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Presented by: Alan L. OQuinn, P.E. Team Power Solutions, LLC

aoquinn@teampowersolutions.com (404) 213-8368

Usually adding capacitance to Power System. Ideal power factor is 1.0 Typical industrial complex is 0.65 0.8 pf.

Motor loads are inductive and need VARs.

R M

=>

Wastes Power Overloads Equipment Costs Money Uses Up Natural Resources

Complex Power

Apparent Power = S = P + j Q Real Power = P = | V | | I | cos () Reactive Power = Q = | V | | I | sin () Power Factor = PF = cos () VA W VAR

I = kVA / kV = kW / (kV PF) kVA = kV I kW = kVA PF

I = kVA / ( kV 1.732 ) = kW / (kV 1.732 PF) kVA = kV 1.732 I kW = kVA PF

Power Triangle

KVA

KVAR

KW

Classic PF Example

Facility has peak demand of 1000 kW Load Power Factor is 0.707 lagging Calculate kVAR. Calculate amount of capacitance in kVAR needed to correct to a 0.9 PF How much is capacitance in microfarads?

KVA = 1000/0.707 = 1414 KVAR = sqrt (1414^2 1000^2) = 1000 = acos(0.707) = 45o KW = 1000

PF = 0.707

Power

400 200 0 0 -200 -400 Time Real Reactive Apparent 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

PF Example Continued

KVA = 1000/0.9 = 1111

Slide 1 of 4

Comparison

KVAR = 1000

KVAR = 484

PF = 0.9

Power

300 200 100 0 -100 0 -200 -300 Time Real Reactive Apparent 0.005 0.01 0.015 0.02

PF Example Continued

C = ( kVAR 103 ) / (2 f ) (kV)2

Slide 2 of 4

PF Example Continued

A M Utility Source

Slide 3 of 4

PF Example Continued

kVA before was 1414 kVA after pf correction is 1111 Reduced kVA is 303 kVA

Slide 4 of 4

Benefits

Reduced I2R losses Less voltage drop. VLN = I Zeq Reduced conductor size. Possible reduce substation transformer size. ProvidesVoltage support

Harmonics

Multiple of the fundamental frequency distortions. 5th = 300 Hz, 7th = 420 Hz Created by non-linear devices such as UPS systems, rectifiers, VFDs, welders, fluorescent ballasts, personal computers IEEE 519-1992

th 5

1.5 1

Harmonic Distortion

0.5

0 0 -0.5 2 4 6 8 10 12

-1

-1.5

Fundamental

5th Harmonic

Total

th, 5

1.5 1

th, 7

th 11

th 13

Harmonics

0.5

0 0 -0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6

-1

-1.5

Total

Fundamental

Harmonic Resonance

Occurs when capacitance reactance and system reactance are equal. Large currents circulate between transformer and capacitor. Higher voltages may occur across equipment. Usually 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th are the frequencies of most concern

Previous Example: 1500 kVA Transformer, %Z = 5.75 500 kVAR of Capacitance Harmonic Order = h = sqrt( kVASC / kVAR ) kVASC = kVA / (%Z/100) = 1500 = 1500/0.0575 = 26,087 h = sqrt (26,087 / 500 ) = 7.22

Load has 5th, 7th, 11th and 13th Harmonics each with 10% Current Distortion

150.00

F r e q u e n c y S c a n - I n j e c t io n o n B U S - 2

B US -2

135.00

120.00

105.00

90.00

Zpu Magnitude

75.00

60.00

45.00

30.00

15.00

0.00 1.0

2.2

3.4

4.6

5.8

7.0

8.2

9.4

10.6

11.8

13.0

H a rm o n ic

Documented Sources

GE Corporation, GE Low Voltage Power Factor Correction Capacitors GEP-974-G, 2003 Su, Kendall L. Fundamentals of Circuit Analysis, Waveland Press, 1993 Matthes, John H. Introduction to the Design and Analysis of Building Electrical Systems. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993

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