square root of [(3)(1.38x10
23
)(Temp in Kelvin)/(mass)]
Gas Laws
Pressure: P F Area = Measured in
2
N m called a Pascal. Collisions against an object are felt as pressure.
Universal Gas Law: PV nRT = (Static cases) or
PV
n T
PV
n T
1 1
1 1
2 2
2 2
=
(Changing cases)
Pressure is measured in Pascals
5
1 101300 1 10 atm Pa Pa = =
2
1 1 Pa N m =
Volume is measured in meters cubed
3
1000 1 L m =
Gas constant
8.31
J
mol K
Static cases: One container under a specific set of conditions.
What is the temperature of 30 mol of gas at 4 atm of pressure occupying 200 L?
PV nRT =
( )( ) ( )( )
5 3
4 10 0.200 30 8.315 Pa m mol J mol K T =
Study Guide and Review Thermal Physics 25
Changing cases: One container under changing conditions, or gas moved from one container to another.
Boyles Law: Pressure and Volume are inversely proportional. As one goes up the other goes down.
200 L of gas at 4 atm of pressure is moved to a 400 L container, what is its new pressure?
(n and T arent mentioned, so they must stay the same, and must cancel)
PV
n T
PV
n T
1 1
1 1
2 2
2 2
=
1 2
PV PV =
( )( ) ( )
5 3
2
4 10 0.200 0.400 Pa m P m =
3
Charles Law: Temperature and Volume are directly proportional. As one goes up the other goes up.
200 L of gas at 273 K are heated to 373 K, what is the new volume? (P and n arent mentioned, so they must
stay the same, and must cancel)
PV
n T
PV
n T
1 1
1 1
2 2
2 2
=
1 2
1 2
V V
T T
=
3
2
0.200
273 373
m V
K K
=
Combined Law: 200 L of gas at 3 atm and 273 K are moved to a 400 L container and heated to 373 K. What is
the pressure? (n isnt mentioned, so they must stay the same, and must cancel)
PV
n T
PV
n T
1 1
1 1
2 2
2 2
=
1 1 2 2
1 2
PV PV
T T
=
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
5 3
2
3 10 0.200 0.400
273 373
Pa m P m
K K
=
3
or
( )( )
( )
( )
( )
2
3 2 4
273 373
atm L P L
K K
=
Heating and cooling curve
Heat: Q
Specific Heat Capacity: c, Ability to absorb or retain heat heat.
Q mc T = A
Latent Heat: L, energy required to break intermolecular forces causing a phase / state change.
Q mL =
Latent Heat of Fusion: L
F
, energy required to melt a solid.
Latent Heat of Vaporization: L
V
, energy required to turn a liquid into a gas.
When phase / state is changing temperature cannot rise since the energy is required for the change.
1
2 3
4
5 6 7 8 9
10
100
50
0
50
100
150
200
250
TIME
TEMP
Celcius
12 Solid Q c m T
solid
= A
23 Melting/Freezing
n
Q mL
fusio
=
34 Liquid Q c m T
liquid
= A
59 Vaporizing/Condensing
n
Q mL
vaporizatio
=
910 Gas Q c m T
gas
= A
How much energy does it take to melt 200 g of ice at 0
0
C and heat it to 60
o
C? It has to start as a solid, so it starts at point
2 on the graph. Melting is fusion so L is the Heat of Fusion for water from table 142, p. 377. Then it rises in temperature,
so it must end around point 4. It is a liquid so you need the specific heat, c, of liquid water in table 141, p. 373. (Every
substance has different melting plateau, different vaporizing plateau, and different specific heats. Also each substance
has different specific heats for the three principle states of matter. This values must be given in chart form or be stated in
the problem.)
Melting:
Q mL
fusion
= ( )( )
5
0.200 3.33 10 66600 Q kg J kg = = J
Heat:
Q c m T
liquid
= A
( )( )( )
4180 0.200 60 0 50160
o o o
Q J kg C kg C C = = J
Total is 66600 50160 116760J + =
If you start with a solid below the freezing plateau (point 1) and go to a gas above the vaporization plateau (point 10) you
must do all five equations using the correct specific heats for all three states and the correct latent heats for fusion and
vaporization. The plateaus vary since all substances have different melting/freezing and vaporization/condensation
points. The above graph is for water only. You have to use the tables.
Study Guide and Review Thermal Physics 26
Thermodynamics
System and environment: Think of the amount of energy in universe as constant. But, energy can be added
to or subtracted from a system (engine, etc.). Energy comes from or goes to the greater universe (environment).
Energy can transfer between systems. A ball colliding with another can transfer energy to that ball. Energy can
change forms. If you calculate potential energy that energy can change into kinetic energy, electrical energy,
thermal energy, etc.
Internal Energy All matter has some amount of energy. Objects feel warm to the touch (internal energy: due to
heat content or thermal energy of the object) caused by vibration of atoms that make up the object. If energy is
added to an object it can start moving or become hotter. If energy is subtracted it can slow down or become
colder. Or it can be a combination of motion and heat. Most of the beginning problems we do are done
pretending that no energy is lost to the environment in the form of friction and air resistance. We often assume
the energy stays in one form or that 100% is transferred when energy changes form. In real life energy is lost to
the environment. Also objects become a little hotter in collisions increasing internal energy. 100% of the energy
put into problems will not be available to cause motion, electricity, or power a heat engine. So many of the
problems are not realistic. They ask for a theoretical unattainable maximum assuming no energy loss or perfect
energy transfer.
Heat Transfer
Conduction: Objects touch transferring energy
Convection: Fluids (gases & liquids) carry heat as they flow. Hot air or water rise, carrying heat. Convection
currents.
Radiation: Electromagnetic radiation, as in infrared frequencies of light. Why does a thermos have an inner
container separated from the outer by a vacuum? Why is the inside reflective?
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Two objects, each in thermal equilibrium with a third object, are in thermal
equilibrium with each other.
Internal Energy: It is the sum total of all the energies of the individual molecules that make up a system.
Internal energy is the potential thermal energy that all objects contain. U
First Law of Thermodynamics: Statement of conservation of energy.
U Q W A = : the change in the systems internal energy. Q: heat added. W : the work done by system. U A
+Q means heat is added to the system, while Q means heat is given out by the system.
+W means work is done by the system, while W means work is performed on the system.
Adiabatic: If no heat enters or leaves system, then system is said to be perfectly isolated from its environment.
Process that happens so rapidly so that heat does not have time to flow in or out of the system. If a gas filled
cylinder is compressed very rapidly, heat wont have time to escape.
Q U = 0 A W =
W
Change in internal energy is the negative of work done
Isothermal: If temp of the system does not change during process
A good approximation is one that proceeds so slowly that temperature rise is negligible. Compress a gas filled
cylinder very slowly so that molecules dont speed up and temperature does not rise.
0 U Q A = = Heat added equals the work done.
Isobaric: If pressure is kept constant during the process.
W P V = A Work to raise a piston in a gas cylinder. W Fd = W P Area distance P V = = A
Second Law of Thermodynamics:
First Law is a statement of conservation of energy. A ball with PE falls so energy becomes KE. Then it hits the
ground causing the molecules to vibrate. The KE is transferred to internal energy and the ball comes to a stop. Have
you ever seen the reverse? If internal energy caused the ball to rise energy would still be conserved, so why isnt it
reversible.
Heat flows naturally from a hot object to a cold object; heat will not flow spontaneously from a cold to a hot object.
Study Guide and Review Thermal Physics 27
Heat Engines
Mechanical energy can be obtained from thermal energy, only when heat is allowed to flow from a high temperature to
a low temperature. Example: steam engines, internal combustion engines, and human respiration. Remember
thermal energy is not heat (heat is the transfer of energy because of a temperature difference). A piece of cold wood
has high thermal energy (fuel) that can be burned. This is true for gasoline and the food you eat. If this energy can
be tapped it can do work. But there is always a byproduct: heat rising above a fire, the hot exhaust of a car, and
human body heat are the byproducts.
Efficiency: ratio of useful work done to the heat input.
W
Q
C
Q
H
Low
Temperature, T
C
High
Temperature, T
H
1
H C C
H H H
Q Q Q W
e
Q Q Q
= = =
Carnot Efficiency: an unattainable maximum theoretical efficiency.
Carnot imagined a gas cylinder moved from hot to cold and expanding and contracting. He
also imagined that all the processes could be done reversibly. He imagined this because
it happened so slowly that equilibrium was maintained throughout. Real processes happen
fast and involve turbulence thus making reversal along the same path impossible. He
showed that even under these ideal circumstances 100% efficiency is impossible.
1
H C C
c
H H
T T T
e
T T
= =
Second Law Revisited
No device is possible whose sole effect is to transform an amount of heat completely into work.
Refrigerator
W
Q
C
Q
H
Low
Temperature, T
C
High
Temperature, T
H
(Heat Pump diagrammed to the right) Pumps heat away from one area to another. You do
work to make this happen. The work comes from electrical energy. But, whats happening
to Q
H
? Its getting bigger. So overall a refrigerators actually produce heat. As an example,
in the process of lowering the inside air volume 40 degrees they may raise an equal volume
of outside air by 100 degrees. If you fan yourself to keep cool, you do work and generate
even more heat.
Entropy
A measure of how much energy or heat is unavailable for conversion to work. This is why heat is sometimes called
the graveyard of energy. As Carnot showed not all the heat energy in even a perfect engine can be used to do work.
Entropy is thought of as disorganization. As we use more energy we get more heat as a byproduct. Look at oil. It is
composed of large well organized molecules. When we burn it to produce work, we get smaller less organized
molecules and heat. The small gas byproducts of combustion, CO
2
and H
2
O, are more difficult to burn and extract
further work from. Gases are less organized than liquids, which are less organized than solids. Perhaps all highly
organized molecules will turn into small atoms of gas evenly distributed throughout the universe and they may
eventually reach an even average temperature. If there is no heat difference there can be no work. So life and
machines cant exist. This is called the heat death of the universe.
Second Law ReRevisited
Natural processes tend to move toward a state of greater disorder (entropy).
The entropy of an isolated system never decreases. It can only stay the same or increase. And entropy can only
really stay the same for idealized (reversible) processes. So it always increases.
The total entropy of any system and the environment increases as a result of any natural process.
Study Guide and Review Thermal Physics 28
pV Diagrams
Fig. 1
Lower
temperature
Higher
temperature
Isothermal
Line
V
p
Boyles Law: Pressure and volume are inversely proportional.
This is a part of the ideal gas law and was derived when the number of moles and
the temperature remained constant.
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2
pV p V
nT n T
=
1 1 2 2
pV p V =
Isothermal: If temperature is constant the process is termed isothermal. (iso:
same, isothermal: same temperature). So a hyperbolic curve is generated under
conditions of constant temperature. Pressure and volume are indirectly
proportional. Moving up or to the right from the isotherm increases
temperature. Moving left or down decreases temperature.
Fig. 2
Temp. Increasing
Isobaric
line
Work
p
V
Isobaric
Same Pressure: generated under conditions of constant pressure.
F
p
A
= If we multiply pressure by a change in volume
F
V
A
A then
( )
( )
3
2
F
V m F d
A m
A = and since W F d , then W p V = A . =
Work is
( )
f i
V V = W p , the area under the pV curve (shaded area Fig.2).
Work is the area under any pV curve. But it would require calculus to
accurately solve for the area under the isothermal line in Fig 1. So many of
the processes in this class will be represented by straight lines to facilitate the
computation of work, heat added, and change in internal energy.
Fig. 3
Isovolumetric
line
Temp.
Decreasing
V
p
Isovolumetric (Isochoric)
Same Volume. An isovolumetric line is generated under conditions of constant
volume (Fig. 3).
There is no work done, since there is no area under the curve.
The Full Cycle ABCA
A to B: p is constant, so this is an isobaric process. The temperature
increases by going to the right, so is positive. Plug T A T +A into the
Q nc =
Fig. 4
V
1
p
2
C
B A
V
Work
p
1
T A where is used, Q n . ThenQ must also be positive
(heat is added) to make this step take place. The temperature increase also
causes an increase in . The volume is increasing while the gas expands,
so W is positive. W p , . Work is the area under
the AB curve. (Shaded area, Fig. 2)
p
c
A
P
c T A
(
2 2
V =
=
W p
U
= AV )
1
V
B to C: Isovolumetric, V is constant. The equation
V
Q nc T = A
U
applies.
Temperature is decreasing, so is negative. Q must also be negative to
make this step take place. If temperature decreases, then
T A
A decreases
(negative).
V
c U n T A = A also applies. The pressure drops even though volume stays the same. The drop in
internal energy means the molecules of gas slow down. And slower molecules exert less pressure. W 0 = . The
area under the curve is zero.
C to B: Isothermal, so A = . As a result 0 T Q nc T = A and
V
U nc T A = A
Q
both become irrelevant. The First Law
of Thermodynamics ( ) simplifies to W U Q W A = = . Work is the area under the CA curve and it is
negative, since the gas is compressed.
ABCA: The Net Work done is the stripped area bounded by ABCA (Fig. 4). Upon returning to A the temperature
is the same as it was at the start, so for the cycle. So W 0 U A = Q = for the whole cycle.
Study Guide and Review Thermal Physics 29
Carnot Engine pV Diagram
2V
o
p
o
2p
o
B
D
C
A
Isothermal Curve at T
H
Q
H
Q
Isothermal Curve at T
C
V
o
A to B: Isothermal (Done slowly: Heat added has time to convert into work without raising internal energy of the gas)
Lies along the isotherm. Temperature is constant.
A
T 0 U A = U Q W A = so
AB
W Q =
Work is positive since the gas is expanding. The gas pressure starts out high and this pressure causes the volume to
expand. If this process is done slowly the temperature of the gas does not change.
1 1 2 2
1 2
pV p V
T T
=
( )( ) ( )( ) 2
o o o o
p V p V
T T
=
2
This process is
H
Q , so
AB H
W Q = .
B to C: Adiabatic (Done rapidly: Short time period prevents heat from being added, so Internal energy turns to work)
Drops from the
A
T isothermal line to the . So temperature and internal energy are both decreasing. But no heat is
added.
B
T
0 = Q so U Q W A =
BC
W U = A . Work is positive since the gas is expanding. All the
work comes from internal energy. If work is increasing, then internal energy must be decreasing.
The gas pressure starts out high and this pressure causes the volume to expand. But while the gas pressure appears
to be cut in half to 2
o
p the volume moves from to about . Plugging in to the ideal gas law shows that
temperature cannot be the same.
2
o
V
)
3
o
V
( )( ( )( )
?????
2 2
o o o
A isothermal
3
o
p V p
T T
=
V
C to D: Isothermal (Logic is similar to AB above, but work will calculate negative, gas is being compressed.)
Lies along the isotherm. Temperature is constant.
B
T 0 U A = and
CD
W Q = . The gas pressure starts out
low and this pressure causes the volume to compress. This process is , so
C
Q
CD C
W Q = .
D to A: Adiabatic. (Logic is similar to BC above, but work will calculate negative, gas is being compressed.)
Rises from isothermal line to the
B
T
A
T . So temperature and internal energy are both increasing. But no heat is
added. 0 = Q so
DA
W = AU . All the work goes into increasing the internal energy of the gas.
The Cycle ABCDA: This is a heat engine. The Net Work done in the entire cycle is the sum of the areas under the
AB, BC, CD, and DA curves. AB and BC are positive work since the gas expands doing work by the system. CD
and DA are negative work since work is done on the engine and the gas is compressed. In other words, the Net
Work is the area enclosed by ABCDA. If it returns to the same temperature at A, then during the entire process
and W , the net work must have come from the net heat added 0 U A = Q =
H C
W Q Q = . This would be for a
reversible ideal engine (Carnot ) which does not exist. The ideal efficiency for this reversible, Carnot, engine is
H C
c
H
T T
e
T
= = with
H
Q being generated during the AB process on the
H
T isotherm and being generated during the CD process on the .
C
Q
C
T
Refrigerators: Run in reverse. Counterclockwise. ADCBA. Follow the steps above backwards and change the
signs.
Study Guide and Review Thermal Physics 30
Advanced Placement Physics Electricity and Magnetism
Electrostatics: Not moving. Deals a lot with point charges, small q. Can calculate the force between two point
charges and the strength of the electric field created by point charges. If there are a number of charges you simply do
the calculations for each charge separately and then add the results, the principle of superposition. However, never plug
in minus charges for q. Always plug in the positive magnitude for the charge whether positive or negative. Use the signs
on the charges to tell you if they are moving right (positive) or left (negative). Assign each completed calculation of F or
E the appropriate sign and then add the Fs for the total force or add the Es for the total electric field strength.
1 2
2
E
q q
F k
r
=
1 2
2
q q
F k
r
 
=

\ .
E
F
E
q
=
E
F Eq =
2
q
E k
r
=
2
q
E k
r
 
=

\ .
Remember small q is for a point charge, like a small group of electrons or protons, or even an oil drop.
Large Q (similar to heat energy, so watch out) is for lots and lots of charge, like that stored on charged plates.
Gravitational Fields Electric Fields
*
1 2
2 g
m m
F G
r
= *
1 2
2 E
q q
F k
r
=
g
F mg =
*
E
E
F
E F
q
= = qE
Combine the above equation to create an new equation
1 2
2
m m
mg G
r
=
Combine the above equation to create an new equation
1 2
2
q q
qE k
r
=
Simplify
2
m
g G
r
=
Simplify
2
q
E k
r
=
 F
g
, Force of gravity is felt in a gravitational field.
 m, mass causes gravitational fields
 g is a way to assess the strength of the gravity field.
 Double mass: F (force) and g (field strength) double.
g
 Distance follows the inverse square law.
Double r: F
g
(force) and g (field strength) are 1/4.
Halve r: F (force) and g (field strength) are quadrupled.
g
 F
E
, Force of electrostatics, is felt in an electric field.
 q, charge, causes electric fields.
 E is a way to assess the strength of the electric field.
 Double charge: F (force) and E (field strength) double.
E
 Distance follows the inverse square law.
Double r: F
E
(force) and E (field strength) are 1/4.
Halve r: F (force) and E (field strength) are quadrupled.
E
Superposition
What is (a) the force of gravity and (b) the acceleration of
gravity on a 1000 kg space ship located half way between
the earth and the moon?
Both are pulling on it so find each F and g separately.
(a)
Study Guide and Review Electricity & Magnetism 31
1 2
m m
(
2 g
F G
r
=
)( )
( )
24
5.98 10
11
2
8
1000
6.67 10 10.2
1 2 3.84 10
g
F earth N
= =
(
( )( )
( )
22
11
2
8
7.4 10 1000
6.67 10 0.13
1 2 3.84 10
g
F moon N
= =
(
As drawn: earth pulls left, negative
moon pulls right, positive.
Add left, so toward earth.
(b)
10.2 0.13 10.07 N N + = N
2
m
g G
r
=
( )
( )
24
11 2
2
8
5.98 10
6.67 10 0.0102
1 2 3.84 10
earth
g m s
= =
(
( )
( )
22
11 2
2
8
7.4 10
6.67 10 0.00013
1 2 3.84 10
moon
g m s
= =
(
As drawn: earth pulls left, negative
moon pulls right, positive.
Add
2
0.0102 0.00013 0.01007m s + left, so toward earth. =
Superposition
What is (a) the force of electricity on a +1 C charge located
half way between a 3 C charge and a +2 C charge
separated by 2 m? (b) What is the electric field strength at
this location due to the 3 and +2 C charges only?
Both are pulling on it so find each F and g separately.
(a)
1 2
2 E
q q
F k
r
=
( )( )
( )
9 9
2
3 1
9 10 27 10
1 2 2
E
C C
F N
m
= =
(
( )( )
( )
9 9
2
2 1
9 10 18 10
1 2 2
E
C C
F N
m
= =
(
As drawn: 3 charge attracts +1 charge to left, negative.
+2 charge repels +1 charge to left, negative.
Add left toward 3.
(b)
9 9
27 10 18 10 45 10 N N + =
9
N
2
q
E k
r
=
( )
( )
9 9
3 2
3
9 10 27 10
1 2 2
from
C
E N C
m
= =
(
( )
( )
9 9
2 2
2
9 10 18 10
1 2 2
from
C
E N C
m
+
= =
(
As drawn: 3 attracts positive test charge left, negative.
+2 repels positive test charge left, negative.
Add
9 9 9
27 10 18 10 45 10 N C left toward 3. + =
E M
3 +2
Study Guide and Review Electricity & Magnetism 32
 Gravitational Field acts downward.
 Gravity Field forces masses to move.
 Point A has less potential energy than point B.
 To lift it from A to B you must increase energy, add
energy. You must do + W
 Work energy theorem says that W = A Energy.
 Moving from A to B increases U.
 The increase (change) in U equals the work.
 U = 0 at the ground, the lowest point.
Release the mass at B. Mass accelerates toward ground.
The velocity increases so, K increases while U decreases.
The mass can do work on the way down.
Electric Field is based on a positive test charge
 Electric Field acts away from positive & toward negative.
 Electric Field forces charges to move.
 Point A has less potential energy than point B.
 To move it from A to B you must increase energy, add
energy. You must do + W
 Work energy theorem says that W = A Energy.
 Moving from A to B increases U.
 The increase (change) in U equals the work.
 U = 0 at the ground, the lowest point.
Release the charge at B. Charge accelerates toward
negative, away from positive. The velocity increases so,
K increases while U decreases. The charge can do work
along the way.
Mass falls down, and needs work to go up. But, Electricity has positives and negatives.
Negative charges are the opposite.
Work is needed to move them toward ground.
They have higher U
E
closer to the negative plate.
They do work on their way to the positive plate.
Similarities causes gravity m
measure of field strength g
distance above ground h
q causes electricity
E measure of field strength
d distance above ground
Gravitational Potential Energy
Gravity field is very weak and its change is irrelevant.
g
U mg = h
h
g
U mg A = A
Work Energy Theorem W Energ = A y
d
W mg h = A
Electric Potential Energy
Electric field is very strong and changes with distance.
E
U qE =
( )
E
U q Ed A = A
Work Energy Theorem W Energ = A y
( ) W q Ed = A
g
U m g = Ah
d
No equivalent ? g h = A
( )
E
U q Ed = A
Electric Potential * ( ) V E = A
V
E
d
=
*
E
U qV =
From above U q
From above
Combine
Simplify
E
Ed =
2
q
E k
r
=
2 E
q
U q k d
r
 
=

\ .
*
1 2
E
q q
U k
r
=
2
q
E k
r
=
V
E =
d
2
V q
k
d r
=
q
V
r
k = *
i
i i
q
V k
r
=
Electrostatic Equation Summary
1 2
2
E
q q
F k
r
=
E
F
E
q
=
1 2
E
q q
U qV k
r
= =
V
E
d
=
i
i i
q
V k
r
=
2
q
E k
r
= (not given)
Remember superposition can be used with a number of these even though only one is shown with a sum symbol.
+
Ground h= 0
B
A g A
U mgh =
g B
U mgh =
A
Ground d = 0
+ + + + + + + + + +
B
+
?
E
U =
          
Voltage: It is a way to express the difference (change) between potential energies of two charged plates or two parts of an
electrical circuit.
Confusing Terms
Electric Field E
Electric Potential Energy Potential Energy U
Electric Potential Potential Difference Potential V
The variable Voltage V, measured in the units V, for Volts
Whats the pattern? If it contains the word energy it is U. If it contains the word potential without the word energy it is V.
Also watch out for the big V for voltage and the small v for velocity. Sometimes you use them in the same problem.
Electric Field Lines
An imaginary way to view the electric field, similar to the elevation lines on a map. On maps, steep slopes are indicated
by lines close together. In a similar fashion a concentration of electric field lines indicates higher field strength. The lines
are based on the direction a positive test charge will go, so field lines leave positive charges and enter negative charges.
Field lines leave and enter surfaces perpendicular to the surface.
On the figure at the right the electric field lines are closest between the two plates.
They are also virtually parallel in the center of the diagram.
Equipotential Lines: Lines of equal electric potential energy, U. If a charge is
moved along an equipotential line it does not change its potential energy. If you
hike in the mountains along the contour lines you always stay at the same height
above sea level, so you dont change your gravitational potential energy. The
equipotential lines are perpendicular to the field lines. The two dotted lines in the
diagram are two examples of the many possible equipotential lines.
Faraday Cage
Any enclosed metal structure, even one made of chicken wire, acts as a Faraday Cage. Charges pile up on the outer
surface of the metal enclosure. Due to a combination of q and r at any point within the box, cylinder, sphere, etc. the
electric field is zero inside. E = 0. This is why you are not electrocuted in a car or airplane if it is struck by lightening.
Capacitors or charged plates: Use large Q. Capacitors are a way to store electrical charge. They will hold an
electrical charge as long as a voltage (potential difference) is applied to create the static electric build up on the plates, or
until the plates are discharged by providing a path for the electrons to flow from one plate to the other.
Think of Capacitance, C, as the capacity of the capacitor to hold the charge. So it is the amount of charge divided by
the potential difference that creates the charge build up. Since the charges would prefer to stay on the ground, U = 0,
and they have been moved against the electric field to a higher U, work must have been done by some kind of electrical
pump to put them there. If work was done and theyd like to fall back to the ground (negative plate) then they have
potential energy, U
c
, (C for capacitor).
C
Q
V
= U QV CV
c
= =
1
2
1
2
2
You can think of electricity as water. If you pump water up to a water tower it has high potential energy. If you turn off
the pump it will flow back to the ground. A capacitor is an electrical water tower where charge is stored temporarily
until it is needed. So if the electrical circuit needs to flush all its toilets simultaneously the capacitor discharges. It is
refilled for the next big flush. Q is then the amount of water pumped into the tower. V is the potential difference
between the height of the tower and ground level.
Why is while
E
U qV =
1
2
c
U Q = V
? As you move more electrons from one plate to the other the capacitor it becomes
more charged. The first electron moves easily. But the second is repelled by the first, and the third by the first two.
It becomes harder and harder to put more and more electrons on the plate since repulsion becomes higher and
higher. Also the positive plate becomes more electron challenged, and pulls the electrons overloading the negative
plate back to it. So the amount of charge moved starts out high and declines to zero. Average the highest with zero
and you get half. If you pump water up to a water tower it goes fast at first. But, the weight of the water filling the
tower begins to make it harder to pump, until the force of the water in the tower pushing down equal the force of the
pump pushing up. Average the fast pumping at the start with zero pumping at the end, and you get half.
Point charges are not affected, since they are autonomous and not physically attached to another plate.
Study Guide and Review Electricity & Magnetism 33
Current: The flow of electricity. Current, I, is assumed to be positive due to an old convention (Thanks a heap Ben!). We
now know that the electrons actually flow, but we still refer to current as positive. So if we want to talk about actual
electron flow we must say electron current or negative current, etc. The word current by itself implies positive current
flow. Positive current flow follows the direction of the electric field, so this negative flow is counter to the electric field.
I
Q
t
=
A
A
Its a rate (divided by time). But, it is unlike velocity where we measure the distance the car went. Instead we
stand still and count how many charges, Q (charge represents an amount of charged particles), go by. Big Q since were
counting lotsocharge.
Resistance: When current flows the wires have internal properties that slow the current. When water flows down
a stream it runs into rocks, sand, salmon on their way to their grave, etc. These act like friction slowing the water down.
Resistance is like friction countering the forward progress of the electrons. Conductors slow the current very little, while
insulators have a lot of resistance and slow it drastically. In addition to the wires, all appliances, and even the sources of
electricity have resistance. There are also actual resistors built into circuits to help control the amount of electrical flow to
exact quantities in various parts of the circuit.
R
Area
=
Resistance is a function of resistivity, , wire length, , and cross sectional area.
Resistivity, , is like the coefficient of friction. It is given since it is derived by experimentation. Different materials
have different natural resistances. Gold has very low resistance, copper is pretty good, and plastic is not so hot.
So lets worry about length and cross section of wire.
What kind of water pipe would provide the least friction, allowing water to pass through more easily?
a. long and narrow b. long and wide c. short and narrow d. short and wide
Look at the equation above. Try to make R as small as possible, by changing and Area. Make length small and area
big, so the answer is d. The longer the wire the more resistance it has. And resistance is like friction. What type of
energy does some of the KE turn into when an object is slowed by friction? Heat. What kind of energy is produced when
charges are slowed down by resistance? Heat. What do you feel when you touch an electrical component, like a
stereo? It gets hot. Heat loss is disadvantageous. Youre losing valuable energy, wasting money on you electrical bill,
and increasing entropy. So minimizing resistance is usually a good thing. But, sometimes you need to create resistance
if you have components that can only handle certain amounts of power, energy, voltage, etc. In addition the wires
themselves act like resistors. One goal in circuit design is to shorten the wires between components to minimize power
loss and heat. How much energy is lost to heat in the high tension wires from Hoover Dam to California?
Two important equations for circuits, and two equations (not given) but that can be derived from these.
Study Guide and Review Electricity & Magnetism 34
V IR = P IV =
2
P I R =
2
V
P
R
=
DC Circuits: Direct Current, meaning it travels in one direction only following the electric field lines.
The battery or power supply pumps charges creating a potential difference (voltage) between the ends of the circuit. You
have a positive terminal (positive plate) which is a region of high potential energy. At the other end of the circuit (wires
and components) is a negative terminal (negative plate) which is a region of low potential energy. Positive current
(positive charges) want to fall toward the ground through the potential difference toward the negative plate. This is the
direction of the electric field. So the potential difference between the positive and negative plates creates the electric
field that guides the charges through the circuit. (Just remember the electrons really flow, so its all backwards. But,
mathematically you get the same numbers).
Water Analogy: A pump (battery or generator) pumps water (charge) from the ground (negative plate) up to the top of the
water theme park (positive plate) The water (charge) wants to follow the gravitational field (electric field) back to the
ground. But weve constructed a series of tubes (wires) for the water (charge) to pass through on the way to the ground.
Because the water (charge) is losing potential energy as it falls, and because energy must be conserved, the potential
energy must be turning into another form of energy. It is turning into the kinetic energy of the water (charge). If the water
(charge) is run through a paddle wheel (appliance, light bulb, etc.) it can turn the wheel thus doing useful work (browning
toast, lighting up you desk lamp). Unfortunately, some of the water is slowed going through the wheel (appliance, lamp,
etc.) and this friction (resistance) creates heat. Also our contractor who built the park used inferior materials that impede
(high resistivity) the flow of water (current). So the water (charge) is slowed in the tubes (wires) as well. Fortunately the
contractor did note that the paddle wheel (appliance, lamp, etc.) was very small and fragile. And while the plan placed
the paddle wheel (appliance, lamp, etc.) in a very steep section of pipe (high potential difference) where the flow of water
(current) was very high the contractor installed a metal grating (resistor) in front of the paddle wheel (appliance, lamp,
etc.) to slow the amount of water flow (current) to a level that the paddle wheel (appliance, lamp, etc.) could handle.
Circuits Containing Resistors
Series: All resistors are in line. Resistors are like sections of wire, designed to slow current. Lets examine the
resistivity of two sections of wire placed in series, or end to end.
R
Area
=
is doubled, but cross sectional area stayed the same. So R doubles. If there were three wires R would triple. This
makes sense. Lets pretend they make your commute on the freeway longer, but they didnt build more lanes to widen
the road. So you experience the same traffic (resistance) for two or three times as long.
or
1 2 3
...
s
R R R R = + + +
Now lets examine the resistivity of two sections of wire placed in parallel, or next to each other.
R
Area
=
stays the same, but cross sectional area doubles. Its more complicated than above. Area is in the denominator. If
area doubles R is cut in half. If there were three wires R would be cut in third. This makes sense since the current and a
bigger pipe to flow through. Its like they expanded the freeway from four lanes to 8 or even 12. You travel the same
distance as before but now have less traffic congestion.
So in parallel
1 1
p i
i
R R
=
or
1 2 3
1 1 1 1
...
p R R R R
= + + +
Please dont solve for 1/R. Remember to invert you final answer.
Current and Voltage in Circuits: Think of current as traffic and resistors as less lanes
Series Current stays the same (resistors in line slow traffic in the whole circuit)
1 2 3
...
S
I I I I = = = =
Voltage adds (cars are all pushed down a single path)
1 2 3
...
S
V V V V = + + +
Parallel Current adds (current can choose paths, but the total must split between paths available)
Voltage stays the same (cars have an equal pressure down any path)
1 2 3
...
S
I I I I = + + +
S
V V
1 2 3
... V V = = = =
Circuits containing Capacitors
The rules for capacitors are opposite the rules for resistors. But similar problem solving techniques apply.
1 1
s i
i
C C
=
P i
i
C =
C
Magnetism
Similar to electricity, in that unlike poles attract. Different in that, separate poles cannot exist by themselves.
Magnetism and Electricity are interconnected. Electric fields can influence magnets, and magnetic fields can influence
moving charged particles and current carrying wires.
B is a measure of magnetic field strength, analogous to E for electric fields, and g for gravitational fields.
F qvB
B
= sinu charged particles (small q, point charge) traveling (velocity, v) in a magnetic field (B)
F BI
B
= sinu influence of a magnetic field (B) on a current (I) carrying wire of a certain length ()
Right Hand Rule Fingers (plural) represent the magnetic field lines (plural).
Thumb represents the charged particles velocity, or the direction of current flow in a wire. You want
to hitchhike with the charged particle or current flow in the wire.
Palm, represents the direction of force. A slap from the palm of the hand is a force.
All are perpendicular to each other. The force on a charged particle in a magnetic field is always
perpendicular, so no work is done in this case. They ask this on just about every AP test somewhere.
A charged particle flying in a magnetic field will move in a circular path.
What is causing the circular motion? F
B
. So
C B
F F = m
v
r
qvB
2
=
Study Guide and Review Electricity & Magnetism 35
If magnetism can causing a current carrying wire to move, then could moving a current carrying wire in a magnetic
field cause current to flow?
Electromagnetic Induction: A loop of wire moving in a magnetic field experiences a change in flux.
 = B Area Flux: The strength of a magnetic field moving through an area of space, such as a loop of wire.
To generate electricity you need a changing flux. Take a loop of wire and move it through or rotate it in a magnetic
field. The area is the area of the loop of wire.
c

avg
m
t
=
A
A
Induction: The changing flux, means the charged electrons in the wire are experiencing a changing
magnetic field. This causes them to be deflected, and since they are bound by the wire in the loop they travel down the
wire. The minus sign in this equation is a reminder that the moving electrons create their own magnetic field
(Moving charge is the basis of electromagnetic fields), and that this field is opposite in direction to the magnetic field
causing the flux. This is Lenzs Law. It means you use the right hand rule as before, but you reverse the direction of
current flow in you final answer. Remember you only do this reversal in electromagnetic induction.
If you have a bar moving along two wires through a magnetic field you can use the following equation
c = B v is the length of the bar, and is the velocity of the bar. v
This is derived using the formulas above.
c

avg
m
t
=
A
A
 = B Area
avg
B Area
t
c
=
A
avg
B d
t
c
=
A
avg
d
B
t
c =
A
c = B v
Electromotive Force, emf: Induction actually creates electromotive force c , which really isnt a force.
Every device that generates electricity has resistance, known as internal resistance. So in a way emf is the amount of
voltage you could produce if there were no internal resistance in a battery, power supply, generator, or wire loop creating
electricity.
So the equation for voltage induced is actually V emf resistance = internal .
But, in the problems you are given internal resistance will usually be negligible, so voltage and emf are essentially the
same. In AP B this is normally the case. But, not in college. 0 V emf =
If it is not zero, just use youre rules for series and parallel and treat the internal resistance as an ordinary resistor that
happens to be right next to the battery or power supply.
Watch these.
Q vs. q
E in electricity is electric field, later it is energy.
U
E
is the electric potential energy or potential energy
V is the potential difference, electric potential, potential, or voltage
V vs. v
The magnetic field does no work on charged particles since everything is perpendicular.
Work, however is very useful
E
W U q = A = V
2
1 1
2 2
c
W U QV CV = A = =
P IV
W
t
= =
2
W
P I R
t
= =
2
V W
P
R t
= =
And a whole bunch of combined equations that I cant even begin to list.
Conservation of energy
They love questions with charged particles moving between charged plates.
E f E f f f
U K U K + = +
2 2
1 1
2 2
qV mv qV mv + = +
2
1
2
qV mv = If it is not moving at the beginning and then uses up all the PE converting it entirely into KE
Study Guide and Review Electricity & Magnetism 36
Circuits Name _________________________
Resistors & Capacitors WS ___ Date ______________ Per _______
V I R
Battery V A
R
1
V 2.00 A 4.00
R
2
V A 6.00
R
3
V A 8.00
1.
V I R
Battery 12.00 V A
R
1
V A 2.00
R
2
V A 4.00
2.
V I R
Battery
V A
R
1
V 2.00 A
R
2
V 3.00 A 12.00
R
3
V 1.00 A
3.
V I R
Battery
12.00 V 2.00 A
R
1
V A 6.00
R
2
V A 4.00
R
3
V A 15.00
4.
V I R
Battery 24.00 V A
R
1
8.00 V A
R
2
V 4.00 A
R
3
V 2.00 A
5.
R
1
R
R
3
R R
R R R
R
R
R
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Circuits 37
V I R
Battery 50.00 V 5.00 A
R
1
V 2.00 A
R
2
25.00 V A
R
3
10.00 V A
R
4
V 3.00 A
6.
V I R
Battery V A
R
1
12.00 V A 2.00
R
2
V A 4.00
R
3
24.00 V A 4.00
R
4
V A 8.00
7.
V I R
Battery 46.00 V A
R
1
V 3.00 A
R
2
V 4.00 A
R
3
V A 6.00
R
4
V 3.00 A
R
5
V 7.00 A
8.
R
R
R
R
R
3
R
5
R
1
R
2
R
4
R
5
R
1
R
2
R
3
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Circuits 38
V I R
Battery V A
R
1
V A 20.00
R
2
10.00 V A
R
3
V A 4.00
R
4
V 1.00 A
R
5
V 5.00 A 5.00
R
6
V A 6.00
9.
V I R
Battery 30.00 V A
R
1
6.00 V 3.00 A
R
2
V 2.00 A
R
3
V A 3.00
R
4
V 1.00 A
R
5
8.00 V A
R
6
V A
10.
V I R
Battery V 12.00 A
R
1
V A
R
2
18.00 V 2.00 A
R
3
V A 3.00
R
4
V A 4.00
R
5
V A 2.00
R
6
V 8.00 A
R
7
6.00 V A
11.
R
R
R
4
R
6
R
1
R
2
R
3
R
3
R
4
R
5
R
1
R
2
R
6
R
1
R
5
R
6
R
2
R
3
R
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Circuits 39
12. The battery generates 24 V of emf and has an internal resistance of 1.0 . R
1
= 4 , R
2
= 2 ,
R
3
= 4 , and R
4
= 6 .
a. What is the current through R
2
?
__________
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Circuits 40
b. What is the voltage through R
4
?
__________
c. How much power does R
1
consume?
__________
d. What is the voltage produced by the battery?
__________
13. The following circuit contains four capacitors, each with 120 nF of capacitance. What is the total
capacitance between points A and B?
__________
14. The following circuit contains four capacitors, each with 50 nF of capacitance. What is the total
capacitance between points A and B?
__________
B
A
R
1
R
r
R
R
A
B
B
A
Advanced Placement Physics Waves and Optics
Energy: E Waves transport energy.
Vibration / oscillation: Something must be vibrating / oscillating in order to create a wave.
Medium: Waves must travel in a medium with one important exception.
Electromagnetic waves are the only type of wave that do not require a medium at all.
Frequency: f Number of vibrations, oscillations, cycles, revolutions, etc. that take place each second.
Period: 1 T = f Time for one complete vibration / oscillation.
Wavelength: The length on a single wave. Measure to the same point on the next wave.
Velocity: v f = Wave velocity depends on the elasticity of the medium. Sound travels faster in metal
than in water and faster in water than in air. Light, however, is unusual. It is fastest in a vacuum
and slows slightly in air, and to a greater extent in water.
Amplitude: A Maximum displacement from the equilibrium position (midline on the graph).
Transverse Wave: Particles vibrate in a direction perpendicular to the wave direction & velocity.
Longitudinal Wave: (also Compression, or Shock ) Particles vibrate in a direction parallel to wave direction & velocity.
Sinusoidal: When a vibrations displacement is graphed against time a sinusoidal function is plotted. It is the
graphical representation for any wave phenomenon, and looks like a transverse wave. However,
any wave, even longitudinal waves, follows the same sinusoidal pattern.
Pulse: A single wave.
Wavelength
Amplitude
Continuous Wave: A series of equal pulses equally spaced moving together.
Standing wave: When a continuous wave strikes a barrier and reflects back on itself it will create an interference
pattern (see interference below). If the phase (see phase below) of the reflected wave is exactly
opposite to the incoming wave they will superimpose creating a standing wave.
Node: A point on a standing wave that does not move at all.
Amplitude
Wavelength
Speed depends on the mediums elasticity. When a wave travels from one medium to a
different medium the speed & wavelength change. However the frequency remains the same.
Interference: When two or more wave meet, the amplitudes add.
In phase: Waves are in phase when they have the same wavelength and the crests are aligned.
Out phase: Waves are out of phase when they the crest on one wave aligns with the trough of another.
Constructive Interference: If the waves are in phase you add
them to construct a larger amplitude.
Destructive Interference: If the waves are out phase you
add them to destroy the amplitude. The waves shown have
the same amplitude and wavelength, but any kind of wave can
interfere, so different amplitudes and wavelengths can result in
many unique new wave functions.
Sound: The speed of sound in air at 25
o
C is 343 m/s (often rounded to 340 m/s). The speed of sound changes with
temperature since the density and elasticity of air change as temperatures fluctuate.
Pitch: Frequency Loudness: Amplitude
Sound waves can originate from vibrating strings or in tubes. This is the basis for musical instruments.
There are two types of tubes: those open at both ends & those closed at one end.
Study Guide and Review Waves and Optics 41
Strings: Only multiples of wavelengths can fit on a vibrating string that is held fixed at each end.
node
wavelength
Open Tubes: Same as strings, multiples of waves. But the waves look a little different, since the ends arent fixed.
Closed Tubes: Closed tubes hold multiples of waves.
1/2 wavelength 1/4 wavelength
2/2 wavelength 1/2 wavelength
Adjustments to the velocity equation. The simplest case is the minimum number of wavelengths. So we will work with
the fundamental, strings or open tubes that have a wavelength, and closed tube holding wavelength.
Normal wave velocity v f =
Strings: 2 v f L = If wavelength fits on the string, then 2 2 String Length L = = .
Open tubes: 2 v f L = If wavelength fits in the tube, then 2 2 Tube Length L = = .
Closed tubes: 4 v f L = If wavelength fits in the tube, then 4 4 Tube Length L = = .
To adjust for more than wavelengths in strings & open tubes, and wavelengths in closed tubes you divide L by the
number of nodes. Example: This tube contains two nodes.
2L
v f
n
=
More on velocity: Sound also follows the normal velocity equation v d t = . You can time the distance to lightening by
counting the seconds between the flash and the thunder. But, if youre timing sound that makes a round trip (like an echo,
or sonar) you have to divide your final answer by 2.
Resonance: Everything has a natural vibration frequency. If you can match the natural vibration and add more wave
energy at the right frequency and wavelength you can shatter the object. Breaking a crystal glass with your voice, or the
Tacoma Narrows Bridge are examples.
Light: Travels in packets of energy, called Photons.
Electromagnetic Radiation: It can travel through a vacuum since it is a selfsupporting electromagnetic phenomenon.
It consists of two perpendicular waves, one electric and one magnetic. The electric field wave generates a magnetic
field wave that is perpendicular to it, and the magnetic field wave generates an electric field wave perpendicular to it.
After they are emitted by the source they recreate each other and support each other allowing EM waves to travel
through a vacuum free of their original source and without a medium. We see only visible light, which is a very small
portion of the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The entire spectrum from weakest to strongest is:
Radio Waves Microwaves Infrared (IR) Visible Ultraviolet (UV) XRays Gamma Rays
Long wavelength Short Wavelength
Low frequency High frequency
Low energy High energy
In a vacuum they travel at 3x10
8
m/s. When they strike an object they can interact with the object in four principle ways.
Absorb: The wave energy is transferred to the object and its internal energy AU goes up, as the does the temperature.
Scattering: The incoming light can be absorbed briefly, exciting the electrons in the atoms. The excited electrons move
to higher energy states, but quickly move down to lower energy levels. The electrons may drop to various intermediate
energy levels on their way back to the ground state, thus emitting photons with new frequencies.
Transmit: The waves may pass through an object, like visible light through glass or xrays through your body.
Reflect: They may bounce off of the object.
To see light the waves must be aimed straight into our eyes to excite the photoreceptors at the back of our eyes. The
colors we see are the waves of light that reflected off of the object or that were scatted by the object. The colors that are
not present are the ones that either passed through the object or were absorbed by the object. Grass is green because it
absorbs red and blue light needed for photosynthesis, and it reflects the unnecessary green wavelengths. The sky is blue
due to scattering of the white light from the sun by particles in the earths atmosphere.
Study Guide and Review Waves and Optics 42
Diagramming Waves
Sinusoidal: If you look at a wave from the side you see a sinusoidal pattern.
Wave Front: If you look at waves from above you see the crests moving parallel to each other.
Ray: The easiest method. You use one or more vectors to indicate the direction the waves are moving in.
Even though light radiates radially from a source in rays, light arriving from a distant source arrives very nearly
parallel. So for simplicity the waves of light are assumed parallel. A distant source does not need to be very far away
for visible light since the wavelengths are measured in nanometers.
Wave Fronts Rays
or or
Reflection
Law of reflection
i r
u u = . The angle of incidence and angle of reflection are measured in relation to the normal. A
normal is a line perpendicular to the surface (as in Force Normal which is perpendicular to the surface). It is normally
shown as a dashed line. To simplify the diagram a single ray of light is shown as opposed to wave fronts of light.
Each individual ray follows the law of reflection.
Single Ray, smooth surface Parallel rays, smooth surface Rough surface, Diffuse reflection
On a smooth surface such as a mirror the incident parallel rays of light reflect parallel and the image formed is
identical to the object. But on a rough surface the incident parallel rays are sent in all directions and the image may
be diffuse (fuzzy), or not form at all.
u
r
u
i
Converging Spherical Mirror
The law of reflection holds. You need a normal perpendicular to the
surface. A perpendicular line to a sphere will pass through its center.
When incident parallel rays arrive from a distant light source the angle of
reflection will equal the angle of incidence. The normal bisects this angle.
Therefore, the rays of light will converge on a point half way between the
curved surface and the center. The point of convergence is called the
focus or focal point. 2 F r = and 2 C F =
C = 2F F
Transmitting Light
The speed of waves is dependent on the medium the wave travels in. Electromagnetic waves are the only waves
capable of traveling in a vacuum. And unlike other waves they travel fastest in a vacuum and are slowed by other
mediums. The speed of light in a vacuum is
8
3 10 c m = s . To compare the speed of light in different mediums
an Index of refraction was devised,
c
n
v
= . This index is a comparison value (other comparison values in the
course have been the coefficient of friction, coefficient of linear expansion, and resistivity.). If the speed of light in
glass is slowed to 2x10
8
, the index of refraction is 1.5. The index of refraction for light in a vacuum is 1.00. So the
index can never be less than one. The index of refraction for air is 1.0003, which rounds to 1.00
air
n = .
Refraction
Light Traveling through mediums with different densities v f =
From a less dense to more dense medium From a more dense to less dense medium
 Light moves slower  Light moves faster
 The frequency is unchanged  The frequency is unchanged
 So wavelength is shorter  So wavelength is longer
 So light bends toward the normal  So light bends away from the normal
Study Guide and Review Waves and Optics 43
Snells Law
1 1 2
sin sin n n
2
u u = Given the speed in one or both mediums the indices of refraction can
be determined. Or one or both angles can be determined experimentally. With three
pieces of information the fourth can be determined mathematically. The diagram to the
right shows light moving from a less dense medium to a more dense medium. n
1
and u
1
go with the incident medium while n
2
and u
2
go with the refracted medium.
Total Internal Reflection
A special case of Snells Law. If the
incident angle is of a certain size it will
result in a 90
o
angle of refraction. This
incident angle is called the critical
angle
c
u . At incident angles larger
than the critical angle the light reflects
back into the substance. So the light at
the critical angle or greater is totally
internally reflected.
1 1 2
sin sin n n
2
u u =
1 2
sin sin90
o
c
n n u =
If medium one is the incident ray then u
1
is the critical angle and u
2
is 90
o
.
1 2
sin
c
n n u =
2
1
sin
c
n
n
u =
Lenses and Mirrors
Mirrors reflect light and lenses transmit light. They both fall into two main categories. Converging lenses and mirrors
converge parallel rays of light on the focal point. Diverging lenses and mirrors diverge parallel rays of light away from
the focus. The shapes of lenses and mirrors fall into two main categories, convex and concave. Concave has a cave
shape.
Converging Lense Diverging Lense Converging Mirror Diverging Mirror
Convex Lense Concave Lense Concave Mirror Convex Mirror
Note: Converging and Diverging are the important terms. The shapes are secondary. The terms converging and
diverging dictate the information needed to do the mathematical steps outlined on the next page.
Images: Two types of images are formed by light interacting with lenses and mirrors. To find the location and diagram
the size of an image you draw the rays of light and look for their intersection. When rays of light converge it is easy.
You follow the path of the light, the forward ray trace. But, when rays diverge (separate) the forward ray traces will not
intersect. So you must draw a back ray trace to the other focus. The forward trace is drawn as a solid line, while the
back ray trace is drawn as a dotted line.
Real Image: Can be projected on a screen. Results from the intersection of forward ray traces & is always
inverted.
Virtual Image: Cannot be projected on a screen. Results from the intersection of back ray traces & is always
upright.
Ray Tracing: See the worksheet on ray tracing for details on all the special cases of the lenses and mirrors. Ray
tracing follows a set of rules. There are many variations, but I believe the list below will cover most if not all cases.
Rules for Lenses: Remember light goes through the lens.
 Rays arriving parallel to the midline, either converge on the far focus or diverge from the near focus.
 Rays that go through the center of the lens keep going straight.
Rules for mirrors: Remember light bounces off the mirror.
 Rays arriving parallel to the midline, either converge on the near focus or diverge from the far focus.
 Rays drawn through the object and the focus, go out parallel.
 Rays that go through the center of curvature bounce (C = 2F) bounce straight back.
n
2
n
1
u
2
u
1
Less
dense
medium
o
90
u
c
u is larger than u
c
.
Rays are reflected
Study Guide and Review Waves and Optics 44
Geometric Optics
2
r
f = The center of curvature is located at 2f. So the focal point is half of the radius.
1 1 1
o i
f s s
= + Shows the geometric relationship between the focal length, object distance, image distance.
i
o o
h s
M
h s
= =
i
Relates the magnification to the height of the object and image, and the distance to each.
The equations are simply a matter of identifying correct variables and solving. Conversions to base units are not even
necessary. In the first equation all variables have the same units and you are merely adding them. The only
conversions needed are in cases where you lack unit agreement. In optics centimeters are commonly used.
Millimeters may be seen on occasion. In the second equation units cancel providing they are the same.
However, you must know when the variables are positive and when they are negative.
f Converging lenses and mirrors are positive. Diverging lenses and mirrors are negative.
o
s Object is always positive, so the object distance is positive.
i
s Positive if the forward ray traces intersect to create the image. Negative if generated by back ray traces.
o
h Object is always positive, so the object height is positive.
i
h If the image is upright, the image height is positive. If the image is inverted, the image height is negative.
M Plugging in a positive image height into the formula results in positive magnification. Plugging in a negative
image height results in negative magnification. Remember negative M does not mean the image is smaller. It means
the image is upside down. 0.5x is a smaller image and upright, while 2.0x is a larger image, but it is inverted.
Real: A real image is formed by positive ray traces. Positive ray traces are where the light goes, so this image
can be projected on a screen.
Virtual: A virtual image is formed by back ray traces. It appears on the opposite side of the lens or mirror from the
lights path. So it cannot be projected on a screen.
Patterns
A general rule: If the forward light rays touch the focus or image they are positive.
Object distance and height: The object is always positive.
Image height and magnification: Look at the image, up is positive and down is negative.
These always go together
Converging Real positive s
i
inverted negative h
i
negative M
Diverging Virtual negative s
i
upright positive h
i
positive M
Remember the terms convex and concave are secondary. Focus on the terms converging and diverging. The patterns
are based on the nature of the lens or mirror, whether it is converging or diverging.
Diffraction
When light hits the edge of a barrier it will bend around it. If the
barrier is small compared to the wavelength of light the light will pass
the barrier uninterrupted. Like water flowing around a buoy. But, if
the barrier is large compared to the wavelength of light the waves will
bend around the edge of the barrier in a circular fashion. Imagine
water waves hitting the end of a jetty, or going through a hole in a
jetty.
Study Guide and Review Waves and Optics 45
Huygens Principle: Every point on a wave front can be
considered as a source of tiny wavelets that spread out in the
forward direction at the speed of the wave itself. The wave front
is formed by the constructive interference of the circular wavelets.
So, if the barrier has a hole in it, the particles of the wave create
new circular wave fronts when they exit on the other side. This is
why you get the circular patterns shown on the previous page.
The particles of light that create this diffraction pattern are the
photons. Each photon generates circular wave fronts that
constructively interfere to generate linear wavefronts.
Slit Width: If waves move thru an opening or slit the circular wave pattern is more pronounced when the slit is small.
Youngs Double Slit Experiment
Uses monochromatic light source to since white light consisting of all the colors would result in a rainbow refraction.
Light showed the same characteristic pattern as water waves and is evidence that light behaves as a wave.
Light from two slits interferes with each other. As a result you get dark and light bands if the pattern is shown on a screen.
Study Guide and Review Waves and Optics 46
Needs to travel wavelength
to match other wave
Reflected rays constructively interfere
Interference Fringes sin d m u =
m
m L
x
d
=
d is the distance between the slits.
m is the fringe number. m = 0 is the central maximum. It
is also the path difference in wavelengths.
Whole numbers are used for the bright Constructive
Interference Fringes. m = 0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, etc.
Half numbers are used for the dark Destructicve
Interference Fringes. m = 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, etc.
u is the angle from the midline (from the middle fringe)
L is the distance from slits to the screen.
x
m
is the distance from the midline (center fringe) to the
fringe being measured.
Thin Films: Reflection revisited. Most people are familiar with the rainbow effect seen when a thin oil or soap film is
floating on top of water. The thickness of the film, and the density of the substances work together to cause this effect.
A reflected ray will change phase by 180
o
when going from a medium with a low n to a medium with a high n.
If oil is suspended on water. Light moving from air to oil hits a higher n and is reflected with a 180
o
phase change.
Light moving from oil to water hits a smaller n and its phase is
unaltered.
?
a
For what wavelengths in the visible spectrum will the intensity be
a maximum in the reflected beam
Maximum intensity occurs when waves reflecting off the oil and
those reflecting off the water join and constructively interfere. The
waves reflecting off the oil have their phase changed by 180
o
.
Those reflecting off the water follow the same wave pattern out as
they did in. To meet with the rays reflecting off the oil they need
to go a wavelength (or a multiple of ) and then rebound traveling back the same distance. So they must travel
total of 1, 2, or 3, wavelengths (m wavelengths). So if the film is 1x10
7
m thick, what wavelengths will results in
maximum intensity.
( ) ( )
7 7
2 2 1 10 2 10 200 thickness of film m nm
= = = =
Any multiple of 200 nm will result in maximum intensity.
200 m nm where m is an integer. The rainbow effect depends on
where you are standing in relation to the light source. Remember
refraction is also happening for the light entering the oil. And the
colors are separating with blue bending more. And the oil may not
have the exact same thickness everywhere. So a rainbow pattern
is seen, which depends on a combination of all these factors.
Dark
Light
Dark
Light
x
m
L
m =2
m = 1
m = 0
u
d
L
Geometric Optics Name _________________________
Ray Tracing WS ___ Date ______________ Per _______
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Geometric Optics 47
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Geometric Optics 48
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Geometric Optics 49
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Geometric Optics 50
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
f
s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
Study Guide and Review Worksheet: Geometric Optics 51
Geometric Optics Name _________________________
Ray Tracing WS ___ Date ______________ Per _______
1. Complete the tables below with the correct signs, + or , and choose the correct terms.
f s
o
s
i
h
o
h
i
M
Converging or
Diverging
Real or
Virtual
Convex or
Concave
Converging Lens,
Object outside f
Converging Lens,
Object at f
Converging Lens,
Object inside f
Converging Mirror,
Object outside f
Converging Mirror,
Object at f
Converging Mirror,
Object inside f
Diverging Lens,
Object outside f
Diverging Lens,
Object inside f
Diverging Mirror,
Object outside f
Diverging Mirror,
Object inside f
2. Which variables have the same sign in all cases above?
3. What does the sign of the focal point depend on?
4. When an image is real, what else can be said about it? (There are quite a few)
5. When an image is virtual, what else can be said about it? (There are quite a few)
6. What are the main differences between converging and diverging?
7. What are the differences between lenses and mirrors?
Study Guide and Review Geometric Optics 48
Advanced Placement Physics Modern Physics
Electromagnetic Radiation: In the previous review sheet we discussed the electromagnetic spectrum.
Maxwell: Derived a famous series of four equations that could completely describe electromagnetic effects. His
equations, which were a compilation of the work of many other famous scientists, showed the existence and predicted the
speed of these waves. However, you wont need the equations now. You can enjoy this chapter of physics in college.
Atomic Theory
Thompson: Designed the Cathode Ray Tube (CRT), the basis for TV and computer monitors. In the partially
evacuated tube he had two electrical terminals, thus creating an
electric field. When a potential difference was created between the
electrodes (plates) he witnessed an eerie beam that came from the
negative (cathode) plate and went to the positive plate. He surmised
the existence of negative particles that must have come from inside
the atom. So the atom was no longer recognized as the smallest
entity in the universe. These particles were called electrons.
n.
Milikan Oil Drop: He charged oil drops with these negative particles. He then sprayed the oil drops between two
charged plates. He could adjust the potential difference between the plates
until the oil drops were suspended in mid air. This means that the force up =
the force down. So the electric force up = the gravity force dow mg Eq =
so
mg
q
E
= By finding the mass of the oil drop and noting the strength of t
electric field he could calculate the excess charge on the oil drop. He
performed the experiment many times. He noted that the charge was always a
multiple of 1.6x10
he
19
C and he never found a value smaller than this. So he
concluded that this is the charge on the electron. After all charge comes in
quanta, or whole number quantities. There are no half electrons.
Rutherford: Fired alpha particles at gold foil. Around the foil he placed a screen sensitive to alpha particles. He
thought the heavy and fast alpha particle would fire right through the foil. While most did, he did note that many
rebounded from the foil. He likened this to shooting a cannon at tissue paper and having the shell bounce back. He
postulated that the atom was mainly empty space, but that there was a small dense nucleus comprised of positive
particles (protons) located at the center. The empty space would account for most alpha particles passing through. The
positive nucleus would explain how the positive alpha particles were bounced back. He did calculations based on the
various trajectories of the alpha particles, and he was able to predict the relatively small size of the nucleus. His model of
the atom was similar to the solar system (planetary model) with the nucleus (sun) at the center and the electrons (planets)
orbiting at a great distance.
Einstein: Postulated that light has a particle nature, and travels in packets of energy known as photons.
Planck: Found the energy of a photon. E hf = . The energy of a photon is Plancks constant (h) x frequency.
Emission Spectrum: It was noted that when gaseous elements were placed in a tube at near vacuum and a potential
difference was placed at the ends of the tube (Thompson CRT) different colors were seen. When shot through a
diffraction grating the colors showed up as discrete lines with dark areas in between. Formulas were worked out for
Hydrogen, the simplest element and the placement of the lines fit a mathematical pattern.
Bohr: He predicted that the atom was similar to Rutherfords model, but Bohr added the concept of energy levels. The
fact that atoms only emitted certain frequencies of light implied that the electrons could only occupy certain discrete
energy levels. And these electrons could never be in between these energy levels. When photons strike an atom, the
electrons (normally in the ground state) of the atom absorb the energy. These electrons (excited) now have higher
energy and thus move to higher energy levels within the atom. When the electrons returned to the ground state photons
are emitted since the electrons loose energy. But the electrons may drop to a variety of levels on the way back to the
ground state. This explains the many colored lines in the emission spectrum and the calculations matched those of the
emission spectrum. The Bohr Model of the atom is outdated & incomplete, but it is still used to visualize the atom.
Debroglie: Felt that since light can act as both a particle (photon) and a wave, perhaps electrons (a particle) can have a
wave property as well. He calculated the wavelengths of electrons h p = and found that theoretically an electron in
the lowest energy level has one electron wavelength in a standing matter wave. An electron in the second energy level
completes two wavelengths, etc. This resulted in the Wave Mechanical Model of the Atom. So the electrons were not
jumping from energy levels as Bohr had surmised, rather they were changing wavelength when bombarded by photons.
Study Guide and Review Modern Physics 53
Heisenberg: Postulated that you can never know both the location and the momentum of an electron simultaneously.
His Uncertainty Principle states that you cannot find an electron or predict what it will do, since if you shoot photons at
electrons to see what their doing the photons interact with the electrons changing their location and / or their speed.
Schrodinger: Performed the calculations to narrow down the possible locations that electrons may be found in an atom.
These statistical shells that electrons occupy are the basis of the current Electron Shell Model of the Atom.
Einstein: Found the mass energy equivalence ( )
2
E m c A = A . Even though a photon is really massless energy it
does have a mass equivalence. So if its energy can be converted to a mass value, then the photon can be given a
mathematical momentum. So Plancks equation is updated. E hf pc = =
Energy Level Calculations: Bohrs model has been updated, but the energy levels still hold mathematically.
If a photon of the right frequency and energy were to strike the lone electron in
hydrogen while it is in the ground state, the electron would then acquire all of
the photons energy. The photon is absorbed by the atom. The energy of the
photon determines how much energy the electron receives and thus determines
the energy level that the electron is boosted to. Perhaps the electron would
receive enough energy to be excited to the 3
B
rd
energy level as shown in process
A. This excited electron would be unstable and would eventually return to the
ground state, but not necessarily in one leap. It could conceivably drop all the
way back releasing a photon of the same frequency and energy as the one that
struck the electron boosting it out of the ground state. Or it might drop to the 2
nd
energy level first (B), and then finally drop back to the 1
st
energy level (C). This
twostep return will result in two photons that have different frequencies, and
these photons are also different from the photon that hit the electron initially.
Photons are emitted from the atom. Here are some of the energy levels of a
hydrogen atom. The atom is small, so energy is measured in electron volts.
Drawing a circular atom is tedious. The following covers the same scenario as detailed above, but includes the
mathematical steps and an additional step D. Remember this is only one scenario, there are many energy levels.
A: Absorption of a photon. The hydrogen atom is bombarded with light
of frequency, 4.14x10
15
Hz.
( )( )
15 15
4.14 10 2.92 10 12.1 E hf eV s Hz eV
= = =
As a result an electron in the ground state, 13.6 eV is boosted to the
second energy level, 1.5 eV. In this case it drops to the first energy level
and then drops back to the ground state. Lots of possibilities exist.
B: Emission of a photon. The electron falls to the first energy level, a
drop of 1.9 eV. This corresponds to a frequency of,
( ) ( )
15 14
1.9 4.14 10 4.59 10 f E h eV eV s
= = = Hz
A photon of light is emitted from the atom with this frequency. This
generates a distinct band of light on the emission spectrum.
C: Emission of a photon. Next the electron falls back to the ground
state, a drop of 10.2 eV. This corresponds to a frequency of,
( ) ( )
15 15
10.2 4.14 10 2.46 10 f E h eV eV s
= = = Hz
A photon of light is emitted and this generates a distinct band of light on the emission spectrum.
D: Ionization. If a photon strikes a hydrogen atom electron in the ground state with more than 13.6 eV the electron
receives enough energy to leave the atom entirely. The hydrogen atom lacking its electron becomes an ion.
Therefore, this energy is referred to as the ionization energy. (Also called the work function. See below.)
Photoelectric Effect: Youngs Double Slit Diffraction experiment provided evidence that light exhibited wave
properties. The photoelectric effect provided evidence of lights particle behavior. If light is shined on certain photoelectric
materials a current can be induced. This requires the light to have enough energy to knock electrons out of the atoms, so
a current can flow. This is the basis of solar energy. This process requires a certain minimum energy, known as the work
function . So if a photon E hf = strikes a photoelectric material some of its energy is required to move the electron
D
C
B
A
1.5 eV
0.00 eV
0.85 eV
3.4 eV
13.6 eV
Ground State
C
A
Study Guide and Review Modern Physics 54
completely out of the atom. This is the energy needed to ionize the atom. The kinetic energy given the electrons is the
energy left over after the ionizing energy, work function, is subtracted from the photons energy.
max
K hf  =
Study Guide and Review Modern Physics 55
Nuclear Physics
Nucleons: Proton Positive charge +e = 1.6 x 10
19
C m
p
= 1.6726 x 10
27
kg
Neutrons Neutral charge q = 0 m
n
= 1.6749 x 10
27
kg
???? Mass difference between a proton & a neutron (1.6749 x 10
27
 1.6726 x 10
27
= 2.3 x 10
30
)
It is almost the mass of an electron. A neutron is made of a proton and an electron that have fused. This explains
why the neutrons are neutral. As for the mass not quite adding up, see .
2
E mc =
Atomic Mass Number (A) = # Nucleons
A
Z
X or just
12
12
6
C C
Atomic Number (Z) = # Protons
Neutron Number (N = AZ) = # Neutrons
Isotopes: Same # of Protons, different # of Neutrons
12
6
C
13
6
C
14
6
C
Unified Atomic Mass (u)
C12 = 12.00000 u 1.00000 u = 1.66054 x 10
27
kg
E = m c
2
100000 u = 931.5 MeV
Binding Energy: Total mass of a stable nucleus is less than the component protons and neutrons
He: 4.002602 u Added separately: 4.032980 u
When He is formed some mass turns into energy: AE = Am c
2
, Mass Defect = Am = 28.30 MeV
Total Binding Energy: Mass difference, amount of energy required in order to break the nucleus apart.
Average Binding Energy per Nucleon: Divide Total binding energy by the number of nucleons
Highest for Iron: Requires the most energy to split this nucleus, most stable
Hydrogen: Used in fusion, Energy drops from Fe to H. Binding energy released: Powers stars
Uranium: Used in fission, Energy drops from Fe to U. Binding energy released: Nuclear power & bombs
Strong Nuclear Force: Force holding nucleons together
Radioactivity: Disintegration / decay of unstable nucleus. Certain isotopes are unstable and emit rays (radiation).
 The Electric Force acts over entire nucleus. It results from the repulsion of all the protons. Neutron are not involved
in the electric force.
 The Strong Force is a shortrange force. It holds the individual nucleons together. Both neutrons and protons attract
due to this force.
 So adding more neutrons can help hold the nucleus together, since they do not contribute to the repulsive electric
force. There is however an ideal amount of neutrons, not too many and not too few that each nucleus needs in order
to be stable. If this number is out of balance the nucleus can deteriorate spontaneously.
 The larger the nucleus the greater the electric force. The distances become too large for the strong force to hold the
nucleons together. The balance of force favors electric force.
 Transmutation: Occasionally parts of the nucleus are repelled out with great force and speed. When part of the
nucleus is ejected the Parent nucleus changes into a Daughter nucleus
Alpha ( ) o Decay: Results when an o Particle, He nucleus
4
2
He is spontaneously ejected from the nucleus. The
nucleons comprising the alpha particle are strongly bonded to each other and they eject as a single packet.
226 222 4
88 86 2
Ra Rn He +
Beta ( )  Decay: Results when there are too many neutrons compared to the ideal number required to maintain the
electric / strong force balance. A neutron is a proton and an electron that have been fused together. So if there are too
many neutrons one of them can split, forming a new proton (adding to atomic number) and a nuclear electron, known as a


particle
0
1
e
. This particle has a very low mass and picks up all the energy of this transmutation. It is ejected at an
extreme speed. Being smaller and faster than the alpha particle it has more penetrating power and is thus a more
hazardous form of radiation.
14 14 0
6 7 1
C N e