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IilII11111 i 11111 111 IN11 1111I
SSEPA _D THESIS ••19 S
COMPUTER MODELING OF TACTICAL HIGH FREQUENCY ANTENNAS by Bobby G. Gregory Jr. June 1992 Thesis Advisor: R. W. Adler
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Monterey, CA 93943-5000
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COMPUTER MODELING OF TACTICAL HIGH FREQUENCY ANTENNAS
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GREGORY. Bobb G. Jr.
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The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.
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NEC-3, PAT7, HT-20T, ELPA-302, Horizontal Dipole
19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number)
The purpose of this thesis was to compare the performance of three tactical high frequency antennas to be used as possible replacement for the Tactical Data Communications Central (TDCC) antennas. The antennas were modeled using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code, Version 3 (NEC3), and the Eyring Low Profile and Buried Antenna Modeling Program (PAT7) for several different frequencies and ground conditions. The performance was evaluated by comparing gain at the desired takeoff angles, the voltage standing wave ratio of each antenna, and its omni-directional capability. The buried antenna models, the ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole, were most effective when employed over poor ground conditions. The best performance under all conditions tested was demonstrated by the HT-20T. Each of these antennas have tactical advantages and disadvantages and can optimize communications under certain conditions. The selection of the best antenna is situation dependent. An experimental test of these models is recommended to verify the modeling results.
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Approved for public release; distribution is COMPUTER MODELING OF TACTICAL HIGH FREQUENCY ANTENNAS by
Bobby G. Gregory, Jr. Captain, United States Marine Corps B.S.E.E., University of Colorado, 1985 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 1992
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Bob'4 G. Approved by:
-a,.,j C.D. C. Jenn, 1esis Co-Advisor
M. A. Morgan, Charman Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
. best antenna is situation dependent.& DTIC IAA3 By . The performance was evaluated by comparing gain at the desired takeoff angles. and Each of these antennas and can advantages disadvantages optimize communications under certain conditions.ABSTRRCT The purpose of this thesis was to compare the performance of three tactical high frequency (HF) antennas to be used as possible replacement for the antenna system of the Tactical Data Communications Central (TDCC). The best performance under all conditions tested was have demonstrated tactical by the HT-20T. and the Eyring Low Profile and Buried Antenna Modeling Program (PAT7) for several different frequencies and ground conditions.3 CRA&. i c-- ti-i .> Avi . The selection of the An experimental test of these models is recommended to verify the modeling results. The antennas were modeled using the Numerical Electromagnetics Code. Version 3 (NEC-3). The buried antenna models. Accesion For NT. the ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole. were most effective when employed over poor ground conditions. the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) of each antenna and its omni-directional capability.
.... INTRODUCTION ...... .......................... EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION ........... ............... OVERVIEW ........... ELPA-302 MODEL .. GENERAL ................ .... 1 1 1 II............ ........................ .............. PROBLEM STATEMENT .... A.... D. IV............................. . A................ A..... WIRE MODELING .... C. ............... 92 iv .. ....... 2.......................... 17 17 18 33 63 V...... MODELING RESULTS .............................. ....... 3 3 3 .......... PROBLEM DISCUSSION ... ...... MODELING SOFTWARE ... B..... .. ... BACKGROUND ....... ............................. III... 9 10 12 14 PAT7 PROGRAM .... ANTENNAS ..... STRUCTURE MODELING ... TAKEOFF ANGLE CALCULATION ................... NUMERICAL ELECTROMAGNETICS CODE-3 ..... B........... HORIZONTAL DIPOLE MODEL ... A.............. B....... HT-20T MODEL ... 8 8 1.TABLE OF CONTENTS I... ... .................................... B............ .......... C..... ...
.. B....... ....... MODEL COMPARISON ..... 94 94 APPENDIX A......... .. 98 INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST .... .. RECOMMENDATIONS .................................. SAMPLE NEC-3 DATA SET .. ............................ 97 LIST OF REFERENCES .. SAMPLE PAT7 PROGRAM DATA SET ........... 96 APPENDIX B.......... . CONCLUSIONS ..... 99 v ....... ................ 94 A..VI.
. .... Figure 8........LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. 22 for f=12. Figure 10...... ......... Elevation pattern for HT-20T over fair ground 20................ Skywave Transmission chart developed by Prof... 16 Figure 4.. Figure 7...... .... Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=2 MHz over varying takeoff angle(theta) . Elevation pattern for HT-20T over poor ground 4. The hub-spoke deployment of the TDCC . Elevation pattern for HT-20T over good ground 20...4... . 23 for f=2............... . 19 20 VSWR for HT-20T over good ground . and 30 MHz ........ .. 1964 ..... .... Helliwell. 6 6 6 Horizontal Dipole Antenna . and 8 MHz ... 25 Elevation pattern for HT-20T over poor ground 20.... 4 Figure 2a. Stanford University... .. Elevation pattern for HT-20T over good ground 4.... and 8 MHz ... Figure 6.. . and 30 MHz .......... Figure 9.. .... ELPA-302 Antenna .. Figure 3... 27 vi ....... .... 24 for f=12. 21 for f=2. HT-20T Antenna .... ........... for f=2. ...... good ground. and 30 MHz ............... HT-20T Antenna ......... 26 for f=12.... Figure 12. ..... Figure 5.......... R.... .. .......... ..... Figure 2b. Figure 11....... Figure 2c.A.............. Elevation pattern for HT-20T over fair ground and 8 MHz .. ...
. Figure 20. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 ........... vii . Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=2 MHz ... Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=30 MHz over ........... varying . Figure 23.... VSWR for ELPA-302 over good ground.... Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 . 28 Figure 14. good ground. Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=8 MHz over ... Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=12 MHz over varying takeoff angle (theta).... over good ground ..... over good ground .Figure 13........ Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=4 MHz over varying takeoff angle(theta) ...... for f=4 MHz ................. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 . Figure 22...... over poor ground . ELPA-302 Antenna ...................... Figure 25........ 38 37 36 32 34 good ground.. Figure 21. Figure 18........ for f=4 MHz .......... Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=20 MHz over varying takeoff angle(theta) .... good ground. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 .. Figure 24. ... VSWR for ELPA-302 over poor ground........... .. Figure 19.. over fair ground . varying takeoff angle (theta) ..... ..... ....... varying .... heights . varying takeoff angle (theta) ........ for f=2 MHz .. good ground.... 42 41 40 39 over fair ground ............ 30 Figure 16...... . 31 Figure 17........................ .................. 29 good ground....... for f=2 MHz ... heights .. Figure 15..... ........
............. Figure 29...... for f=8 MHz .. Figure 35...................... viii ................... Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=20 MHz .. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=8 MHz . 48 over fair ground . for f=4 MHz ........ 46 over poor ground ...... .. ............... 49 over poor ground ..... ............. ..... .............. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=8 MHz .. 45 over fair ground ..... ..... . Figure 34.... 54 over fair ground .. .......................... .... 44 43 over poor ground ..................... Figure 30............. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 ... Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=12 MHz ............................ Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=30 MHz .... Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=20 MHz . Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=30 Mhz ... over good ground .. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=20 MHz .....Figure 26.. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=12 MHz ............ 53 over good ground ........... Figure 33........ ... 50 over good ground ......... Figure 31.. 51 over fair ground ... Figure 32... Figure 36...................... Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 .............. Figure 27.. 47 over good ground . Figure 38..... Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=12 MHz . Figure 28.............. Figure 37.. 52 over poor ground ..... 55 over poor ground ...... .. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=30 MHz .
... ..... Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for f=30 MHz..... 70 f=4 MHz over good ground . Horizontal Dipole .. .. 57 h=0. Figure 50.... ... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ix ... ...... Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for f=12 MHz..........5m... 60 constant takeoff angle (theta)...... 69 f=2 MHz over poor ground ... varying takeoff angle (theta) . varying heights..... Figure 51.. 66 over poor ground . Figure 45. 68 f=2 MHz over fair ground . varying takeoff angle (theta) . Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for f=4 MHz... 65 over good ground ... Figure 46. .. VSWR for horizontal dipole for varying heights .5m.. .. Figure 47....................... 59 constant takeoff angle (theta). varying heights. Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for f=4 MHz. varying takeoff angle (theta) .... .. Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for f=12 MHz.....Figure 39. varying heights................ Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ... 67 f=2 MHz over good ground ... 61 64 constant takeoff angle (theta)... ... Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for f=30 MHz. Figure 43.. 56 h=0... Figure 44. ...... ... VSWR for horizontal dipole for varying heights . Figure 40....... . ...... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for . Figure 48....5m. 58 h=-.. Figure 42.... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ........ Figure 41... Figure 52.......... ......... . Figure 49........ Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ....
... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ..... Figure 60......... 73 f=8 MHz over good ground... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ....... ................ Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for .. .. .... Figure 59.. 72 f=4 MHz over poor ground .. Elevation pattern tor horizontal dipole for ..... ..... 74 f=8 MHz over fair ground ..... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ....Figure 52..... ....... .... 81 f=20 MHz over poor ground .................... 83 f=30 MHz over fair ground ..... x .... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for . ....... . 75 f=8 MHz over poor ground .... 82 f=30 MHz over good ground ............. Figure 56................ Figure 53.. Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ..... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for .............. 79 f=20 MHz over good ground . 78 f=12 MHz over poor ground ......... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for .. Figure 54.... 76 f=12 MHz over good ground ...... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for . Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ..... 77 f=12 MHz over fair ground .... . Figure 61.. ....... Figure 57............. ........... ... .... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ... Figure 55... Figure 58..... Figure 63................ Figure 64. 71 f=4 MHz over fair ground . Figure 62.... 80 f=20 MHz over fair ground .
...... MHz.. . 89 heights .. .... 85 Figure 67... xi ..... Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=....... varying . Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=12 (theta) .....5m... MHz...5m........... Figure 71.. 90 heights .... h= 0..... 88 heights ..... varying ......... ...Figure 65. Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=30 h= 0..... varying .. varying takeoff angle (theta). varying takeoff angle 86 Figure 68....... ... ... Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=30 constant takeoff angle (theta).. MHz.. Mhz. MHz.... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for ........ constant takeoff angle (theta).. MHz. Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=4 varying takeoff angle (theta)...... .... 84 f=30 MHz over poor ground .. .... h= 0.......... . Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=12 constant takeoff angle (theta)...5m... Figure 66.. .. 87 Figure 69.... Figure 70..........
use There are several software packages available which numerical methods to predict antenna various characteristics. has requested that a computer model of both antennas 1 . OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION Computer modeling of wire antennas provides an inexpensive and efficient means for predicting the performance of antennas. NEC-3 is capable of modeling antennas located above ground and buried or near the earth. PAT7 is used primarily to model near-earth or buried antennas. Version uses the method of moments for 3 .I. Each program has its advantages and limitations for applications based on antenna geometry and location. possibility of replacing an existing antenna antennas have been proposed as possible replacements. The Numerical Electromagnetics Code. California exploring system. The Eyring Low Profile and Buried Antenna Modeling Program (PAT7) is based on equations developed in Reference 1 which also uses the method of moments and field integral equation techniques.Method of Moments (NEC-3) analysis of the electromagnetic response of antennas and other metal structures. BACKGROUND The (MCTSSA) Marine at Corps Tactical Systems Support is Activity the Two MCTSSA be Camp Pendleton. B. A.
generated so that a theoretical comparison of characteristics and capabilities can be accomplished. This thesis discusses analyzes the the computer models used for the comparison. results of the models and proposes an additional model for consideration. 2 .
3 . Products Corporation. must be broadband so that trimming antenna dimensions for each frequency is B. Operational employment of the TDCC normally dictates that the distant stations are within a 600 mile radius of ti. designed by the Eyring Corporation.e hub as illustrated in Figure 1. were decided upon by MCTSSA as antennas that met The HT-20T is a back-to-back sloping. so the antenna must be omni- The transmitters operate with one kilowatt of The current system uses an antenna which It is requires a coupler that has a poor maintenance history. A.II. ANTENNAS Two antennas which fit further analysis. The the criteria above were chosen for HT-20T. The antenna must also be field It expedient and require no more than two men to erect it. the requirements above. PROBLEM STATEMENT PROBLEM DISCUSSION The antenna to be investigated is Data Communication Central (TDCC) used for the Tactical which provides an HF radio communications hub for the centralized computer processing of data for the tactical command and control of Marine Air Wing assets. desired that the new antenna not require a coupling device to eliminate this problem. power output. and the ELPA-302. directional. designed by the Antenna not required.
c 00 C: U-U U o E C 7 Li. 4 . Figure 1. The hub-spoke deployment of the TDCC.
6 the lowest desirable frequency. Marine field Corps communicators.horizontal dipole configuration as shown in Figure 2a. ELPA-302 is The a buried or near-earth horizontal dipole array antenna as shown in Figure 2b. lightweight. was chosen after easy to employ.5 meter buried antenna this in wavelengths. wavelengths Above long. 2c) was proposed a simple horizontal dipole antenna (Figure as a result of this thesis which would satisfy these requirements as well as requirements for manpack radios in the Marine Corps inventory. above ground. Additionally. on the ELPA-302 These results showed that when operating at 2 MHz. ground. which has not been a common practice. of a 91. The desired power gain for an antenna in 5 .75 0. antenna design. The length of the horizontal dipole Inc. buried or employed near earth. Its advantages as it is are that it can be erected or it can be now most commonly used. is the electrical length approximately would be 0. are frequency dependent. antenna The difference length is due to the which conductivity and permittivity of the soil conditions. that it familiar is to The reason a horizontal dipole was chosen is expedient antenna that is a common. The horizontal dipole is ideally suited for Marine Corps type missions since buried or near earth antennas are more easily concealed. that change the electrical length of the buried antenna. but is practical. and considering test results from Eyring.
.. Horizontal Dipole Antenna... y i z p. Figure 2b......... HT-20T Antenna...5m __ _ _ _ _ . 6 . 1..2m$ IZ ELPA-302 Antenna... ___ __ _ 91.. Figure 2c..25 9m Figure 2a.5m __ _ __ _ 6........
and a discussion of the results and recommendations are discussed in this thesis. 2] Comparisons between normalized radiation power output over good. required takeoff angles for propagation paths. 7 . fair and poorly conducting ground conditions at several heights of employment. a higher antenna gain results and produces a higher signal-to-noise ratio. The input impedance of a buried antenna will be discussed later. increases and As the operating frequency are of the antenna on the additional wavelengths formed element.contact with the soil occurs at an electrical length of one wavelength. (Ref. Considering this information and the practical aspects of carrying and burying an antenna. a length of 91.5 meters was chosen as optimum.
MODELING SOFTWARE NUMERICAL ELECTROMAGNETICS CODE-3 The Numerical Electromagnetics Code-Version 3 (NEC-3) was developed located in by the Lawerence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore. 8 . This approach avoids many of the simplifying assumptions required by other solution methods and provides a highly accurate and versatile tool for electromagnetic field analysis. perfect or imperfect conductors. A model may include nonradiating networks and transmission lines connecting parts of the structure. NEC-3 is a user-oriented computer code for the analysis of the electromagnetic response of antennas and other metal structures using the numerical solution of integral equations for the currents induced on the structure by sources or incident fields [Ref. and lumped element loading. 3). California. A structure may also be modeled over a ground plane that may be either a perfect or imperfect conductor. NEC-3 also has the capability to model antennas with elements that touch or are buried in the ground using the Sommerfeld method.III. The code combines an integral equation for smooth surfaces to provide convenient and accurate modeling of a wide range of structures. The excitation may be either voltage sources on the structures or an incident plane wave of various polarizations. A.
solution requires a matrix equation as the structure size is increased relative to one wavelength. thin wire modeling by NEC is 9 . used. In this thesis.The output may include induced currents and charges electric or magnetic fields. physical optics. standard practical on a specific machine. . approach up to is best suited to structures several wavelengths. the program is suited to either antenna analysis or scattering and Electro-Magnetic Pulse (EMP) The integral with equation dimensions studies. the modeling of very large structures may require more computer time and file storage than is cases. 1. or the geometrical theory of diffraction may be more suitable than the integral equation approach used in NEC. approximations In such such as high-frequency geometrical optics. STRUCTURE MODELING The basic elements for modeling structures in NEC are short straight segments for thin wires and flat patches for surfaces. Proper choice of the segments and patches for a model is the most critical step in obtaining accurate results. near Hence. Hence. the numerical Although there is no theoretical size limit. An antenna its and any conducting object in its vicinity that affect performance must be modeled with strings of segments following the paths of wires and with patches covering closed surfaces. and radiated fields.
conductors as closely as possible. using a piecewise linear fit on curves.For A less than 0. .5A.Should be less than about 0. 10 . . - The wire radius. The segment radius a relative to both segment length A and wavelength A requires that: . such as feed points and connections of multiple segments. r.May be somewhat longer than 0.a can be less than 0. The limits on an EK card are straight-line segments and no multiple connection points.a should be less than 0.051 or less.0011 should be avoided since the similarity of the constant and cosine components of the current expansion can lead to numerical inaccuracy. . but this requires the extended thin-wire kernel option by placing the EK card in the input data set.11.a should be less than 0.11 in order to get accurate results in most cases.125A. NEC-3 connects two end segments if the separation between the end of the segments is less than 0. WIRE MODELING A wire segment is end points and its segments defined by the coordinates of its two Modeling a wire structure with factors. paths of radius. 0. The following are electrical considerations for wire segment modeling: - The segment length A relative to the wavelength ): .11 on long wires with no abrupt changes while a shorter segment. Connected segments must have identical coordinates for connected ends. .2. involves both geometrical and electrical the segments should follow the Geometrically.001 times the length of the shortest segment. relative to I is limited by the approximation used in the kernel of the electric field integration equation. may be needed in modeling critical regions of the antenna.
relative kernel to of A. When modeling a solid structure with a wire grid. very short constant current sources located at the origin. The segments on either side of the excitation source should be parallel and have the same length and radii. the is limited by approximations the electric field integral equation. Before modeling a structure . If the segment has a large radius. used in a. 11 . The wire radius. a large number of segments should be used. the type of excitation must be declared. Parallel wires should be several radii apart.Segment intersections other than at their ends do not allow currents to flow from one segment to another. then sharp bends should be avoided as well. excitation of tiny constant current dipole). Current sources are limited to isolated. (i. be either a voltage source or an The excitation can plane wave of incident various polarizations. far-field radiation patterns are calculated.e. Large wire radius changes should be avoided particularly for adjacent segments. A segment is needed at the point where a network connection . is going to be located. - Base fed wires connected to ground should be vertical. the limit of the number - of segments and the number of connection points should be checked for the particular version of NEC. kernel The thin-wire kernel and the extended-wire are used to approximate wire segment. a voltage or a current source.. Once the antenna geometry and ground plane are specified. From the current current approximations for each distribution these distributions.
The of electrical properties and characteristics of the material media in which the antenna is located and its effects on fields and currents [Ref. the segment length to wire radius ratio. A/a. both 4] pattern and feedpoint Ground are the focus of the analysis.NEC-3 requires that for the thin-wire kernel approximation. overlap since the division of current between two overlapping segments is indeterminate. must be greater than 8 for errors less than 1% and A/a for the extended-wire kernel approximation must be greater than 2 for the same accuracy. A large radius change between connected segments should be avoided since this will introduce errors in calculations. 12 . PAT7 PROGRAM The PAT7 program is specifically designed to model the peformance of buried or near earth antennas and travelingwave antennas in the 1 kHz to 100 MHz frequency range. B. of wires is not restricted in The angle of intersection Segments cannot any manner. Segments with bends in the wire should avoid using small values for A/a. A segment is required at each point where a network connection or voltage source will be located. PAT7 tabulates and plots characteristics for models in real earth environments. model is The based on the theory developed in Reference 1 which uses the formal solution of Maxwell's equations to calculate the electromagnetic current and charge fields and associated distributions in bounded regions.
13 . From 1 to M of these subarrays can be combined in-line to form an array.Transmit frequency . .Antenna element length and height (negative values are used for buried antennas) Height must be less than 0. Groundwave patterns are described in terms of field strength at a specific far field distance over real ground conditions. . The following are electrical considerations. linear elements arranged in a subarray. as a function of Radiation patterns are described azimuth.Soil conductivity and permittivity . The program very accurately describes the performance of real antennas describing the when the various input model input uses measured used in data in parameters making calculations.1) and cannot be zero because PAT7 does not calculate elements touching the air-ground interface. to obtain desired antenna radiation pattern. and capabilities the user must be concerned with when modeling with PAT7: . The complex permittivity of the wire insulation should be 1. characteristics. Buried antennas are most effective when they are insulated from their environment.Antenna wire insulation conductivity and permittivity. PAT7 possesses an NxM multi-element array modeling capability. and polarization.conductivity and dielectric constants as a function of frequency are used to characterize the burial or underlying environment of the antenna.Desirea elevation and azimuth angle of view.2 times less than that of the surrounding ground. The assumed geometry of the model consists of from 1 to N parallel. in degrees. elevation.
Main beam steering. In order to obtain the desired signal strength at the receive station.) . or takeoff reflected optimal.E-field polarization(vertical. . off must the be calculated to the so that the signal is ionosphere receive station The takeoff angle for the problem discussed in this 14 . otherwise a matched. . angle. Subarrays cannot overlap. then produced. (The user can steer the main beam in a desired direction.Number and spacing of elements used in array modeling as well as number of and distance between subarrays. .Wire radius must be small compared to antenna length.Conductor radius and insulation radius.. . A TAKEOFF ANGLE CALCULATION The takeoff angle for High Frequency communications is an important characteristic in antenna design.) .The actual impedance of the feed element may be used. perfect feed element is assumed. shown in Appendix B. the maximum power radiated at a specific azimuth and elevation. A graph of the antenna radiation pattern is sample input screen is C. This is done in practice by controlling the feed signal and using phase sensitive baluns. . (The insulation radius must obviously be larger than the conductor radius.The desired wave type (ground or skywave) to be computed.Designation whether element is end or center fed. (Same conditions as NEC-2) .Antenna may be either terminated by a user given load impedance or open termination. horizontal or mixed).
again using a one the takeoff angles are determined to be 49 and 28 miles respectively. For nighttime communications. 5 and the skywave transmission chart as shown in was calculated for two ranges. hop path. 51 15 . Using Figure 3 and the conditions above. path is The takeoff angle A one hop 300 and 600 miles.keoff angle of 39 and 20 degrees for the ranges of 300 and 600 P. considered optimum since signal attenuation and path For daytime communications.les respectively. for the ranges of 300 ard 6u0 These takeoff angles will be osed to compare the results of the computer models. a one hop path requires a t.thesis was determined using Reference Figure 3. for daytime communications. a one hop path reflected off the F2 layer at an altitude of 300 km was used. propagation path was used with a reflection off the 'E' at an altitude of 110 km. degrees For nighttime communications. a one hop layer losses are minimized. (Ref.
R.4C- * --- _--. 1964. Skywave Transmission chart developed by Prof. Stanford University. Helliwell.-- Figure 3. 16 .A.
a = 0. maximum gain under performance analyzed achieved at the desired takeoff angles and direction. The values used for the a = 0. HT-20T was modeled a= 0. taken as 50 ohms. a. antennas Antenna Radiation patterns were computed for each of the the various was height and using ground the conditions. and relative permittivities. for "fair" ground. showed These frequencies were frequencies most chosen after analysis that these 17 . GENERAL MODELING RESULTS In order to make an accurate comparison of the antennas. A. were modeled The ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole given in Reference 2 at four for dimensions different heights to allow for comparisons of non-traditional employment. were 2. S/m and er = 30. and each antenna's voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) MHz frequency spectrum. 8. er.001 S/m and er = 6 [Ref. Each antenna was modeled over the three types of grounds with different conductivities. some common conditions were imposed. over the 2 to 30 The transmission line impedance was a standard value for most radio frequency The frequencies chosen to make comparisons 20 and 30 MHz. (RF) applications. height and 1]. The as at the fixed dimensions described in Reference 6.IV. 12. 4.01 various ground conditions were: for "good" ground. and for "poor" ground.005 S/m and Er = 12.
From examination of these antenna radiation patterns. mutually It consists of two dipole in azimuth as mounted perpendicular illustrated in Figure 4. it that the HT-20T is omni-directional is evident good and demonstrates skywave propagation gains at 39 and 49 degree takeoff angles. Each element is terminated with a The center of the antenna is 27 feet above The VSWR varies between 1. Each figure shows the under pattern for a fixed ground condition for frequencies consideration. B. poor ground is The VSWR of fair and also within these limits but not illustrated effect on patterns are because the change in ground conditions had little VSWR in this case. The antenna radiation illustrated in Figures 6 through 17.78 over good ground conditions as illustrated in Figure 5. antenna designed "sloping vee-like". HT-20T MODEL The HT-20T is a omni-directional. the ground.02 and 1. primarily for High orthogonal dipole Frequency (HF) antennas skywave propagation. The antenna is oriented for transmission of x-axis. 400 ohm resistor. The the main beam along the positive and negative reference plane from which plots were taken was from the xzplane and azimuthal plane through the origin. The radiation patterns show a maximum gain of -2 db at 20 Mhz 18 .accurately represented the antenna's characteristics over the frequency spectrum.
HT-20T Antenna. 19 .Figure 4.
HMSA Figure S.E ci 0 I a) C: 'CN CoY 20 c'Jm V-. 20 . VSWR for HT-20T over good ground.
and 8 MHz. 21 . f=2. 4.-o 2 CC <00 cicc 0 C\I NNN *0 wU II II II Elevation pattern for HT-20T over good ground for Figure 6.
.S.- Figure 7.Co C 2 C:C C• . .II c~cV ""r0 car 0•10o S. 22 . 20. . . .. f=12.- S. . Elevation pattern for HT-20T over good ground for and 30 MHz. " - C\I C .
cc 00 -. and 8 MHz.--NNN *0 . 23 . .4.0 Figure 8. Elevation pattern for HT-20T over fair ground for f=2.-ou CC Ct.
cuo <01 0 H-j >I c'Ju Figure 9. E~levation pattern for H-T-20T over fair ground for and 30 M~z. 20. f--12. 24 .
and 8 M¶Hz. Elevation pattern for HT-20T over poor ground for f=2.COL C0 00 cuJ C _Y o ~ Figure 10. 25 . 4.
vr or gon fE2. C\26 . Elvaio 2 . nd 3 patr z .c 0 00 C ICL ccao 4- J- 4 Figr fo 11.M o H 0.
varying takeoff angle(theta). . Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=2 MHz over good 27 . H I or* -o =.i~ Figure 12. ground. ( ii.=0 "-0 10 Co "C - .
II varying takeoff angle(theta).C=0 "0 caa Como M 0000)00 cc~J 0. I I" Figure 13. gr. I Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=4 MHz over ggood 28 .ound.
CO- =0 cu) F0 00))MM0)0 N (1)0 (a. ) 03E mc >c Figure 14. Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=8 M4Hz over good ground. 29 . varying takeoff angle (theta).
Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=12 MHz good ground. ca McJc (a 4-A 4-aO 4 Figure 15.2 cmJ ~-0 (00 cu) 4-J H-- . over 30 . varying takeoff angle (theta).00 0 4-0 0) M M .
31 .I%-0 F"7 C\ID 0~)O 5?: R ~NC 0~ (D 0' 0 Figure 16. Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=2.0 MHz over good ground.0 if 0 . varying takeoff angle(theta).
32 . Azimuth pattern for HT-20T for f=30 MHz over good ground.CD. varying takeoff angle (theta). 0 <00 ca W)~OO to11 IM 0V46 V 7r Figure 17.
there is virtually These results are expected because. to achieve the best the possible results. The VSWR for the ELPA-302 was calculated for good and poor 33 . also match those predicted in this model. As the ground conditions vary from good to peak gain varies 2 to 3 dB at takeoff angles greater For takeoff angles no change. in By using the elevation so which acts as a EFU. on the antenna and an elevation steering at 34 median takeoff 2) angle. poor. [Ref. than 30 degrees.over good ground. The ELPA-302 was modeled in PAT7 using a matched termination to minimize reflections degrees. below 30 degrees. some effect. on terminated reflections radiating elements are reduced or eliminated. depending upon frequency. antenna is balun and fed by an Element Feed Unit (EFU) phase controller. It does not require tuning The either electronically or by trimming the antenna length. A change in ground conditions does have some effect on the radiation pattern. ELPA-302 MODEL The antenna radiation patterns Reference 6. the antenna as although the ground has is high enough to designed minimize ground interactions. the main The the antenna ELPA-302 beam can be steered can also be and azimuth. C. however. which validates The ELPA-302 antenna is a broadband HF skywave antenna and is illustrated in Figure 18.
ELPA-302 Antenna 34 .20OfL Figure 18.
This can be explained by examining the electrical characteristics of the various types of ground. ground. VSWR for poor Good ground does not have this effect because the and permittivity are higher and do not conductivity significantly help the antenna to match the transmission line impedance. significantly lower for heights below ground. These heights were chosen because they are the most practical when using the ELPA-302 for the TDCC mission. 35 . The patterns are oriented with the main beam along the positive and negative x-axis.5 meters.ground conditions at each height as illustrated in Figures 19 and 20.5 meters. and -1. 0. antenna radiation patterns for [Ref. heights For good ground. above ground. The reference plane from which plots were taken was The radiation patterns from the xz-plane through the origin. 3] are the ELPA-302 illustrated in Figures 21 through 44.0 meters. Although the VSWR is reduced for the antenna buried in poor ground. -0. Each figure shows the pattern for a fixed ground condition for the heights of 0. poor ground effectively reduce antenna to a value closer to the 50 ohm transmission This results in a reduction in impedance. Ground conductivity and permittivity The electrical characteristics of the input impedance of the line are functions of frequency. the VSWR is For poor somewhat higher for the VSWR is ground.006 meters. the negative consequences are that the gain is The also reduced by burying the antenna.
VSWR for ELPA-302 over good ground.E HI H II II ca 4-a J CN 0 0 'mrj co _J w Figure 19. 36 . varying heights.
varying 37 . I 6Oui 0 0i • 13) 0 I o ° -. VSWR for ELPA-302 over poor ground.E8 It B II . heights. UMSA Figure 20.
38 ... Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=2 MHz over good ground..Mom O•2 c aa cy) 0 4-j w "0 n1 C 0) >J ) . Ln -J 0 w ii I I Figure 21..
39 .SC C: caJ Cj 0 CY) -J M >0 - E W wI11111 EEE II J CC *13 Figure 22. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=2 MHz over fair ground.
N  .-o Z 0%CO 40 Co- c'J CU') 4-j w -. 40 . Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=2 MHz over poor ground. Figure 23. iiI E E ~EE 00.
41 .C C2 -0 c <0 CO9 0 Ct) ) C 'a 161to w E EE II III 1to1 I Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=4 MHz over Figure 24. good ground.
.. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=4 MHz over fair nround. J E C. 42 .gE EEE U) .N Co~ co c 0 C\1 . -t5 o Figure 25._> > 0 C'.
...e-- a) cu) 0 cN 4-J "..... Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=4 M4Hz over 43 . poor ground. E C " I-Cf Figure 26...N) "0 L-C C'C .
Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=8 MHz over good ground.2 CD 10 CcC'C c cy 0c SVo. E EE Figure 27. 44 .
45 . fair ground.NCq cc co) Cy 0 T C) \Il =1E CO 0) EEE ~ooj Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=8 MHz over Figure 28.
Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=8 MHz over poor ground. 46 .• II 0 D-5-o 00 C\44 0 =~oc C'Y) EE 0 10 ' > 0 0 ci Figure 29.
47 . w: (DE -J E~E cuo Figure 30. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=12 MHz over good ground.L-co 00 ca.
c••= C: C: .I-JO a)D CY) U-- EE 0 Figure 31. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=12 MHz over fair ground. 48 .
49 ."0 CLl4 cu c'Jm 00 cc ! w0 Figure 32. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=12 MHz over poor ground.
50 .0 C: CC c) cc E E E 0 cc U~ CD I 11 11111 Figure 33. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=20 MHz over good ground.
51 . Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=20 M4Hz over fair ground. -J7 c CO 0 E E SE E 00 Figure 34.2 I co.
wc E S0 > > coo UE EE 0 0 q Figure 35. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=20 MHz over poor ground.co co5 C) C\1 0 CY. 52 .
53 .L.c NC cuJ 0 Cl. Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=30 M4Hz over good ground. ww E" EE 0 -0 C D Figure 36.
"0 •" a)3 . Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=30 MHz over fair ground. 54 .. -u cyC) C~j 0 w •"•E SIIi E E E II IIII Figure 37.
.... . poor ground. 55 . ... i• ~II II I I Elevation pattern for ELPA-302 for f=30 Mhz over Figure 38..|0 a No 0 COOV Ca 00 4-j. c C\1' .
5m. varying takeoff angle (theta). 56 .NE 00 0 C:) W u~j 4-J ~~0)J 0)M0 a !9 11 1111 11 vvvv Figure 39. Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for f=4 MHz. h=0.
<CD 60 00 LIVI 0 CY) 171 '070. 57 .5m. Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for f=12 MHz. h-O.070 a) W0) 0)0 ca w c ~A4 *-A 4ý Figure 40. varying takeoff angle (theta).
C) r > E COa C\I C~jMV ~11 1111 11 Mcucacto Figure 41. for f=30 MHz. 58 .5m. varying takeoff angle (theta).N ci)) C)I cu CY) w M0) 0)0)M . Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 h=Q.
Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for constant takeoff angle (theta).C0 0 Cr 00 CCD) SII II II I _E E Figure 42. 59 . varying heights. f=4 MHz.
q. varying heights. Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for f=12 M•z. 60 . 2 MCC 00 C <9 CI) 0 - _J SE >.E EE b 0 C5 Figure 43. constant takeoff angle (theta).
MHz. varying heights. 61 . Azimuth pattern for ELPA-302 for f=30 constant takeoff angle (theta).(D CDO oil 0 c•5 _'J Cl) CL w E "--o E 1 8 EE 0 to Figure 44.
(Ref. the height was kept constant at 0. have approximately however. in gain The buried as ground increase conditions degrade. the the gain versus takeoff angle.5 meters over poor ground. 1] A height of 0. The patterns illustrate that changes in height and ground condition have a great effect on antenna gain.5 m (the height which provided the highest gain) change and in the takeoff angle was varied azimuthal to illustrate Next. to image theory.This allows for more constructive addition of the the image plane was exactly transmitted and reflected wave.show a maximum gain of -16 dB at 2 Mhz for h= 0. antenna distance is closer to 1/4 than in good ground. then constructive interference the image plane to In poor ground. takeoff angle was held constant at 34 degrees. a median value. for the ELPA-302. First. the distance image the antenna increases. shown in Figures 35 were modeled in two ways. would be at a maximum. a height of 0. The VSWR and various radiation patterns agree with those 62 .5 meters provides optimal gain at the desired takeoff angles. For all ground conditions.5 meters provides optimal gain at the desired takeoff angles while the buried antennas antennas. and the height above ground was varied to illustrate the change in azimuthal gain versus height. between One explanation for this can be related As the the ground becomes more plane and lossy. Azimuth patterns through 41. have an 12 dB less gain. If 1/4 distance from the antenna.
The comments on the ELPA-302 also apply to the horizontal dipole with respect to electrical effects of the ground. 0. dipole modeled is environments. and -1.in Reference 2. exceptions that will be discussed later. D.5 meters. PAT7 was used to model this antenna. Antenna radiation patterns for the horizontal dipole are illustrated in Figures 48 through 71. not terminated because. The VSWR for the horizontal dipole was taken for good and poor ground conditions at each height and is Figures 46 and 47. here. Each figure shows the pattern for fixed ground conditions for heights of 0. the illustrated in VSWR is not significantly affected by changes in height. the VSWR is For poor ground.0 meters. practical.006 meters. two wires of equal length connected via It consists of a balun to a transmission line as illustrated in Figure 45.5 meters. relatively constant for heights above ground but significantly lower for heights below ground. which lends validity to the results obtained HORIZONTAL DIPOLE MODEL The horizontal dipole is an omni-directional antenna designed primarily for HF skywave propagation. in The horizontal some tactical trimming and terminating antennas is not always The overall characteristics of the horizontal but with some dipole are similar to those of the ELPA-302. For good ground. -0. The patterns are 63 .
64 . Horizontal Dipole.Figure 45.
E toEo 0 0mI U)S 0 04 m' U) cm W) UMSA Figure 46. VSWR for horizontal dipole over good ground. for varying heights 65 .
o. 66 .c "" 0 UIMSA VSWR for horizontal dipole for varying heights Figure 47. over poor ground. o N C C C" V.I I I E 0 -N .
"Co a-O- U-)a 00 N ? . s SgE Ci E w 0 11 Figure 48. Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=2 MHz over good ground. 67 .
Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole fro f=2 M•z over fair ground.N Ca 2-T 00 icm 0 CC 0 a C NE N g E EE SII i II III Figure 49. 68 .
69 . Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=2 MHz over poor ground.CD CV ""0 a- aa CU 2N E CO c 0 m E EE Figure 50.
CO ca E E E EE 0 c n m 07 .
•cQ C c 0 CO U- ON CY. 71 .. IIUII E EE Figure 52. Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=4 MHz over fair ground... T E 00 6 Lf.
Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=4 MfHz over poor ground. 72 .(D Zca 00 4 -J 0 0 _ ~EE o-2cU') ko CIOa Figure 53.
73 . MHz over good ground. • I Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=8 Figure 54.T3 C CC: ci)) 50 N O O .• •E ~EE E E C!.
. 74 ... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=8 MHz over fair ground....0C 4'-a •.... E _" E U'j EE -) >"" _o Figure 55.
2 CD Z0 o ao NII Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=8 Figure 56. MHz over poor ground. 75 .
E 0 EEE
Figure 57. Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=12 MHz over good ground.
~~II I I I
Elevation pattern Figure 58. ground. M•z over fair
for horizontal dipole for f=12
Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=12
MHz over poor ground.
. "\- ......... Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=20 MHz over good ground..P4 "0 • - " " .c__ oo •" >0 g d E EE 0 lCn Sw II1II I II Figure 60. 79 ..
LJ1II 1I1I II Figure 61.N 0 0 w. 80 . Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=20 MHz over fair ground. ca 0 .NC CC: C\1 I I.
c_ m 5EE SE SII II w II II0 Figure 62. 81 . Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=20 MHz over poor ground.N f- 0 UC) aa 0 • •0 00 .
...... Figre 3... levtio MHZ~ pater ovrgoErud fo hoizotaldiple or =k E82 ..0 CO 40 a) Co c- -..
Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=30 MHz over fair ground. 83 .C))a 0 Nt E CO 0 E EE O Ln Figure 64.
84 . Elevation pattern for horizontal dipole for f=30 MHz over poor ground.NC CL 0 cm E w• "CO- E EE 1nn111I I II Figure 65.
h= 0.5m. varying takeoff angle (theta).*0 CLC cci 0 CO~4 000) 0 Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=4 Figure 66. 85 . MHz.
varying takeoff angle (theta).L -o "-CO %all 0 co) 4N D)0)0)C '0 *000a0 Figure 67. 86 . h= 0. Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=12 MHz.5m.
LO C. -c C- 0 0 OCV3 0 )D -ox N ••.. h= O.. 87 ..5m.• . Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=30 varying takeoff angle (theta). ..tI • " N 7JCV Figure 68. Mhz.
~ QQ) 010 or m-. varying heights.II. 88 .4-.IZ.C: .I Figure 69.Z . Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=4 MHz. constant takeoff angle (theta). E EE C 4 IIII II II .
LnO Figure 70.. Azimuth pattern for horizontal dipole for f=12 MHz... varying heights.. 89 . constant takeoff angle (theta).. "Iw E Vb C EE LOq .NCD 0 1a) CC o4-0 -r- N I .
.zo~ 00 .. .... 55 090 .. .
ground conditions vary from good to poor. the case of the ELPA-302. illustrate that change in height and ground As gain The patterns conditions have a great effect on the radiation pattern. there is an increase in peak gain as ground conditions degrade. gain of -5 The radiation patterns show a maximum dB at 2 MHz for h= 0. the peak actually increases a maximum of approximately 7 dB at 2 MHz. When the antenna is buried. This can be explained Also. optimal the height at 0.5 meters over poor ground. The results the various radiation patterns obtained are similar in shape but not in gain to what would be expected of a dipole in free space. as in using image theory as discussed for the ELPA-302. Azimuth patterns for the horizontal dipole are shown in Figures 55 through 65 and were modeled to illustrate the change in azimuthal gain versus takeoff angle and the change in azimuthal gain versus height.5 meters provides for all ground gain at the desired takeoff angles conditions. The buried antenna's gain in the direction of the takeoff angle is 15 dB less than the gain of the antenna above ground. The reference plane was from the xz-plane through the origin. This allows a rough check of the model used here and suggests the results are within reason.oriented for transmission of the main beam along the positive and negative x-axis. 91 .
should contain five sites in the hub-spoke The experiment configuration discussed earlier to test the performance of the antennas.V. constants at the sites should be measured accurately compared with model results. Each of the three antennas would be operated at the hub site with the four spoke away in sites located from 300 to 600 miles incrementally apart. The antennas should operate for 24 hours per day to test frequency response for day and night communications. of a this final thesis decision should be verified by experiment antenna is to procure is a specific for A proposed experiment included continuation of this thesis by another party. The VSWR for each antenna should be measured The antenna elevation and azimuth be measured via a helicopter over the entire spectrum. radiation flyover. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION The results before made. The test should continue from several days to ionosphere activity a week to ensure that a fairly normal period was used. The importance of patterns should accurate measurements under the identical conditions used for the models is paramount for a 92 . radius from the hub and 90 degrees This will test the omni-directional capabilities and Ground and the short to medium skywave range of the antennas.
93 .valid comparison of results.
and provide a much less visible battlefield target. The ELPA-302 is recommended 94 . the HT-20T antenna is time. The VSWR for the ELPA-302 is practical for use with transmitters that require a VSWR of 2. a recommended for use whenever there is adequate space. The ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole provide adequate gain at the required takeoff angles at heights above ground and for buried antennas under certain conditions. RECOMMENDATIONS From the results of this thesis. minimum requirement on displacement.VI.5 or less. not a priority. The ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole are much easier to construct and erect than the HT-20T. The VSWR for the horizontal dipole is too high for most frequencies below 7. and when concealment is An example of this type of employment would be for physically large communications systems. like the TDCC. B. A.0 MHz. characteristics All of the antennas and omni-directional demonstrate broadband azimuthal capability. MODEL COMPARISON A direct comparison CONCLUSIONS between the models discussed is dependent upon the user's criteria. that do not displace frequently. of the required The HT-20T has the highest gain at each angles and the lowest VSWR when takeoff compared to the ELPA-302 and horizontal dipole.
95 . radios which move more and when deploying vehicle-mounted frequently than the TDCC type systems. mobile employment. but are sometimes able to stay in position long enough so that burying the antenna The horizontal dipole is recommended for and where mobility It would be practical. limited use for manpack. in this method of employment. is important that. be a reconnaissance unit for frequency A typical application would or an infantry unit which moves field constantly but could stop in order to employ a simple. is considered the limited frequency range of the antenna allocation and mission planning. the final decision on which antenna to The user must make use in order to maximize communications. ground conditions are poor. and ease of construction and concealment are a priority. expedient tactical antenna in a desert environment where poor ground prevails. Each of these antennas have advantages and disadvantages as outlined in this thesis. Each antenna can optimize communications under certain conditions.when concealment is a priority.
2.9. 1.1000.0 EXO.39. 1. 126.96.36.199..10.0.-1.001 GW2O. .188.8.131.52. 15. PL184.108.40.206..0.4..95.0. 26... RPO.0.0. 96 .0. ..220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.. .95.-1.5.0. .0. 4..9..00. 4 4 RPO. SAMPLE NEC-3 DATA SET **COMMJENT CARDS** CM CE THIS IS AN HT-20T ANTENNA.181. . 0.0.0.4 RPO.0.26.26.26.2.-2. 1. .0.1.12.4. .4.1000.95.0.0. 0 **PROGRAM CONTROL CARDS** EXO.-?6.25.4. 0.4.1. 0.4 RPO.0.0.95.2. 1501.0 EXO. LD4.001 GW1.4.2 .0 EXO.1 GN.1. 0.0. 0.2.2.25).91.0..95.9.O0..0.1.001 GW15.-. 0. .00.12.0.0.400.0. 9..1.12.6.. 0.001 GW2.2.-2..0.0.0. .22.214.171.124.95.4..1. 0.12.181.181.0. 12 ..0 This is a sample data set for NEC-3 input to obtain data for elevation and azimuth patterns and input impedance.00.0. .95.1000.400.-26.4. PL3 ..1. 1000.0 PL3 PL3 .0.4...0.4.2.2.5.-. 0.0..0.0 FRO.2.1.0. 0.2.9.12. 9.2.95.001 GXO. .2 .10.6..001 GW3O.-.01 LD4 .APPENDIX A.01 GW5. 1. 15. f=2 MHz OVER GOOD GROUND **GEOMETRY CARDS** GW1O...0.0.0.5.-90.-26.1.001 GW25.0. 126.96.36.199.0.1. .1.1. 1.O. RPO.4.25. 1. .-188.8.131.52. 010 GE-1.0.
APPENDIX B. SAMPLE PAT7 PROGRAM DATA SET T P F C H E X L Z A B N S J K M D I W G ELPA-302 ANTENNA Elevation (deg).2 0 90 1 0 0 SVBO Enter symbol of variable to change. Phi [0-360] Frequency (MHz) Conductivity of Soil (Siemens/m) Permittivity of Soil (relative) Permittivity of Insulation (relative) Conductivity of Insulation (Siemens/m) Length of Element (m) Height of Element (m) Radius of Conductor (m) Radius of Insulation (m) Number of Elemencs Spacing of Elements (m) Azimuth Steering (deg) Elevation Steering (deg) Number of Subarrays Distance between Subarrays (m) Matching Impedance (ohms) [0=ignore] Wave/Polarization/Symmetry/Termination Graph Gain (dBi) vs T = 0 to 180 by 5 0 0 30 0. Q=Quit.001 0. 97 .01 30 5 0 46 0.5 0. or. Theta [0-180] Azimuth (deg).005 2 6. O=Options. R=Run: This is a sample data set for the antenna radiation patterns used in the PAT7 program for the ELPA-302 antenna using good ground.
1981.LIST OF REFERENCES 1. Press.B. The Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society. Eyring Inc. Radio Wave Propagation. Operations Manual for the 302A Evring Low Profile Antenna.. HT-20T Transportable HF Antenna. and Faust. R. King.. Gilchrist. G. Boithias. M.. L. 1990. 3.. Eyring Low Profile and Buried Antenna Modeling Program.B. 5. 1989. Antenna Products Corp. 1991. 1988. 98 . Eyring Inc.0.L. D. R. McGraw-Hill Book 6. Version 3. Antennas in Matter..S.P.W. Company. The Numerical Electromagnetic Engineering Design System. and Smith. The MIT 2. King... 1987.. 4.
CA 93943-5000 Mr. Jenn. D. Code EC Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. CA 93943-5000 Director. 1 5.C. Vincent. Code EC/Jn Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. CA 93943-5000 Dr. 2 3. Code EC/Ab Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. CO 80443 1 2. 20380-0001 Defense Technical Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria. Adler. Richard W. 1 8. USMC P. Smith. VA 22304-6145 Library. Wilbur R. 1 6. Research Administration Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. CA 93943-5000 Captain Bobby G.. Code EC/Ab Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Naval Postgraduate School Monterey. Marine Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity Attn: Captain R. Code 52 Naval Pcstgraduate School Monterey. 5 7. USMC Camp Pendleton. CA 93943-5002 Chairman. Box 593 Frisco. CA 92055 1 99 . Copies 1.O. 2 4. David C.INITIAL DISTRIBUTION LIST No. 5 9. CA 93943-5000 Dr. 5 10. Gregory Jr. Commandant of the Marine Corps Code TE 06 Washington.
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