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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 3.

1 Distillation

Description a. b. Barometric pressure Boiling point of water at measured pressure according to: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/boilingpoint-water-d 926.html c. Experimental boiling range for collected sample

Observations 753 mmHg -----------

100 C to 103 C

Table 3.2 Water Analysis

Sample Tap water 0.1 M NaCl Distilled water Distilled waterfrom procedure I Natural water

Conductance weak electrolyte strong electrolyte non-electrolyte -------weak electrolyte

AgNO3 results has precipitate formed so much precipitate did not form precipitate --------formed precipitate

Flame test results showed sign of sodium obviously showed sign of sodium no sodium -------has a little amount of sodium

Table 3.3 Complexometric titration

Data Final buret reading (mL) Initial buret reading (mL) Volume of EDTA (mL) Volume of water sample (mL) [Ca2+ + Mg2+] (mol/L) hardness (ppm)

Natural Water 0.8 mL / 0.6 mL 0.01 mL / 0.01 mL 50 mL / 50 mL 25 mL / 25 mL 4 mol/L / 4 mol/L 4000 ppm / 4000 ppm

Distilled Water 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 3.1 In this experiment, we need to do distillation of natural water. We set up the distillation apparatus. We fill the flask half full with the natural water and added some boiling chips. We heated the sample and discarded the first ten drops of the distillate. After discarding the first ten drops, we recorded the distillation temperature at 96 C. The temperature of the water increased from 96 C to 98 C when got 50 mL distilled water and it stayed 98 C until we got 110 mL distillate. We stopped the distillation when we got just enough distilled water for the next procedures. We have observed that as the water sample becomes distilled, its temperature increases but not close to the boiling point of water which is 100 C. Table 3.2 In this experiment, we were asked to check the conductivity, formation of precipitate and presence of sodium in different samples. The samples are tap water, 0.1 M NaCL, distilled water, distilled water from procedure I and natural water. We first checked their electric conductivity. We put 5 mL of the samples separately in each beaker. When the apparatus was put in the tap water and natural water, the bulb produced dim light. The 0.1 M NaCl produced bright light while the distilled water produced no light at all. Based on the results, we have identified distilled water as non-electrolyte, tap water and natural water as weak electrolyte and 0.1 M NaCl as strong electrolyte. Next, we checked if these water samples will form precipitate when mixed with AgNO 3. We mixed 0.5 Ml of each water samples and few drops of 0.1 M AgNO3.The distilled water did not form any precipitate. The tap water and natural water samples formed precipitate. The 0.1 M NaCl formed so much precipitate. Lastly, we did flame test of the water samples. We dipped a nichrome wire loop in each samples and held it in flame. When the wire loop was dipped in the distilled water and put in flame, the blue color of the flame remained the same. When the tap water and natural water samples were used in the flame test, the blue flame turned yellowish. When the wire loop was dipped in the 0.1 M NaCl sample and put in flame, the blue flame obviously turned to yellow flame. Using flame test, we have identified that distilled water does not contain sodium. The tap water and natural water samples contain few sodium. The 0.1 M NaCl sample even if not tested in flame, contains sodium. The three procedures in water analysis made precise results. Those samples with sodium are electrolytes, will form precipitate when mixed with AgNO3, and can turn blue flame to yellow. Those samples without sodium are non-electrolytes, will not form any precipitate when mixed with AgNO3, and will not change the color of the blue flame during flame test. Table 3.3 In this experiment,