1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. Introduction Principle of Testing Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Software Development Lifecycle Models Some of the Software Testing Terms and Definitions Verification and validation Project Management Quality Management Risk Management Configuration Management Types of Software Testing Testing levels Types of Testing Techniques Testing Life Cycle Defect Tracking Test Reports Software Metric Other Testing Terms Test Standards Web Testing Testing Terms Technical Questions
Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate process to ensure the correctness of the product. The quality product always enhances the customer confidence in using the product thereby increases the business economics. In other words, a good quality product means zero defects, which is derived from a better quality process in testing. Software is an integrated set of Program codes, designed logically to implement a particular function or to automate a particular process. To develop a software product or project, user needs and constraints must be determined and explicitly stated. The development process is broadly classified into two. 1. Product development 2. Project development Product development is done assuming a wide range of customers and their needs. This type of development involves customers from all domains and collecting requirements from many different environments. Project Development is done by focusing a particular customer's need, gathering data from his environment and bringing out a valid set of information that will help as a pillar to development process.
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Software Testing Testing is a necessary stage in the software life cycle: it gives the programmer and user some sense of correctness, though never "proof of correctness. With effective testing techniques, software is more easily debugged, less likely to "break," more "correct", and, in summary, better.
Most development processes in the IT industry always seem to follow a tight schedule. Often, these schedules adversely affect the testing process, resulting in step motherly treatment meted out to the testing process. As a result, defects accumulate in the application and are overlooked so as to meet deadlines. The developers convince themselves that the overlooked errors can be rectified in subsequent releases.
The definition of testing is not well understood. People use a totally incorrect definition of the word testing, and that this is the primary cause for poor program testing. Testing the product means adding value to it by raising the quality or reliability of the product. Raising the reliability of the product means finding and removing errors. Hence one should not test a product to show that it works; rather, one should start with the assumption that the program contains errors and then test the program to find as many of the errors as possible.
Definitions of Testing: “Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding errors ” Or “Testing is the process of evaluating a system by manual or automatic means and verify that it satisfies specified requirements” Or "... the process of exercising or evaluating a system or system component by manual or automated means to verify that it satisfies specified requirements or to identify differences / between expected and actual results..."
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Why software Testing?
Software testing helps to deliver quality software products that satisfy user’s requirements, needs and expectations. If done poorly, defects are found during operation, it results in high maintenance cost and user dissatisfaction It may cause mission failure Impact on operational performance and reliability Some of the case studies Disney’s Lion King, 1994-1995 In the fall of 1994, Disney company Released its first multimedia CD-ROM game for children, The Lion King Animated storybook. This was Disney’s first venture into the market and it was highly promoted and advertised. Sales were huge. It was “the game to buy” for children that holiday season. What happened, however, was a huge debacle. On December 26, the day after Christmas, Disney’s customer support phones began to ring, and ring, and ring. Soon the phones support technicians were swamped with calls from angry parents with crying children who couldn’t get the software to work. Numerous stories appeared in newspapers and on TV news. This problem later was found out, due to non performance of software testing for all conditions.
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Software Bug: A Formal Definition
Calling any and all software problems bugs may sound simple enough, but doing so hasn’t really addressed the issue. To keep from running in circular definitions, there needs to be a definitive description of what a bug is. A software bug occurs when one or more of the following five rules is true: 1) The software doesn’t do something that the product specification says it should do. 2) The software does something that the product specification says it shouldn’t do. 3) The software does something that the product specification doesn’t mention. 4) The software doesn’t do something that the product specification doesn’t mention but should. 5) The software is difficult to understand, hard to use, slow, or –in the software tester’s eyes- will be viewed by the end user as just plain not right.
What exactly does Software Tester Do? (Or Role of Tester)
From the above Examples you have seen how nasty bugs can be and you know what is the definition of a bug is, and you can think how costly they can be. So main goal of tester is “The goal of Software Tester is to find bugs” As a software tester you shouldn’t be content at just finding bugs, you should think about how to find them sooner in the development process, thus making them cheaper to fix. “The goal of a Software Tester is to find bugs, and find them as early as possible”. But, finding bugs early isn’t enough. “The goal of a Software Tester is to find bugs, and find them as early as possible and make sure they get fixed”
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Principle of Testing
The main objective of testing is to find defects in requirements, design, documentation, and code as early as possible. The test process should be such that the software product that will be delivered to the customer is defect less. All Tests should be traceable to customer requirements. Test cases must be written for invalid and unexpected, as well as for valid and expected input conditions. A necessary part of a test case is a definition of the expected output or result. A good test case is one that has high probability of detecting an as-yet undiscovered error.
Eight Basic Principles of Testing
• • • • • • • Define the expected output or result. Don't test your own programs. Inspect the results of each test completely. Include test cases for invalid or unexpected conditions. Test the program to see if it does what it is not supposed to do as well as what it is supposed to do. Avoid disposable test cases unless the program itself is disposable. Do not plan tests assuming that no errors will be found.
The probability of locating more errors in any one module is directly proportional to the number of errors already found in that module. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 6
Best Testing Practices to be followed during testing
• • • • • • Testing and evaluation responsibility is given to every member, so as to generate team responsibility among all. Develop Master Test Plan so that resource and responsibilities are understood and assigned as early in the project as possible. Systematic evaluation and preliminary test design are established as a part of all system engineering and specification work. Testing is used to verify that all project deliverables and components are complete, and to demonstrate and track true project progress. A-risk prioritized list of test requirements and objectives (such as requirements-based, design-based, etc) are developed and maintained. Conduct Reviews as early and as often as possible to provide developer feedback and get problems found and fixed as they occur.
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Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
Let us look at the Traditional Software Development life cycle vs Presently or Mostly commonly used life cycle.
Requirements Design Development Testing Implementation Maintenance Fig A (Traditional)
Requirements Design Development Implementation Maintenance
Fig B (Most commonly used)
In the above Fig A, the Testing Phase comes after the Development or coding is complete and before the product is launched and goes into Maintenance phase. We have some disadvantages using this model - cost of fixing errors will be high because we are not able to find errors until coding is completed. If there is error at Requirements phase then all phases should be changed. So, total cost becomes very high.
E S T I N G T
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The Fig B shows the recommended Test Process involves testing in every phase of the life cycle. During the Requirements phase, the emphasis is upon validation to determine that the defined requirements meet the needs of the organization. During Design and Development phases, the emphasis is on verification to ensure that the design and program accomplish the defined requirements. During the Test and Installation phases, the emphasis is on inspection to determine that the implemented system meets the system specification. During the maintenance phases, the system will be re-tested to determine that the changes work and that the unchanged portion continues to work.
Requirements and Analysis Specification
The main objective of the requirement analysis is to prepare a document, which includes all the client requirements. That is, the Software Requirement Specification (SRS) document is the primary output of this phase. Proper requirements and specifications are critical for having a successful project. Removing errors at this phase can reduce the cost as much as errors found in the Design phase. And also you should verify the following activities: • • • • Determine Verification Approach. Determine Adequacy of Requirements. Generate functional test data. Determine consistency of design with requirements.
In this phase we are going to design entire project into two • • High –Level Design or System Design. Low –Level Design or Detailed Design.
High –Level Design or System Design (HLD) High – level Design gives the overall System Design in terms of Functional Architecture and Database design. This is very useful for the developers to understand the flow of the system. In this phase design team, review team (testers) and customers plays a major role. For this the entry criteria are the requirement document that is SRS. And the exit criteria will be HLD, projects standards, the functional design documents, and the database design document.
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Software Testing Low – Level Design (LLD) During the detailed phase, the view of the application developed during the high level design is broken down into modules and programs. Logic design is done for every program and then documented as program specifications. For every program, a unit test plan is created. The entry criteria for this will be the HLD document. And the exit criteria will the program specification and unit test plan (LLD).
This is the phase where actually coding starts. After the preparation of HLD and LLD, the developers know what is their role and according to the specifications they develop the project. This stage produces the source code, executables, and database. The output of this phase is the subject to subsequent testing and validation. And we should also verify these activities: • • Determine adequacy of implementation. Generate structural and functional test data for programs.
The inputs for this phase are the physical database design document, project standards, program specification, unit test plan, program skeletons, and utilities tools. The output will be test data, source data, executables, and code reviews.
This phase is intended to find defects that can be exposed only by testing the entire system. This can be done by Static Testing or Dynamic Testing. Static testing means testing the product, which is not executing, we do it by examining and conducting the reviews. Dynamic testing is what you would normally think of testing. We test the executing part of the project. A series of different tests are done to verify that all system elements have been properly integrated and the system performs all its functions.
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Software Testing Note that the system test planning can occur before coding is completed. Indeed, it is often done in parallel with coding. The input for this is requirements specification document, and the output are the system test plan and test result.
Implementation phase or the Acceptance phase
This phase includes two basic tasks : • • Getting the software accepted Installing the software at the customer site.
Acceptance consist of formal testing conducted by the customer according to the Acceptance test plan prepared earlier and analysis of the test results to determine whether the system satisfies its acceptance criteria. When the result of the analysis satisfies the acceptance criteria, the user accepts the software.
This phase is for all modifications, which is not meeting the customer requirements or any thing to append to the present system. All types of corrections for the project or product take place in this phase. The cost of risk will be very high in this phase. This is the last phase of software development life cycle. The input to this will be project to be corrected and the output will be modified version of the project.
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Software Development Lifecycle Models
The process used to create a software product from its initial conception to its public release is known as the software development lifecycle model. There are many different methods that can be used for developing software, and no model is necessarily the best for a particular project. There are four frequently used models: • • • • Big –Bang Model Waterfall Model Prototype Model Spiral Model
Bin – Bang Model The Big- Bang Model is the one in which we put huge amount of matter (people or money) is put together, a lot of energy is expended – often violently – and out comes the perfect software product or it doesn’t. The beauty of this model is that it’s simple. There is little planning, scheduling, or Formal development process. All the effort is spent developing the software and writing the code. It’s and ideal process if the product requirements aren’t well understood and the final release date is flexible. It’s also important to have flexible customers, too, because they won’t know what they’re getting until the very end.
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Waterfall Model A project using waterfall model moves down a series of steps starting from an initial idea to a final product. At the end of each step, the project team holds a review to determine if they’re ready to move to the next step. If the project isn’t ready to progress, it stays at that level until it’s ready. Each phase requires well-defined information, utilizes well-defined process, and results in well-defined outputs. Resources are required to complete the process in each phase and each phase is accomplished through the application of explicit methods, tools and techniques. The Waterfall model is also called the Phased model because of the sequential move from one phase to another, the implication being that systems cascade from one level to the next in smooth progression. It has the following seven phases of development: The figure represents the Waterfall Model. Requirement phase Analysis phase Design phase Development phase Testing phase Implementation phase Maintenance phase
Notice three important points about this model. There’s a large emphasis on specifying what the product will be. The steps are discrete; there’s no overlap. There’s no way to back up. As soon as you’re on a step, you need to complete the tasks for that step and then move on. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 13
Prototype model The Prototyping model, also known as the Evolutionary model, came into SDLC because of certain failures in the first version of application software. A failure in the first version of an application inevitably leads to need for redoing it. To avoid failure of SDLC, the concept of Prototyping is used. The basic idea of Prototyping is that instead of fixing requirements before the design and coding can begin, a prototype is to understand the requirements. The prototype is built using known requirements. By viewing or using the prototype, the user can actually feel how the system will work. The prototyping model has been defined as: “A model whose stages consist of expanding increments of an operational software with the direction of evolution being determined by operational experience.” Prototyping Process The following activities are carried out in the prototyping process: • • • • • • The developer and die user work together to define the specifications of the critical parts of the system. The developer constructs a working model of the system. The resulting prototype is a partial representation of the system. The prototype is demonstrated to the user. The user identifies problems and redefines the requirements. The designer uses the validated requirements as a basis for designing the actual or production software
Prototyping is used in the following situations: • When an earlier version of the system does not exist. • When the user's needs are not clearly definable/identifiable. • When the user is unable to state his/her requirements. • When user interfaces are an important part of the system being developed.
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Software Testing Spiral model The traditional software process models don't deal with the risks that may be faced during project development. One of the major causes of project failure in the past has been negligence of project risks. Due to this, nobody was prepared when something unforeseen happened. Barry Boehm recognized this and tried to incorporate the factor, project risk, into a life cycle model. The result is the Spiral model, which was first presented in 1986. The new model aims at incorporating the strengths and avoiding the different of the other models by shifting the management emphasis to risk evaluation and resolution. Each phase in the spiral model is split into four sectors of major activities. These activities are as follows: Objective setting: This activity involves specifying the project and process objectives in terms of their functionality and performance. Risk analysis: It involves identifying and analyzing alternative solutions. It also involves identifying the risks that may be faced during project development. Engineering: This activity involves the actual construction of the system. Customer evaluation: During this phase, the customer evaluates the product for any errors and modifications.
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Software Testing Terms and Definitions
• Verification and validation • Project Management • Quality Management • Risk Management • Configuration Management • Cost Management • Compatibility Management
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Verification & validation
Verification and validation are often used interchangeably but have different definitions. These differences are important to software testing. Verification is the process confirming that software meets its specifications. Validation is the process confirming that it meets the user’s requirements.
Verification can be conducted through Reviews. Quality reviews provides visibility into the development process throughout the software development life cycle, and help teams determine whether to continue development activity at various checkpoints or milestones in the process. They are conducted to identify defects in a product early in the life cycle.
Types of Reviews
• In-process Reviews :They look at the product during a specific time period of life cycle, such as during the design activity. They are usually limited to a segment of a project, with the goal of identifying defects as work progresses, rather than at the close of a phase or even later, when they are more costly to correct. • Decision-point or phase-end Reviews: This type of review is helpful in determining whether to continue with planed activities or not. They are held at the end of each phase. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 17
Software Testing • Post implementation Reviews: These reviews are held after implementation is complete to audit the process based on actual results. Post-implementation reviews are also know as “ Postmortems”, and are held to assess the success of the overall process after release and identify any opportunities for process improvements.
Classes of Reviews
• Informal or Peer Review: In this type of review generally a one-to one meeting between the author of a work product and a peer, initiated as a request for input regarding a particular artifact or problem. There is no agenda, and results are not formally reported. These reviews occur as need-based through each phase of a project. • Semiformal or Walkthrough Review: The author of the material being reviewed facilitates this. The participants are led through the material in one of the two formats: the presentation is made without interruptions and comments are made at the end, or comments are made throughout. Possible solutions for uncovered defects are not discussed during the review. • Formal or Inspection Review: An inspection is more formalized than a 'walkthrough', typically with 38 people including a moderator, reader, and a recorder to take notes. The subject of the inspection is typically a document such as a requirements spec or a test plan, and the purpose is to find problems and see what's missing, not to fix anything. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading thru the document; most problems will be found during this preparation. The result of the inspection meeting should be a written report. Thorough preparation for inspections is difficult, painstaking work, but is one of the most cost effective methods of ensuring quality.
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Software Testing Three rules should be followed for all reviews: 1. The product is reviewed, not the producer. 2. Defects and issues are identified, not corrected. 3. All members of the reviewing team are responsible for the results of the review.
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Project management is Organizing, Planning and Scheduling software projects. It is concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on schedule and in accordance with the requirements of the organization developing and procuring the software. Project management is needed because software development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints that are set by the organization developing the software. Project management activities includes • • • • • Project planning. Project scheduling. Iterative Code/Test/Release Phases Production Phase Post Mortem
Project planning This is the most time-consuming project management activity. It is a continuous activity from initial concept through to system delivery. Project Plan must be regularly updated as new information becomes available. With out proper plan, the development of the project will cause errors or it may lead to increase the cost, which is higher than the schedule cost. Review.
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Project scheduling This activity involves splitting project into tasks and estimate time and resources required to complete each task. Organize tasks concurrently to make optional use of workforce. Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays caused by one task waiting for another to complete. Project Manager has to take into consideration various aspects like scheduling, estimating manpower resources, so that the cost of developing a solution is within the limits. Project Manager also has to allow for contingency in planning.
Iterative Code/Test/Release Phases Project Management After the planning and design phases, the client and development team has to agree on the feature set and the timeframe in which the product will be delivered. This includes iterative releases of the product as to let the client see fully implemented functionality early and to allow the developers to discover performance and architectural issues early in the development. Each iterative release is treated as if the product were going to production. Full testing and user acceptance is performed for each iterative release. Experience shows that one should space iterations at least 2 – 3 months a part. If iterations are closer than that, more time will be spent on convergence and the project timeframe expands. During this phase, code reviews must be done weekly to ensure that the developers are delivering to specification and all source code is put under source control. Also, full installation routines are to be used for each iterative release, as it would be done in production.
Deliverables • • • • • • • Triage Weekly Status with Project Plan and Budget Analysis Risk Assessment System Documentation User Documentation (if needed) Test Signoff for each iteration Customer Signoff for each iteration
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Software Testing Production Phase Once all iterations are complete, the final product is presented to the client for a final signoff. Since the client has been involved in all iterations, this phase should go very smoothly. Deliverables • • Final Test Signoff Final Customer Signoff
Post Mortem Phase The post mortem phase allows to step back and review the things that went well and the things that need improvement. Post mortem reviews cover processes that need adjustment, highlight the most effective processes and provide action items that will improve future projects. To conduct a post mortem review, announce the meeting at least a week in advance so that everyone has time to reflect on the project issues they faced. Everyone has to be asked to come to the meeting with the following: 1. 2. 3. Items that were done well during the project Items that were done poorly during the project Suggestions for future improvements
During the meeting, collection of the information listed above is required. As each person offers their input, categorize the input so that all comments are collected. This will allow one to see how many people had the same observations during the project. At the end of observation review, a list of the items will be available that were mentioned most often. The list of items allowing the team to prioritize the importance of each item has to be perused. This will allow drawing a distinction of the most important items. Finally, a list of action items has to be made that will be used to improve the process and publish the results. When the next project begins, everyone on the team should review the Post Mortem Report from the prior release as to improve the next release.
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The project quality management knowledge area is comprised of the set of processes that ensure the result of a project meets the needs for which the project was executed. Processes such as quality planning, assurance, and control are included in this area. Each process has a set of input and a set of output. Each process also has a set of tools and techniques that are used to turn input into output. Definition of Quality:
Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bare on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Or Quality is defined as meeting the customer’s requirement for the first time and for every time. This is much more that absence of defects which allows us to meet the requirements.
Some goals of quality programs include: • • • Fitness for use. (Is the product or service capable of being used?) Fitness for purpose. (Does the product or service meet its intended purpose?) Customer satisfaction. (Does the product or service meet the customer's expectations?)
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Quality Management Processes
Quality Planning: The process of identifying which quality standards is relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them.
• • •
Input includes: Quality policy, scope statement, product description, standards and regulations, and other process Output. Methods used: benefit / cost analysis, benchmarking, flowcharting, and design of experiments. Output includes: Quality Management Plan, operational definitions, checklists, and Input to other processes.
Quality Assurance The process of evaluating overall projects performance on a regular basis to provide confidence that the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards.
• • •
Input includes: Quality Management Plan, results of quality control measurements, and operational definitions. Methods used: quality planning tools and techniques and quality audits. Output includes: quality improvement.
Quality Control The process of monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.
• • •
Input includes: work results, Quality Management Plan, operational definitions, and checklists. Methods used include: inspection, control charts, pareto charts, statistical sampling, flowcharting, and trend analysis. Output includes: quality improvements, acceptance decisions, rework, completed checklists, and process adjustments.
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Quality Policy The overall quality intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality, as formally expressed by top management Total Quality Management (TQM) A common approach to implementing a quality improvement program within an organization
• • • •
Zero Defects The Customer is the Next Person in the Process Do the Right Thing Right the First Time (DTRTRTFT) Continuous Improvement Process (CIP) (From Japanese word, Kaizen)
Tools of Quality Management
Problem Identification Tools :
Pareto Chart 1. Ranks defects in order of frequency of occurrence to depict 100% of the defects. (Displayed as a histogram) 2. Defects with most frequent occurrence should be targeted for corrective action. 3. 80-20 rule: 80% of problems are found in 20% of the work. 4. Does not account for severity of the defects
Cause and Effect Diagrams (fishbone diagrams or Ishikawa diagrams) 1. Analyzes the Input to a process to identify the causes of errors. 2. Generally consists of 8 major Input to a quality process to permit the characterization of each input.
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Histograms 1. Shows frequency of occurrence of items within a range of activity. 2. Can be used to organize data collected for measurements done on a product or process.
Scatter diagrams 1. Used to determine the relationship between two or more pieces of corresponding data. 2. The data are plotted on an "X-Y" chart to determine correlation (highly positive, positive, no correlation, negative, and highly negative)
Problem Analysis Tools
1. Graphs 2. Check sheets (tic sheets) and check lists 3. Flowcharts
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Risk management must be an integral part of any project. Everything does not always happen as planned. Project risk management contains the processes for identifying, analyzing, and responding to project risk. Each process has a set of input and a set of output. Each process also has a set of tools and techniques that are used to turn the input into output
Risk Management Processes
Risk Management Planning Used to decide how to approach and plan the risk management activities for a project.
• • •
Input includes: The project charter, risk management policies, and WBS all serve as input to this process Methods used: Many planning meeting will be held in order to generate the risk management plan Output includes: The major output is the risk management plan, which does not include the response to specific risks. However, it does include methodology to be used, budgeting, timing, and other information
Risk Identification Determining which risks might affect the project and documenting their characteristics
Input includes: The risk management plan is used as input to this process Methods used: Documentation reviews should be performed in this process. Diagramming techniques can also be used
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Output includes: Risk and risk symptoms are identified as part of this process. There are generally two types of risks. They are business risks that are risks of gain or loss. Then there are pure risks that represent only a risk of loss. Pure risks are also known as insurable risks
Risk Analysis A qualitative analysis of risks and conditions is done to prioritize their affects on project objectives.
Input includes: There are many items used as input into this process. They include things such as the risk management plan. The risks should already be identified as well. Use of low precision data may lead to an analysis that is not useable. Risks are rated against how they impact the projects objectives for cost, schedule, scope, and quality Methods used: Several tools and techniques can be used for this process. Probability and Impact will have to be evaluated Output includes: An overall project risk ranking is produced as a result of this process. The risks are also prioritized. Trends should be observed. Risks calculated as high or moderate are prime candidates for further analysis
Risk Monitoring and Control Used to monitor risks, identify new risks, execute risk reduction plans, and evaluate their effectiveness throughout the project life cycle.
• • •
Input includes: Input to this process includes the risk management plan, risk identification and analysis, and scope changes Methods used: Audits should be used in this process to ensure that risks are still risks as well as discover other conditions that may arise. Output includes: Output includes work-around plans, corrective action, project change requests, as well as other items
Risk Management Concepts
Expected Monetary Value (EMV)
• • •
A Risk Quantification Tool EMV is the product of the risk event probability and the risk event value Risk Event Probability: An estimate of the probability that a given risk event will occur ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 28
Software Testing Decision Trees A diagram that depicts key interactions among decisions and associated chance events as understood by the decision maker. Can be used in conjunction with EMV since risk events can occur individually or in groups and in parallel or in sequence.
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Configuration management (CM) is the processes of controlling, coordinate, and tracking the Standards and procedures for managing changes in an evolving software product. Configuration Testing is the process of checking the operation of the software being tested on various types of hardware. Configuration management involves the development and application of procedures and standards to manage an evolving software product. This can be seen as part of a more general quality management process. When released to CM, software systems are sometimes called baselines, as they are a starting point for further development. The best bet in this situation is for the testers to go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or blocking-type problems initially show up, with the focus being on critical bugs. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules, and indicates deeper problems in the software development process (such as insufficient unit testing or insufficient integration testing, poor design, improper build or release procedures, etc.) managers should be notified, and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem.
Configuration management can be managed through • • Version control. Changes made in the project.
Version Control and Release management Version is an instance of system, which is functionally distinct in some way from other system instances. It is nothing but the updated or added features of the previous versions of software. It has to be planned as to when the new system version is to be produced and it has to be ensured that version management procedures and tools are properly applied. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 30
Release is the means of distributing the software outside the development team. Releases must incorporate changes forced on the system by errors discovered by users and by hardware changes. They must also incorporate new system functionality. Changes made in the project This is one of most useful way of configuring the system. All changes will have to be maintained that were made to the previous versions of the software. This is more important when the system fails or not meeting the requirements. By making note of it one can get the original functionality. This can include documents, data, or simulation.
Configuration Management Planning
This starts at the early phases of the project and must define the documents or document classes, which are to be managed. Documents, which might be required for future system maintenance, should be identified and included as managed documents. It defines the types of documents to be managed document-naming scheme who takes responsibility for the CM procedures and creation of baselines polices for change control and version management.
This contains three important documents they are • • • Change management items. Change request documents. Change control board. (CCB)
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Software systems are subject to continual change requests from users, from developers, from market forces. Change management is concerned with keeping, managing of changes and ensuring that they are implemented in the most cost-effective way.
Change request form
Definition of change request form is part of CM planning process. It records changes required, reason "why change -was suggested and urgency of change ( from requestor of the change). It also records change evaluation, impact analysis, change cost and recommendations (System maintenance staff), A major problem in change management is tracking change status. Change tracking tools keep track the status of each change request and automatically ensure that change requests are sent to the right people at the right time. Integrated with Email systems allowing electronic change request distribution.
Change control board
A group, who decide, whether or not they are cost-effective from a strategic, organizational and technical viewpoint, should review the changes. This group is sometimes called a change control board and includes members from project team.
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Types of Software Testing
Static testing refers to testing something that’s not running. It is examining and reviewing it. The specification is a document and not an executing program, so it’s considered as static. It’s also something that was created using written or graphical documents or a combination of both. High-level Reviews of specification • • • Pretend to be the customer. Research existing Standards and Guidelines. Review and Test similar software.
Low-level Reviews of specification • • Specification Attributes checklist. Specification terminology checklist.
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Techniques used are determined by type of testing that must be conducted. • • Structural (usually called "white box") testing. Functional ("black box") testing.
Structural testing or White box testing Structural tests verify the structure of the software itself and require complete access to the source code. This is known as ‘white box’ testing because you see into the internal workings of the code. White-box tests make sure that the software structure itself contributes to proper and efficient program execution. Complicated loop structures, common data areas, 100,000 lines of spaghetti code and nests of ifs are evil. Well-designed control structures, subroutines and reusable modular programs are good. White-box testing strength is also its weakness. The code needs to be examined by highly skilled technicians. That means that tools and skills are highly specialized to the particular language and environment. Also, large or distributed system execution goes beyond one program, so a correct procedure might call another program that provides bad data. In large systems, it is the execution path as defined by the program calls, their input and output and the structure of common files that is important. This gets into a hybrid kind of testing that is often employed in intermediate or integration stages of testing. Functional or Black Box Testing Functional tests examine the behavior of software as evidenced by its outputs without reference to internal functions. Hence it is also called ‘black box’ testing. If the program consistently provides the desired features with acceptable performance, then specific source code features are irrelevant. It's a pragmatic and down-to-earth assessment of software.
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Functional or Black box tests better address the modern programming paradigm. As object-oriented programming, automatic code generation and code re-use becomes more prevalent, analysis of source code itself becomes less important and functional tests become more important. Black box tests also better attack the quality target. Since only the people paying for an application can determine if it meets their needs, it is an advantage to create the quality criteria from this point of view from the beginning. Black box tests have a basis in the scientific method. Like the process of science, Black box tests must have a hypothesis (specifications), a defined method or procedure (test plan), reproducible components (test data), and a standard notation to record the results. One can re-run black box tests after a change to make sure the change only produced intended results with no inadvertent effects.
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There are several types of testing in a comprehensive software test process, many of which occur simultaneously. • • • • • • • Unit Testing Testing each module individually is called Unit Testing. This follows a White-Box testing. In some organizations, a peer review panel performs the design and/or code inspections. Unit or component tests usually involve some combination of structural and functional tests by programmers in their own systems. Component tests often require building some kind of supporting framework that allows components to execute. Integration testing The individual components are combined with other components to make sure that necessary communications, links and data sharing occur properly. It is not truly system testing because the components are not implemented in the operating environment. The integration phase requires more planning and some reasonable sub-set of production-type data. Larger systems often require several integration steps. There are three basic integration test methods: • • • all-at-once bottom-up top-down ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 36 Unit Testing Integration Testing System Testing Performance / Stress Test Regression Test Quality Assurance Test User Acceptance Test and Installation Test
The all-at-once method provides a useful solution for simple integration problems, involving a small program possibly using a few previously tested modules. Bottom-up testing involves individual testing of each module using a driver routine that calls the module and provides it with needed resources. Bottom-up testing often works well in less structured shops because there is less dependency on availability of other resources to accomplish the test. It is a more intuitive approach to testing that also usually finds errors in critical routines earlier than the top-down method. However, in a new system many modules must be integrated to produce system-level behavior, thus interface errors surface late in the process. Top-down testing fits a prototyping environment that establishes an initial skeleton that fills individual modules that is completed. The method lends itself to more structured organizations that plan out the entire test process. Although interface errors are found earlier, errors in critical low-level modules can be found later than you would like. System Testing The system test phase begins once modules are integrated enough to perform tests in a whole system environment. System testing can occur in parallel with integration test, especially with the top-down method. Performance / Stress Testing An important phase of the system testing, often-called load or volume or performance test, stress tests tries to determine the failure point of a system under extreme pressure. Stress tests are most useful when systems are being scaled up to larger environments or being implemented for the first time. Web sites, like any other large-scale system that requires multiple accesses and processing, contain vulnerable nodes that should be tested before deployment. Unfortunately, most stress testing can only simulate loads on various points of the system and cannot truly stress the entire network, as the users would experience it. Fortunately, once stress and load factors have been successfully overcome, it is only necessary to stress test again if major changes take place. A drawback of performance testing is it confirms the system can handle heavy loads, but cannot so easily determine if the system is producing the correct information. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 37
Regression Testing Regression tests confirm that implementation of changes have not adversely affected other functions. Regression testing is a type of test as opposed to a phase in testing. Regression tests apply at all phases whenever a change is made. Quality Assurance Testing Some organizations maintain a Quality Group that provides a different point of view, uses a different set of tests, and applies the tests in a different, more complete test environment. The group might look to see that organization standards have been followed in the specification, coding and documentation of the software. They might check to see that the original requirement is documented, verify that the software properly implements the required functions, and see that everything is ready for the users to take a crack at it. User Acceptance Test and Installation Testing Traditionally, this is where the users ‘get their first crack’ at the software. Unfortunately, by this time, it's usually too late. If the users have not seen prototypes, been involved with the design, and understood the evolution of the system, they are inevitably going to be unhappy with the result. If one can perform every test as user acceptance tests, there is much better chance of a successful project.
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Types of Testing Techniques
White Box Testing Technique White box testing examines the basic program structure and it derives the test data from the program logic, ensuring that all statements and conditions have been executed at least once. White box tests verify that the software design is valid and also whether it was built according to the specified design. Different methods used are:
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Software Testing Statement coverage – executes all statements at least once. (each and every line) Decision coverage – executes each decision direction at least once. Condition coverage – executes each and every condition in the program with all possible outcomes at least once. Black Box Testing Technique Black-box test technique treats the system as a "black-box", so it doesn't explicitly use knowledge of the internal structure. Black-box test design is usually described as focusing on testing functional requirements. Synonyms for black box include: Behavioral, Functional, Opaque-box, and Closed-box. Black box testing is conducted on integrated, functional components whose design integrity has been verified through completion of traceable white box tests. Black box testing traces the requirements focusing on system externals. It validates that the software meets the requirements irrespective of the paths of execution taken to meet each requirements. Three successful techniques for managing the amount of input data required includes : • • • Equivalence Partitioning Boundary Analysis Error Guessing
Equivalence Partitioning: Equivalence partitioning is the process of methodically reducing the huge(infinite)set of possible test cases into a much smaller, but still equally effective set. An Equivalence class is a subset of data that is representative of a larger class. Equivalence partitioning is a technique for testing equivalence classes rather than undertaking exhaustive testing of each value of the larger class, when looking for equivalence partitions, think about ways to group similar inputs, similar outputs, and similar operations of the software. These groups are the equivalence partitions. For example A program that edits credit limits within a given range ($20,000-$50,000) would have three equivalence classes: Less than $20,000(invalid) Between $20,000 and $50,000 (valid) ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 40
Software Testing Greater than $50,000(invalid) Boundary value analysis: If one can safely and confidently walk along the edge of a cliff without falling off, he can almost certainly walk in the middle of a field. If software can operate on the edge of its capabilities, it will almost certainly operate well under normal conditions. This technique consist of developing test cases and data that focus on the input and output boundaries of a given function. In same credit limit example, boundary analysis would test: Low boundary plus or minus one ($19,999 and $20,001) On the boundary ($20,000 and $50,000) Upper boundary plus or minus one ($49,999 and $50,001) Error Guessing This is based on the theory that test cases can be developed based upon the intuition and experience of the Test-Engineer. Example: In the example of date, where one of the inputs is the date, a test may try February 29, 2000 or 9.9.99 Incremental testing Incremental testing is a disciplined method of testing the interfaces between unit-tested programs as well as between system components. It involves adding unit-tested programs to a given module or component one by one, and testing each result and combination. There are two types of incremental testing: Top-down: - This begins testing from top of the module hierarchy and work down to the bottom using interim stubs to simulate lower interfacing modules or programs. Modules are added in descending hierarchical order. Bottom-up: - This begins testing from the bottom of the hierarchy and works up to the top. Modules are added in ascending hierarchical order. Bottom-up testing requires the development of driver modules, which provide the test input, call the module or program being tested, and display test output.
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Software Testing There are procedures and constraints associated with each of these methods, although bottom-up testing is often thought to be easier to use. Drivers are often easier to create than stubs, and can serve multiple purposes. Output is also often easier to examine in bottom-up testing, as the output always comes from the module directly above the module under test. Thread testing This test technique, which is often used during early integration testing, demonstrates key functional capabilities by testing a string of units that accomplish a specific function in the application. Thread testing and incremental testing are usually utilized together. For example, units can undergo incremental until enough units are integrated and a single business function can be performed, threading through the integrated components.
Testing Life Cycle
Test Plan Preparation
Test case Design
Test Execution & Test Log Preparation Defect Tracking
Test Report Preparation ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 42
Software Testing Test Plan Preparation The software test plan is the primary means by which software testers communicate to the product development team what they intend to do. The purpose of the software test plan is to prescribe the scope, approach, resource, and schedule of the testing activities. To identify the items being tested, the features to be tested, the testing tasks to be preformed, the personnel responsible for each task, and the risks associated with the plan. The test plan is simply a by-product of the detailed planning process that’s undertaken to create it. It’s the planning that matters, not the resulting documents. The ultimate goal of the test planning process is communicating the software test team’s intent, its expectations, and its understanding of the testing that’s to be performed.
The following are the important topics, which helps in preparation of Test plan. • High-Level Expectations
The first topics to address in the planning process are the ones that define the test team’s high-level expectations. They are fundamental topics that must be agreed to, by everyone on the project team, but they are often overlooked. They might be considered “too obvious” and assumed to be understood by everyone, but a good tester knows never to assume anything. • People, Places and Things
Test plan needs to identify the people working on the project, what they do, and how to contact them. The test team will likely work with all of them and knowing who they are and how to contact them is very important. Similarly, where documents are stored, where the software can be downloaded from, where the test tools are located, and so on need to be identified. • Inter-Group Responsibilities
Inter-Group responsibilities identify tasks and deliverables that potentially affect the test effort. The test team’s work is driven by many other functional groups – programmers, project manages, technical writers, and so on. If the responsibilities aren’t planned out, the project, specifically the testing, can become a worst or resulting in important tasks been forgotten. • Test phases ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 43
Software Testing To plan the test phases, the test team will look at the proposed development model and decide whether unique phases, or stages, of testing should be performed over the course of the project. The test planning process should identify each proposed test phase and make each phase known to the project team. This process often helps the entire team from and understands the overall development model. • Test strategy
The test strategy describes the approach that the test team will use to test the software both overall and in each phase. Deciding on the strategy is a complex task- one that needs to be made by very experienced testers because it can determine the successes or failure of the test effort.
Exactly what process will be used to manage the bugs needs to be planned so that each and every bug is tracked, from when it’s found to when it’s fixed – and never, ever forgotten. •
Metrics and Statistics
Metrics and statistics are the means by which the progress and the success of the project, and the testing, are tracked. The test planning process should identify exactly what information will be gathered, what decisions will be made with them, and who will be responsible for collecting them. •
Risks and Issues
A common and very useful part of test planning is to identify potential problem or risky areas of the project – ones that could have an impact on the test effort.
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Test Case Design The test case design specification refines the test approach and identifies the features to be covered by the design and its associated tests. It also identifies the test cases and test procedures, if any, required to accomplish the testing and specifics the feature pass or fail criteria. The purpose of the test design specification is to organize and describe the testing needs to be performed on a specific feature. The following topics address this purpose and should be part of the test design specification that is created: • Test case ID or identification
A unique identifier that can be used to reference and locate the test design specification the specification should also reference the overall test plan and contain pointers to any other plans or specifications that it references. •
Test Case Description
It is a description of the software feature covered by the test design specification for example, “ the addition function of calculator,” “font size selection and display in word pad,” and “video card configuration testing of quick time.” • Test case procedure
It is a description of the general approach that will be used to test the features. It should expand on the approach, if any, listed in the test plan, describe the technique to be used, and explain how the results will be verified. • Test case Input or Test Data
It is the input the data to be tested using the test case. The input may be in any form. Different inputs can be tried for the same test case and test the data entered is correct or not. • Expected result
It describes exactly what constitutes a pass and a fail of the tested feature. Which is expected to get from the given input. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 45
Software Testing Test Execution and Test Log Preparation After test case design, each and every test case is checked and actual result obtained. After getting actual result, with the expected column in the design stage is compared, if both the actual and expected are same, then the test is passed otherwise it will be treated as failed. Now the test log is prepared, which consists of entire data that were recorded, whether the test failed or passed. It records each and every test case so that it will be useful at the time of revision.
Test case ID Sys_xyz_01 Sys_xyz_02
Test case Description Checking the login window Checking the main window
Test status/ result Fail True
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A defect can be defined in one or two ways. From the producer's viewpoint, a defect is a deviation from specifications, whether missing, wrong, etc. From the Customer's viewpoint, a defect is any that causes customer dissatisfaction, whether in the requirements or not, this is known as "fit for use". It is critical that defects identified at each stage of the project life cycle be tracked to resolution.
Defects are recorded for following major purposes: • • • • To correct the defect To report status of the application To gather statistics used to develop defect expectations in future applications To improve the software development process
Most project teams utilize some type of tool to support the defect tracking process. This tool could be as simple as a white board or a table created and maintained in a word processor or one of the more robust tools available today, on the market, such as Mercury's Test Director etc. Tools marketed for this purpose usually come with some number of customizable fields for tracking project specific data in addition to the basics. They also provide advanced features such as standard and ad-hoc reporting, e-mail notification to developers and/or testers when a problem is assigned to them, and graphing capabilities.
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At a minimum, the tool selected should support the recording and communication significant information about a defect. For example, a defect log could include: • • • • • • • • • • • • Defect ID number Descriptive defect name and type Source of defect -test case or other source Defect severity Defect priority Defect status (e.g. open, fixed, closed, user error, design, and so on) -more robust tools provide a status history for the defect Date and time tracking for either the most recent status change, or for each change in the status history Detailed description, including the steps necessary to reproduce the defect Component or program where defect was found Screen prints, logs, etc. that will aid the developer in resolution process Stage of origination Person assigned to research and/or correct the defect
Severity versus Priority The severity of a defect should be assigned objectively by the test team based on predefined severity descriptions. For example a "severity one" defects maybe defined as one that causes data corruption, a system crash, security violations, etc. In large project, it may also be necessary to assign a priority to the defect, which determines the order in which defects should be fixed. The priority assigned to a defect is usually more subjective based upon input from users regarding which defects are most important to them, and therefore should be fixed first.
It is recommended that severity levels be defined at the start of the project so that they intently assigned and understood by the team. This foresight can help test teams avoid the common disagreements with development teams about the criticality of a defect. Some general principles
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Software Testing • The primary goal is to prevent defects. Wherever this is not possible or practical, the goals are to both find the defect as quickly as possible and minimize the impact of the defect. The defect management process, like the entire software development process, should be risk driven, i.e., strategies, priorities and resources should be based on an assessment of the risk and the degree to which the expected impact of risk can be reduced. Defect measurement should be integrated into the development process and be used by the project team to improve the development process. In other words, information on defects should be captured at the source as a natural by-product of doing the job. People unrelated to the project or system should not do it. As much as possible, the capture and analysis of the information should be automated. There should be a document, which includes a list of tools, which have defect management capabilities and can be used to automate some of the defect management processes. Defect information should be used to improve the process. This, in fact, is the primary reason for gathering defect information. Imperfect or flawed processes cause most defects. Thus, to prevent defects, the process must be altered.
The Defect Management Process
The key elements of a defect management process are as follows. • • • • • • Defect prevention Deliverable base-lining Defect discovery/defect naming Defect resolution Process improvement Management reporting
Process 16 Improvement
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A final test report should be prepared at the conclusion of each test activity. This might include • • • • Individual Project Test Report (e.g., a single software system) Integration Test Report System Test Report Acceptance Test Report
The test reports are designed to document the results of testing as defined in the test plan. Without a well-developed test plan, which has been executed in accordance with its criteria, it is difficult to develop a meaningful test report. It is designed to accomplish three objectives: • Define the scope of testing - normally a brief recap of the test plan; • Present the results of testing; and • Draw conclusions and make recommendations based on those results The test report may be a combination of electronic data and hard copy. For example, if the function test matrix is maintained electronically, there is no reason to print that, as the paper report will summarize that data, draws the appropriate conclusions, and present recommendations.
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Software Testing The test report has one immediate and three long-term purposes. The immediate purpose is to provide information to the customers of the software system so that they can determine whether the system is ready for production: and if so, to assess the potential consequences and initiate appropriate actions to minimize those consequences. The first of the three long-term uses is for the project to trace problems in the event the application malfunctions in production. Knowing which functions have been correctly tested and which ones still contain defects can assist in taking corrective action. The second long-term purpose is to use the data to analyze the rework process for making changes to prevent defects from occurring in the future. Accumulating the results of many test reports to identify which components of the rework process are detect-prone does this. These defect-prone components identify tasks/steps that, if improved, could eliminate or minimize the occurrence of high-frequency defects. The third long-term purpose is to show what was accomplished. Individual Project Test Report These reports focus on individual projects (e.g., software system). When different testers test individual projects, they should prepare a report on their results. Integration Test Report Integration testing tests the interfaces between individual projects. A good test plan will identify the interfaces and institute test conditions that will validate interfaces. Given this, the interface report follows the same format as the individual Project Test report, except that the conditions tested are the interfaces. System Test Report A system test plan standard that identified the objectives of testing, what was to be tested, how it was to be tested and when tests should occur. The System Test report should present the results of executing that test plan. If this is maintained electronically, it need only be referenced, not included in the report. Acceptance Test Report There are two primary objectives for testing. The first is to ensure that the system as implemented meets the real operating needs of the user or customer. If the defined requirements are those true needs, the testing should have accomplished this objective. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 51
Software Testing The second objective is to ensure that the software system can operate in the real-world user environment, which includes people skills and attitudes, time pressures, changing business conditions, and so forth.
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Eight Interim Reports: 1. Functional Testing Status 2. Functions Working Timeline 3. Expected verses Actual Defects Detected Timeline 4. Defects Detected verses Corrected Gap Timeline 5. Average Age of Detected Defects by Type 6. Defect Distribution 7. Relative Defect Distribution 8. Testing Action Functional Testing Status Report This report will show percentages of the functions, which have been: • • • Fully Tested Tested With Open Defects Not Tested
Functions Working Timeline report This report will show the actual plan to have all functions working verses the current status of functions working. An ideal format could be a line graph. Expected verses Actual Defects Detected report This report will provide an analysis between the number of defects being generated against the expected number of defects expected from the planning stage Defects Detected verses Corrected Gap report This report, ideally in a line graph format, will show the number of defects uncovered verses the number of defects being corrected and accepted by the testing group. If the gap grows too large, the project may not be ready when originally planned.
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Software Testing Average Age Detected Defects by Type report This report will show the average outstanding defects by type (severity 1, severity 2, etc.). In the planning stage, it is benefic determine the acceptable open days by defect type. Defect Distribution report This report will show the defect distribution by function or module. It can also include items such as numbers of tests completed. Relative Defect Distribution report This report will take the previous report (Defect Distribution) and normalize the level of defects. An example would be one application might be more in depth than another, and would probably have a higher level of defects. However, when normalized over the number of functions or lines of code, would show a more accurate level of defects. Testing action report This report can show many different things, including possible shortfalls in testing. Examples of data to show might be number of severity defects, tests that are behind schedule, and other information that would present an accurate testing picture
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Effective management of any process requires quantification, measurement, and modeling. Software metrics provide a quantitative basis for the development and validation of models of the software development process. Metrics can be used to improve software productivity and quality. This module introduces the most commonly used software and reviews their use in constructing models of the software development process. Definition of Software Metrics A metric is a mathematical number that shows a relationship between two variables. It is a quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, component or process possesses a given attribute. Software Metrics are measures that are used to quantify the software, software development resource and software development process. Metric generally classified into 2 types. • • Process Metric Product Metric
Process Metric a metric used to measure the characteristic of the methods, techniques and tools employed in developing, implementing and maintaining the software system. Product Metric a metric used to measure the characteristic of the documentation and code ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 55
The metrics for the test process would include status of test activities against the plan, test coverage achieved so far, among others. An important metric is the number of defects found in internal testing compared to the defects found in customer tests, which indicate the effectiveness of the test process itself. Test Metrics The following are the Metrics collected in testing process User participation = User Participation Test Time Vs Total Test Time Path Tested = Number of Path Tested Total Number of Paths
Acceptance Criteria Tested = Acceptance Criteria Verified Vs Total Acceptance Criteria Cost to Locate Defect Test Cost = No of Defects located in the Testing This metric shows the cost to locate a defect Detected Production Defect No of Defects detected in production = Application System size Test Automation Cost of Manual Test Effort = Total Test Cost
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Software Testing 3
Other Testing Terms
Usability Testing Determines how well the user will be able to understand and interact with the system. It identifies areas of poor human factors design that may make the system difficult to use. Ideally this test is conducted on a system prototype before development actually beings. If a navigational or operational prototype is not available, screen prints of all of the applications screens or windows can be used to walk the user through various business scenarios. Conversion Testing Specifically designed to validate the effectiveness of the conversion process. This test may be conducted jointly by developers and testers during integration testing, or at the start of system testing, since system testing must be conducted with the converted data. Field -to -Field mapping and data translation is validated and, if a foil copy of production data will be used in the test. Vendor Validation Testing Verifies that the functionality of contracted or third party software meets the organization's requirements, prior to accepting it and installing it into a production environment. This test can be conducted jointly by the software vendor and the test team, and focuses on ensuring that all requested functionality has been delivered.
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Software Testing Stress / Load Testing Conducted to validate the application, database, and network, they may handle projected volumes of users and data effectively. The test is conducted jointly by developers, testers, DBA's and network associates after the system testing. During the test, the complete system is subjected to environmental conditions that defer expectations to answer question such as: • • • How large can the database grow before performance degrades? At what point will more storage space be required? How many users can use the system simultaneously before it slows down or fails?
Performance Testing Usually conducted in parallel with stress and load testing in order to measure performance against specified service-level objectives under various conditions. For instance, one may need to ensure that batch processing will complete within the allocated amount of time, or that on-line response times meet performance requirements. Recovery Testing Evaluates the contingency features built into the application for handling inter and for returning to specific points in the application processing. Any restoration, and restart capabilities are also tested here. The test team may conduct this test during system test or by another team specifically gathered for this purpose.
Configuration Testing In the IT Industry, a large percentage of new applications are either client/server or webbased, validating that they will run on the various combinations of hardware and software. For instance, configuration testing for an web-based application would incorporate versions and releases of operating systems, internet browsers, modem speeds, and various off the shelf applications that might be integrated (e.g. e-mail application)
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Benefits Realization Test With the increased focus on the value of business returns obtained from investments information technology this type of test or analysis is becoming more critical. The benefits Realization Test is a test or analysis conducted after an application is moved into production in order to determine whether the application is likely to deliver the original projected benefits. The analysis is usually conducted by- the business user or client group who requested the project, and results are reported back to executive management.
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External Standards- Familiarity with and adoption of industry test standards from Organizations. Internal Standards-Development and enforcement of the test standards that testers must meet
• • • •
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Founded in 1884 Have an entire set of standards devoted to Software Testers should be familiar with all the standards mentioned in IEEE.
IEEE STANDARDS: That a Tester should be aware of 1.610.12-1990 2. 730-1998 3. 828-1998 4.829-1998 5. 830-1998 IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology IEEE Standard for Software Quality Assurance Plans IEEE Standard for Software Configuration Management Plan IEEE Standard for Software Test Documentation. IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Requirement Specification
6.1008-1987 (R1993) IEEE Standard for Software Unit Testing (ANSI)
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7. 1012-1998 8. 1012a-1998 9. 1016-1998 10. 1028-1997 11. 1044-1993 12. 1045-1992 13. 1058-1998 14. 1058.1-1987 15. 1061-1998.1
IEEE Standard for Software Verification and Validation. IEEE Standard for Software Verification and Validation Supplement to 1012-1998 Content Map to IEEE 122207.1 IEEE Recommended Practice for Software Descriptions
IEEE Standard for Software Reviews IEEE Standard classification for Software Anomalies IEEE Standard for Software Productivity Metrics(ANSI) IEEE Standard for Software Project Management Plans IEEE Standard for Software Management IEEE Standard for Software Quality Metrics Methodology.
Other Standards: • • • • ISO-International Organization for Standards SPICE -Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination NIST -National Institute of Standards and Technology DoD-Department of Defense
Internal Standards The use of Standards... • • • • • • Simplifies communication Promotes consistency and uniformity Eliminates the need to invent yet another solution to the same problem Provides continuity Presents a way of preserving proven practices Supplies benchmarks and framework ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 61
Introduction The Web Testing is mainly concerned on 6 parts they are • • • • • • Usability Functionality Server side Interface Client side Compatibility Performance Security
Usability One of the reasons the web browser is being used as the front end to applications is the ease of use. Users who have been on the web before will probably know how to navigate a well-built web site. While 7012 are concentrating on tin's portion of testing it is important to verify that the application is easy to use. Many will believe that this is the least important area to test, the site should be better and easy to use. Even if the web site is simple, there will always be some one who needs some clarification. Additionally, the documentation needs also to be verified, so that the instructions are correct.
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Software Testing The following are the some of the things to be checked for easy navigation through website: • Site map or navigational bar
Does the site have a map? Sometimes power users know exactly where they want to go and don't want to go through lengthy introductions. Or new users get lost easily. Either way a site map and/or ever-present navigational map can guide the user. The site map needs to be verified for its correctness. Does each link on the map actually exist? Are there links on the site that are not represented on the map? Is the navigational bar present on every screen? Is it consistent? Does each link work on each page? Is it organized in an intuitive manner?
To a developer, functionality comes before wording. Anyone can slap together some fancy mission statement later, but while they are developing, they just need some filler to verify alignment and layout. Unfortunately, text produce like this may sneak through the cracks. It is important to check with the public relations department on the exact wording of the content. Otherwise, the company can get into a lot of trouble, legally. One has to make sure the site looks professional. Overuse of bold text, big fonts and blinking can turn away a customer quickly. It might be a good idea to consult a graphic designer to look over the site during User Acceptance Testing. Finally, one has to make sure that any time a web reference is given, that it is hyper linked. Plenty of sites ask them to email them at a specific address or to download a browser from an address. But if the user can't click on it, they are going to be annoyed. • Colors/backgrounds
Ever since the web became popular, everyone thinks they are a graphic designer. Unfortunately, some developers are more interested in their new backgrounds, than ease of use. Sites will have yellow text on a purple picture of a fractal pattern. This may seem "pretty neat", but it's not easy to use. Usually, the best idea is to use little or no background. If there is a background, it might be a single color on the left side of the page, containing the navigational bar. But, patterns and pictures distract the user.
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Whether it's a screen grab or a little icon that points the way, a picture is worth a thousand words. Sometimes, the best way to tell the user something is to simply show them. However, bandwidth is precious to the client and the server, so you need to conserve memory usage. Do all the images and value to each page, or do they simply waste bandwidth? Can a different file type (.GIF, JPG) be used for 30k less? In general, one doesn't want large pictures on the front page, since most users who abandon a load will do it on the front page. If the front page is available quickly, it will increase the chance they will stay.
It has to be verified that tables are setup properly. Does the user constantly have to scroll right to see the price of the item? Would it be more efficient to put the price closer to the left and put miniscule details to the right? Are the columns wide enough or does every row have to wrap around? Are certain rows excessively high because of one entry? These are some of the points to be taken care of. • Wrap-around
Finally, it has to be verified whether the wrap-around occurs properly. If the text refers to a picture on the right, make sure the picture is on the right. Make sure that widow and orphan sentences and paragraphs don't layout in an awkward manner because of pictures. Functionality The functionality of the web site is why the company hired a developer and not just an artist. This is the part that interfaces with the server and actually "does stuff". • Links
A link is the vehicle that gets the user from page to page. Two things has to be verified for each link - that the link which brings to the page it said it would and that the pages it is trying to link, exist. It may sound a little silly but many of the web sites exist with internal broken links. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 64
When a user submits information through a form it needs to work properly. The submit button needs to work If the form is for an online registration, the user should be given login information (that works) after successful completion. If the form gathers shipping information, it should be handled properly and the customer should receive their package. In order to test this, you need to verify that the server stores the information properly and that systems down the line can interpret and use that information. • Data verification
If the system verifies user input according to business rules, then that needs to work properly. For example, a State field may be checked against a list of valid values. If this is the case, you need to verify that the list is complete and that the program actually calls the list properly (add a bogus value to the list and make sure the system accepts it). • Cookies
Most users only like the kind with sugar, but developers love web cookies. If the system uses them, you need to check them. If they store login information, make sure the cookies work and make sure it's encrypted in the cookie file. If the cookie is used for statistics, verify that totals are being counted properly. And you'll probably want to make sure those cookies are encrypted too, otherwise people can edit their cookies and skew your statistics. • Application specific functional requirements
Most importantly, one may want to verify the application specific functional requirements, Try to perform all functions a user would: place an order, change an order, cancel an order, check the status of the order, change shipping information before an order is shipped, pay online, ad naseum. This is why users will show up on the developer’s doorstep, so one need to make sure that he can do what is advertised.
Server side Interface ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 65
Many times, a web site is not an island. The site will call external servers for additional data, verification of data or fulfillment of orders. • Server interface
The first interface one should test is the interface between the browser and the server, transactions should be attempted, then the server logs viewed and verified that what is seen in the browser is actually happening on the server. It's also a good idea to run queries on the database to make sure the transaction data is being stored properly. • External interfaces
Some web systems have external interfaces. For example, a merchant might verify credit card transactions real-time in order to reduce fraud. Several test transactions may have to be sent using the web interface. Try credit cards that are valid, invalid, and stolen. If the merchant only takes Visa and MasterCard, try using a Discover card. (A simple client-side script can check 3 for American Express, 4 for Visa, 5 for MasterCard, or 6 for Discover, before the transaction is sent.) Basically, it has to be ensured that the software can handle every possible message returned by the external server. • Error handling
One of the areas left untested most often is interface error handling. Usually we try to make sure our system can handle all our errors, but we never plan for the other systems' errors or for the unexpected. Try leaving the site mid-transaction - what happens? Does the order complete anyway? Try losing the Internet connection from the user to the server. Try losing the connection from the server to the credit card verification server. Is there proper error handling for all these situations? Are charges still made to credit cards? Is the interruption is not user initiated, does the order get stored so customer service reps can call back if the user doesn't come back to the site?
Client side Compatibility ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 66
Software Testing It has to be verified that the application can work on the machines your customers will be using. If the product is going to the web for the world to use, every operating system, browser, video setting and modem speed has to be tried with various combinations. • Operating systems
Does the site work for both MAC and IBM Compatibles? Some fonts are not available on both systems, so make sure that secondary fonts are selected. Make sure that the site doesn't use plug-ins only available for one OS, if the users using both. • Browsers
Does the site work with Netscape? Internet Explorer? Linux? Some HTML commands or scripts only work for certain browsers. Make sure there are alternate tags for images, in case someone is using a text browser. If SSL security is used, it has to be checked whether browsers 3.0 and higher, but it has to be verified that there is a message for those using older browsers. • Video settings
Does the layout still look good on 640x400 or 600x800? Are fonts too small to read? Are they too big? Does all the text and graphic alignment still work? • Modem/connection speeds
Does it take 10 minutes to load a page with a 28.8 modem, but whether it is tested after hooking up to high-speed connections? Users will expect long download times when they are grabbing documents or demos, but not on the front page. It has to be ensured that the images aren't too large. Make sure that marketing don't put 50k of font size -6 keywords for search engines. • Printers
Users like to print. The concept behind the web should save paper and reduce printing, but most people would rather read on paper than on the screen. So, you need to verify that the pages print properly. Sometimes images and text align on the screen differently than on the printed page. It has to be verified that order confirmation screens can be printed properly. • Combinations ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 67
A different combination has to be tried. Maybe 600x800 looks good on the MAC but not on the IBM. Maybe IBM with Netscape works, but not with Linux. If the web site will be used internally it might make testing a little easier. If the company has an official web browser choke, then it has to be verified that it works for that browser. If everyone has a high-speed connection, load times need not be checked. (But it has to be kept in mind, some people may dial in from home.) With internal applications, the development team can make disclaimers about system requirements and only support those systems setups. But, ideally, the site should work on all machines without limit growth and changes in the future. Performance Testing It need to be verified that the system can handle a large number of users at the same time, a large amount of data from each user, and a long period of continuous use. Accessibility is extremely important to users. If they get a "busy signal", they hang up and call the competition. Not only must the system be checked so the customers can gain access, but many times hackers will attempt to gain access to a system by overloading it, For the sake of security, the system needs to know what to do when it's overloaded; not simply blow up. • Concurrent users at the same time
If the site just put up the results of a national lottery, it will be better to handle millions of users right after the winning numbers are posted. A load test tool would be able simulate concurrent users accessing the site at the same time. • Large amount of data from each user
Most customers may only order 1-5 books from your new online bookstore, but what if a university bookstore decides to order 5000 copies of Intro to Psychology? Or what if one user wants to send a gift to larger number of his/her friends for Christmas (separate mailing addresses for each, of course.) Can the system handle large amounts of from a single user?
Long period of continuous use
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Software Testing If the site is intended to take orders for specific occasion, then it will be better to handle well before the occasion. If the site offers web-based email, it will be better to run months or even years, without downtimes. It may probably be required to use an automated test tool to implement these types of tests, since they are difficult to do manually. Imagine coordinating 100 people to hit the site at the same time. Now try 100,000 people. Generally, the tool will pay for itself the second time you use it. Once the tool is set up, running another test is just a click away. Security Even if credit card payments are not accepted, security is very important. The web site will be the only exposure for some customers to know about a company. And, if that exposure is a hacked page, the customers won't feel safe doing business with the company using internet. • Directory setup
The most elementary step of web security is proper setup of directories. Each directory should have an index.html or main.html page so a directory listing doesn't appear. • SSL (Secured Socket Layer)
Many sites use SSL for secure transactions. While entering an SSL site, there will be a browser warning and the HTTP in the location field on the browser will change to HTTPS. If the development group uses SSL it is to be ensured that, there is an alternate page for browser with versions less than 3.0, since SSL is not compatible with those browsers. Sufficient warnings while entering and leaving the secured site are to be provided. Also it needs to be checked whether there is a time-out limit or what happens if the user tries a transaction after the timeout? • Logins
In order to validate users, several sites require customers to login. This makes it easier for the customer since they don't have to re-enter personal information every time. You need to verify that the system does not allow invalid usernames/password and that does allow valid logins. Is there a maximum number of failed logins allowed before the server locks out the current user? Is the lockout based on IP? What happens after the maximum failed login attempts; what are the rules for password selection – these needs to be checked.
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Software Testing • Log files
Behind the scenes, it needs to be verified that server logs are working properly. Does the log track every transaction? Does it track unsuccessful login attempts? Does it only track stolen credit card usage? What does it store for each transaction? IP address? User name? • Scripting languages
Scripting languages are a constant source of security holes. The details are different for each language. Some allow access to the root directory. Others only allow access to the mail server, but a resourceful hacker could mail the servers username and password files to themselves. Find out what scripting languages are being used and research the loopholes. It might also be a good idea to subscribe to a security newsgroup that discusses the language that is being tested. Conclusion Whether an Internet or intranet or extranet application is being tested, testing for the web can be more challenging than non-web applications. Users have high expectations for web page quality. In many cases, the page is up for public relations, just as much as functionality, so the impression must be perfect.
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Application: A single software product that mayor may not fully support a business function.
Audit: This is an inspection/assessment activity that verifies compliance with plans, policies, and procedures, and ensures that resources are conserved. Audit is a staff function; it serves as the "eyes and ears" of management
Baseline: A quantitative measure of the current level of performance. Benchmarking: Comparing your company's products, services, or processes against best practices, or competitive practices, to help define superior performance of a product, service, or support process. Benefits Realization Test: A test or analysis conducted after an application is moved into production to determine whether it is likely to meet the originating business case. Black-box Testing: A test technique that focuses on testing the functionality of the program, component, or application against its specifications without knowledge of how the system is constructed; usually data or business process driven.
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Software Testing Boundary Value Analysis: A data selection technique in which test data is chosen from the "boundaries" of the input or output domain classes, data structures, and procedure parameters. Choices often include the actual minimum and maximum boundary values, the maximum value plus or minus one, and the minimum value plus or minus one. Bug: A catchall term for all software defects or errors.
Certification: Acceptance of software by an authorized agent after the software has been validated by the agent or after its validity has been demonstrated to the agent.
Check sheet: A form used to record data as it is gathered.
Checkpoint: A formal review of key project deliverables. One checkpoint is defined for each key project deliverable, and verification and validation must be done for each of these deliverables that is produced.
Condition Coverage: A white-box testing technique that measures the number of percentage of decision outcomes covered by the test cases designed. 100% Condition coverage would indicate that every possible outcome of each decision had been executed at least once during testing. Configuration Testing: Testing of an application on all supported hardware and software platforms. This may include various combinations of hardware types, configuration settings, and software versions. Cost of Quality (COQ): Money spent above and beyond expected production costs (labor, materials, equipment) to ensure that the product the customer receives is a quality (defect free) product The Cost of Quality includes prevention, appraisal, and correction or repair costs.
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Software Testing Conversion Testing: Validates the effectiveness of data conversion processes, including field-tofield mapping, and data translation. Decision Coverage: A white-box testing technique that measures the number of -or percentage -of decision directions executed by the test case designed. 100% Decision coverage would indicate that all decision directions had been executed at least once during testing. Alternatively, each logical path through the program can be tested. Often, paths through the program are grouped into a finite set of classes, and one path from each class is tested Decision/Condition Coverage: A white-box testing technique that executes possible combinations of condition outcomes in each decision.
Defect: Operationally, it is useful to work with two definitions of a defect: (1) From the producer's viewpoint: a product requirement that has not been met or a product attribute possessed by a product or a function performed by a product that is not in the statement of requirements that define the product; or (2) From the customer's viewpoint: anything that causes customer dissatisfaction, whether in the statement of requirements or not. Driver: Code that sets up an environment and calls a module for test. Defect Tracking Tools: Tools for documenting defects as they are found during testing and for tracking their status through to resolution. Desk Checking: The most traditional means for analyzing a system to a program. The developer of a system or program conducts desk checking. The process involves reviewing the complete product to ensure that it is structurally sound and that the standards and requirements have been met. This tool can also be used on artifacts created during analysis and design.
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Software Testing Entrance Criteria: Required conditions and standards for work product quality that must be present or met for entry into the next stage of the software development process. Equivalence Partitioning: A test technique that utilizes a subset of data that is representative of a larger class. This is done in place of undertaking exhaustive testing of each value of the larger class of data. For example, a business rule that indicates that a program should edit salaries within a given range ($10,000 -$15,000) might have 3 equivalence classes to test: Less than $10,000 (invalid) Between $10,000 and $15,000 (valid) Greater than $15,000 (invalid) Error or Defect: 1. A discrepancy between a computed, observed, or measured value or condition and the true, specified, or theoretically corrects value or condition. 2. Human action that results in software containing a fault (e.g., omission or misinterpretation of user requirements in a software specification, incorrect translation, or omission of a requirement in the design specification).
Error Guessing: The data selection technique for picking values that seems likely to cause defects. This technique is based upon the theory that test cases and test data can be developed based on the intuition and experience of the tester. Exhaustive Testing: Executing the program through all possible combinations of values for program variables. Exit Criteria: Standards for work product quality, which block the promotion of incomplete or defective work products to subsequent stages of the software development process. Functional Testing: Application of test data derived from the specified functional requirements without regard to the final program structure. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 74
Software Testing Inspection: A formal assessment of a work product conducted by one or more qualified independent reviewers to detect defects, violations of development standards, and other problems. Inspections involve authors only when specific questions concerning deliverables exist. An inspection identifies defects, but does not attempt to correct them. Authors take corrective actions and arrange follow-up reviews as needed. Integration Testing: This test begins after two or more programs or application components have been successfully unit tested. The development team to validate the technical quality or design of the application conducts it. It is the first level of testing which formally integrates a set of programs that communicate among themselves via messages or files (a client and its server(s), a string of batch programs, or a set of on-line modules within a dialog or conversation). Life Cycle Testing: The process of verifying the consistency, completeness, and correctness of software at each stage of the development lifecycle.
Performance Test: Validates that both the on-line response time and batch run times meet the defined performance requirements. Quality: A product is a quality product if it is defect free. To the producer, a product is a quality product if it meets or conforms to the statement of requirements that defines the product. This statement is usually shortened to: quality means meets requirements. From a customer's perspective, quality means "fit for use".
Quality Assurance (QA): The set of support activities (including facilitation, training, measurement, and analysis) needed to provide adequate confidence that processes are established and continuously improved to produce products that meet specifications and are fit for use.
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Software Testing Quality Control (QC): The process by which product quality is compared with applicable standards, and the action taken when nonconformance is detected. Its focus is defect detection and removal. This is a line function; that is, the performance of these tasks is the responsibility of the people working within the process. Recovery Test: Evaluate the contingency features built into the application for handling interruptions and for returning to specific points in Life application processing cycle, including. -checkpoints, backups, restores, and restarts. This test also assures that disaster recovery is possible. Regression Testing: Regression testing is the process of retesting software to detect errors that may have been caused by program changes. The technique requires the use of a set of test cases that have been developed to test all of the software's functional capabilities. Stress Testing: This test subjects a system, or components of a system, to varying environmental conditions that delay normal expectations. For example: high transaction volume, large database size or restart/recovery circumstances. The intention of stress testing is to identify constraints and to ensu4re that there are no performance problems,
Structural Testing: A testing method in which the test data are derived solely from the program structure. Stub: Special code segments -that when invoked by a code segment under testing sinuate the I System test: During this event, the entire system is tested to verify that all functional, information, structural and quality requirements have been met. A predetermined combination of tests is designed that, when executed successfully, satisfy management ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 76 behavior of designed and specified modules not yet constructed.
Software Testing that the system meets specifications. System testing verifies the functional quality of the system in addition to all external interfaces, manual procedures, restart and recovery, and human-computer interfaces. It also verifies that interfaces between the application and open environment work correctly, that JCL functions correctly, and that the application functions appropriately with the Database Management System, Operations environment, and any communications systems. Test Case A test case is a document that describes an input, action, or event and an expected response, to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier, test case name, objective, test conditions/setup, input data requirements, steps, and expected results. Test Case Specification: -An individual test condition, executed as part of a larger test contributes to the test's objectives. Test cases document the input, expected results, execution conditions of a given test item. Test cases are broken down into one or more detailed test scripts and test data conditions for execution.
Test Data Set: Set of input elements used in the testing process
Test Design Specification: A document that specifies the details of the test approach for a software feature or a combination of features and identifies the associated tests. Test Item: A software item that is an object of testing. Test Log: A chronological record of relevant details about the execution of tests. Test Plan: A document describing the intended scope, approach, resources, and schedule of testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, the personnel performing each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 77
Software Testing Test Procedure Specification: A document specifying a sequence of actions for the execution of a test. Test Summary Report A document that describes testing activities and results and evaluates the corresponding test items. Testing: Examination by manual or automated means of the behaviour of a program by executing the program on sample data sets to verify that it satisfies specified requirements or to verify differences between expected and actual results. Test Scripts: A tool that specifies an order of actions that should be performed during a test session. The script also contains expected results. Test scripts may be manually prepared using paper forms, or may be automated using capture/playback tools or other kinds of automated scripting tools. Usability Test: The purpose of this event is to review the application user interface and other human factors of the application with the people who will be using the application. This is to ensure that the design (layout and sequence, etc.) enables the business functions to be executed as easily and intuitively as possible. This review includes assuring that the user interface adheres to documented User Interface standards, and should be conducted early in the design stage of development. Ideally, an application prototype is used to walk the client group through various business scenarios, although paper copies of screens, windows, menus, and reports can be used. User Acceptance Test: User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is conducted to ensure that the system meets the needs of the organization and the end user/customer. It validates that the system will work as intended by the test in the real world, and is based on real world business scenarios, not system requirements. Essentially, this test validates that the RIGHT system was built.
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Software Testing Validation: Determination of the correctness of the final program or software produced from a development project with respect to the user needs and requirements. Validation is usually accomplished by verifying each stage of the software development life cycle.
Verification: I) The process of determining whether the products of a given phase of the software development cycle fulfill the requirements established during the previous phase. II) The act of reviewing, inspecting, testing, checking, auditing, or otherwise establishing and documenting whether items, processes, services, or documents conform to specified requirements. Walkthrough: A manual analysis technique in which the module author describes the module's structure and logic to an audience of colleagues. Techniques focus on error detection, not correction. Will usually sue a formal set of standards or criteria as the basis of the review. White-box Testing: A testing technique that assumes that the path of the logic in a program unit or component is known. White-box testing usually consists of testing paths, branch by branch, to produce predictable results. This technique is usually used during tests executed by the development team, such as Unit or Component testing.
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1. What is Software Testing? The process of exercising or evaluating a system or system component by manual or automated means to verify that it satisfies specified requirements or to identify differences between expected and actual results. 2. What is the Purpose of Testing? • • • To uncover hidden errors To achieve the maximum usability of the system To Demonstrate expected performance of the system.
3. What types of testing do testers perform? Black box testing, White box testing is the basic type of testing testers performs. Apart from that they also perform a lot of tests like Ad - Hoc testing, Cookie Testing, CET (Customer Experience Test), Client-Server Test, Configuration Tests, Compatibility testing, Conformance Testing 4. What is the Outcome of Testing? A stable application, performing its task as expected. 5. What is the need for testing? The Primary need is to match requirements get satisfied with the functionality and also to answer two questions ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 80
Software Testing • • Whether the system is doing what it supposes to do? Whether the system is not performing what it is not suppose to do?
6. What are the entry criteria for Functionality and Performance testing? Functional testing: Functional Specification /BRS (CRS)/User Manual. An integrated application, Stable for testing. 7. Why do you go for White box testing, when Black box testing is available? A benchmark that certifies Commercial (Business) aspects and also functional (technical) aspects is objectives of black box testing. Here loops, structures, arrays, conditions, files, etc are very micro level but they arc Basement for any application, So White box takes these things in Macro level and test these things 8. What are the entry criteria for Automation testing? Application should be stable. Clear Design and Flow of the application is needed 9. What is Baseline document, Can you say any two? A baseline document, which starts the understanding of the application before the tester, starts actual testing. Functional Specification and Business Requirement Document 10. What are the Qualities of a Tester? • Should be perfectionist • Should be tactful and diplomatic • Should be innovative and creative • Should be relentless • Should possess negative thinking with good judgment skills • Should possess the attitude to break the system 11. Tell names of some testing type which you learnt or experienced? Any 5 or 6 types which are related to companies profile is good to say in the interview, • Ad - Hoc testing • Cookie Testing • CET (Customer Experience Test) • Depth Test ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 81
Software Testing • • • • • • • Event-Driven Performance Testing Recovery testing Sanity Test Security Testing Smoke testing Web Testing
12. What exactly is Heuristic checklist approach for unit testing? It is method of achieving the most appropriate solution of several found by alternative methods is selected at successive stages testing. The checklist Prepared to Proceed is called Heuristic checklist 13. After completing testing, what would you deliver to the client? Test deliverables namely Test plan Test Data Test design Documents (Condition/Cases) • Defect Reports • Test Closure Documents • Test Metrics 14. What is a Test Bed? Before Starting the Actual testing the element;; which supports the testing activity such as Test data, Data guide lines. Are collectively called as test Bed. 15. What is a Data Guideline? Data Guidelines are used to specify the data required to populate the test bed and prepare test scripts. It includes all data parameters that are required to test the conditions derived from the requirement / specification The Document, which supports in preparing test data are called Data guidelines 16. Why do you go for Test Bed? When Test Condition is executed its result should be compared to Test result (expected result), as Test data is needed for this here comes the role of test Bed where Test data is made ready. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 82
17. Can Automation testing replace manual testing? If it so, how? Automated testing can never replace manual Testing. As these tools to Follow GIGO principle of computer tools. Absence of creativity and innovative thinking. But It speeds up the process. Follow a clear Process, which can be reviewed easily. Better Suited for Regression testing of Manually tested Application and Performance testing.
18. What is the difference between quality and testing? "Quality is giving more cushions for user to use system with all its expected characteristics”. It is usually said as Journey towards Excellence. “Testing is an activity done to achieve the quality”. 19. Why do we prepare test condition, test cases, test script (Before Starting Testing)? These are test design document which are used to execute the actual testing Without which execution of testing is impossible, finally this execution is going to find the bugs to be fixed so we have prepare this documents. 20. Is it not waste of time in preparing the test condition, test case & Test Script? No document prepared in any process is waste of rime, That too test design documents which plays vital role in test execution can never be said waste of time as without which proper testing cannot be done. 21. How do you go about testing of Web Application? To approach a web application testing, the first attack on the application should be on its performance behavior as that is very important for a web application and then transfer of data between web server and .front end server, security server and back end server. 22. What kind of Document you need for going for a Functional testing?
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Software Testing Functional specification is the ultimate document, which expresses all the functionalities of the application and other documents like user manual and BRS are also need for functional testing. Gap analysis document will add value to understand expected and existing system. 23. Can the System testing be done at any stage? No, .The system as a whole can be tested only if all modules arc integrated and all modules work correctly System testing should be done before UAT (User Acceptance testing) and Before Unit Testing.
24. What is Mutation testing & when can it be done? Mutation testing is a powerful fault-based testing technique for unit level testing. Since it is a fault-based testing technique, it is aimed at testing and uncovering some specific kinds of faults, namely simple syntactic changes to a program. Mutation testing is based on two assumptions: the competent programmer hypothesis and the coupling effect. The competent programmer hypothesis assumes that competent programmers turn to write nearly "correct" programs. The coupling effect stated that a set of test data that can uncover all simple faults in a program is also capable of detecting more complex faults. Mutation testing injects faults into code to determine optimal test inputs. 25. Why it is impossible to test a program completely? With any software other than the smallest and simplest program, there are too many inputs, too many outputs, and too many path combinations to fully test. Also, software specifications can be subjective and be interpreted in different ways.
Test Automation: 26. What automating testing tools are you familiar with? WinRunner and LoadRunner 27. What is the use of automating testing tools in any job? The automation testing tools are used for Regression and Performance testing. 28. Describe some problem with automating testing tool. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 84
Software Testing Several problems are encountered while working with test automation tools like,
a. Tools Limitations for Object Detections b. Tools Configuration / Deployment in various Environments c. Tools Precision / Default Skeleton Script Issues like window synchronization issues etc. d. Tools bugs with respect to exception handling. e. Tools abnormal polymorphism in behavior like sometimes it works but sometimes not for the same application / same script/same environment etc. 29. How test automation is planned? Planning is the most important task in Test Automation. Test Automation Plan should cover the following task items, a. Tool Selection: Type of Test Automation Expected (Regression / Performance etc.) b. Tool Evaluation: Tool Availability / Tool License Availability / Tool License Limitations. c. Tool Cost Estimation Vs Project Cost Estimation Statistics for Testing. d. Resource Requirements Vs Availability Study. e. Time Availability Vs Time Estimations Calculations and Definitions. f. Production Requirements Analysis Results Consideration with respect to Factors like Load-Performance / Functionality Expected / Scalability etc. g. Test Automation Process Definitions including Standard to be followed while performing Test Automation. h. Test Automation Scope Definition. i. Automation Risk Analysis and planning to overcome if defined Risks Emerge in the Automation Process. j. Reference Document Requirement as Perquisites for Test Automation. 30. Can test automation improve test effectiveness? Yes, Definitely Test Automation plays a vital role in improving Test Effectiveness in various ways like, a. Reduction in Slippage caused due to human errors. b. Object / Object Properties Level UI Verifications. c. Virtual Load / Users usage in Load/Performance Testing wherein its not possible to use so many resources physically performing test and get so accurate results. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 85
Software Testing d. Précised Time Calculations. e. And many more… 31. What is data - driven automation? Data Driven Automation is the most important part of test automation where the requirement is to execute the same test cases for different set of test input data so that test can executed for pre-defined iterations with different set of test input data for each iteration. 32. What are the main attributes of test automation? Here are some of the attributes of test automation that can be measured, Maintainability
Definition: The effort needed to update the test automation suites for each new release. Possible measurements: The possible measurements can be e.g. the average work effort in hours to update a test suite. Reliability
Definition: The accuracy and repeatability of your test automation. Possible measurements: Number of times a test failed due to defects in the tests or in the test scripts. Flexibility
Definition: The ease of working with all the different kinds of automation test ware. Possible measurements: The time and effort needed to identify, locate, restore, combine and execute the different test automation test ware. Efficiency
Definition: The total cost related to the effort needed for the automation. Possible measurements: Monitoring over time the total cost of automated testing, i.e. resources, material, etc. Portability
Definition: The ability of the automated test to run on different environments. Possible measurements: The effort and time needed to set-up and run test automation in a new environment. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 86
Definition: The effectiveness of automation on an unstable or rapidly changing system. Possible measurements: Number of tests failed due to unexpected events. Usability
Definition: The extent to which automation can be used by different types of users (Developers, non-technical people or other users etc.,) Possible measurements: The time needed to train users to become confident and productive with test automation.
33. Does automation replace manual testing? We cannot actually replace manual testing 100% using Automation but yes definitely it can replace almost 90% of the manual test efforts if the automation is done efficiently. 34. How a tool for test automation is chosen? Below are factors to be considered while choosing Test Automation Tool, a. Test Type Expected. (E.g. Regression Testing / Functional Testing / Performance-Load Testing) b. Tool Cost Vs Project Testing Budget Estimation. c. Protocol Support by Tool Vs. Application Designed Protocol. d. Tools Limitations Vs Application Test Requirements e. H/W, S/W & Platform Support of Tool Vs Application test Scope for these attributes. f. Tool License Limitations / Availability Vs Test Requirements.(Tools Scalability) 35. How one will evaluate the tool for test automation? Whenever a Tool has to be evaluated one need to go through few important verifications / validations of the tool like, a. b. c. d. e. Platform Support from the Tool. Protocols / Technologies Support. Tool Cost Tool Type with its Features Vs Our Requirements Analysis. Tool Usage Comparisons with other similar available tools in market. ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 87
f. Tool’s Compatibility with our Application Architecture and Development Technologies. g. Tool Configuration & Deployment Requirements. h. Tools Limitations Analysis. 36. What are main benefits of test automation? The main benefits of Test Automation are, a. b. c. d. e. Test Automation Saves Major Testing Time. Saves Resources (Human / H/w / S/W resources) Reduction in Verification Slippages cased due to human errors. Object Properties Level Verifications can be done which is difficult manually. Virtual Load / Users Generation for load testing which is not worth doing manually as it needs lots of resources and also it might not give that precise results which can be achieved using a Automation Tool. f. Regression Testing Purposes. g. For Data Driven Testing. 37. What could go wrong with test automation? While using Test Automation there are various factors that can affect the testing process like, a. Tool’s Limitations might result in Application Defects. b. Automation Tool’s abnormal behavior like Scalability Variations due to memory violations might be considered as Applications memory violation in heavy load tests. c. Environment Settings Required for Tool (e.g. Java-CORBA required JDK to be present in System) causes Application to show up Bugs which are just due to the JDK installation in System which I had experienced myself as on un-installation of JDK and Java-Addins my application works fine. 38. How are the testing activities described? The basic Testing activities are as follows: a. Test Planning (Pre-Requisite: Get Adequate Documents of the Project to test) b. Test Cases (Pre-Requisite: Get Adequate Documents of the Project to test) c. Cursor Test (A Very Basic Test to make sure that all screens are coming and application is ready for test or to automate) d. Manual Testing ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 88
Software Testing e. Test Automation (Provided if the product had reached Stability enough to be automated). f. Bug Tracking & Bug Reporting. g. Analysis of the Test and Test Report Creation. h. If Bug Fixing Cycle repeats then Steps c-h repeats. 39. What testing activities one may want to automate? Anything, which is repeated, should be automated if possible. Thus the following testing activities can be automated, a. b. c. d. e. Test Case Preparation Tests like Cursor, Regression, Functional & Load / Performance testing. Test Report Generation. Test Status/Results Notifications. Bug Tracking System. Etc.
40. Describe common problems of test automation? In Test Automation we come across several problems, out of which I would like to highlight few as given below, a. Automation Script Maintenance, which becomes tough if product gets through frequent changes. b. Automation Tool’s Limitations for objects Recognizing. c. Automation Tool’s Third Part Integration Limitations. d. Automation Tool’s abnormal behavior due to its Scalability Issues. e. Due to Tool’s Defects, We might assume its Application Defect and consider any issue as Application Bug. f. Environmental Settings and API’s / Addins Required by Tool to make it compatible to work with Specialized Environments like JAVA-CORBA creates JAVA Environmental Issues for the Application to work. (E.g. WinRunner 7.05 Java-Support Environmental Variables Creates Application Under Test 0to malfunction) g. There are many issues, which we come across while actual automation. 41. What are the types of scripting techniques for test automation ? Scripting Technique: how to structure automated test scripts for maximum benefit and Minimum impact of software changes, scripting issues, scripting approaches: linear, Shared, data-driven and programmed, script pre-processing, minimizing the impact of Software changes on test scripts. The major ones used are, ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 89
Software Testing a. b. c. d. e. Data-Driven Scripting Centralized Application Specific / Generic Compiled Modules / Library Development. Parent Child Scripting. Techniques to Generalize the Scripts. Increasing the factor of Reusability of the Script.
42. What are principles of good testing scripts for automation? The major principles of good testing script for Automation are, a. Automation Scripts should be reusable. b. Coding Standards should be followed for Scripting, which makes Script Updating, Understanding, Debugging easier. c. Scripts should be Environment, data Independent as much as possible which can be achieved using parameterization. d. Script should be generalized. e. Scripts should be modular. f. Repeated Tasks should be kept in Functions while scripting to avoid code repeat, complexity and make script easy for debugging. g. Script should be readable and appropriate comments should be written for each line / section of script. h. Script Header should contain script developer name, script updated date, script environmental requirements, scripted environmental details, script prerequisites from application side, script description in brief, script contents, script scope etc. 43. What tools are available for support of testing during software development life cycle? Test Director for Test Management, Bugzilla for Bug Tracking and Notification etc are the tools for Support of Testing. 44. Can the activities of test case design be automated? Yes, Test Director is one of such tool, which has the feature of Test Case Design and execution. 45. What are the limitations of automating software testing? ITPF _- MANUAL TESTING 90
Software Testing If one talk about limitations of automating software testing, then to mention few, a. Automation Needs lots of time in the initial stage of automation. b. Every tool will have its own limitations with respect to protocol support, technologies supported, object recognition, platform supported etc due to which not 100% of the Application can be automation because there is always something limited to the tool which we have to overcome with R&D. c. Tool’s Memory Utilization is also one the important factor which blocks the application’s memory resources and creates problems to application in few cases like Java Applications etc.
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