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Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering National Taiwan University 1
General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow Surface Waves Energy Considerations Uniform Depth Channel Flow Gradually Varies Flow Rapidly Varies Flow
Open channel flow involves the flows of a liquid in a channel or conduit that is not completely filled. There exists a free surface between the flowing fluid (usually water) and fluid above it (usually the atmosphere). The main deriving force is the fluid weight-gravity forces the fluid to flow downhill. Under steady, fully developed flow conditions, the component if the weight force in the direction of flow is balanced by the equal and opposite shear force between the fluid and the channel surface.
the pressure distribution within the fluid is merely hydrostatic.Open Channel Flow vs. Pipe Flow There can be no pressure force driving the fluid through the channel or conduit. 4 . For steady. fully developed channel flow.
The flow in the chutes of water rides. The flow of rainwater in the gutters of our houses. and sheets of water across fields or parking lots. 5 . sewers. The flow in canals.Examples of Open Channel Flow The natural drainage of water through the numerous creek and river systems. and gutters along roads. The flow of small rivulets. drainage ditches.
6 . Bottom slope variation. Additional information can be gained from various analytical and numerical efforts. Bends. Character of its bounding surface. Most open-channel flow results are based on correlation obtained from model and full-scale experiments.Variables in Open-Channel Flow Cross-sectional shape.
General Characteristics of Open-Channel Flow 7 .
and distance along the channel. y. are used to classify open-channel flow: 8 . t. x. The fluid depth. The extra freedom that allows the fluid to select its free-surface location and configuration allows important phenomena in openchannel flow that cannot occur in pipe flow. varies with time. the existence of a free surface allows additional types of flow.Classification of Open-Channel Flow For open-channel flow.
9 .Type I Uniform flow (UF): The depth of flow does not vary along the channel (dy/dx=0). Nonuniform flows: ►Rapidly varying flows (RVF): The flow depth changes considerably over a relatively short distance dy/dx~1. ►Gradually varying flows (GVF): The flow depth changes slowly with distance dy/dx <<1.Classification .
Type II R e = ρVR h / μ V is the average velocity of the fluid. it is uncommon to have laminar open-channel flows. 10 .500. Rh is the hydraulic radius of the channel. Transitional flow: Turbulent flow: Re > 12.Classification . Most open-channel flows involve water (which has a fairly small viscosity) and have relatively large characteristic lengths. Laminar flow: Re < 500.
Supercritical Flow: Froude number Fr >1. 11 .Classification .Type III Fr = V / gl Critical Flow: Froude number Fr =1. Subcritical Flow: Froude number Fr <1.
Surface Wave 12 .
13 .Surface Wave The distinguishing feature of flows involve a free surface (as in open-channel flows) is the opportunity for the free surface to distort into various shapes. The surface of a lake or the ocean is usually distorted into everchanging patterns associated with surface waves.
others are quite smooth. small amplitude Finite-sized solitary Continuous sinusoidal shape 14 . some are breaking wave that form white caps. some are short.Kinds of Surface Wave Some of the surface waves are very high. some barely ripple the surface. some waves are very long.
by δy. 15 .small amplitude Wave Speed 1/5 Consider a single elementary wave of small height. is produced on the surface of a channel by suddenly moving the initially stationary end wall with speed δV.
v v To this observer. Momentum Equation + Continuity Equation 16 . t=0. with no fluid motion ahead of the wave and a fluid velocity of δV behind the wave. The motion is unsteady. For a observer moving along the channel with speed c. A stationary observer will observe a single wave move down the channel with a wave speed c. the flow will appear steady. the fluid velocity will be V = -c i on the observer’s v v right and V = (-c + δ V) i to the left of the observer.small amplitude Wave Speed 2/5 The water in the channel was stationary at the initial time.
the continuity equation becomes − cyb = ( −c + δV )( y + δy )b ( y + δy )δV δV (1) =y ⇒c= δy δy δy << y Similarly.small amplitude Wave Speed 3/5 With the assumption of uniform one-dimensional flow. the momentum equation 1 2 1 F2 = γy c 2 A 2 = γy b F1 = γy c1A1 = γ ( y + δy )2 b 2 2 1 2 1 F2 − F1 = γy b − γ ( y + δy ) 2 b = ρbcy[(c − δV ) − c] 2 2 17 .
small amplitude (δy ) 2 << yδy Wave Speed 4/5 ⇒ δV g = δy c (2) (1)+(2) c = gy (3) Energy Equation + Continuity Equation 18 .
c. Since the pressure is constant at any point on the free surface. the Bernoulli equation for this frictionless flow is V2 VδV + y = cons tan t → + δy = 0 2g g The continuity equation Vy = cons tan t → yδV + Vδy = 0 Combining these two equations and using the fact V=c c = gy 19 .small amplitude Wave Speed 5/5 The single wave on the surface is seen by an observer moving with the wave speed.
the faster the wave travel. 20 .finite-sized solitary Wave Speed More advanced analysis and experiments show that the wave speed for finite-sized solitary wave ⎛ δy ⎞ c = gy ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎜ y⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1/ 2 ⎛ δy ⎞ c = gy ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎜ y⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1/ 2 > gy The larger the amplitude.
δy. The wave speed varies with both the wavelength and fluid depth as ⎡ gλ ⎛ 2πy ⎞⎤ c = ⎢ tanh ⎜ & ⎟⎥ (4) ⎝ λ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2π 1/ 2 21 . By combining waves of various wavelengths. and amplitudes. λ.Continuous sinusoidal shape Wave Speed 1/2 A more general description of wave motion can be obtained by considering continuous (not solitary) wave of sinusoidal shape.
22 .Continuous sinusoidal shape Wave Speed 2/2 ⎡ gλ ⎛ 2πy ⎞⎤ c = ⎢ tanh ⎜ & ⎟⎥ ⎝ λ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2π 1/ 2 y ⎛ 2 πy ⎞ → ∞ ⇒ tanh ⎜ ⎟ =1 λ ⎝ λ ⎠ ⇒c= gλ 2π Deep layer y ⎛ 2 πy ⎞ 2 πy → 0 ⇒ tanh ⎜ ⎟= λ λ ⎝ λ ⎠ ⇒ c = gy Shallow layer Wave speed as a function of wavelength.
Froude Number F r = V / gl = V / c Is the ratio of the fluid velocity to the wave speed. If the fluid layer is stationary. If V>c. the wave will travel to the right with a speed of c-V. If V<c. If V=c. the wave moves to the right with speed c relative to the fluid and stationary observer. the wave will remain stationary. the wave will be washed to the left with a speed of V-c.Froude Number Effects 1/3 Consider an elementary wave travelling on the surface of a fluid. When the fluid is flowing to the left with velocity V. 23 .
as happens when a rock is thrown into a river.Froude Number Effects 2/3 When a wave is produced on the surface of a moving stream. are termed subcritical. or Fr<1. the wave speeds equally in all directions. 24 . Such conditions. no upstream communication with downstream locations. Any disturbance on the surface downstream from the observer will be washed farther downstream. If V<c. If V>c. V>c. Upstream locations are said to be in hydraulic communication with the downstream locations. Such flow conditions. V<c. If V=0. are termed supercritical. the wave can move upstream. or Fr>1.
25 . the upstream propagating wave remains stationary and the flow is termed critical.Froude Number Effects 3/3 If V=c or Fr=1.
Energy Considerations 26 .
27 .Energy Considerations 1/3 z1 − z 2 S0 = l The slope of the channel bottom or bottom slope is constant over the segment Very small for most open-channel flows. x and y are taken as the distance along the channel bottom and the depth normal to the bottom.
Energy Considerations 2/3 With the assumption of a uniform velocity profile across any section of the channel. (5) 2 V12 V2 y1 + + Sol = y 2 + + hL 2g 2g (6) z1 − z 2 = S o l p1 / γ = y1 p2 / γ = y2 28 . the one-dimensional energy equation become 2 p1 V12 p 2 V2 + + z1 = + + z2 + hL 2g 2g γ γ (5) hL is the head loss due to viscous effects between sections (1) and (2).
Energy Considerations 3/3 (6) 2 V2 − V12 y1 − y 2 = + (S f 2g − So )l (7) Sf = h L / l (7) 2 V2 − V12 y1 − y 2 = 2g For a horizontal channel bottom (S0=0) and negligible head loss (Sf=0) 29 .
E V2 E=y+ 2g (8) (9) E1 = E 2 + (Sf − So )l (9) E1 + z1 = E 2 + z 2 The sum of the specific energy and Head losses are negligible. 30 .Specific Energy 1/4 Define specific energy. Sf=0 −So l = z 2 − z1 the elevation of the channel bottom remains constant. This a statement of the Bernoulli equation.
q=Q/b=Vyb/b=Vy For a given channel b= constant q = constant E = E (y) Specific energy diagram 31 .Specific Energy 2/4 If the cross-sectional shape is a rectangular of width b E=y+ q2 2gy 2 (10) Where q is the flowrate per unit width.
32 . These two depths are term alternative depths. and yneg. two solutions are positive and yneg is negative (has no physical meaning and can be ignored). If E >Emin. ysub.Specific Energy 3/4 E=y+ q2 2gy 2 (10) For a given q and E. ysup. equation (10) is a cubic equation with three solutions .
one subcritical and the other supercritical Approach y=0 Very shallow and very high speed 33 .Specific Energy 4/4 Approach y=E Very deep and very slowly y sup < y sub Vsup > Vsub E > Emin Two possible depths of flow.
Determine Emin To determine the value of Emin ⎛q ⎞ dE dE q =0⇒ = 1 − 3 = 0 ⇒ yc = ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ g ⎟ dy dy gy ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 1/ 3 (11) Sub. Flows for the upper part of the specific energy diagram are subcritical (Fr<1) 3. (11) into (10) E min 3y c q = ⇒ Vc = = gy c ⇒ Frc = 1 2 yc 1. 2. The critical conditions (Fr=1) occur at the location of Emin. Flows for the lower part of the specific energy diagram are supercritical (Fr>1) 34 .
Example 10. Describe this flow in terms of the specific energy diagram.1a. 35 . E10. Assume inviscid flow.1 Specific Energy diagram Qualitative Water flows under the sluice gate in a constant width rectangular channel as shown in Fig.
36 . E10.1c. To remain same flowrate.Example 10.1b. This is indicated by depths y1’ and y2’ in Fig E10.1 Solution1/2 Inviscid flow Sf=0 Channel bottom is horizontal z1=z2 (or So=0) E1=E2 q1=q2 The specific energy diagram for this flow is as shown in Fig. and the upstream depth must be increased to give a bigger head (y 1’ > y1 ). The flowrate can remain the same for this channel even if the upstream depth is increased. the distance between the bottom of the gate and the channel bottom must be decreased to give a smaller flow area (y2’ < y2 ).
1 Solution2/2 On the other hand.Example 10. q”>q0 37 . if the gate remains fixed so that the downstream depth remain fixed (y2’’ = y2 ). the flowrate will increase as the upstream depth increases to y 1’’ > y1.
E10. 38 .5-ft-tall ramp in a constant width rectangular channel at a rate of q = 5.3 ft. determine the elevation of the water surface downstream of the ramp.2a.Example 10. Neglect viscous effects. (For now disregard the “bump”) If the upstream depth is 2. y2 + z2.75 ft2/s as shown in Fig.2 Specific Energy diagram – Quantitative Water flows up a 0.
2-2) y 2 V2 = y1V1 ⇒ y 2 V2 = 5.75ft 2 / s y 2 = 1.466ft 0.72ft y 2 = −0.513 = 0 2 2 (10. conservation of energy requires that 2 p1 V12 p 2 V2 + + z1 = + + z2 γ γ 2g 2g 2 V2 ⇒ 1.Example 10.2-1) The continuity equation y 3 − 1.90 = y 2 + 64.638ft 39 .90 y 2 + 0.4 (10.2 Solution1/4 With S0 l =z1-z2 and hL=0.
E10. .22ft y 2 + z 2 = 0.50ft = 2.72ft + 0. which for this problem is E=y+ 0.Example 10.50ft = 1.2 Solution2/4 The corresponding elevations of the free surface are either y 2 + z 2 = 1.638ft + 0.(10).513 y2 40 The diagram is shown in Fig.14ft Which of these flows is to be expected? This can be answered by use of the specific energy diagram obtained from Eq.2(b).
Example 10.2 Solution3/4 41 .
22ft 42 . The surface elevation is y 2 + z 2 = 1.5 ft.50ft = 2.2 Solution4/4 The upstream condition corresponds to subcritical flow. ….Example 10.72ft + 0. it follows that the downstream conditions are located to 0. the downstream condition is either subcritical or supercritical.5 ft to the left of the upstream conditions on the diagram. corresponding to points 2 or 2’. Note that since E1=E2+(z2-z1)=E2+0..
dy/dx<<1.Channel Depth Variations 1/3 Consider gradually varying flows. At an section the total head V2 H= +y+z 2g and the energy equation H1 = H 2 + h L The slop of the energy line dH dh L = = Sf dx dx dz = So dx ⎞ V dV dy dz dH d ⎛ V2 ⎜ + + = + y + z⎟ = ⎟ g dx dx dx ⎜ 2g dx dx ⎝ ⎠ 43 . and it is reasonable to impose the onedimensional velocity assumption. For such flows.
Channel Depth Variations 2/3 dh L V dV dy = + + S0 dx g dx dx V dV dy + = Sf − S o (12) g dx dx For a given flowrate per unit width. in a rectangular channel of constant width b. q. we have V= q q dy dV V dy ⇒ =− =− y dx y dx y 2 dx (12) V dV V 2 dy dy =− = − Fr2 g dx gy dx dx (13) 44 .
Channel Depth Variations 3/3 Sub. (13) into (12) dy Sf − S o = dx (1 − Fr2 ) (14) Depends on the local slope of the channel bottom. the slope of the energy line. 45 . and the Froude number.
Uniform Depth Channel Flow 46 .
Uniform depth flow (dy/dx=0) can be accomplished by adjusting the bottom slope. so that it precisely equal the slope of the energy line.Uniform Depth Channel Flow 1/3 Many channels are designed to carry fluid at a uniform depth all along their length. S0. 47 . Sf. Irrigation canals. Nature channels such as rivers and creeks. A balance between the potential energy lost by the fluid as it coasts downhill and the energy that is dissipated by viscous effects (head loss) associated with shear stress throughout the fluid.
Uniform Depth Channel Flow 2/3 Uniform flow in an open channel. 48 .
(b) shear stress distribution on the wetted perimeter. 49 .Uniform Depth Channel Flow 3/3 Typical velocity and shear stress distributions in an open channel: (a) velocity distribution throughout the cross section.
The Chezy & Manning Equation 1/6 Control volume for uniform flow in an open channel. 50 .
P is wetted perimeter.The Chezy & Manning Equation 2/6 Under the assumption of steady uniform flow. the x component of the momentum equation ∑F x = ρQ( V2 − V1 ) = 0 (15) F1 − F2 − τ w Pl + W sin θ = 0 where F1 and F2 are the hydrostatic pressure forces across either end of the control volume. 51 .
The Chezy & Manning Equation 3/6 y1=y2 (15) F1=F2 − τ w Pl + W sin θ = 0 τw = W sin θ Pl W = γAl (16) V2 τw ∝ ρ 2 Rh = A P γAlSo τw = = rR h So Pl (Chapter 8) Wall shear stress is proportional to the dynamic pressure V2 τ w = Kρ 2 K is a constant dependent upon the roughness of the pipe 52 .
a French engineer who designed a canal for the Paris water supply.The Chezy & Manning Equation 4/6 (16) V2 Kρ = rR h S o 2 V = C R hSo (17) C is termed the Chezy coefficient Chezy equation Was developed in 1768 by A. Chezy (1718-1798). (17) V ∝ S1 / 2 o V ∝ Rh Reasonable V ∝ R2/3 h Manning Equation 53 .
Its value is dependent on the surface material of the channel’s wetted perimeter and is obtained from experiments. It has the units of s/m1/3 or s. R. an Irish engineer. developed the following somewhat modified equation for open-channel flow to more accurately describe the Rh dependence: R 2 / 3S1 / 2 V= h o n (18) Manning equation n is the Manning resistance coefficient. manning (1816-1897)./ft1/3 54 .The Chezy & Manning Equation 5/6 In 1889.
slope. So. κ ⎛A⎞ Q = A⎜ ⎟ n ⎝P⎠ Rh = A P 2/3 κ 2 / 3 1/ 2 V = R h So n κ Q = AR 2 / 3S1 / 2 h o n (19) (20) Where κ=1 if SI units are used. κ=1. S1 / 2 o κ = n A 5 / 3S1 / 2 o 2/3 P ⎡ nQ ⎤ ⇒ A = ⎢ 1/ 2 ⎥ ⎢ kSo ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ 3/ 5 P2 / 5 constant A channel with minimum A is one with a minimum P.49 if BG units are used.The Chezy & Manning Equation 6/6 (18) The best hydraulic cross section is defined as the section of minimum area for a given flowrate Q. and the roughness coefficient. n. 55 .
n 56 .Value of the Manning Coefficient.
Uniform Depth Examples 57 .
Determine Flow Rate Water flows in the canal of trapezoidal cross section shown in Fig. Determine the flowrate if the canal is lined with new smooth concrete. 58 . Determine the Froude number for this flow. E10.3 Uniform Flow. The bottom drops 1.Example 10.3a.4 ft per 1000 ft of length.
0014 ) = = 915cfs n n V = Q / A = 10. = 0.Example 10.804 59 .8ft )( 3.012 10. n=0.1...2ft / s Fr = V gy = .25ft ) ( 0.49 2 2/3 1/ 2 Q= (89.49 if BG units are used.25ft From Table 10.98 1.6ft R h = A / P = 3. ⎛ 5 ⎞ A = 12 ft (5ft ) + 5ft ⎜ ft ⎟ = 89.8ft 2 ⎝ tan 40° ⎠ P = 12 ft + 2(5 / sin 40°ft ) = 27.3 Solution1/2 (20) κ Q = AR 2 / 3S1 / 2 h o n κ=1.
Example 10.3 Solution2/2 60 .
Determine Flow Depth Water flows in the channel shown in Fig. determine the depth of the flow.3 at a rate o Q = 10.0 m3/s. E10. 61 .Example 10.4 Uniform Flow. If the canal lining is weedy.
1.66 From Table 10.66 y Rh = = P 3.66 y ) 5 − 515( 3.11y + 3.66 + 2⎜ ⎟ = 3.66 y ⎛ y ⎞ P = 3. n 0..50 m 62 .03 (1.66) 2 = 0 y=1.66 ⎝ sin 40° ⎠ A 1. n=0..4 Solution A = 1.0 2 / 3 1/ 2 Q = 10 = AR h S o = .11y + 3.19 y 2 + 3.19 y 2 + 3.Example 10.030 κ 1 .19 y 2 + 3.11y + 3.
5 Uniform Flow. as shown in Fig.5a.Example 10. and the Manning coefficient is n. Explain this behavior. E10. At what depth does the maximum flowrate occur? Show that for certain flowrate there are two depths possible with the same flowrate. The pipe is laid on a constant slope of S0. Maximum Flow Rate Water flows in a round pipe of diameter D at a depth of 0 ≤ y ≤ D. 63 .
Example 10.49 if BG units are used. D2 A= ( θ − sin θ) 8 Dθ A D( θ − sin θ) Rh = = P= 2 P 4θ κ 1 / 2 D 8 / 3 ⎡ ( θ − sin θ) 5 / 3 ⎤ Q = So ⎥ 2/3 ⎢ 2/3 n θ 8( 4) ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ This can be written in terms of the flow depth by using D y = [1 − cos( θ / 2)] 2 64 .5 Solution1/2 (20) κ Q = AR 2 / 3S1 / 2 h o n κ=1.
or θ=303º Q = Q max when y = 0.938D.938 D 65 .5(b). Q = Q(y).5 Solution2/2 A graph of flowrate versus flow depth. E10.Example 10. The maximum flowrate occurs when y=0. has the characteristic indicated in Fig.
Example 10. indicating lines of constant depth and lines of constant Froude number.6 Uniform Flow. Plot a graph of flowrate. Q.025. 66 . as a function of slope S0. Effect of Bottom Slope Water flows in a rectangular channel of width b = 10 m that has a Manning coefficient of n = 0.
00613 Fr y⎜ ⎜ 5y ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (10.0 ⎛ 10 y ⎞ ⎜ R h So = ⎜ 10 + 2 y ⎟ ⎟ n 0.025 ⎝ ⎠ 2 S1 / 2 o 4/3 ⎛5+ y⎞ ⇒ S o = 0.6 Solution1/2 A = by = 10 y Rh = A by = P ( b + 2 y) 2/3 (19) V= 1/ 2 κ 2 / 3 1/ 2 1.6-1) ( gy ) 1.025 ⎝ ⎠ 2/3 S1 / 2 o (10.Example 10.6-2) 67 .0 ⎛ 10 y ⎞ ⎜ Fr = ⎟ ⎜ 10 + 2 y ⎟ 0.
E10. determine the corresponding value of So from Eq (10.6 Solution2/2 For given value of Fr. and then calculate Q=VA.6-2).Example 10. with V from either Eq (10.6-1) or V=(gy)1/2Fr. The results are indicated in Fig.6 68 . we pick various value of y.
7 Uniform Flow.8 ft + 0.7a. estimate the flowrate when the depth is y = 0. E10.002. If the bottom slope is S0 = 1 ft/500 ft=0.Example 10. Variable Roughness Water flows along the drainage canal having the properties shown in Fig.6 ft = 1.4 ft. 69 .
49 Qi = A i R 2 / 3S1 / 2 o hi ni Q = ..7 Solution Q = Q1 + Q 2 + Q 3 1..8ft 3 / s 70 . = 16.Example 10.
b/y. 71 .Example 10. Best Hydraulic Cross Section Water flows uniformly in a rectangular channel of width b and depth y. Determine the aspect ratio.8 Uniform Flow. for the best hydraulic cross section.
A by A Ay Rh = = = = P ( b + 2 y) ( b + 2 y) (2 y 2 + A) ⎞ Ay κ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ Q= A n ⎜ (2y 2 + A) ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ A 5/ 2 2/3 S1 / 2 o ⎛ nQ K = ⎜ 1/ 2 ⎜ κS ⎝ o ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 3/ 2 y = K(2y + A) 2 constant 72 .49 if BG units are used.Example 10.8 Solution1/3 (20) A = by κ Q = AR 2 / 3S1 / 2 h o n P = b + 2y κ=1.
dA/dy = 0.Example 10. or b/y = 2 73 .8 Solution2/3 The best hydraulic section is the one that gives the minimum A for all y. That is. ⎛ dA 5 3 / 2 dA dA ⎞ 5/ 2 ⎟ y+A =0⇒ A = K⎜ 4y + ⎜ dy 2 dy dy ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⇒ A 5 / 2 = 4 ky 2 y 2 = by The rectangular with the best hydraulic cross section twice as wide as it is deep.
8 Solution3/3 The best hydraulic cross section for other shapes 74 .Example 10.
Gradually Varied Flow dy << 1 dx 75 .
If the channel bottom slope is equal to the slope of the energy line. The loss in potential energy of the fluid as it flows downhill is exactly balanced by the dissipation of energy through viscous effects.Gradually Varied Flow 1/2 Open channel flows are classified as uniform depth. the flow depth will vary along the channel. 76 . the flow depth is constant. gradually varying or rapidly varying. So=Sf. If the bottom slope and the energy line slope are not equal. dy/dx=0.
Gradually Varied Flow 2/2 dy Sf − S o = dx (1 − Fr2 ) (14) The sign of dy/dx. whether the flow depth increase or decrease with distance along the channel depend on Sf -So ad 1-Fr2 77 . that is.
The character of a gradually varying flow depends on whether the fluid depth is less than or greater than the uniform normal depth. 12 possible surface configurations 78 . yn.Classification of Surface Shapes 1/3 The character of a gradually varying flow is often classified in terms of the actual channel slope. Soc. So. compared with the slope required to produce uniform critical flow.
Classification of Surface Shapes 2/3 Fr<1 : y>yc Fr>1 : y<yc 79 .
Examples of Gradually Varies Flows 1/5
Typical surface configurations for nonuniform depth flow with a mild slope. S0 < S0c.
Examples of Gradually Varies Flows 2/5
Typical surface configurations for nonuniform depth flow with a critical slope. S0 = S0c.
Examples of Gradually Varies Flows 3/5
Typical surface configurations for nonuniform depth flow with a steep slope. S0 > S0c.
83 . S0 =0.Examples of Gradually Varies Flows 4/5 Typical surface configurations for nonuniform depth flow with a horizontal slope.
S0 <0.Examples of Gradually Varies Flows 5/5 Typical surface configurations for nonuniform depth flow with a adverse slope. 84 .
y=y(x). momentum. ☯ The surface shape. 85 .Classification of Surface Shapes 3/3 The free surface is relatively free to conform to the shape that satisfies the governing mass. and energy equations. Numerical techniques have been developed and used to predict open-channel surface shapes. The actual shape of the surface is often very important in the design of open-channel devices or in the prediction of flood levels in natural channels. can be calculated by solving the governing differential equation obtained from a combination of the Manning equation (20) and the energy equation (14).
Rapidly Varied Flow dy ~1 dx 86 .
Many approximate results can be obtained by using a simple one-dimensional model along with appropriate experimentally determined coefficients when necessary. Quite complex and difficult to analyze in a precise fashion. 87 .Rapidly Varied Flow Rapidly varied flow: flow depth changes occur over a relatively short distance.
Occurrence of Rapidly Varied Flow 1/2 Flow depth changes significantly un a short distance: The flow changes from a relatively shallow. low speed condition within a horizontal distance of just a few channel depths. high speed condition into a relatively deep. Hydraulic Jump 88 .
Rapidly varied flow may occur in a channel transition section.Occurrence of Rapidly Varied Flow 2/2 Sudden change in the channel geometry such as the flow in an expansion or contraction section of a channel. 89 .
Example of Rapidly Varied Flow 1/2 The scouring of a river bottom in the neighborhood of a bridge pier. The complex three-dimensional flow structure around a bridge pier. Responsible for the erosion near the foot of the bridge pier. 90 .
Sluice gates. 91 . Critical flow flumes. Sharp-crested weirs.Example of Rapidly Varied Flow 2/2 Many open-channel flow-measuring devices are based on principles associated with rapidly varied flows. Broad-crested weirs.
Hydraulic Jump 92 .
. This near discontinuity is called a hydraulic jump. Such changes in depth can be approximated as a discontinuity in the free surface elevation (dy/dx=∞). 93 .The Hydraulic Jump 1/6 Under certain conditions it is possible that the fluid depth will change very rapidly over a short length of the channel without any change in the channel configuration.
steady. rectangular channel. and one-dimensional. 94 .The Hydraulic Jump 2/6 A simplest type of hydraulic jump in a horizontal. Assume that the flow at sections (1) and (2) is nearly uniform.
95 .The Hydraulic Jump 3/6 The x component of the momentum equation F1 − F2 = ρQ( V2 − V ) = ρV1y1b( V2 − V1 ) 2 F1 = p c1A1 = γy1 b / 2 2 y1 y 2 V1y1 − 2 = ( V2 − V ) 2 2 g F2 = p c 2 A 2 = γy 2 b / 2 2 (21) The conservation of mass equation y1bV1 = y 2 bV2 = Q The energy equation 2 V12 V2 y1 + = y2 + + hL 2g 2g (22) (23) The head loss is due to the violent turbulent mixing and dissipation.
V1=V2.The Hydraulic Jump 4/6 (21)+(22)+(23) Nonlinear equations One solution is y1=y2. hL=0 Other solutions? (21)+(22) 2 ⎞ V12 y1 y1 y 2 V1y1 ⎛ V1y1 2 = ⎜ − ⎟ ⎜ y − V1 ⎟ = gy ( y1 − y 2 ) 2 2 g ⎝ 2 2 ⎠ ⎛ y2 ⎞ ⎛ y2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ − 2 Fr2 = 0 1 ⎜y ⎟ ⎜y ⎟ ⎝ 1⎠ ⎝ 1⎠ 2 Fr1 = V1 gy1 Solutions y2 1 ⎛ = ⎜ − 1 ± 1 + 8Fr2 ⎞ 1⎟ y1 2 ⎝ ⎠ y2 1 ⎛ = ⎜ − 1 + 1 + 8Fr2 ⎞ (24) 1⎟ y1 2 ⎝ ⎠ 96 .
The Hydraulic Jump 5/6 (23) (24)+(25) ⎡ ⎛ y ⎞2 ⎤ y hL ⎢1 − ⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎥ =1− 2 + y1 2 ⎢ ⎜ y2 ⎟ ⎥ y1 ⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ Fr2 1 (25) Depth ratio and dimensionless head loss across a hydraulic jump as a function of upstream Froude number. 97 .
The Hydraulic Jump 6/6
The head loss is negative if Fr1<1. Violate the second law of thermodynamics
Not possible to produce a hydraulic jump with Fr1<1.
Classification of Hydraulic Jump 1/2
The actual structure of a hydraulic jump is a complex function of Fr1, even though the depth ratio and head loss are given quite accurately by a simple one-dimensional flow analysis. A detailed investigation of the flow indicates that there are essentially five type of surface and jump conditions.
Classification of Hydraulic Jump 2/2
not just in horizontal.Hydraulic Jump Variations 1/2 Hydraulic jumps can occur in a variety o channel flow configurations. Other common types of hydraulic jumps include those that occur in sloping channels and the submerged hydraulic jumps that can occur just downstream of a sluice gate. 101 . rectangular channels as discussed above.
(b) submerged jump 102 .Hydraulic Jump Variations 2/2 Hydraulic jump variations: (a) jump caused by a change in channel slope.
60 ft and a velocity of 18 ft/s.9 Hydraulic Jump Water on the horizontal apron of the 100-ft-wide spillway shown in Fig. 103 . E10. Fr1 and Fr2. Pd. the Froude numbers before and after the jump. and the power dissipated. after the jump. with the jump. y2.Example 10.9a has a depth o 0. Determine the depth.
Example 10.9 Solution1/3 Conditions across the jump are determined by the upstream Froude number V1 18ft / s = = 4.19ft Since Q1=Q2.2ft / s 2 )(0.39ft/s 104 .60ft ) = 3. = 5. or V2=(y1V1)/y2=3.32 1⎟ y1 2 ⎝ ⎠ y 2 = 5.10 Fr1 = gy1 (32..32(0.60ft ) (24) y2 1 ⎛ = ⎜ − 1 + 1 + 8Fr2 ⎞ = ..
= 2.26ft ⎟ − ⎜ y2 + h L = ⎜ y1 + ⎜ 2g ⎟ ⎜ 2g ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ Pd = γQh L = γby1V1h L = . Pd...39ft / s (32.52 × 105 ft ⋅ lb / s = 277hp 105 .1.9 Solution2/3 Fr2 = V2 gy1 = 3.334 The poser dissipated...2ft / s 2 )(3. by viscous effects within the jump can be determined from the head loss Pd = γQh L = γby1V1h L (23) 2 ⎛ V12 ⎞ ⎛ V2 ⎞ ⎟ = .Example 10.19ft ) = 0.
9 Solution3/3 q = q1 = q 2 = E=y+ q2 2gy 2 Q = y1V1 = 10.81 y2 Various upstream depth 106 .8ft 2 / s b =y+ 1.Example 10.
Weirs and Gate 107 .
Weir provides a convenient method of determining the flowrate in an open channel in terms of a single depth measurement. 108 .Weir A weir is an obstruction on a channel bottom over which the fluid must flow.
Sharp-Crested Weir 1/4 A sharp-Crested weir is essentially a vertical-edged flat plate placed across the channel. 109 . The fluid must flow across the sharp edge and drop into the pool downstream of the weir plate.
(c) trapezoidal. 110 .Sharp-Crested Weir . (b) triangular.Geometry 2/4 Sharp-crested weir plate geometry: (a) rectangular.
Assume that the fluid flows horizontally over the weir plate with a nonuniform velocity profile. 111 .Sharp-Crested Weir – Flowrate 3/4 Assume that the velocity profile upstream of the weir plate is uniform and that the pressure within the nappe is atmosphere.
Sharp-Crested Weir – Flowrate 4/4 With PB=0. the Bernoulli equation for flow along the arbitrary streamline A-B indicated can be written as p A V12 u2 + + z A = ( H + Pw − h ) + 2 2g 2g γ (26) Since the total head for any particle along the vertical section (1) is the same p A V12 V12 + = H + pw + zA + γ 2g 2g (26) ⎛ V12 ⎞ ⎟ u 2 = 2g⎜ h + ⎜ 2g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ Q = u 2 dA = u 2 ldh h =0 ∫ ∫ h=H (27) 112 .
l=b Q = 2g b 3/ 2 3/ 2 ⎧⎛ 2⎞ ⎛ V12 ⎞ ⎫ V 2 ⎪ ⎟ ⎪ dh = 2g b ⎨⎜ H + 1 ⎟ −⎜ ⎜ ⎜ 2g ⎟ ⎬ 3 2g ⎟ ⎪⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ ⎭ ⎩ 2g bH 3 / 2 (29) 1/ 2 ∫ H⎛ 0 ⎞ ⎜h + ⎟ ⎜ 2g ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ V12 2 3 (28) (28) Q= V12 << H 2g Because of the numerous approximations made to obtain Eq. (29) Q = C wr 2 3 2g bH 3 / 2 (30) 113 .Rectangular Weir – Flowrate 1/2 For a rectangular weir.
075⎜ ⎜P ⎝ w ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (31) 114 . the Reynolds and Weber number effects are negligible. Cwr is function of Reynolds number (viscous effects). Weber number (surface tension effects). In most practical situations.611 + 0. H/Pw (geometry effects). C wr ⎛ H = 0. and the following correction can be used.Rectangular Weir – Flowrate 2/2 Cwr is the rectangular weir coefficient.
Triangular Weir – Flowrate 1/2 For a triangular weir l = 2( H − h ) tan θ 2 Q= V12 << H 2g 8 θ tan 2g H 5 / 2 15 2 An experimentally determined triangular weir coefficient. Cwt. is used to account for the real world effects neglected in the analysis so that 8 θ Q = C wt tan 2g H 5 / 2 15 2 (32) 115 .
Triangular Weir – Flowrate 2/2 Weir coefficient for triangular sharp-crested weirs 116 .
117 .About Nappe Flowrate over a weir depends on whether the napple is free or submerged. Flowrate will be different for these situations than that give by Eq. (30) and (32). Flow conditions over a weir without a free nappe: (a) plunging nappe. (b) submerged nappe.
Broad-Crested Weir 1/3 A broad-crested weir is a structure in an open channel that has a horizontal crest above which the fluid pressure may be considered hydrostatic. 118 .
Broad-Crested Weir 2/3
Generally, these weirs are restricted to the range 0.08 < H/Lw < 0.50. For long weir block (H/Lw < 0.08), head losses across the weir cannot be neglected. For short weir block (H/Lw > 0.50), the streamlines of the flow over the weir are not horizontal. Apply the Bernoulli equation
2 Vc V12 = y c + Pw + H + Pw + 2g 2g
If the upstream velocity head is negligible
2 2 Vc − V12 Vc = H − yc = 2g 2g
Broad-Crested Weir 3/3
Since V2 = Vc = gy c
yc H − yc = 2 2 yc = H 3
⎛2⎞ = b g⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠
The flowrate is Q = by 2 V2 = by c Vc = b g y 3 / 2 c
Again an empirical broad-crested weir coefficient, Cwb, is used to account for the real world effects neglected in the analysis so that
⎛2⎞ Q = C wb b g ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠
C wb =
0.65 ⎛ H ⎞ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎜ Pw ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
Example 10.10 Sharp-Crested and broadCrested Weirs
Water flows in a rectangular channel of width b = 2 m with flowrate between Qmin = 0.02 m3/s and Qmax = 0.60 m3/s. This flowrate is to be measured by using (a) a rectangular sharp-crested weir, (b) a triangular sharp-crested weir with θ=90º, or (c) a broad-crested weir. In all cases the bottom of the flow area over the weir is a distance Pw = 1 m above the channel bottom. Plot a graph of Q= Q(H) for each weir and comment on which weir would be best for this application.
10 Solution1/3 For the rectangular weir with Pw=1.611 + 0.Example 10.91( 0. (30)+(31) Q = C wr 2 3 ⎛ H 2 g bH 3 / 2 = ⎜ 0.075 ⎜ Pw ⎝ ⎞2 ⎟ 2 g bH 3 / 2 ⎟3 ⎠ Q = 5.36C wt H 5 / 2 (32) 15 2 122 .611 + 0.075 H ) H 3 / 2 For the triangular weir 8 θ Q = C wt tan 2g H 5 / 2 = 2.
22 (1 + H )1 / 2 H3/ 2 123 .Example 10.65 ⎛ H ⎞ ⎟ ⎜1 + ⎜ Pw ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ 1/ 2 ⎛2⎞ b g⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠ 3/ 2 H3/ 2 Q= 2.10 Solution2/3 For the broad-crested weir (33)+(34) ⎛2⎞ Q = C wb b g ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3⎠ 3/ 2 H 3/ 2 = 0.
10 Solution3/3 124 .Example 10.
Three variations of underflow gates: (a) vertical gate. (b) radial gate.Underflow Gates 1/4 A variety of underflow gate structure is available for flowrate control at the crest of an overflow spillway. 125 . (c) drum gate. or at the entrance of an irrigation canal or river from a lake.
Underflow Gates 2/4 The flow under the gate is said to be free outflow when the fluid issues as a jet of supercritical flow with a free surface open to the atmosphere. is a function of contraction coefficient. In such cases it is customary to write this flowrate as q = C d a 2gy1 (35) Where q is the flowrate per unit width. 126 . and the depth ration y1/a. Cd. The discharge coefficient. Cc = y2/a.
Underflow Gates 3/4 Typical discharge coefficients for underflow gates 127 .
Underflow Gates 4/4 The depth downstream of the gate is controlled by some downstream obstacle and the jet of water issuing from under the gate is overlaid by a mass of water that is quite turbulent. 128 . Drowned outflow from a sluice gate.
and the gate is a = 1. Plot a graph of flowrate. Q. the upstream depth is y1= 6 ft. The channel width is b = 20 ft.Example 10. as a function of y3.11. 129 .11 Sluice gate Water flows under the sluice gate shown in Fig.0 ft off the channel bottom. E10.
2a=3.2. 130 .29) The value of Cd increases as y3/a decreases. Cd=0 (Figure 10.Example 10. For y3=6 ft.56 when y3/a=3.56) cfs = 220 cfs For y3 < 3. and the outflow is a free outflow.11 Solution1/2 (35) q = bq = baC d 2gy1 = 393C d cfs Along the vertical line y1/a=6. reading a maximum of Cd=0.2 ft the flowrate is independent of y3. Thus with y3=3.2ft Q = 393(0.
2ft ≤ y3 ≤ 6ft 131 .Example 10.11 Solution2/2 The flowrate for 3.