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SET-1 Page1 . leading. A manager's title reflects what he/she is responsible for. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). many manager titles. organizing. A Night Manager is responsible for the activities that take place at night. and taking corrective action when necessary. RAHUL GUPTA. Organizin g: After a plan is in place. but does not need to be the best in any or all of the areas. The manager has the authority to change the work assignments of team members. There are many management functions in business a nd. It is more important for the manager to know how to manage the workers than to know how to do their work well.1 “ Today managers need to perform various functions”: Elaborate the statement? A Manager is the person responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of individuals. The Manager of Design Engineering supervises engineers and support staff engaged in design of a product or service. inventory. directing. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. In larger companies. monitoring and controlling the people and their work. Managers may direct workers directly or they may direct several supervisors who direct the workers. and controlling. therefore. this is their first step into a management career. Say. for example. Good managers discover how to master five basic functions: planning. A manager may have the power to hire or fire employees or to promote them. the manager is responsible for planning. An Accounting Manager supervises the Accounting function. P lannin g: This step involves mapping out exactly how to achieve a particular goal. These steps may include increasing advertising.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Q. a manager may only recommend such action to the next level of management. When the plan is in place. Assigning work and granting authority are two important elements of organizing. The manager must be familiar with the work of all the groups he/she supervises. the manager can follow it to accomplish the goal of improving company sales. that the organization's goal is to improve company sales. An Operations Manager is responsible for the operations of the company. Regardless of title. staffing. monitoring their work. The manager first needs to decide which steps are necessary to accomplish that goal. and sales staff. a manager needs to organize her team and materials according to her plan. These necessary steps are developed into a plan. Functions of Managers: Managers just don't go out and haphazardly perform their responsib ilities. For many people.

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selecting. but the amount of time a manager spends on each one depends on both the level of management and the specific organization. organizer. In addition. Roles performed by managers: A manager wears many hats. training. managers' schedules are usually jam-packed. Decisional: This role involves decision making. communicating. All managers at all levels of every organization perform these functions. a manager's job is not finished. He needs to continuously check results against goals and take any corrective actions necessary to make sure that his area's pl ans remain on track. She must also lead. managers often find little spare time on their calendars. And these are just a few of a manager's roles. or strategy sessions. SET-1 Page2 • • • . SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Following are some of the skills and personal characteristics RAHUL GUPTA. organize. Lead ing : A manager needs to do more than just plan. and problem solve with employees. Co ntro lling: After the other elements are in place. or specialized skills that contribute to high performance in a management job. A manager in a large organization often works with the company's human resources department to accomplish this goal. coach. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Whether they're busy with employee meetings. and encouraging. assist. Leading involves motivating. Not only is a manager a team leader. and decision maker — all rolled into one. guiding. human. Business and management educators are increasingly interested in helping people acquire technical. problem solver. and conceptual skills. (And that doesn't even include responding to e-mail!) In his classic book.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Staffing: After a manager discerns his area's needs. The Nature o f Managerial Work. Henry Mintzberg describes a set of ten roles that a manager fills. but he or she is also a planner. and staff her team to achieve a goal. It requires the manager to coach. he may decide to beef up his staffing by recruiting. Informational: This role involves the sharing and analyzing of information. unexpected problems. and developing employees. These roles fall into three categories: Interpersonal: This role involves human interaction. cheerleader. and develop specific competencies.

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and phone calls. Leadership — ability to influence others to perform tasks Self-objectivity — ability to evaluate yourself realistically Analytic thinking — ability to interpret and explain patterns in information Behavioral flexibility — ability to modify personal behavior to react objectively rather than subjectively to accomplish organizational goals Oral communication — ability to express ideas clearly in words Written communication — ability to express ideas clearly in writing P ersonal impact — ability to create a good impression and instill confidence Resistance to stress — ability to perform under stressful conditions Tolerance for uncertainty — ability to perform in ambiguous situations • • • • • • • • • Category Role Activity Informational Monitor Seek and receive information. purchases. Liaison Maintain information links both inside and outside organization via mail. scan periodicals and reports. identify new ideas and delegate idea responsibility to others. Decisional Entrepreneur Initiate improvement projects. such as greeting visitors and signing legal documents. memos. Interpersonal Figurehead Perform ceremonial and symbolic duties. . adapt to environments. reports. Spokesperson Transmit information to outsiders via reports.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR that the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) is urging business schools to help their students develop. and speeches. phone calls. sales. counsel and communicate with subordinates. maintain personal contact with stakeholders. Leader Direct and motivate subordinates. Disseminator Forward information to organization members via memos. and budgets. prepare budgets. Resource allocator Decide who gets resources. Negotiator Represent department during negotiations of union contracts. resolve conflicts among subordinates. set schedules and determine priorities. and meetings. Disturbance handler Take corrective action during disputes or crises.

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Comparing actuals with the standard. indeed. The Levels of Management Management can be classified into three levels. Middle level management is responsible for developing departmental goals and initiate actions that are required to achieve organizational objectives. the further you will have to look.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Although all three categories contain skills essential for managers. The Essentials of control activities are: Setting performance standards. Taking corrective actions. While a team member will be working towards known and RAHUL GUPTA. Top management sets the goals of the organization. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. THREE FACES OF A MANAGER The manger of a small team has three major roles to play: Planner A Manager has to take a long-term view. Supervisory management takes charge of day-to-day operations at the floor level and is involved in preparing detailed short-range plans. evaluates the overall performance of various departments involved in selection of key personnel and consults subordinate managers on subjects or problems of general scope. They are top management. the higher you rise. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Determining the yard-stick for measuring performance. Measuring the actual performance. if actual do not match with standards. middle management and supervisory or first-level management. SET-1 Page4         . The number of managerial jobs in an organization varies with the level of management. their relative importance tends to vary by level of managerial responsibility.

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SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. the manager ensures that work is not repeated nor problems tackled too late. In any company. If someone in your team brings forward a good plan. there is some authority which the manager holds uniquely within the team. If someone is in your team has a problem at work. you must ensure that it receives a fair hearing and that your team knows and understands the outcome. It is as much trainable skill as it is inherent ability. Here are some things that make you a better manager: As a person: RAHUL GUPTA. and the manager must exercise this to help the team to work. If a new project emerges which is to be given to your team. SET-1 Page5 . Provider The Manager has access to information and materials which the team needs. the manager must look further ahead so that these goals are selected wisely. By thinking about the eventual consequences of different plans. the manager selects the optimal plan for the team and implements it.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR established goals. as much science as art. Often he/she has the authority or influence to acquire things which no one else in the team could. I believe anyone can be a good manager. and that the necessary resources are allocated and arranged. you are responsible for costing it (especially in terms of time) so that your team is not given an impossible deadline. This role for the manager is important simply because no one else can do the job. By taking account of the needs not only of the next project but the project after that. The manager should be there to guard against these and to protect the team. Protector The team needs security from the vagaries of less enlightened managers. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). you have to deal with it. there are short-term excitements which can deflect the workforce from the important issues.

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You are happy with whom you are. not as power to be hoarded. Management is a people skill . MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Your success depends heavily on the trust of others. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. • You are a little bit crazy. • You are honest and straight forward. • You are nimble and can change plans quickly. SET-1 Page6 . you admit the mistake. but can change your mind. but don’t apologize for having tried. You make plans and schedules and work toward them. You don’t have to be the life of the party. You bring others into what you do. You try new things and if they fail. You will then use this to identify areas you regard as strengths and potential RAHUL GUPTA. but you can’t be a wallflower. dependable. • You are not afraid to “do the math”. but you are not flighty. • You are an include not an excluder. The questions below will help you focus on your own job and start to develop a picture of what your job is all about. Effective leaders have a quality about them that makes people notice when they enter a room. This material will help identify the activities you carry out in your role of manager. Q. You think out-of-the box. • You are something of an extrovert. You don’t exclude other because they lack certain attributes. On the job: • You are consistent. Managers must lead.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR • You have confidence in yourself and your abilities. ? All managers need to understand the nature of the job they are in. Any weaknesses identified should be used as improvement opportunities and careful thought will need to be given to identifying how these could be addressed through the opportunities available for training and development. You make decisions.it’s not the job for someone who doesn’t enjoy people.2 “Skills are the tool for performance”-Explain various management skills. • You see information as a tool to be used. but not rigid. but easily accept input from others. • You have a ‘presence’. but you are still learning and getting better. This will provide a basis for considering your strengths and weaknesses.

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• Determines information needs. • Schedules activities.  The manager with regard to the team: Having looked at the manager with regard to the job you can now consider activities that a manager may carry out with regard to the team. Read through the list and for each activity try to think of a specific example related to your experience as a RAHUL GUPTA. • Develops his or her skills and knowledge. • Manages his or her time. • Prepares plans. • Thinks creatively and logically. Read through the list and for each activity try to think of a specific example related to your experience as a manager. • Copes with stress.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR weaknesses. • Monitors progress. • Analyses. • Sets and agrees budgets. • Makes decisions. • Establishes control systems. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). • Sets priorities.  The manager with regard to the job: Below is a list of the types of activities that managers undertake with regard to the job. A manager: • Makes forecasts. • Calculates and weighs risks. • Determines goals. • Adjusts to change. By knowing your strengths and weaknesses you will be able to determine areas for improving your personal effectiveness. • Exercises control. • Establishes and uses management information systems. SET-1 Page7 . SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22.

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Again read through the list and for each activity try to think of a specific example related to your experience as a manager.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR manager. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. • Adopts appropriate management styles. • Negotiates.  The manager with regard to the organization. • Identifies team needs. persuades and influences. • Writes reports and correspondence. • Sets performance standards. A manager: • Builds and maintains the team. • Improves the quality of working life. • Resolves conflicting objectives. SET-1 Page8 . • Monitors and appraises performance. • Counsels and advises. Many of these activities are attributed to senior managers. Now turn your attention to activities that a manager may carry out with regard to the organization. • Makes presentations. • Communicates effectively. A manager: RAHUL GUPTA. • Provides opportunities for training and development. • Develops team members. • Selects staff. • Interviews. • Appraises staff. • Conducts and participates in meetings. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Don't worry if you are unable to relate some of these to your current role. • Designs jobs.

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The process refers to how the parties negotiate: the context of the negotiations. It is the primary method of alternative dispute resolution. process and tools. among nations and in personal situations such as marriage. to bargain for individual or collective advantage. both sides make an argument as to the merits of their "case" and then the arbitrator decides the outcome for both parties.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes. legal proceedings. Strategy comprises the top level goals . as with a legal proceeding. to produce an agreement upon courses of action. One view of negotiation involves three basic elements: process. and tactics. behavior and substance. It can be compared to mediation where a disinterested third party listens to each side’s arguments and attempts to help craft an agreement between the parties. There are many different ways to segment negotiation to gain a greater understanding of the essential parts. the options. or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. The substance refers to what the parties negotiate over: the agenda. The study of the subject is called negotiation theory. and past participle of negotiate which means "to carry on business". the issues (positions and . "negotiatus". the communication between them and the styles they adopt. non-profit organizations and government branches. The word "negotiation" is from the Latin expression. B) Approaches to negotiation: Negotiation typically manifests itself with trained negotiator acting on behalf of a particular organization or position. Another view of negotiation comprises 4 elements: strategy.more helpfully interests). the tactics used by the parties. Behavior refers to the relationships among these parties. It is also related to arbitration which. and the agreement(s) reached at the end. parenting. divorce. Negotiation occurs in business. Processes and tools include the steps that will be followed and the roles taken in both preparing for and negotiating with the other . and everyday life.typically including relationship and the final outcome. and the sequence and stages in which all of these play out. the parties to the negotiations.

RAHUL GUPTA. and so should not be omitted. SET-1 Page1 7 . SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Tactics include more detailed statements and actions and responses to others' statements and actions. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM).parties. Some add to this persuasion and influence. asserting that these have become integral to modern day negotiation success.

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Customers 1. 4. terms and working conditions. Striking a contract with the customer. 4) Legal advisers 1. Suppliers. Management. Negotiations with financial institutions as regarding the availability of capital. Public. 3. Adhering to the laws of the local and . 2.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR TYPES OF NEGOTIATION IN ORGANIZATIONS : TYPES PARTI ES INVOLVED EX AMPL ES Day-to-day/ Managerial Negotiations 1) Different levels of Management. Customers. Government. 1. Commercial Negotiations 1. Government 2. 2) In between colleagues. 3) Trade unions. 2. Description of the job and fixation of responsibility. Legal Negotiations 1. 2. 6. Trade unions. 3. Negotiation for pay. 7. Legal advisors. Increasing productivity. 3. Management 3. 5. Negotiations for the price and quality of goods to be purchased.

direct the record keeping and many more activities for smooth functioning 2. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. It is in regards to the working relationship between the groups of employees. the superior needs to allot job responsibilities. SET-1 Page1 8 . the manager needs to interact with the members at different levels in the organization structure. Day-to-day / Managerial Negotiations: Such types of negotiations are done within the organization and are related to the internal problems in the organization. For conducting the day-today business. maintain a flow of information.national government. 1. Commercial Negotiations: RAHUL GUPTA. Usually. internally. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM).

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They can. It relates to foregoing of one resource to get the other. Accommodators are sensitive to the emotional states. The driving forces behind such negotiations are usually financial gains. making a decision rather than negotiating about it may be the best tactic. 2. Collaborators are good at using negotiations to understand the concerns and interests of the other parties. 1. however. When negotiating. Individuals can often have strong dispositions towards numerous styles. Commercial negotiations successfully end up into contracts. styles can change over time. They can. Legal Negotiations These negotiations are usually formal and legally binding. among other factors. feel taken advantage of in situations when the other party places little emphasis on the relationship. By asking whether it is necessary. SET-1 Page1 9 . and verbal signals of the other parties. avoiders tend to defer and dodge the confrontational aspects of negotiating. Accommodating: Individuals who enjoy solving the other party’s problems and preserving personal relationships. RAHUL GUPTA. They are based on a give-and-take relationship. On occasions. C)Other Negotiation Styles: Shell identified five styles/responses to negotiation. IS NEGOTIATION NECESSARY? Negotiation. Disputes over precedents can become as significant as the main issue. at times can be a lengthy and cumbersome process. create problems by transforming simple situations into more complex ones. time may sometimes be saved and unnecessary compromise avoided. however. the style used during a negotiation depends on the context and the interests of the other party. Collaborating: Individuals who enjoy negotiations that involve solving tough problems in creative ways.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Such types of negotiations are conducted with external parties. 3. In addition. however. 3. body language. If a manager has the undoubted authority to act. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Avoiding: Individuals who do not like to negotiate and don’t do it unless warranted. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. a request to negotiate may best be met by pointing out that the party making the request has no standing in the matter. They are also contractual in nature and relate to gaining legal ground. they may be perceived as tactful and diplomatic.

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extroverts. D) 10 Ways to Generate More Ideas: 1. 3. SET-1 Page2 0 . Add physical movement. All ideas are possibilities. Sleep on it. Anthropologist and consumer expert Clotaire Rapaille [9] suggests that the transitions between wakefulness and sleep allow new RAHUL GUPTA. No one should criticize. Explain that by exploring crazy ideas that better ideas are often generated. culture. This both helps establish who you are and what point of view you are bringing to this collaboration. competitive negotiators often neglect the importance of relationships. Trust is key. outsiders) to the group. and silence is ok. and research shows that combining ideas from different cultures can result in better outcomes than those from a single culture. 8. there are three sticking points where neither side is happy. Use storytelling. 6. different work specialties. Compromisers can be useful when there is limited time to complete the deal. Indeed. Work holistically and using visuals. for example. are also helpful. coffee. etc. and difficult to establish in many cultures. however. Certain techniques might speed that process a little. 5. Competitive negotiators have strong instincts for all aspects of negotiating and are often strategic. Compromising: Individuals who are eager to close the deal by doing what is fair and equal for all parties involved in the negotiation.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 4. A more workable deal? Some common long term goals? A closer partnership? 2. Use techniques of improvisation. 4. Neither side should be offended by the crazy ideas. Tell the participants to relax. Competing: Individuals who enjoy negotiations because they present an opportunity to win something. Other kinds of breaks. Establishing physical proximity that unconsciously signals intimacy. This enables the unconscious to work on the problems. The overnight part is particularly important. for example. compromisers often unnecessarily rush the negotiation process and make concessions too quickly. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). 7. If. Establish common goals of what this "collaboration" would create. and gives negotiators time to collect opinions before meeting again the next day. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. the diversity associated with international teams and alliances is the real goldmine of creativity in negotiations. agree to work on those points by spending a short time – 10 minutes – on each point where both sides offer "crazy" suggestions. Because their style can dominate the bargaining process. have fun. experts. 5. Being offsite. The purpose of the exercise is to resolve differences in creative ways that work better for both parties. play. sing. Establish the rules of engagement. Work in small groups. Add diversity (gender.

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particularly towards the end. Note also that in practice. Explore: Seek understanding and possibility. RAHUL GUPTA. 3. you may find variations on these. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. SET-1 Page2 1 . Signal: Indicate your readiness to work together. 7. and actually generates better and more polished ideas that both sides can invest in. There are deliberately a larger number of stages in this process as it is designed to break down important activities during negotiation. Sustain: Make sure what is agreed happens. 6. rather than the specific proposals. It is particularly suited to more complex.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR kinds of thinking “…calming their brainwaves. E) Process of Negotiation: There are eight stages in the process of negotiation. Prepare: Know what you want. This is a unique combination framework that puts together the best of many other approaches to negotiation. stages overlapping. 9. It is an easy trap to try to jump to the end with a solution that is inadequate and unacceptable. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). 2. Expose theirs. 8. Package: Assemble potential trades. stages running parallel and even out of order. 1. highervalue and slower negotiations. which creates bonding around a shared task and establishes new ways of working together. Close: Reach final agreement. Argue: Support your case. for example there may be loops back to previous stages. It is the process of creating something together. Hear theirs. Understand them. getting them to that tranquil point just before sleep” (page 8). Each side feels honored and all can feel that something is being accomplished. 5. 4. Doing this process over several sessions allows both sides to feel that progress is being made. Open: Put your case. 10.

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Preparation also includes your appearance. hoping to gain advantage from their confusion. if this is appropriate. you can now develop the concession strategy. A smart appearance signals a smart mind. It also includes mental and emotional preparation. In a surprise negotiation. 2) O p e n : The purpose of the opening stage of negotiation is to position yourself and your needs. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Finally. invite the other person to join you. categorizing them against stereotypes and other internal models. buy new clothes and ensure you are clean and well-groomed on the day. If you can choose the time and the place. you should thus seek to create the desired impression RAHUL GUPTA. As necessary get your hair styled. If it is a big negotiation. When meeting the other person. This will include the use of variables where you can made trades in many different areas. both as a outcome and in the process of negotiation. letting the other person know what you want. Choose a right time for the negotiation can be very useful. SET-1 Page2 3 . you can add further control over the tone of the meeting. The negotiation thus effectively starts well before the talking starts in earnest. whereby you will make exchanges in order to gain final agreement.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Develop your concession strategy: When you know where to start. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Set up the meeting: Finally. set up the negotiation meeting itself. The importance of opening : The first few seconds The beginning of any relationship is critically important as each person sizes up the other. Being personally prepared includes knowledge of the situation and others as described above. which can make all the difference. you might invite them to a 'meeting' in which you spring the negotiation on them. then you may want to catch up on any lost sleep or maybe take a day or two to wind down.

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MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR right from the start. thus setting the context for your explaining later how you cannot accept a low price. it positions you as capable of doing whatever it takes. you might start by explaining how your wife is pregnant and will be giving up work soon. Also match the length of the story to the negotiation -.there are many reasons why you should listen. If you are expecting to negotiate all day. it is important to be confident and show that you know what you are doing and where you are going. Listen to their case When it is your turn to listen. then you might start with an agreeable and friendly greeting. then this encourages the other person to trust you. whilst for a competitive approach. State the need Explain what you need as a result of the contextual situation. Make it clear what you want from the other person. especially in a negotiation. In some situations this is clear and simple. If you want to negotiate collaboratively. Be confident Whatever style you use. The only interaction you have with them is active . do so actively. to listen without interruption. The first stage of listening is. for example that you are desperate to sell the car. basically. and in negotiation information really is power. when selling your car. you may take a strongly assertive or even aggressive position in order to intimidate and dominate the other person. Thus. for example. for example if you are negotiating an employment contract then there may be many terms and conditions to consider.if it is a quick exchange. If you intend to be competitive. Showing respect and interest will get them to give you more information. then a somewhat longer explanatory preamble may well be appropriate. Listening is not just being polite -. Be careful with this to legitimize your later arguments whilst not showing that you are in a weak negotiating positions. and then keep it to a few words. whilst in others you may have multiple needs. If you seek to be collaborative. Show that your need is real and legitimate. State your case The context around a negotiation provides information that justifies and explains the need.

SET-1 Page2 4 .listening methods that encourage them to talk. You can pause them to paraphrase RAHUL GUPTA. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22.

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it may be because they are not comfortable talking about this. Understand the person Think about the person with whom you are negotiating.. the serious exchange of views begins. Listen to the inner person. Identify their interests and goals that underlie the positions they are taking.. Note that in a collaborative negotiation. a) Erode their position: RAHUL GUPTA. Find out what power they have and how they might use it. but keep such interruptions to a minimum.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR back what you have heard and you can ask them for clarification. Sustain a gentle approach of interest. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). I can see that you do not take risks lightly. If they have left out areas that you might have expected them to cover. you can then ask deeper questions to probe for further information. you will have many alternative routes to satisfying them. This can be uncomfortable as the goal is to strengthen your own position whilst weakening the other person's position. preferences and schemas. When you know what is driving them. Your goal is to make it easy for them to tell you more about their situation. Nevertheless. Find what they really want Understand how they prefer to satisfy their needs. curiosity and general inquiry. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. discovering their beliefs. the points may still apply to some extent. If you make it sound like an audit or inquisition. values. SET-1 Page2 5 . 3 ) Argue : In the argument stage. then they may well stop talking. the argument may be gentile and polite to the point where it does not seem like argument. Then probe for understanding When they have made their case.

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add rationality and cause. Hint that what they want is not yours to give. Then use what you discover to undermine what they are proposing as unquestionable truth.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Respond to the positions and claims of their opening statements and subsequent arguments. Show how requirements are not legitimate. and the way you do this will set the tone for the rest of the negotiation. Simply asserting that they are wrong may only serve to annoy them and make them more determined. Depending on your approach. Weaken their truth When they make assertions. Probe for the evidence behind asserted truths. your attack on their position may be aggressive. and that anything else is falsehood. Change probabilities. then show how they cannot possibly get these or otherwise reduce what they will ask for. Show how things asserted as always true are only sometimes true. SET-1 Page2 6 . MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Overall. Minimize benefits to you If they are claiming that something they have is of value to you. empathetic or apologetic. you can show how what is on offer is not that important. you are seeking to refute their argument. Manage their needs When they tell of the things that they want from the negotiation and you would find it difficult to give them this. Use clear forms of reasoning that show how you are speaking the whole truth. falsehoods and irrelevancies. RAHUL GUPTA. Strengthen your truth Where you have stated something as true in your opening argument. pointing out the limitations. Demonstrate objective evidence that proves your case. question them more closely. rational. Test the reasoning they are using. Note that erosion of their position is effective only when they feel less certain or that they have less to bargain with. Show your impartiality by considering the (weakened) arguments against your case. This is relatively easy to do as only you determine value of what you might get. Indicate how they can get what they want elsewhere.

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a good first step in getting together is to find those things where you agree with the other person. It is easy for areas of difference to overshadow that the people involved are not that different after all. SET-1 Page2 7 . SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Find areas of difference RAHUL GUPTA. you can find the specific areas where negotiation is needed. and early positioning may have made the way forward difficult to see. it also builds the relationship between you. seeking a way forward.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 4) E x p l o r e : So far. Finding areas of agreement helps to shrink the areas where you have to negotiate. This may also be done during earlier stages. however. no agreements have been made. Having established what you each want. • Discover areas of agreement and difference In many negotiations it can be surprising how much both parties may agree. making it easy to reach agreement. you can now move towards one another. Find areas of similarity Particularly when you are far apart. Find areas of agreement When you are negotiating. the focus on what you want as opposed to what they want can make it seem like you are miles apart. Exploration not only gains you more information about the other person and their needs. It is generally a mistake to go fast during a negotiation and taking time to explore can pay back significantly later. By saying 'we agree on this and that'. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Finding agreement with the other person demonstrates similarity and hence creates bonding with them. when in fact you may be quite near to an equitable solution.

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you can accept that they have the right to have different views and wants to you. even though you do not agree with what they want. then finding where you really disagree is easier.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR When you know where you agree. • Indicate possibility Use words that indicate possibility. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). At the very least. signaling is a conciliatory move that indicates a willingness to negotiate. Show readiness to move A signal is a subtle indicator to the other person that you may be willing to negotiate. This is seldom done openly as this would contradict the opening and argument. An effective way to enable others to accept differences is to accept the person. SET-1 Page2 8 . Qualify statements Add qualifiers that indicate how you might just be persuaded to do something that you would not normally do or that you may agree to something other than what you originally wanted. The fact that you agree makes it easier to work together and accept areas of difference. Use open body language RAHUL GUPTA. 5) S i g n a l: Signaling is a relatively short phase of activity in which (usually) both parties prepare to move from their initial position. Signaling is not making a verbal statement and effectively saves face. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. opening out the potential for a different future that you may have painted in your opening statement. providing an excuse to subsequently move from your original position (or to backtrack if the other person is not ready to collaborate). After early positions and explorations. A common source of difference is that is not always clear is that people are driven by fundamentally different goals.

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SET-1 Page2 9 . does their stance change? When you move from matching their body language to a more open position. with indications of welcome (such as open arms) and relaxed. Use gestures that move in time with your signals.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Open body language sends even more subtle signals of readiness. Body signaling can be enhanced by starting with closed body language and then moving to an open position at the same time that you use verbal signaling. But what you have actually done by this is to show that if you make a move and they do not reciprocate. then they will get this signal and concede in return. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). respond by opening your body language further and responding with a further encouraging signal. It can seem that they are blind to signals and if you move to concession. Watch their face when you signal. Is it more relaxed? Are they using qualifiers and indicating possibility? Do not concede If they do not signal. then you will give something more. smiling face. Respond to their signals When they signal in return (or maybe they signaled first). Match the other person's movements to show empathy. Show that you approve of their movement by rewarding them with more attention and acceptance. do they follow you? Hear the signals Listen for their verbal signals. it can be tempting to try something more overt. Hear the tone of voice that they use. Are there signs of hope appearing? Do they seem to have recognized that you have gone from arguing your case towards moving towards them? Also watch their body language. the next step is to wait for them to signal in return. Wait for their signal When you have signaled to the other person. This is simply encouragement for them to wait for more concessions. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. When you signal. 6) Package: RAHUL GUPTA. such as conceding on something.

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SET-1 Page3 0 . 7) Close: RAHUL GUPTA. quantity. start by looking for things that you can exchange and where they might concede to you. finding focus for resolution and creatively identifying possible solutions. If you are dealing in physical items. Support them in problemsolving. The danger with elegant negotiable is that you give them away without realizing that you can use them to get something valuable in exchange. Trade in variables: When looking for things to exchange. If you are talking about money. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. consider who pays what to whom when and how often. but the other person finds particularly attractive. They are thus easy for you to give away but are valued by the other person. Identify agreeable trades: In putting together potential agreements. weight and other attributes.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR In this stage. Help them think Use the Columbus technique and Socratic questioning to draw them out. consider size. Help them understand variables and elegant negotiable. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). If you are talking about action. The final agreement is not yet being hammered out and you are still dealing in possibilities. By sustaining an atmosphere of openness. consider when and where it will occur. This is one reason why you should do lots of listening before diving into making trades. identifying causes and why things have happened. you make it possible for both you and them to consider alternatives exchanges without feeling obliged to complete the exchange. clarifying the problem on which you are working together. find the variables of the things in which you are dealing. Use elegant negotiable Your elegant negotiable are those things that you have that you do not value very highly. the goal is to build potential solutions.

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Confirm the agreement RAHUL GUPTA. Watch their response. Use ready body language that aligns with your words. If they do not seem ready. you can use a trial close to nudge the other person closer to agreement. This may occur as sudden appearance of objections and other reasons why they might not want to complete the deal. Handle final objections and doubts The realization of impending closure can cause people to panic in case they have forgotten something. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Handle opposition such as this with professional aplomb. Summarize the exchange A good thing to do at closure is to summarize what you believe has actually been agreed.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Move to closure As your packaging reaches a complete solution. Signal readiness to close Show your own readiness by using signals to indicate that you want to reach agreement. probe for reasons and return to packaging or handle objections as appropriate. you can move towards the idea of closing on a final deal. move further towards closure. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Use words like 'right' and 'ok'. showing that you are immune to deception or coercion. This assures that the other person also agrees and that there is a common understanding of who will do or give what. Handle last-minute tricks Tricky tactics such as the quivering quill may be used just before the close as the other person attempts to squeeze a few more drops of blood out of you. You can use objection-handling techniques to manage such situations. Attempt closure When things seem ready. SET-1 Page3 1 . and if they signal in return.

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such as: • Burning bridges: Ensure there is no way back. 'There's many a slip twixt cup and lip'. the situation may change and the negotiated agreement may move from being rather attractive to being rather unattractive. it is not over until the ink is dry and the exchange has irrevocably been made. Sustain their commitment When commitments were made in the excitement and pressure of the negotiation. And sometimes commitment just wanes. Many negotiations have a future element. it can be a very effective thing to do at the point of agreement. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). they may look a little less attractive in the cold light of day. In negotiation. SET-1 Page3 2 . where the main agreement is for future action. Understanding strong and weak commitment is thus important. It symbolizes the closure and is such a powerful social symbol in many different cultures that the other side will think twice about backing out. 'It's not over until the fat lady sings' is a common saying. and an earlier commitment might not be delivered as promised. Sustaining commitment is thus about making sure that people stay closed and that what was agreed in the Close stage stays agreed and gets delivered as promised. Particularly if there is a longer delay until the promises are completed. 8) Sustain: When the deal is closed and seems to be complete. There are many techniques for sustaining commitment. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. the end may not yet be in sight. all by itself. RAHUL GUPTA.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The final step of closure is to confirm the agreement and sign on the dotted line. Shake hands Although you may not literally shake hands. as they say.

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they will be doubly committed to the new arrangements. If you deliver just a little more than is expected. If the other person also benefits from this. Q. Where possible and appropriate. • Involvement: Give them an important role. Remember Kano's needs: deliver basic needs solidly. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). more appropriate agreement. you can create a very happy and loyal customer. The formula is 'delight = expectation + 1'. SET-1 Page3 3 . it is better to go and talk to the other party. and then add icing to the cake with some excitement needs. Keep your promises You too have made promises in the negotiation.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR • Evidence stream: Show them time and again that the change is happening. These need not (and should not) be over the top. It is good to follow the general rule: Do not negotiate unless you have to – or unless you can obtain some direct or indirect advantage by doing so. • Rites of passage: Use formal rituals to confirm change. which you must scrupulously keep. you will likely cause betrayal effects and lose any commitment.4 Explain Classical Conditioning Theory? A) Introduction: RAHUL GUPTA. • Golden handcuffs: Keep key people with delayed rewards. then rather than pull out without saying anything. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Renegotiate as necessary If the situation changes and the agreement are really not worth keeping in its current form. re-negotiation the deal. sealing commitment in a newer. • Reward alignment: Align rewards with desired behaviors. If you break promises. 'Under-promise and over-deliver' is an effective motto. performance needs carefully.

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SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Pavlov referred to this as a conditioned stimulus (CS) . Conversely. eye blink conditioning. The original and most famous example of classical RAHUL GUPTA. presentation of the significant stimulus necessarily evokes an innate. The neutral stimulus could be any event that does not result in an overt behavioral response from the organism under investigation. Pavlov Museum. [1] The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. and the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis. response. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired. B) Pavlov's experiment: One of Pavlov’s dogs with a surgically implanted cannula to measure salivation. often reflexive.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Classical conditioning ( a l s o Pavlovian o r respondent conditioning ) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov. Pavlov called this the c o n d itio n e d response (CR) . MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). 2005. Pavlov called these the unconditioned stimulus (US) and unconditioned response (UR) . Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and functions that underlie learning and memory include fear conditioning. respectively. eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. SET-1 Page3 4 .

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MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Pavlov noticed that. Pavlov used a metronome to call the dogs to their food and. rather than simply salivating in the presence of meat powder (an innate response to food that he called the unconditioned response ). the dogs started to salivate in response to the metronome. if a particular stimulus in the dog’s surroundings were present when the dog was presented with meat powder. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Pavlov called these psychic secretions . C) Types: Forward conditioning: RAHUL GUPTA. Pavlov referred to this learned relationship as a conditional reflex (now called conditioned response ). Thus. a neutral stimulus (metronome) became a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a result of consistent pairing with the unconditioned stimulus (US .meat powder in this example). after a few repetitions. During his research on the physiology of digestion in dogs. In his initial experiment. the dogs began to salivate in the presence of the lab technician who normally fed them. then this stimulus would become a s s o c i a t e d with food and cause salivation on its own. SET-1 Page3 5 . From this observation he predicted that.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR conditioning involved the salivary conditioning of Pavlov's dogs.

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It may also be called the "conditioning interval" RAHUL GUPTA. During forward conditioning the onset of the CS precedes the onset of the US. and then the US is presented. Delay Conditioning: In delay conditioning the CS is presented and is overlapped by the presentation of the US. The time interval increases from left to right. the CS is presented. The stimulus free period is called the t r a c e interval . Instead. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). a period of time is allowed to elapse during which no stimuli are presented. SET-1 Page3 6 . Two common forms of forward conditioning are delay and trace conditioning.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Diagram representing forward conditioning. • Trace conditioning: During trace conditioning the CS and US do not overlap.

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SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. RAHUL GUPTA. the CR frequency is reduced to pre-training levels. the CS and US are presented and terminate at the same time. or context. interval. rather than a reliable method of predicting the future occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus. SET-1 Page3 7 . D) Procedure variations: In addition to the simple procedures described above. can serve as the CS in this example. Temporal conditioning: The US is presented at regularly timed intervals. and CR acquisition is dependent upon correct timing of the interval between US presentations. Backward conditioning: Backward conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus immediately follows an unconditioned stimulus . This is because the conditioned stimulus serves as a signal that the unconditioned stimulus has ended. such as sensitization. Usually they are presented as independent trials that are separated by a variable. some classical conditioning studies are designed to tap into more complex learning processes. or pseudo-random. the conditioned response tends to be inhibitory. Unpaired conditioning: The CS and US are not presented together. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). This procedure is used to study non-associative behavioral responses. in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus. This procedure is usually done after the CR has been acquired through Forward conditioning training. CS-alone extinction: The CS is presented in the absence of the US. Some common variations are discussed below.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Simultaneous conditioning: During simultaneous conditioning. Eventually. Unlike traditional conditioning models. The background.

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organisms can learn to perform CRs that are appropriately timed for the two distinct CSs. The pre-exposure of the subject to the CS before paired training slows the rate of CR acquisition relative to organisms that are not CS pre-exposed.and its presentation is never followed by the US. CS+/CS. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. After a number of trials.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Classical discrimination/reversal conditioning: In this procedure. In this procedure. Latent inhibition conditioning: In this procedure. The other CS is designated CS. Using this technique. Typically. For example. but suppress responding on CS+/CS. The CSs may be the same modality (such as lights of different intensity). while a very bright light is presented 2 minutes before the US.. Phase 2: CS+/US trials are continued. one of the CSs is designated CS+ and its presentation is always followed by the US.trials such that CRs are only observed on CS+ trials. Classical ISI discrimination conditioning: This is a discrimination procedure in which two different CSs are used to signal two different interstimulus intervals. a dim light may be presented 30 seconds before a US.trials. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). During Reversal Training .e. SET-1 Page3 8 . Phase 3: RAHUL GUPTA. but interspersed with trials on which the CS+ in compound with a second CS. or they may be different modalities (such as auditory CS and visual CS). a CS is presented several times before paired CS-US training commences. the CS+ and CS. the organism learns to d i s c r i m i n a t e CS+ trials and CS. Conditioned inhibition conditioning: Three phases of conditioning are typically used: Phase 1: A CS (CS+) is not paired with a US until asymptotic CR levels are reached. two CSs and one US are typically used.trials). Also see Latent inhibition for applications.are reversed and subjects learn to suppress responding to the previous CS+ and show CRs to the previous CS-. organisms show CRs on CS+/US trials. but not with the US (i.

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is paired with the US. the previous CS. created by political scientists Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel based on the World Values Survey. or cultures have values that are largely shared by their members. that is.5How are culture and society responsible to built value system? • The Inglehart-Welzel Cultural Map of the World. If conditioned inhibition has occurred. Phase 1: A CS (CS1) is paired with a US. Phase 2: A compound CS (CS1+CS2) is paired with a US. the rate of acquisition to the previous CS. conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Blocking: This form of classical conditioning involves two phases. The values identify those objects. societies. The blocking effect is observed in a lack of conditioned response to CS2. RAHUL GUPTA. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM).should be impaired relative to organisms that did not experience Phase 2.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR In this retention test. Groups. suggesting that the first phase of training blocked the acquisition of the second CS Q. SET-1 Page3 9 . Test: A separate test for each CS (CS1 and CS2) is performed.

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the group's authority may carry out various ways of encouraging conformity or stigmatizing the non-conforming behavior of its members. professional athletes are honored (in the form of monetary payment) more than college professors. and competitiveness more than mental activity and education. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). • Members take part in a culture even if each member's personal values do not entirely agree with some of the normative values sanctioned in the culture. for example. RAHUL GUPTA. wealth. • Over the last three decades. imprisonment can result from conflict with social norms that have been established as law. This reflects an individual's ability to synthesize and extract aspects valuable to them from the multiple subcultures they belong to. affecting the beliefs. • Values are related to the norms of a culture. in part because the society respects personal values such as physical activity. Flying the national flag on a holiday is a norm. • Surveys show that voters in the United States would be reluctant to elect an atheist as a president. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. for example. This may also be the case because the society takes its education for granted and repays its teachers with non-tangible honors of relatively equal value with that of the athlete. Different cultures reflect different values. values might include material comfort. while values identify what should be judged as good or evil. but they are more general and abstract than norms. Cognitive moral education is based on the belief that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops. suggesting that belief in God is a value. They reflect the values of respect and support of friends and family. Values seemed to have changed. SET-1 Page4 0 . fitness. traditional-age college students have shown an increased interest in personal well-being and a decreased interest in the welfare of others. Wearing dark clothing and appearing solemn are normative behaviors at a funeral. and attitudes of college students. • If a group member expresses a value that is in serious conflict with the group's norms. individualism or religiosity. Norms are rules for behavior in specific situations. • The values of a society can often be identified by noting which people receive honor or respect. but it reflects the value of patriotism. In the US. Values clarification is.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR valuable. There is a difference between values clarification and cognitive moral education. "helping people clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for. In the United States. For example. competition. Students are encouraged to define their own values and understand others' values.

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Those with a high external locus of control believe that powerful others. either in general or in a specific area such as health or academics. I n t e r n a l s tend to attribute outcomes of events to their own control. This was . or chance primarily determine events. Locus of control personality orientations: Rotter (1975) cautioned that internality and externality represent two ends of a continuum. and are more likely to attempt to influence other people than those with a high external locus of control. and has since become an important aspect of personality studies. or to a professor who designs bad tests or grades capriciously. they are more likely to assume that their efforts will be successful. Internals were believed by Rotter (1966) to exhibit two essential characteristics . they are less likely to expect that their own efforts will result in success and are therefore less likely to work hard for high grades. Those with a high internal locus of control have better control of their behavior. Understanding of the concept was developed by Julian B. E x t e r n a l s attribute outcomes of events to external circumstances. whereas those with a strong e x t e r n a l locus of control may believe that their grades are the result of good or bad luck. Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events result primarily from their own behavior and actions. Locus of control refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. fate. tend to exhibit more political behaviors. college students with a strong i n t e r n a l locus of control may believe that their grades were achieved through their own abilities and efforts.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Q. 2.6Write short notes on A) L o c u s o f c o n t r o l : 1. Rotter in 1954.high achievement motivation and low outer-directedness. For example. hence. Introduction: Locus of control is a term in psychology which refers to a person's belief about what causes the good or bad results in his or her life. not an either/or typology. They are more active in seeking information and knowledge concerning their situation.

SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. Since 1970. for example. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). are organized by powerful RAHUL GUPTA. although this was actually based on Rotter's belief that locus of control is a unidimensional construct. such as belief that events in one's life are self-determined. Rotter's assumption of unidimensionality has been challenged. arguing that different dimensions of locus of control. SET-1 Page4 1 .the basis of the locus of control scale proposed by Rotter in 1966. with Levenson.

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MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR others and are chance-based. was that devised by W. supervised by Rotter at Ohio State University. and those which are related to specific areas. [4] Many measures of locus of control have appeared since Rotter's scale. Also of relevance to locus of control scale are the Crandall Intellectual Ascription of Responsibility Scale (Crandall. such as the Stanford Preschool Internal-External Control Index. unstable cause). Scales to measure locus of control in the health domain are reviewed by Furnham and Steele .H. such as The Duttweiler Control Index (Duttweiler. more-or-less orthogonal to the internality-externality dimension. industrial and organizational psychology and those specifically for children. James. effort (an internal unstable cause). and include those related to health psychology. Scales to measure locus of control: The most famous questionnaire to measure locus of control is the 13-item forced choice scale of Rotter (1966). using a Likerttype scale in contrast to the forced-choice alternative measure which can be found in Rotter's scale. although this remained an unpublished scale. such as health. which uses a five-point scale. task difficulty (an external stable cause) or luck (an external. must be separated. but this is not the only questionnaire indeed. suggested that. 1965). for his unpublished doctoral dissertation. Applications of locus of control theory: Locus of control's most famous application has probably been in the area of health psychology. 4. both those. 1984). and the Nowicki-Strickland Scale. largely thanks to the work of Kenneth Wallston. predating Rotter's work by five years is Bialer's (1961) 23-item scale for children. [3] One of the earliest psychometric scales to assess locus of control. [5] which is used for three to six year olds. This meant that attributions could be to ability (an internal stable cause). 3. Weiner's early work in the 1970s. Furnham and Steele (1993) cite data which suggest that the most reliable and valid of the questionnaires for adults is the Duttweiler scale. and those who attribute to unstable causes. we should also consider differences between those who attribute to stable causes. These scales are reviewed by Furnham and Steele(1993).

Some of the scales reviewed by Furnham and Steele (1993) relate to health in more specific domains. The latter scale is based on the idea. or luck. such as obesity (for example. or MHLC (Wallston. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Kaplan & Maides. 1976. such as one's doctor. echoing Levenson's earlier work. powerful others. Saltzer's ) (1982) Weight Locus of Control Scale or Stotland and Zuroff's (1990) Dieting Beliefs Scale). & DeVellis.internal factors. Wallston. such as selfdetermination of a healthy lifestyle. The most famous of these would be the Health Locus of Control Scale and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale. that health may be attributed to three possible outcomes . Wallston. or mental health (such as Wood RAHUL GUPTA.(1993). Wallston. 1976). SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. SET-1 Page4 2 .

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such as breast selfexamination. studies using behaviour-specific health locus scales have tended to produce more positive results (Lefcourt. i . e . these scales have been found to be more predictive of general behaviour than more general scales. 1988). Norman and Bennett argue that a stronger relationship is found when health locus of control is assessed for specific domains than when general measures of locus of control are taken. Jennings & Ward. cancer (Pruyn et al. These authors note that data on whether certain health-related behaviours are related to internal health locus of control have been ambiguous. 1990). Lewis.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR and Letak's (1982) Mental Health Locus of Control Scale or the Depression Locus of Control Scale of Whiteman. weight control and preventative health behaviours. 1988) and heart and lung disease (Allison... Empirical data on health locus of control in various fields has been reviewed by Norman and Bennett (1995). 1987)and cancer (the Cancer Locus of Control Scale of Pruyn et alia. they note that some studies found that internal health locus of control is linked with increased exercise. Norman and Bennett cite several studies which have used health-related locus of control scales in specific domains. Price. the value people attach to their . including smoking cessation (Georgio & Bradley. ("Overall. 1985). Desmond and Price. diabetes (Ferraro. They also argue that health locus of control is better at predicting health-related behaviour if studied in conjunction with health value. such as the MHLC scale" (Norman & Bennett. linking locus of control to management of diabetes mellitus. Desmond & Roberts. 1987). 1987). Furnham and Steele also refer to Claire Bradley's work. Moreover. In discussing applications of the concept to health psychology. 1987). 1995). 1992). They note similar ambiguity for data on the relationship between internal health locus of control and other health-related behaviours. 1991). tablet-treated diabetes (Bradley. For example. hypertension (Stantion. but they also cite several studies that have found only a weak or no relationship between exercise behaviours (such as jogging) and internal health locus of control. arthritis (Nicasio et al.

migraines. RAHUL GUPTA. there are still some general textbooks on personality. 1995) found increased relationship between internal health locus of control and health when health value was assessed. which continue to cite studies linking internal locus of control with improved physical health. Despite the importance that Norman and Bennet (1995) attach to use of specific measures of locus of control. SET-1 Page4 3 . diabetes. 2007). such as Maltby. Day and Macaskill (2007). Weiss and Larsen (1990) (cited in Norman & Bennett. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. mental health and quality of life in people undergoing conditions as diverse as HIV. For example. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). Day & Macaskill. kidney disease and epilepsy (Maltby. suggesting that health value is an important moderator variable in the healthlocus of control relationship.health.

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5. Gender-based differences in locus of control: . there is evidence here that changes in locus of control in later life relate more visibly to increased externality. rather than reduced internality. they will become less internal and more external. suggests that locus of control increases in internality up until middle age. suggesting that intrinsic religious orientation correlates positively.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Other fields to which the concept has been applied include industrial and organizational psychology. where people leave everything to God in the care of their own health. Evidence cited by Schultz and Schultz (2005). Kreuter and Rubio (2003). [6] Of relevance to both health psychology and the psychology of religion is the work prepared by Holt. and thereafter decrease. educational psychology and the psychology of religion. see the article on aging. in preparing a questionnaire to assess spiritual health locus of control. These authors also note that attempts to control the environment become more pronounced between the age of eight and fourteen. Noting the ambiguity of data in this area. Longitudinal data collected by Gatz and Karel (cited in Johnson et al. extrinsic religious orientation correlates negatively. For more on the relationship between locus of control and coping with the demands of later life. These authors distinguished between an active spiritual health locus of control orientation. with internal locus. 2004 imply that internality may increase up to middle age. Indeed. sports psychology. for example Heckhausen and Schulz (1995) or Ryckman and Malikosi. 6.. Locus of control and age: is sometimes assumed that as people age. Clark. if the two concepts are taken to be orthogonal. 2005). Aldwin and Gilmer (2004) cite Lachman's claim that locus of control is ambiguous. but data here have been ambiguous. in which "God empowers the individual to take healthy actions" [7] and a more passive spiritual health locus of control orientation. Richard Kahoe has published celebrated work in the latter field. 1975 (cited in Schultz & Schultz.

these authors also note that there may be specific sex-based differences for specific categories of item RAHUL GUPTA. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). population. However. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22.As Schultz and Schultz (2005) point out.S. significant differences in locus of control have not been found for adults in a U. SET-1 Page4 4 .

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critique and the future: Locus of control has been a concept which has certainly generated much research in psychology. this is unlikely to result in low self-esteem. or between locus of control and concepts such as . Careful distinctions should also be made between locus of control (a concept linked with expectancies about the future) and attribution style (a concept linked with explanations for past outcomes). 2005). an athlete may believe that training eight hours a day would result in a marked improvement in ability (an internal locus of control orientation) but not believe that he or she is capable of training that hard (a low sense of self-efficacy). they cite evidence that men may have a greater internal locus for questions related to academic achievement (Strickland & Haley. For example. they may or may not believe that they are capable of behaving in a way that will produce the desired result. Bandura has emphasised how the concept differs from self-esteem . selfefficacy is used as a concept to relate to more circumscribed situations and activities. in a variety of areas. Although someone may believe that how some future event turns out is under their control. Usefulness of the construct can be seen in its applicability to fields such as educational psychology. Summary. Self-efficacy has been measured by means of a psychometric scale [11] and differs from locus of control in that whereas locus of control is generally a measure of cross-situational beliefs about control. There will probably continue to be debate about whether specific or more global measures of locus of control will prove to be more useful.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR to assess locus of control . cited in Schultz & Schultz. 1980. but that if ballroom dancing is not very important to that person. Self-efficacy: Self-efficacy is another related concept. 7. 8.using the example that a person may have low self-efficacy for ballroom dancing. introduced by Albert Bandura.for example. health psychology or clinical psychology.

self-efficacy. SET-1 Page4 5 . SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. The importance of locus of control as a topic in psychology is likely to remain quite central for many years. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). B) Machiavellianism RAHUL GUPTA.

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who assert it is inaccurate and distorted. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572 in Paris came to be seen as a product of Machiavellianism. M a c h i a v e l l i a n and variants became very popular in the late 16th century in English.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR 1) Introduction” Machiavellianism is. according to the popular view. [3] In fact there is little trace of Machiavelli in French writings before the massacre. though "Machiavellianism" itself is first cited by the OED from 1626. a view greatly influenced by the Huguenot Innocent Gentillet. and having already infected France. It was in this context that the St. and thus those in power could only maintain their position through exploitative and deceitful actions. and so (in Anglo's paraphrase) "at the root of France's present degradation. deriving from the Italian Renaissance diplomat and writer Niccolò Machiavelli. but this concept was seized upon by many contemporaries. The word has a similar use in modern psychology. who wrote Il Principe ( The Prince ) and other works. and not very much after. Machiavelli.[1] 2) In Political Thought: Machiavellianism was seen as a foreign virus infecting English politics. and played a crucial part in setting the long-lasting popular concept of Machiavellianism that so infuriates scholars of his actual thought. which was printed in ten editions in three languages over the next four years. who published his Discours contre Machievel in 1576. malevolent and self-serving. [4] The English playwright Christopher Marlowe was an enthusiastic proponent of this view. according to the OED. In the Jew of Malta (1589-90) "Machievel" in person speaks the . originating in Italy. although this is disputed at least in part by most Machiavelli scholars. held that people were by nature untrustworthy. [2] Gentillet held. "the employment of cunning and duplicity in statecraft or in general conduct". until Gentillet's own book. which has culminated not only in the St Bartholemew massacre but the glee of its perverted admirers". quite wrongly according to Sydney Anglo. that Machiavelli's "books [were] held most dear and precious by our Italian and Italionized [sic] courtiers" in France (in the words of his first English translation).

"And. as its subject. but to have possessed the soul of (the Duke of) Guise. with the Duke of Guise and Catherine de' Medici both depicted as Machiavellian plotters.Prologue. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. claiming to not be dead. The Massacre at Paris (1593) takes the massacre. lines 3-4) [5] His last play. and the following years. RAHUL GUPTA. bent on evil from the start. and frolic with his friends" (Prologue. now the Guise is dead. SET-1 Page4 6 . is come from France/ To view this land.

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M a c h i a v e l is an 18th century essay by Frederick the Great. moral lives" (No. Machiavellianism is one of the three personality traits referred to as the dark triad. they are distinct personality constructs RAHUL GUPTA. King of Prussia and patron of Voltaire. they tend to believe. 11). although recent research suggests that while Machiavellianism and psychopathy overlap. Some psychologists consider Machiavellianism to be essentially a subclinical form of psychopathy. SET-1 Page4 7 Final Assignment of MPOB Download this Document for FreePrintMobileCollectionsReport Document Report this document? . and Machiavellianism. This eventually became the MACH-IV test. that is. People scoring below 60 out of 100 on the MACH-IV are considered low Machs . It was first published in September 1740." (No. 3) In Psychology: Machiavellianism is also a term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a person's tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain. and Geis's graduate assistant David Berger went on to perform a series of studies that provided experimental verification for the notion of Machiavellianism. People scoring above 60 out of 100 on the MACH-IV are considered high Machs . and are one of many such works.MANAGEMENT PROCESS AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR The A n t i . Christie. In the 1960s." (No. MBAHCS (1 ST SEM). 1) but not ones like. 7) and. rebutting The Prince . Geis developed a test for measuring a person's level of Machiavellianism. SUBJECT CODE-MBOO22. they endorsed statements such as. a twenty-statement personality survey that is now the standard selfassessment tool of Machiavellianism. "Never tell anyone the real reason you did something unless it is useful to do so. Geis. "Most people are basically good and kind" (No. Richard Christie and Florence L. "There is no excuse for lying to someone else. a few months after Frederick became king. "Most people who get ahead in the world lead clean. along with narcissism and psychopathy. 4).

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