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Power Factor Correction

Save Money and Energy


Presented by: Alan L. OQuinn, P.E. Team Power Solutions, LLC
aoquinn@teampowersolutions.com (404) 213-8368

What is Power Factor Correction?


Usually adding capacitance to Power System. Ideal power factor is 1.0 Typical industrial complex is 0.65 0.8 pf.

How Do You Get Low PF?


Motor loads are inductive and need VARs.
R M

=>

Whats Wrong With Low PF?


Wastes Power Overloads Equipment Costs Money Uses Up Natural Resources

Complex Power
Apparent Power = S = P + j Q Real Power = P = | V | | I | cos () Reactive Power = Q = | V | | I | sin () Power Factor = PF = cos () VA W VAR

Single Phase Power


I = kVA / kV = kW / (kV PF) kVA = kV I kW = kVA PF

Three Phase Power


I = kVA / ( kV 1.732 ) = kW / (kV 1.732 PF) kVA = kV 1.732 I kW = kVA PF

Note: kV is the phase-to-phase voltage

Power Triangle

KVA

KVAR

KW

Classic PF Example
Facility has peak demand of 1000 kW Load Power Factor is 0.707 lagging Calculate kVAR. Calculate amount of capacitance in kVAR needed to correct to a 0.9 PF How much is capacitance in microfarads?

Draw Power Triangle


KVA = 1000/0.707 = 1414 KVAR = sqrt (1414^2 1000^2) = 1000 = acos(0.707) = 45o KW = 1000

Graphical Representation of Power


PF = 0.707

1000 800 600

Power

400 200 0 0 -200 -400 Time Real Reactive Apparent 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

PF Example Continued
KVA = 1000/0.9 = 1111

Slide 1 of 4

KVAR = sqrt (1111^2 1000^2) = 484

= acos(0.9) = 25.8o KW = 1000 Added kVAR = 1000 - 484 = 516

Comparison
KVAR = 1000

KVAR = 484

KW = 1000 Added kVAR = 1000 - 484 = 516

Graphical Representation of Power


PF = 0.9

800 700 600 500 400


Power

300 200 100 0 -100 0 -200 -300 Time Real Reactive Apparent 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

PF Example Continued
C = ( kVAR 103 ) / (2 f ) (kV)2

Slide 2 of 4

= ( 500 103 ) / (2 60 ) (0.480)2 = 5,759 microfarads

Note: 480 volts was the assumed voltage.

PF Example Continued
A M Utility Source

Slide 3 of 4

Load B 1000 kW 0.707 pf C

Meter reads 0.9 pf

PF Example Continued
kVA before was 1414 kVA after pf correction is 1111 Reduced kVA is 303 kVA

Slide 4 of 4

What is the reduction in amps supplied by the utility?

Reduced amps is 303 / ( 0.480 1.732 ) = 364 amps

Benefits
Reduced I2R losses Less voltage drop. VLN = I Zeq Reduced conductor size. Possible reduce substation transformer size. ProvidesVoltage support

Harmonics
Multiple of the fundamental frequency distortions. 5th = 300 Hz, 7th = 420 Hz Created by non-linear devices such as UPS systems, rectifiers, VFDs, welders, fluorescent ballasts, personal computers IEEE 519-1992

th 5
1.5 1

Harmonic Distortion

0.5

0 0 -0.5 2 4 6 8 10 12

-1

-1.5
Fundamental
5th Harmonic
Total

th, 5
1.5 1

th, 7

th 11

th 13

Harmonics

0.5

0 0 -0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6

-1

-1.5
Total
Fundamental

Harmonic Resonance
Occurs when capacitance reactance and system reactance are equal. Large currents circulate between transformer and capacitor. Higher voltages may occur across equipment. Usually 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th are the frequencies of most concern

Systems Harmonic Resonance


Previous Example: 1500 kVA Transformer, %Z = 5.75 500 kVAR of Capacitance Harmonic Order = h = sqrt( kVASC / kVAR ) kVASC = kVA / (%Z/100) = 1500 = 1500/0.0575 = 26,087 h = sqrt (26,087 / 500 ) = 7.22

Easy Power Model

Load has 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th Harmonics each with 10% Current Distortion

150.00

F r e q u e n c y S c a n - I n j e c t io n o n B U S - 2
B US -2

135.00

120.00

105.00

90.00

Zpu Magnitude

75.00

60.00

45.00

30.00

15.00

0.00 1.0

2.2

3.4

4.6

5.8

7.0

8.2

9.4

10.6

11.8

13.0

H a rm o n ic

Documented Sources
GE Corporation, GE Low Voltage Power Factor Correction Capacitors GEP-974-G, 2003 Su, Kendall L. Fundamentals of Circuit Analysis, Waveland Press, 1993 Matthes, John H. Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Building Electrical Systems. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993