This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Prof. E. J.Yv'ickson
their History. Classification and Care BY JAMES MORTON Author of SOUTHERN FLORICULTURE AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY. NEW YORK THE RURAL PUBLISHING COMPANY TIMES BUILDING. r THE*^^ TJHIVEKSIT7. *OF 1891 UNIVERSITY *OF CALIFORNIA. .T^JRAL LIBRARY SS/VBS ' CHRYSANTHEMUM CULTURE KOR AMKRICA A Book about Chrysanthemums.
J.MAIM LlAKY-AGiCULTUE Copyright tRqi. ELECTROTYPiO AND PRINTED BY HORACE MCFARLAND. DKPT* by THE RURAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. HARRISBURG .
have also been issued a few excellent treatises on the Chrys- anthemum. gleaned from many The wonderful sources. endeavored make replete with tidings of the Autumn Queen. therefore that the ensuing pages will be of interest to those of who desirous brief obtaining. they can only with There uncertainty be adopted as guides in our country. ALL who cultivate the Chrysanthemum to the Star- TO eyed Daughter little of the Fall the author presents this volume that he has. a history of their favorite flower. but they are chiefly of English origin. progress in the culture of the Chrysantheunder the influences of American environments. presenting experience gained 52GGV8 . Numerous works have been devoted in to this favorite flower.PREFACE. to- mum gether with the all-important ing ent its demand results for information regardof culture. the matchless beauty and vigor of the American seedlings. in addition to cultural instruc- tions. have suggested the publication the of the pres- volume. hoped are that except in a casual manner do not deal with and it is anything further than mere cultural details. and in view of the great difference our climatic conditions.
C. Clarksville. JAMES MORTON. beneath American skies and enumerating the varieties most popular among American amateur and professional florists. the writer desires to express his obligations and grati- tude for the kindly assistance of that profound student of history.* courteous and learned conductor. itself an In regard to a large portion of the historical matter presented. Shirley Hibberd.4 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. Tenn. of the death of . and gain admission into the fellowship of works devoted to our Queen by other growers who have written of It is also their favorite flower abiding place in the hearts and mine. in press. also chrysanthemum England. and to Mr. *The author this is pained to learn. of London. Mr. hoped that the present volume will prove companionable. since this volume has been revered horticultural leader. and that it may find for and homes of all people. He would its acknowledge his indebtedness to the Gardener's Magazine. the pages of Harman Payne.
VII. Chapter.118 . I. 41 IV. CHRYSANTHEMUM SHOWS AND ORGANIZATIONS CLASSIFICATION 94 X.CONTENTS. ORIENTAL AND EUROPEAN HISTORY AMERICAN HISTORY PROPAGATION 7 II. CALENDAR OF MONTHLY OPERATIONS . IX. . Page. XI. VI. GENERAL CULTURE EXHIBITION PLANTS INSECTS AND DISEASES 50 63 V. 74 76 83 SPORTS AND OTHER VARIATIONS VIII. VARIETIES FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES no . 31 III.
while many ous parts of western Europe. The chrysanthemum derives its name from the Greek words. The propitious the gardeners to display its virtues and adit vance its fame until now adorns the humblest cottage as well as the habitation of the exalted mandarin. is an extensive genus of composite plants. being "gold flower. the literal meaning. a flower. Oriental and European History. wonderful rROM and Japan have cultivated devotion. Gold. toward which they still exhibit the most ardent and chrysanthemum in the Celestial unchanging admiration. and anthos. This great love for the Empire. and includes species which are to be found growing in nearly every part of the world. others are indigenous to variIn Asia the barren steppes of (7) . and a host of others. almost pre-historic times the inhabitants of China this famous flower with a From in the earliest times travelers have related the esteem which this plant was held by the inhabitants climate enabled of the flowery kingdom. but was confined to the varieties indigenous to their climate." and in such varieties as Grandiflorum. gold. some of them being so far remote as the extreme northeast of Asia. chrysos. therefore. did not extend to the entire genus. the petals are of a It rich. golden yellow. as well as in the Mikado's kingdom. which abundantly justifies the name.CHAPTER I.
absinthifolium. who. A traveler in those countries tells us in one of his In support of this forbidden by their employers to grow it. in Asiatic Turkey. and fantastic forms. the chrysanthemum into curious pagodas. the named varieties of which number between two and three thousand. ships. C. alone already are constantly with There are good reasons for supposing that it was cultivated much devotion by the gardeners of China and Japan for its well-known works that "so great a favorite is the chrysanthemum with the Chinese gardeners that no persuasion will deter them from its culture. lancifolium all list belonging to the same family. and Japan are perhaps the most usually denoted by the comprehensive word chrys- anthemum among in the cultivation of the majority of people who are engaged this beautiful and deservedly popular autumn. carinatum Siberia are the habitat of C. and C. the ox-eye daisy. radicals. paludosum. given. which are also found in America. jolium and pumilum . China. was compelled cultivating it to allow his native gardener the pleasure of The Chinese often train solely on that account. plete. flower. Switzerland. India." he relates the experience of an English resident in statement. such as Another peculiar method . and Kamtchatka that In northern Africa are found C. anomalum and sylvestre . the Levant. these species. stags. inasmuch as Russia. rotundifolium and C. and in France. C. C. C. segetum. C. the corn marigold. it will be observed that it is Notwithstanding the long not by any means comItaly. C. and they will frequently resign their situations rather than be centuries before importation into Europe. Leucanthemum. in Austria. in Spain. carinatum. montanum and C. those of India. tanaceti. Mexico. C. atratum . and C. horses. that country. in Hungary.8 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. etc. Great Britain has C. and increasing. perpusillum. without the slightest interest in the plant. Sicily. C. of C. China and Japan contribute additional But of all species of this important and widespread genus.
when all turn out to pay due homage to apart their national emblem. as well as in numberless illustrated books and pamphlets. as it is called in Japan. lasting skillful artists to but probably in no more apparent and its fair talent of their most form and vivid coloring on their pottery and household fabrics. as a festival. it is 9 Chea-yuen. The hilts of the swords forged by the Emperor Go Toba. ing their blooming period the gardens of florists all the prominent present an exhibiVon of great beauty. only upon royal personages. the many-hued chrysanthemum. constructed of massive chrysanits themum blossoms. and they display great skill in At the most culture. yellow and purple pompons. and the different communities manifest A certain day is set the greatest enthusiasm in its culture. and consists of a star and collar hung around the neck by a riband. calling it the Queen of Flowers. silver and Bestowed. is the grafting of cuttings into stout stems of Artemisia indica as a stock. Among the Japanese the chrysanthemum is no less prized than in China." badges of the imperial family. where extensively cul- tivated. The chrysanthemum season in Japan is looked forward to with much pleasure. of the Japanese festivals. it is consequently considered a very high distinction among European sovereigns who have been wearers of The chrysanthemum. appearing gorgeously appareled in white. or this mark of the Mikado's favor. manner than by applying the portray In Japan the Imperial Order of the Chrysanthemum is the most distinguished decoration of the Empire. the people display effigies popular of their traditional heroes. who ascended the throne in 1186. is also one of the crest "kiku. with rare exceptions. Each evening . Durenamels. the whole work being in gold.Oriental of culture practiced at and European History. and is used as an official seal. the Japanese Hercules. had the kiku figured upon them. In many other ways the Chinese and Japanese reveal their love for this plant. Benkei. It was founded in 1876.
we can- . Harris. Empress is to be seen in public. The varieties cultivated in Japan are numerous. is which the tents and buildings are bear upon them the heraldic kiku in all its pristine draped As the day draws to a close the people return to loveliness. or any of the American prize winners. All the highest native officials and foreign residents of distinction are present. years attest. W. they may not have Ada Spaulding. and we may expect in the not distant future. while the profusion. into the coming year. rich imperial violet silk with complete the slow process of intoxication by which are thrown the blooms of chrysanwhich they suppose will preserve them from evil themums. presenting a scene brilliant beyond description. She delights in the most dainty handkerchiefs of gauze embroidered having when in the chrysanthemums in of all colors. K.io for Chrysanthemum Culture for America. as well as the peasants in holiday attire. to have representatives of all the most desirable sorts now grown by our Japanese friends blossoming in exhibition halls of our American cities. Mrs. but we believe their wealth of beautiful sorts is yet far from exhausted. their to homes drinking saki. Alpheus Hardy and Louis Boehmer are forerunners in the United States. many weeks the notables of rank. Judging from the new type of chrysanthemums of which Mrs. as the True. importations of late through the indomitable enterprise of the American importer. and invitations are highly It is one of the few occasions prized and much sought after. Mrs. join in the always held in the evenings happy festivities. many of them having exquisite beauty. Her ladies of honor also appear gorgeous dresses with chrysanthemums worked upon them. His Majesty also opens his gardens at the Imperial Palace on this grand fete day. Carnegie. so fully developed and brilliant in color. Upon this occasion the display of the national flower Nowhere can they be found in such said to be unequaled. and the grounds The fetes are are beautifully illuminated.
" There are frequently : " represented on Japanese porcelain. that had its fringe. soms especially that of Satsuma and Kioto. for several beautiful summer blooming kinds of large size are to be met with in the gardens of that country. but it fall to do with the popularity flowering varieties. though forming a plant a yard in diameter.Oriental and European History. in the seventythird year of his reign. 1 1 not but think that. varieties are We have been taught that there is no such thing in nature as plants of the same species producing scarlet. as the season of blooming has much of the many varieties we cultivate. Fortune tried many years since to bring to England a variety be augmented many fold. which encourages some credence information regarding the existence in Japan of a with blue flowers. seeds of the chrysanthemum were first introduced into Japan from a foreign country. to which fact may be attributed . Neither is there any true scarlet the " the chrysanthemums. In the " History of Nin-toku-tenvariety among in wan the following passage occurs In 386. both ancient and modern. within the next decade. have long been common in Japan. These. These What not grown in the southern province. both blue and yellow. true scarlet. growth. their branches are very compact. the flowers are small. its varieties will. Perhaps the nearest approach to this is the we have no hyacinth. white and violet. over which so florets edged very beautifully with a hair-like was unfortunately lost on the way. feathery much ado has been made within the past few years. for Mr. is known as the umbelliferous chrysanthemums have made much progress among our florists as yet. with the combined efforts of the importer and the hybridizer. howwould never become as popular in our climate as the ever. but in this. The varieties with soft. and. The chrysanthemums in Japan are not confined to the autumn varieties. chrysanthemum blosin blue or emerald green. yellow and blue flowers. Kiushiu. although we have the yellow and blue. red.
" ties. the painter also has lavished his skill on this charming flower. weaver and ivory carver. specialty designed by talented artists. as is also the blue camellia. blush. . It may grow in the valley of the King-Chang-Oola. Rodigrez. It is nearly two hundred years since this plant first became known in Europe. the chryanthemum enjoys the a books concerning many renowned distinction of having illustrated it. perhaps. inaccessable to Europeans and Americans. and refuse to allow it to leave their hands. M. and the blue lily. calling it in name Matricaria Japonica maxima. says "Some day. when mirth and feasting are the order of the day. which we are get assured exists somewhere in the Celestial Empire. metal worker. but which ing upon : has been sought for in vain. rose. The commonest girl's Japan is O-kiku San. and was first to mention the species. the well-known Belgian horticulturist. It was at various times mentioned by many of the early botanists under different names. giving it also the Japanese name "kychonophane. in which the kiku is and on the ninth day of Kiku-dzuki the principal festivals of the country are held. He makes allusion to six distinct varie- white. which he These plants s ays were growing in Holland at that time. which means Honorable Miss Chrysanthemum. Em. and artist has not disdained it as the subject of his masterpiece. but they disagreed as to the genus with which it should be classed. month in Japan. is Kiku-dzuki. writto the notion that a blue this subject. purple and crimson. Bregnius in 1689 most accurately describes the Chinese varieties. It is be in the possession of the Japanese Buddhist supposed priests. In common with the cherry blossom and convolvulus. we shall a sight of this famous blue chrysanthemum. yellow.12 Chrysanthemum Culture for America chrysanthemum exists in Japan." Beside the potter. who guard it with jealous care from the eyes of western travelers. The name of the ninth in bloom.
a Dutch scientist. The learned Engelbert Kaempfer. who visited Japan in 1690. describing what is thought to be the Chinese chrysanthemum Matricaria Japonica maxima. It dwarf and allow only " that in England the appears in the "Hortus Kewensis first known plant of the chrysanthemum which bore a small yellow blossom. being called by the natives kik. the name Matricaria Sinensis. He in says that there are blossom at all seasons many varieties. as growing wild in the gardens. referring also to the kychonophane of Bregnius. and that it was taken by them to their distant colonies of Amboyna and Malabar. but was at that time little esteemed and soon lost sight of. next mention of the chrysanthemum is in 1690. is that when Sir Thomas Sloan conveyed the land forming this garden to the Apothecarius Society in upon 1722. where the name of "tsjettipu" was Plukenet describes the small-flowered plants under given it. and that the Chinese gardeners keep one bloom upon a shoot. he inserted in the covenant a clause binding them to . gives a description of plants collected in Amboyna and the adjacent islands. and that the gardeners of Holland knew nothing of them when the chrysan- themum was The again introduced into Europe a century later. 13 were subsequently lost in the Dutch gardens. in the year 1750. A fortunate circumstance. bearing this history. and it is strange that no account of them can be discovered. under the name matricaria.Oriental and European History. He also states that in the latter country it it is cultivated in pots. kikf. in which the small flowered species is described as Matricaria Sinensis. or of kikku. and that they are the principal ornaments of all the gardens. by Rheede. describes the Chinese chrysanthemum. was growing in the Apothecarius Botanic Garden at Chelsea in 1764. and is said to have been introduced from China. some which are Rumphius. in which he alleges that the Dutch were the first Europeans to cultivate the small-flowered varieties. of the year.
also single and double flowering kinds. it was in olden times the object of more than ordinary interest. kikku. used by Bregnius. may be mentioned Moench. present to the Royal Society fifty dried specimens of distinct plants every year until the number reached two thousand. inated a . while Willdenow. the Portugese traveler. violet and purple. kikof. in his Japonica. a specimen of this small yellow variety was. yellow. He speaks of the variety of the color of flowers. to the Royal Society under the name Matricaria the British indica. while the chrysanthemum culture of to-day is denommodern craze." describes the plant in 1784. the word fanna being used by the Japanese as expressive of elegance. and he tells us that it is the same plant mentioned by Kaempfer as matricaria. Ray. Loureiro. He. kikf. with other plants.14 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. kik. Persoon and Desfontaines. " Flora Thunberg. Thunberg mentions a great difference in color as well as size. which latter name is but a different form of the word kychonophane. refers to the C. and refers to the preceding account by Kaempfer. placed cific name. of various sizes. which he asserts is Linnaeus' s C. in his account in 1790 of the plants of Cochin China. Phillip Miller. but his description evidently belongs to the Chinese chrysanthemum. its it Anthemis grandiflora. Valliant. and is still preserved in Museum. blush. ard grown in all the gardens of China and Cochin China. presented by the society's gardener. Ramatuella calls it Thus. too. and kiko-no Japanese fanna. therefore. with the terms of the deed. In accordance. Among other botanical writers who described it. which he states are white. indicum of Linnaeus. indicum. Morrison. but gave it another spe1801. gives the appellations. red. in under the samr genus. Swett. calling it Anthemis artemisiafolia. all of which are grown in the gardens of Japan on account of their beautiful flowers produced in the autumn months.
indicum of Linnaeus. translated from the original by Mr. the of the scarlet robe. in of their neighbors. The following. were proved by him to belong to an entirely different species.'' refers undoubtedly to the chrysanthe- . a new system of nomenclature was brought into existence by naming the plants after the principal celebrities in their respective countries. definitely setting the whole matter at rest. the yellow go]d thread. up to 1824. 15 be seen that up to this time a great diversity of opin- among botanists as to its true generic and specific The writings of Joseph Sabine afford much usename." under the heading of "Winter Flowers." "Autumnal Cloud. was distinguished only by form and color. whereas the large Chinese chrysanthemum of 1789. thenceforth to be known as C. and it is not ing varieties labeled with such bestowing names. in the Celestial of the white wave names by which the chrysanEmpire: "The purple autumn. the result being that the small-flowered varieties were C. many of which were curious and fanciful. the purple butterfly. He contended that the varieties then known were not the C. indicum. In his exhaustive papers he gave an account of his study and research. the purple peasant's tail. the crystal wave and the drunken lady.Oriental It will and European History. The Chinese names." A few years afterwards. In 1827 a writer in " Hone's Table Book. ion existed its The chrysanthemum. ful and interesting information regarding the diversity of opinion as to which genus the large-flowering or Chinese chrysanthemum belongs." The Japanese also. Sincnsis. will serve as examples themum was known lily. and its successors. the yellow tiger's claw." and "Ten thousand times sprinkled with gold. Reeves. follow the example unusual to find them exhibit- names as "Mountain Mist. as soon as the French and Dutch started in a sort of floral hero worship. the purple peasant's feather. could only be applied with uncertainty.
Wheeler exhibited some of his seedlings in London. when the small- flowered species known as pompon was introduced. as it bloomed at the commencement of winter. which Mr. seed. Mr. two small-flowered varieties. and excited the curiosity and admiration of its growers. Mr. and adopts writer also stated that there We chrysanthemums had been produced from seed in England. has given new impetus to its cultivation. are told by Mr. with other curiosities. and received a silver Banksian medal for them as the earliest chrysanthemums raised in England. raised the first English seedlings. Oxford. and. their . Short and Mr. abate. when it might have otherwise In the year ceased to retain its hold upon their affections. to China. Burbidge. or departure from the ordinary course. that about that year Isaac Wheeler. and up to this time no mum. significant and were referred to only as a curiosity. Sabine was also of the same opinion. They were inblooms compared with those of the present day. the superintendent of the glass department of their garden. as some varieties raised at that time exist to the present day. in his very excellent work upon chrysanthemums. gardener and porter of Magdalen Hall. The latter was the more successful grower." The was little chance for its ripening Mr. 1832. known asChusan These were at once introduced into the Versailles nurDaisy. that the interest in the flower has never been allowed to At several periods of its existence some unexpected development. the pseudonym of "Jerry Blossoms. and on December 2d. now Hertford College. It is a noteworthy fact. seedsery and soon became favorites with the French. In 1835 some seedlings were raised in Norfolk. Freestone.j6 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. he brought home. Salter claims were These were grown by the first ever produced in England. In 1843 the Horticultural Society of London sent Robert Fortune. 1846 an instance of this occurred in England. on his return in 1846. in connection with the chrysanthe- mum.
From their being more double than the original. compactness and resemblance to a rosette, they received the name of pompons. Mr. Salter and Mr. Fortune both say, and they are probably right, that from those two varieties all
in cultivation sprung.
Yet another, and unquestionably the greatest impulse, was given in 1 860-61, by this same determined collector, when, on his second journey to the far East, he sent to England seven varieties much esteemed by the florists of Japan, which created almost a revolution in the chrysanthemum world at that time, and they are to-day by far the most popular sortsthose
grown upon the American and European continents. Among first sent out, and which still remain among the best, are Grandiflorum, Baron de Frailly, Yellow Dragon and Hero
Magdala. During all the time the chrysanthemum was making such rapid strides, and fast taking its place as a favorite flower in
little appreciated, and nearly Thirty-six years after the old purple variety reached the shores of France, there were not more than fifteen varieties cultivated, and these of no particular
importation it the variety of Chelsea, received a similar fate.
little progress in France, to a native of introduction was due. A year after Blanchard's was grown in the Jardin des Plantes, but, like
merit either in form or color.
florists at that
period were interested in its culture, and consequently we should give due credit to the English for first appreciating its value as an autumn flower, and giving it so prominent a position in its early days.
This treatment by the French, however, was not universal,
Monsieur Noisette, who visited England in 1824, was presented with twenty-seven varieties from the gardens of the horticultural society. Another distinguished lover of hortifor
having thrown down the sword
for the trowel
Chrysanthemum Culture for America.
hoe had grown chrysanthemums for some years prior to that date. This man, the celebrated Captain Bernet, was without doubt the first person in Europe to raise the chrysanthemum from seed, having produced several fine varieties in the year 1827. Encouraged by his first success, which attached him more and more to his favorite plants, he saw his collection
annually increase by the addition of many new varieties. Three years after this event an experienced nurseryman got
possession of an entire set of Captain Bernet's
themums, and propagated them for sale. Thus it was from 1830 to 1836 that his novelties were disseminated among the The French chrysanplant dealers in Paris and abroad.
themum growers are still very proud of Captain Bernet's achievements with their favorite plant, and dub him with the
Washingtonian appellation mum." There still remain
by him, but they are value they possess, being catalogued only by a florist any who claims to be a grandson of Captain Bernet's old gardener.
"Father of the Chrysanthecommerce a few of the variegro\vn more as heirlooms than
For the past twenty-five years those French florists who have taken up the culture of the chrysanthemum have been working at their improvement steadily and surely. They have not only produced varieties greatly superior to any of their early sorts, but they have been instrumental in producing varieties which, in brilliancy of color, may be said to be unparalleled.
The most prominent growers in France of late years are Simon Delaux, M. de Reydellet, Dr. Audiguer, the producer of
Mons. F. Marranch, Mons.
M. Pigny, Dr.
raised Fulgore, several
and large flowering varieties Mons. Boulanger, who sent out Gloria de Mazaryue and several other sorts not generally grown in this country, and Mons. Bernard, who sent out Gloria Rayonnante, M. Fremy, Reine Margot, and who also
Mons. Boucharlat, noted principroduced a few pompons pally for his pompons, which belonged chiefly to the lilliputian Mons. Lacroix not to be confounded with an amateur class
a comparatively recent grower, whose best flowers are Parasol, M'd'lle Lacroix, Flocon de Neige,
Jeanne d'Arc and Fabias de Mediana Mons. Marrouch, to whom we are indebted for Madame Clemence Audiguer, Marguerite Marrouch, Mons. Marrouch, Madame Clos and others Mons. Pertuzes, whose flowers are not very well known in America, except Timbal de Argent and Triumph de la Rue
In the year 1850, so far as
learn, those little
anemone pompons, were
Eucharis, Medee, and Thisbe, Bonamay, of Toulouse.
being distributed by M.
The most eminent
of all the French growers is Mons. Simon Martin du Tauch, near Toulouse, whose successes
have been most brilliantly exhibited in the Japanese varieties, and to him the author is deeply indebted for much valuable information regarding his favorite flower in the sunny land of France. The name of Delaux is a guaranty of merit in a chrysanthemum, and his productions are admired and cultiSuch varieties as Tokio, M. vated upon both hemispheres. Rose Laing, Bouquet Fait,Eclatarete, Boyer, Royal Aquarium, Jeanne Delaux, Mons. Tarin, will long perpetuate the memIt is difficult to find, at any of ory of this noted cultivator. our exhibitions, the smallest stand of cut blooms or collection of plants that does not contain some originated by this emiMons. de Reydellet ranks second to his great nent florist. Mons. Reydellet is rival and fellow-countryman, M. Delaux. not a professional florist, but an amateur grower of new seedlings, La Triumphant and Marsa being two which are well known in America. To American growers it will seem strange that such a thing
of Lyons. 18 novelties M. this year. Pot-grown cut flowers in small quantities plants are generally exhibited . de Reydellet. formation but the numerous horticultural societies in our country are : We "We much interested in chrysanthemums. offers 24 new varieties of his own production M. but the seed that yielded them was not our own. . or huge Here the plants plants with only a few blooms upon them. Santel. as We do not care for the practice is in England and America. There is no country where there is so large a quantity of novelties raised annually as in France. Bernard. 14 novelties M. and it is Pernearly impossible to get seeds of the double varieties. most natural way. near Marseilles. and nearly every one has a chrysanthemum show at the proper season. novelties. M. Simon Delaux. Over two hundred novelties are annually produced in the south of France. . Nancy. besides a number raised by Etienne Lacroix. of Salon.2O as a Chrysanthemum Culture for America. the enormous flowers that English florists obtain. The arrangement of plants for the best effect is one of the . and others. quote from a letter of Messrs. of Valance. we have sent out some good novelties. 1890. except in the southern portions. in which they kindly give the following inhave no chrysanthemum society in France. judging from the schedule of prizes of some of the different exhibitions at hand. sonally. their culture is not encouraged. dated July 9. Lemoine and Fils. principally of the Japanese and Chinese forms. are treated to give the largest number of blooms. M. From this we plants so common note that the large blooms and specimens of at our shows here are not seen in France. chrysanthemum society does not exist in France." j . 7. Here we do not grow the specimens for exhibition. of Tolouse. Louis Lacroix. of Rozain Boucharlet. For instance. New varieties of chrysanthemums are not very largely produced in France. Pertuzes and Audiguer. and in the only. 12 novelties Lyons. Host. 25 varieties. Here in Nancy we have a severe climate. and. M. of Tolouse.
too. however. though refined. as their enthusiasm in .Oriental and European History. advanced against the French productions. and a Spaulding have supplied our need. greater of late come into notice in France. They have. Robert Fortune. but their number is steadily increasing. and one capable of One considerable development result of intelligent crossing. Marrauch. and not without reason. notwithstanding these ideas. be many years even if no can cultivator. was one of the successful producers of this new class. America. and we shall probably hear more from their labors in the future. halls. a M. thus incurring a waste of time and money to those who distribute them in England and It is to be regretted. is that they are far too numerous to be uniformly good. who died a few years ago. They are at present wanting in high tones of color. a Thorpe a Walcott. Happily. they have From 1870 to excited a great interest among the florists. and the production of these men is eminently satisfactory to the AmeriIt will. the Japanese anemone. however. further advance be made by the French. frequently. also particularly partial to the Japanese varieties. and at that time it seemed as if they would excel all other countries in the production of the Japanese varieties. in our own climate. 1880 there were but few incurved flowers distributed from France. that the French taste. and ever since their introduction by Mr. Had their energies been turned more to specimen plants and exhibition blooms. it is difficult to imagine how great would have been the results in these directions. before their contribu- tion to our collections will play an insignificant part in our gardens and exhibition great objection. and if duly appreciated Several new growers have results may be attained. or had they learned to appreciate the value of the incurved section. 21 The French seem leading points in the award of premiums. a Harris. compared with their congeners of the common Japanese type. differs from us somewhat in floriculture. given us a new type.
Between the years 1808 and pension of importations. Colville. In November. it bloomed at Chelsea. For the first few decades in the present century there was scarcely any plant half so popular as the Chinese chrysanthemum. Hume. there was another sus- there were several new but in the latter year and up to 1823 varieties introduced. indicum In the following year M. a firm much noted beauty of their chrysanthemums. and as it had then attracted considerable attention and become a favorite a high price. seryman of considerable repute. a Parisian nurof Linnaeus. imported three plants frem China. the Spanish brown in 1808. for several years. the golden yellow. 1816. namely the changeIn 1798. This is the one of which Ramatuelle published an account. The Messrs. eight new varieties . a sport from the old purple of 1802. known either in England or on the continent. the able white. Colville. calling it. rose and buff were introduced. In the year 1779 M.22 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. the culture of the chrysanthemum meets with its due reward. Cels. Of these the sulphur the quilled white and the large lilac. and the other seven were imported through the agency of Sir A. and the remaining seven by Sir Abraham Hume. succeed in producing blooms of the purwhich it may be easily imagined have ple chrysanthemum little resemblance to those we see at the present time were flower it began to the sell for who were first to . Evans. in 1802. in 1806. until 1798. 1795. and the sulphur yellow. when in after years for the other variety was known between that year and 1808. yellow was the one imported by Mr. a merchant of Marseilles. at the nursery of Messrs. sent to the Royal Gardens at Kew what was the first large-flowering chrysanthemum in modern times. Anthemis grandiflora. Blanchard. No were imported. To these nine varieties a tenth was added. Thomas Evans of Stepheny. as previously quoted. but out of these three only one a purple flower reached France alive. having satisfied himself and the French botanists that it could not be the C. one by Mr.
were grown in the gardens of the HorAided by the friendly exertions ticultural Society of London. they have gradually disDonald Monroe. all whose habits and character of flowers were then ascertained. and Mr. sent to England in 1820 twelve kinds. so that the next year opened with good prospects for those whose interest had In the autumn of that year been the cause of their advent. but with the exception of one or two. gives a list of forty-nine dis- . John Reeves. a tea buyer for the East India Company. four of land. they were induced to continue the introduction of additional sorts. twelve varieties. cultural Society's kinds. forwarded many varieties to England at different times. in addition to the two gentlemen already named. was among the most active men in enlarging the list. Reeves. though unfortunately many entire consignments were lost on the way. who acted as a correspondent at Canton of the Horticultural Society. At the beginning of 1824. Mr. who was sent to China by the Horticultural Society. Reeves and the commanders of the China ships. About this period others began to take an interest. 23 as proud of their success at that period as if they had raised a The interest of the zealous Cullingfordii or a Violet Rose. of Mr. had been represented in various botanical works. Parks. comprised forty-eight distinct which were sports which originated in Eng- collection During the year 1824. Mr.Oriental and European History. new varieties were continually being brought to England. gardener to the Horticulturappeared. al Society some years later. and supposed tion. to be the precursor of the large-flowered anemone secUp to this date eighteen sorts had been engraved in like the Botanical works Magazine and the Botanical Register. among which was the Yellow Waratah. a variety entirely different from all the others. gardeners of England having now been excited. twenty-seven well known sorts In 1826 the Horti- which had been thoroughly tested and approved.
so that from this period the people became fully awake to the beauty and usefulness of the chrysanthemum. He also published a book. landlord of the "Rochester. Mr. In the autumn of 1825 a tinct sorts of the to brilliant display of chrysanthemums was held in the Horticul- garden at Chiswick.24 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. were in flower on that occasion. through the exertion of its Pot grown plants to the numdevoted secretary. which was many times reprinted. and gave much attention to the chrysanthemum. enumerating all the sorts which allusion has been made. Chinese varieties. where the trades- loved to gather every evening. and should be on Among in mum the shelf of every chrysanthemum grower. and had at that time a collection of twenty-five sorts that he cared for as pets and of which he was very proud. which was the first to endure to the present Mr. of which there is but little record. tion men had made chrysanthemums his favorites. In 1843 the people of Norwich also inaugurated a chrysanthemum show. an able florist and a man of broad sympathies. first rate host. a chrysanthemum associawas formed. as an invaluable autumn tural Society's flower." in 1857. but it was not until three years later that the first chrysanthemum society of importance was formed. The first chrysanthemum exhibition in England was held in Birmingham in 1836. as it often did. In 1832 he obtained employment as gardener at the Inner Temple." a day. his annual display acquiring a world-wide reputation. and is still worthy of respect for its sound teachings. the name of Samuel Broome stands preeminent. The talk at the inn turned to floriculture. Sabine. Robert James. In an old fashioned hostelry known as the '' Rochester Castle. those who in after years developed the chrysantheEngland. and an exhibition of chrysanthe- . This ber of seven hundred. " Culture of the Chrysanthemum." in a rural suburb of Stoke Newington. display gave a great impetus to its cultivation.
and anthemum growers As this if in either an excellent book of reference for chrysEngland or America. notwithstanding its age. finding the climate of France more . a book of much value. This association Borough of Hackney Florists' Society. He was personally acquainted with many of the French and other growers and the knew far more of the progress of foreign growers than any man in England in his day. He first commenced his horticultural career as an amateur at Shepherd's Bush. which was afterwards discarded for that of the Borough of Hackney. Its History and Culture. is still. Robert James leading the moveand advocate and he was ever known as . Mr." published twenty-five years ago. where the climate was more congenial to the cultivation of his favorite flower. as the standard for all questions of classification and accepted is nomenclature. For many years it prospered under its original name. Owing to the large number of new members. From it we learn that. His work "The Chrysanthemum. as well as conducting exhibitions The society's official catalogue is provincial cities.Oriental and European History. was known as the Stoke Newington. now chief This society. and to extend the sphere of the society's work. it was finally given the name of the National Chrysanthemum Society. near London. France. but afterwards removed to Versailles. and still more recently. 25 mums was ment as treasurer determined upon. his name being to the present day most pleasantly associated with the chrysanthemum and familiar to growers on both sides of the Atlantic. later the show. in addition to the usual November holds each year exhibitions of early flowering in the chrysanthemums. John Salter also did much to advance the interest of autumn queen in England. father of the first chrysanthemum show. in by magic every important town England followed example. and at the present time nearly every town and village has its chrysanthemum show. the National Chrysanthemum Society.
were Grandiflorum. country.26 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. John Salter. Societies had sprung up all over the lar flower than ever. Tarantula. 1866. but \vas afterwards Previous to the year reproduced from seed of the survivors. Gold Thread. They were. Up to 1865 the influx of the new varieties of incurved. and which is well known at the present time. suitable for the purpose of raising seedling chrysanthemums. Nil Desperandum. who contemptuously dubbed them "ragged jacks. no seedlings were distributed from the Japanese sorts. Mad. tion of 1848. and their curious ." on account of It is believed that forms and irregular petals. Golden those originally introduced Dragon. and large anemone flowers continued. Laciniatum and Roseum Punctatum. Mr. Salter went to Versailles in 1838 for the purpose of estabHe lishing a nursery to enable him to accomplish his design. Bronze Dragon. "Annie Salter. Striatum. to which he added 250 of the best French sorts. and during November the exhibitions were thronged by thousands of admirers. although forty years old. with its social changes. which he sent out in 1844. and many of our favorites appeared at the date. In 1847 the " Queen of England" followed. however. White Christine. One of these died on the way. not much admired by old school florists. which is considered a good The French revoluvariety to-day. and probably the first of them were Aurantium. Lady Slade. Mr. in France. : duction of the Japanese sorts before they became common. or before seedlings were raised from the new varieties. Countess de Boregard. Salter produced his first seedling. viz Cherub. Salter' s return to his native land. imported from England most of the Jersey and Norfolk seedlings. so that in 1840 the number of varieties he had in cultivation amounted Five years after his establishment to between 300 and 400. Cleopatra and The chrysanthemum was now probably a more popuothers. where he died in 1874. Some years elapsed after the introreflexed. necessitated Mr." in the nursery at Versailles. Godilott.
27 The varieties belonging to this section were in Tycoon. In 1866. that the present generation have become accustomed form of these wonderful floral triumphs. the whole face symmetrical and close. A correspondent in the Florist and Pomologist in 1866 says: " I fear that the new Japanese flowers recently introduced by Mr. says " The flower ought in form to be one-half or two-thirds of a sphere.Oriental and European History. those days rather inclined to be later bloomers than the chrys- anthemums generally grown. as their defiance of all canons of good taste placed them quite beyond the pale of .a flower show and there were not a few who regarded them as veritable abominations. but fit for nothing else. By some they were looked upon as likely to be serviceable for conservatory decoration. and the less said about their form the bet- They may . and the petals free from : notches at the end. rank among the best that have been produced since." has been the result ? Out of the original seven. the center compact and outline round. five have remained in cultivation to the present day. and their brilliancy of color. prophetic words for the future must be given with a due regard to the fickle tastes of the public. In view of such a revolution as this. The if cupped or incurved. Grandiflorum and Golden Dragon. Mr. and two of these. judged by the chrysanthemum fancy then in vogue. but reflexed petal is inferior to the the flower be of proper form when . They are loose. with colors by no means ter. attractive. George Glenny. unless there can be some very marked improvements What in them. to which the chrysanthemum owes to the fantastic Now much of its popularity at the present day. Fortune will scarcely become favorites with any of us. they will soon be discarded. the hybridizers possibly be turned by-and-by to account by but as a class. it is amusing to read what was prophesied about them twenty-three years ago. ungainly looking things. writing of form in the chrysanthemum.
we may expect Lebois. called d' Or. N. and Mr. Davis. C. growing and showing. Edwin Merry. Edwin Molyneaux. new sorts. Bull. but excellence in the "good old times shown now ideal. Mr. but with us the "Jap" is still supreme. of Joseph Dale. Mr. Cullingford. the incurved and reflexed varieties are still justly popular. Veitch six & Sons Ben of Japan Duchess of Connaught. Robert Owen in the lead." " for a chrysanthemum. Holmes. as were Mr. all of which are Messrs. attention has also been given the chrysantheConsiderable In 1836 Mons. George Stevens. In 1 88 1. whose flowers can be found The names described in any catalogue of chrysanthemums. in the islands of the English Channel. it is far removed from what Mr. Such was the standard of it loses only one point. Isaac Wheeler. popu- too inconstant. some very fine seedlings in England. mum to see great results. Mr. and the successful grower who would see the chrysanthemum maintain its present foremost position must be ever ready to avail himself of new ideas in tion in seeding. Robert also James. a master of the literature of the subject. C. and attracting public attensome way to the beauty and usefulness of the flower. Happily the succeeding generation has produced men to take up their labors. Glenny describes as his In England. Ochard. Wm. Mr. turned his attention to the raising of seedlings. Harman little in the change. and Mr. Messrs. Adam Forsyth.28 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. Runraising die. an amateur in Jersey. Mr. however. and the admirers of the autumn queen have suffered With such men as Mr. Thunberg. and Mr. Teedesdale. Payne. Mr. the champion grower of cut flowers. George Taylor and George Glenny will long be remembered in the chrysanthemum lore of Eng- land for their devotion to this favorite flower. London imported from Comte de Germiny. . and others. Mahood & Son were also successful in well known. and produced some marked improvements. lar taste is We will not attempt to peer into the future .
which was organized by the Royal Agricultural Society of Ghent. among them Messrs. Their It is a matter of some difficulty to trace the work of chrysanthemum culture in Germany. Mr. Smith has long although it is not entirely neglected. Clarke. Smith and Wolsley. the many friends and cultivators in these first exhibition was held in 1865. we . Prince of Wales and Princess of Mr. and Mr. the raiser of Elaine and Fair Maid of Guernsey. and had his plants trained to the wall behind the oven. and Tournay. Pethers. had its first chrysanthemum show in the autumn Belgium of 1866. According to a correspondent of Mr. Mr. will be longest remembered of the Channel Island growers. since discontinued the growing of crnysanthemums from seed. Dawnton and Major Carey have contributed some very favorite sorts. others having followed at Liego. Notwithstanding the lull in chrysanthemum islands. was a baker. Burbridge. seemed not to have resumed its culture upon his return. but it is safe to assume that it was of some importance there in 1832. Chandler.Oriental and European History. Pethers. still has seedling growing at present. Antwerp. In Mr. Salter's catalogue of chrysanthemums more than half appeared to be of Guernsey and Jersey origin. James Wales. 29 He was so extraordinarily fortunate in their cultivation that he raised upwards of five hundred seedlings. name is deserving of more than a passing notice from having obtained Prince Alfred. Davis. of the Vauxhall nurseries. Mr. while in latter years. the producer of the first seedlings in the Channel Islands. and a considerable number of them were known twenty-five years ago. who went to the Cape of Good Hope. and has been repeated in succeeding years. which he sold to Mr. no longer devotes himself to the work. Our friends in the Channel Islands have done but little in recent years. whose Clarke has been dead for several years. and has. Dawnton. Davis. in raising new seedlings. Others soon followed. Mr. compared with their former efforts.
if not all.30 believe. A standard at that time adopted by the Stoke Newington Chrysanthemum Society. in which were comprised most. Glenny. been steadily gaining in favor to the present time. every one having his own peculiar ideas of a good flower. all of which are carefully described. first independent work on chrysanthemum was written by a German. It is Chrysanthemum Culture for America. . which was the same as that suggested by Mr. not generally known that the the Up to the year 1854 no universal standard of merit in the blooms was adopted. who had a collection of the new flowers. those in cultivation in England and France.
but as an out-door flower. and strengthened by climate and culture. adapted to the gardens of all. must have been long after the landing of the Pilgrim chrysanthemum reached our shores. summers of the south to produce fine specimens. far riUS with all EngFrance and the Channel Islands. that their superiority has been univerNever before during its history has the sally acknowledged. after a checkered voyage from the far east. and their profusion of beauty. cultivator been able to produce anything as fine as the blooms that are now raised beneath American skies and shown in the exhibition halls of our large cities. American History. They are so refined by crossing.CHAPTER II. and now the author comes home to our own chrysanthemums. The climate of the northern states is more conducive to the growth of individual plants under the care of the diligent culMore care has to be exercised through the long dry tivator. in color are probably unequalled in their original home in the far east. probably about the year It fathers that the (31) . Their size. form. in tory of the we have hurriedly glanced chrysanthemum in the at the early his- far east. one must go to the southern states to see them in their wild and promiscuous beauty. land.
including the propagation by Its wonderful development in the past ten years. the exhibiand the conservatory. the entire culture has been thoroughly mastered. little What chrysanthemum Hub. With such a command of climate as the American continent affords. might justly dispute the claim. as its but at that time it obtained little atten- beauties were undeveloped and its praises unsung. and come to stay. as we find from the oldest inhabitant that a variety of the small yellow < ' ' ' years ago. not a long period could have elapsed before it became known in America. is phenemonal for so brief a Though beginning so recently. Ten years ago but few chrysanthemums were cultivated . chrysanthemum was common in each of those places eighty These points in the history of our favorite flower must long remain a matter of conjecture. is a matter long since past discussion. in the seed. we are rapidly becomperiod. and it is not possible to say with any certainty who first cultivated it in the the new world. Its early history upon our continent is lost. For many years it obtained much less attention than in the Within the past twenty years. that it was doubtless but a few years from the time of its introduction into England until its roots were firmly planted in American soil. but that it has come. ing rivals of the countries in which it originated." although antiquity we have in America in relation to the clusters around the classic precincts of " The if record could be found. Being cultivated in England in 1795. 1810. the writer is confident that several old North and South Carolina. hands of American cultivators. the popularity of the flower has advanced at a steady rate until tion hall it is now supreme in the home garden. . The florists of our large eastern cities were always so active in obtaining novelties from their eastern correspondents. countries of the old world. as well as Virginia gardens. however. perhaps earlier tion.32 Chrysanthemum Culture for America.
and the autumn of that year. Pitcher & Manda. where they attracted but little attenDr. Now changed. either amateur or professional. seedlings in the old world. it is not so surprising to find chrysanthemum has extended in a few years into In all sections the chrysantheevery portion of our country. both native and exotic. Walcott has since that time exhibited more or less tion. His first ripened in his own garden. at the seedlings were produced in 1879 from seed were exhibited in Boston in show of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. P. annually unfolded before a people with whom beauty and that the merit are so quickly appreciated. when Messrs. Mass. Most of these varieties are of them . every year. mum is now a reigning favorite. and importations from China and Japan are are raised the equal of easily and frequently made. of Cambridge. many of which have received the highest awards of the exhibition. who was the first American. so that they have not become very prominent until the past two years. such as medals and certificates of As Dr. to raise new seedlings of our favorite flower. Walcott.. are any Thus American chrysanthemum introduced from Europe. offered logue of in their special and extensive catachrysanthemums. but one merit. of Short Hills. The first name to be mentioned in connection with chrysanthemum history in America is that of Dr. as they appear. and new kinds. here. Walcott is not a professional florist. With such a wealth of charms. and American florists claim a fair share of credit in developing its beauties. New Jersey. H.American History. of those who engages in this work as a labor of love. he does not make it a matter of business to distribute his novelties. all 33 and those were probably imported from England. and has usually raised about three hundred seedlings each season. fanciers are supplied at the present day with each new and is bcrjji'ciful variety as soon as it appears regardless of the source from whicn it comes.
have names that can be written on one label. The names should be Alaska. maker. Mason. is of itself a great convenience. Waterer in disseminating the productions of this eminent ris. In 1885. Cartledge. all of which were produced by Mr. Tacoma. . Wonderful. or Monsieur to Queen of England. Hughes. considers his best R. John WanaThos. he sent out White Dragon. of Philadelphia. Crawford. Mrs. Miss C.34 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. During that year Mr. Craig came to the assistance of Mr. was sent out in 1881. Newington. and have met with the approval they so well The following is a list of those which Dr. Pontiac. Walcott. Miss Meredith. Anthony Waterer and Lucrece. Cambridge. : Savannah. Ramona. and it is safe to say that within of The name Wm. K. Shasta. so Harris. Each senson his productions were increasing. Alfred Warne. Mrs. Semiramis. Robt. As will be seen from the names cott has started a reform in of his seedlings. growers together. Dr. and Mrs. Harris has produced more varieties which are now considered standard kinds than all our other His first seedling of merit. Walcott deserve. Mr. Wenonah. Shasta and as short as possible. which was awarded a certificate of merit by the Royal Chrysanthemum Society of England in 1886. Alaska. also figures the pioneers of chrysanthemum culture prominently among on this side of the Atlantic. that in 1887. H. decided merit. Har- John M. Sheaf er. Craig sent out L. Robt. Waterer sent out Puritan. and was awarded a certificate of merit by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society. and in 1882. Monadnock. Nevada. and such names as Cortez are preferable to such lengthy appellations as Bronze. and grower. Walchrysanthemum nomenclature all that deserves the attention of raisers of new varieties. R. in 1886. Mr. Canning. the past ten years Mr. Harris. Wm. Hero of Stokes le Comte de Faucher de Cariel and . Mrs.
Mr. 35 Mrs. A. Mrs. : . Twilight and White Cap. as from that time to the present. W. A. Kingsessing. Waterer distributed Wm. Reward. Sam Houston and Miss Beauty of Mrs. Among those imported from Japan by Mr. Waterer distributed Excellent and Robt. H. Mrs. Thomas. Price. Ivory. Model. K. C. Winthrop Sargent. Mrs. Craig. Carry Denny. Burpee and others. of Richmond* raising C. Mountain of Snow. in this flower a H. C. Sunnyside. John Lane. The In 1883. Joel. Collins. Mrs. Miss Mary Wheeler and others too numerous too allow individual mention. Bullock. The colors and tints which were unknown ties. and Mrs. J. of Philadelphia. T. Waterer. W. dollar silver seedling offered by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society Violet Rose. M. A. Mrs. Mrs. Mrs. also from the hands of Mr. Snowstorm. Duchess. Mr. Bailey. Mrs. Geo. H. Advance. Mrs. Mrs. Howell. while in this same year. crimsons. W. J. was also sent out this year. Wheeler. decade ago are now found in all of these varieMaroons. Harris. the new kinds that have appeared annually are almost numberless. pink and buff have become more decided. Magnet. Mrs. Marvel. while Mr. Public Ledger. Blanc. Hill Ind. we find the following very excellent sorts Gloriosum. Harris which took first prize for best Anna Hartshorne. which won the fifty cup offered by the Pennsylvania Horticultural SoIn 1888. Coleman. brought an from Japan of some fifty varieties. sent out of his & Co. and with such progress as this in another decade. John N. Colossal. Elkshorn. which gave a new impulse to hybridizing. Waterer. and in 1889.American History. Vannaman. Pres. many of which importation were most distinct and beautiful. Coles. Wm.. Reeser. May. Craig sent out ciety. G. Arthur. he sent Mrs. Irving Clark. the production of a scarlet flower is not to be despaired of by those who have done most in our favored climate to bring out the newer and formerly unknown shades. Dewar. Waterer. J. W.. C. rose. Mr. Mont Blanc. Stars and Stripes. This year Messrs.
Garnet. Thomas A. Barr.36 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. out Geo. MI. ing Edison. Frank Thomson. G. E. Mrs. Institute. Mrs. : Wanamaker of robust habit a rich following varieties. American Mrs. Sokoto. Commotion. of Orange. Spaulding is also neither Japanese nor Chinese in form. first distributed by Mr. Jessica. Zenobie. N. were also by G.. N. Coleman. President Harrison.. and others. Juno. Spaulding. This gentleman sent out his first seedling in 1886. Mrs. Pitcher. also a certificate of merit by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society first premium by the New Jersey Horticultural Society. Mrs. shading in upper portion to the purest pearl white globular in shape and Mr. In 1889. J. It is a cross . N. and during the present year the new English prize chrysanthemum. S. Takaki. and each year since then many excellent varieties of his proIn 1888 he sent duction have been placed upon the market. Mrs. Rawson and Peculiarity. J. and his own seedling. Gerard . introducing this year the following varieties of his own growAddie Decker. and others. Wm. J. John Thorpe.<JS . Moseman. Gladys Spaulding. are being distributed. McClure. and the others grown by him. Maria Ward. Spaulding. P. As another successful raiser of chrysanthemums. John Pettit. the name of Mr. and medal of excellence by the . 1889. Bride. Y. Pauline. presented by Mrs. Gerard. The latter was awarded the National prize in November. and Sunset. Dango Zaka. of Elizabeth. We and many others were produced and disseminated by Mr. N. Wa. Ada Spaulding. Jennings and others. : The Coronet. the first five imported from Japan Mr. . Mrs. Judge Benedict. T. John Welsh. R. F. T. E. grown by Mr. N. Mrs. will long hold an important place among the chrysanthemum growers in America. Brynwood. together with Miss Sue Waldron and Snowdrift. R. Spaulding H. at Indianapolis . Renwick. Cyclone. S. Mrs. George Atkinson. between Puritan and deep pink. H. Jas. Cloth of Gold. Hon. Tusaka. Eleanor Oakley. . Leopard. J. Spaulding.
Raleigh. Fewkes collection^ met with but sale. the variety White Treveana. Jno. Webster. Nahanton. Emmie Ricker. of Short Hills. Lizzie Gannon. : Wm. the first to flower and exhibit it in . Spaulding. and chief of all. several of the seedlings of Messrs. Fewkes & Sons. At one time these gen- There ably tlemen held the entire stock of Mrs. has given much to the lovers of chrysanthemums on this continent. Kansas. James F. Ithaca.. of Newton Highlands. There are also many other excellent varieties. Bird. enterprise also of Messrs. Gane. J. Mann. was the only one that commanded H. Lilian B. The following of their own production Cornelius Vanderbilt. and out of their entire we are double even a passing attention. The house of Edwin Fewkes & Sons has steadily kept pace with the increasing interest in the chrysanthemum. Belle Hickey. and Mrs. grown by William Barr. is no commercial house in New England more favorknown to chrysanthemum growers than that of E. J. Mrs. B. S. Nippon Medusa. Alpheus Hardy. medal awarded The first varieties little offered in 1868 by Messrs. Bryant. the far-famed Mrs. and to their skill as growers and enterprise as importers we are indebted for the following excellent varieties informed. H. Kioto. Alpheus Hardy. of Orange. Jean Humphreys. Emily Selinger. Marian. Allen and Hollis being among them. Dana. Hyde. 37 Alice Brown.J American History. Arizona. N. and Fannie Block. Clarence. Pitcher & Manda. themum either raised or disseminated by Mr. Passaic. Neesima. Lincoln. a small white flower. Pres. N. first cut was made that illustrated the horticultural papers and catalogues at that time. A. Mass. and were America they still retain to its first bloom by the Massachuthe silver It was also from this bloom the setts Horticultural Society. . Fottler. In 1889 this firm imported from Japan The and distributed the following varieties : Rohallion. that chrysanlovers now enjoy. Lord. Flora.
Mrs. Iowa. he produced some excellent varieties. Moonfiower. T. H. He is to-day the leading spirit in the progress of chrysantheSince he severed his connecculture in this country. he has perhaps given chrysanthemore attention than at any other period of his life. same Through his instrumentality the National Chrysanthemum Society of America was organized in 1889. This year (1890) they offer twenty new varieties in one collection for the first time. Potter. winner of the Carnegie Silver Cup in New York in 1888. Hallock. associated with Messrs. to the number of is which they are constantly adding. Among the varieties which they have been instrumental in giving to the public are Mrs. Falconer. as new varieties that are offered annually to the public evidenced by the list through their catalogues. Martin. Mohawk. : have also been distributed Iroquois. Alpheus Hardy from Edwin Fewkes & Son. Mrs. matter of the deepest regret to the writer that he has not been . Indiana. The name of John Thorpe is well known to chrysanthemum While lovers throughout America. Mr. H. and sent out his first seedlings in 1883. W. Minnewawa. Virginia. To these gentlemen the origin of many excellent sorts. in the mums Hallock & Son and located at Pearl state. T. It Oneida. Frank Wilcox. lona. as well as in England. which It is a is one of the best of its color at the present time. Long Island. McFadden. Mrs. a society of which he has the honor of being president. Pequot. Thorpe was the producer of that most desirable variety. F. Andrew Carnegie. F. Sadie Martinot. Connecticut and Mrs. Prince Kamoutska and V. Whirlwind. Edwin Booth. Hallock we owe of & Son. Langtry. Bohemia. The progress of chrysanthemum growing in America can not well be written without mention of the firm of V. Cleveland. mum tion with the firm of River. Hallock & Son. Pagoda.38 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. DeWitt Smith. Queens. and first distributed it to the public. this firm also was that secured the entire stock of Mrs.
Jamiesoii and James McCleary. Indianapolis and Cincinnati and with . of Richmond. a private garseason an admirable variety. as is demonstrated at such exhibitions as are held at Chicago. Thomas Carey. C. A belt of country from Boston. where we trust the good work will go on. and other matters of interest in connection with chrysanthemum history United States. . however. is amply atoned for by the superior development of the varieties of Rieman and Dorner same state. Pyfer. seedlings from Messrs.. Mass. Thomas last dener produced Quaker City have produced Monahan. Henry Surman. and be even more successful. Hill Ind. in the same state. Wm.. Perhaps nowhere in America are more chrysanthemums grown than in the vicinity of Philadelphia. the work of producing new varieties is confined to a very limited area. ties. While the culture of the chrysanthemum has extended to every state and territory. are growers of importance in Philadelphia.American History. all W. in the production of new varieties. taking in a portion of New York and New Jersey to Philadelphia. would comprise the nursery from which is disseminated all that is new and beautiful in Ameri- can seedlings. of which we are sure he has a wealth of information.. What is lacking in the west. The west has but and a number in the little to add in new varie- excepting some importations of Messrs. the chrysnot extend over an area of two hundred square miles. able to elicit from Mr. private gardeners. 39 his Thorpe more information regarding in the seedlings. formerly of Lancaster. With the exception of a small portion of anthemum raising section of America does Indiana. has produced many seedlings of merit. which he named in honor of President Harrison. eastern birth. but he is now located in California. where the climate seems to be particularly well suited to their highest development. of & Co. The amateurs and many professional gardeners around the desirable kinds.
and treasurer of the National Chrysanthemum Society. Tasseled White. were spoken of as grown in the open ground. these being exhibited by Robt. Semi-quilled White. then recording Sec- The plants retary of the Society. He has extensive grounds and several greenhouses. ten in a style wholly his own.40 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. Paper White. an enthusiastic amateur in chrysanthemum culture. Emmons of Boston. list varieties exhibited at that time was as follows Quilled : Flame. Mr. Quilled Lilac. always receive great attention. Pink. The chrysanthemum has been The exhibited at the shows of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society in Boston since 1830. Lane is a retired business man. and evidence is given that that the number of varieties at this period was very small. L. such a name as that of John Lane at the front. Lilac. Curled Lilac. we may much from the west in the not distant future. Crimson. for his flowers are distributed with the most lavish expect His critical notes on varieties and culture. White. Golden Yellow. Small Yellow. Golden Lotus. Changeable Buff. and Nathaniel Davenport. in the New England Farmer of November 26th. and Quilled White. They were exhibited on the 2oth -of November. . Parks. Large Lilac. from which his friends and neighbors reap the benefit. writgenerosity. and reported 1830.
but as (41) . adversities to beset the grower through the long months that the start should be made under the most favorable circumstances. strict are not expected. many of culture. It is that are propagated at any time possible to produce flowers of the finest quality upon plants from December to May. that as perfect a foundation There are so as possible may be laid for future success. and planted where they will root most This method of quickly with the least amount of trouble. and is by most satisfactory. Propagation. Old plants may also be divided to increase the stock. but propagation by cuttings is the method universally adopted. course may serve the purpose where the finest chrysanthefreely that mums sible results. with comparative success. duced from seed. the first importance that we commence operations with good material. but in order to obtain the best posattention must be paid to every detail of It is of their culture. regard to quality. Chrysanthemum cuttings root so few growers give the subject the attention it In most cases the cuttings are taken with little deserves. propagation of the chrysanthemum by cuttings is THE far the the system adopted in every country in which it is New varieties and the single sorts are progrown.CHAPTER III.
When plants are propagated early. states. but in reality there is no occasion for it. these difficulties are avoided. during which the wood becomes hardened to a dangerous degree. returns from December propagation. there is a long dormant season through which the young plants are compelled to pass. By choosing a time between these extremes. that in a place suitable for propaga- bottom heat is required. On the other hand. as in February. and they also require much labor and attention as well as valuable space for at least two months that might be Florists having a plant trade in the southern easily avoided. and the stock December. Many growers imagine tion. the plants are always weak and liable to receive injury reared would remain unharmed. with a performed. every cutting rooted son in which the operation is a gain. and there may not be sufficient time to make a judicious selection of varieties. and the work may be performed with greater satisfaction. or in is however. and which is A . in this way further increased. and those who would be successful should take care that no artificial heat in any form is applied except when . a rule the cuttings started in February and March give the finest results. other matters will be needing attention in March. if rooted in the top may be taken off in March.42 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. and it is also difficult to obtain shoots in the proper state for cuttings as late as that. Plants absolutely necessary during unusually cold spells. demand for strong young plants in January and are almost the only class that would get profitable February. regardless of the sea- establishments where quantity is preferred to quality. as in November and December. this plan being followed by most florists who desire to produce a large number of plants. raised in bottom heat rarely produce flowers of fine quality while it hastens the process of rooting. With scarce varieties. as. ture of forty-five where those more hardily place where a temperadegrees can be maintained.
Propagation. the cuttings be inserted in pots. is most suitable. 43 kept rather close. leaf mold and loam. but if large quantities are desired an ordinary propagating bed sand must be resorted to. so that the cuttings can be put close together in the bed and the air circulate more freely They through them. either singly or otherwise. neither do those that have become hard and woody. Firm and healthy short jointed shoots ing only should be selected for cuttings. best cuttings. from plants in good growing Those of a succulent nature do not make the condition. of clean gritty cess followed as for rose The cutting should be at least three inches long. the center . with a thin With a pointed stick make a hole in layer of sand on top. if the cuttings are to be inserted singly in small pots. the cuttings are to be put into an ordinary propagating bed. and may placed on a firm. exceptthe heat. the soil about insert the cutting about half its length. When rooted singly in pots. and press it firmly. By this method of . as the cuttings must of necessity be sufficiently far apart to prevent the leaves The small pots that are to receive the touching each other. cuttings should be filled with a rather fine mixture of equal parts of sand. and cut The horizontally with a sharp knife just below the joint. and the same proand carnation propagating. also have a neater and more systematic appearance in the propagating bed with the foliage judiciously trimmed. moist surface. and growths that have the appearance of flowering shoots should also be avoided. taking care that the cutting is not bruised or injured during the operation. leaf at the base may be removed and all the rest retained. this is not necessary. If. If but a limited number are required. such as sand or ashes. although they will root and make plants on a pinch. however. and prevent them from damping off. well drained. all the remainder may be trimmed. in addition to the removal of the lower leaf. with the cuttings near the glass.
which will usually be indicated lightly by their putting forth new leaves. when the time comes for their separation and potting. If the cuttings have been placed in the sand of the propagating house.44 propagating Chrysanthemum Culture for America. if the weather is receives much attention. are alike everywhere. W^hen rooted in this manner they should be potted in about two and one-half inch pots in But as they will soon a mixture of finely pulverized soil. and all checks of this sort must be avoided as far as possible. When potted. especially for exhibition plants. be When the pots are filled with roots they should shifted into larger pots in a good compost of finely prepared soil. the extra Where labor being amply repaid by larger and finer blooms. the purpose for which the plants are required largely determines which is the All have their advantages and drawbest system to follow. the soil for the first potting seldom outgrow these pots. the minor details alone vary- . and they will also need more water. the skilful grower can tell by their fresh and plump appearance when they are rooted without lifting one from the bed to examine. in which he is particularly successful. or where rooted in the propagating bed. backs alike. the roots must receive some injury. so that nearly every grower has his own peculiar method. and we would recommend that all specimen and exhibition plants should be rooted in this manner. they should sprinkled until they start into vigorous growth. until rooted. the greatest success may be expected. In the propagation of the chrysanthemum. singly in pots. however. be shaded for a few days and kept slightly bright. when dry. water thor- oughly and then place in the house or frame prepared for Here they should be kept close and syringed their reception. and no single method can be universally adopted. When the desired number of cuttings is potted. The cardinal points. several cuttings are put into a pot. when air may be admitted gradually on every favorable occasion.
When possible they should be taken off with the roots attached. cuttings at just the right stage of development and root them according to their fancy.Propagation. but the wholesale grower simply gets his cuttings nient. all alike go into his propagating bed. strong suckers may be broken off without any roots. when he can. 45 The wholesale grower who raises his plants by the hun- dred thousand cannot adopt the system of the millionaire's gardener who raises annually a hundred plants for conservatory decoration. and is not to be recommended except as a simple means of increas- Propagations by is It ing the stock for ordinary out-door or garden cultivation. The small treated as directed for ordinary cuttings. A good time to when the young shoots begin to push out and attain The plants should be lifted the height of about two inches. and only the young suckers preserved. ing. mended and attain a large hardy and unless divided annually will . with a spade. and should the weather be cloudy or moist they will go on and grow without further trouble . if warm and bright they will need shading for a few days until they show signs of In dividing the old plants many starting into new growth. trowel. as in this case they may be replanted at once where they are intended to bloom. where they root and are soon ready for distribution. and these may be pieces of plants. tion is easily performed. best performed in March or April. who keep division is adopted chiefly by amateur s their old plants to flower the following season. according to the season and the divide is locality in which they are grown. or of the amateur who grows a few dozen for The latter can select their his fall display or city exhibition. the soft and the hard. and roots them when most conveThe weak and the strong. as there they are size. rooted suckers are nearly equal to newly propagated This system of division is especially to be recomfor the climate of the South. or old knife. and the process of dissecThe old stump should be discarded.
months. and watered. mulching of litter or hay will help them in a dry time. This is prac- some extent by the Chinese. Keep the ground free from weeds. and keep them staked dividing. large. the two being grown near enough together to admit of this when in the border. often more successful than Propagation by seed. and the idea of grafting the more delicate rooting kinds upon stocks of more vigorous growth has sound reason in it for the chrysanthemum as well as other classes of plants.46 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. If in pots the contact is is secured more conve- niently. Inarching is accomplished by tying up the scion plant among the branches of the plant to be used as a stock. chrysanthemum wood is of but annual duration. is a branch of chrysanthemum culture to which no hard and fast rule can be applied. although it is not adopted to any considerable extent. when such a Such specimens are objects of admiracuriosity is desired. These methods are not adopted as a means of increasing the stock. as performed in the usual way during the summer young chrysanthemum stems of sufficient substance cannot be had in the winter or early spring months to admit Grafting is moreover. and the blooms be inferior in Never let them go more than one year without Give them good rich soil. although it adds no value or beauty ticed to to the individual flowers. tion in the exhibition hall or conservatory. unshapely plants. Climate and condition must . inarching grafting. and hoe quality. become A top dressing or occasionally to keep the ground loose. and consequently must be worked upon durof this practice . but simply as a means of increasing the number of varieties upon an individual plant. together with the process of hybridizing. and as there the union of stock is till no separation between the scion and the two varieties is assured. ing the early months of summer in order that the object aimed at may be accomplished before the blooming season in fall begins.
first 47 be studied. In China and Japan the chrysanthemum sheds its seed naturally. using a fine brush. thus providing favorable conditions for wind or insects to assist in pollinating the flowers. N. of Orange. describes his : or touch the stamens with it. but not so short as to touch the stamens or pistils. . Select the finest flower and remove all others. rather dry. Mr. and with plenty of light and air. Probably no two growers adopt the same system. successful. as far as we can learn. Spaulding. small plants being selected. and the operations carried on in the manner best suited to the circumstances of the grower. although there are a number who practice the art with varying success in every country where chrysanthemums are grown. it is tance advisable to pollinate the flowers by hand. considerable up as they do among self-sown plants are not so favored here. Select the finest bloom and remove the others.Propagation . plants are well established and somewhat pot-bound they will bear seed -more freely. This I successive days. in the forenoon of bright sunny days. I repeat during several think the best plan is to . at leisure hours. as they are more easily handled. In bright sunny weather. although on the sunny slopes of California this condition may perhaps exist. where bees and other flower-hunting insects abound. and new We All seed bearing plants should be grown in pots. The plants to be crossed should then be kept close together. varieties spring in this country. J.. who has been very methods as follows " I take the pollen from one bloom on a pointed match or quill of a feather and place a little in each petal of the flower to be pollinated. T. as well as for the use of the camel' s-hair brush in artificial pollination. a good crop of seed may be had by their assis- but notwithstanding the time and labor required. H. and when in full bloom clip off the flower leaves with a pair of shears. The plants when in bloom should be kept in a dry airy greenhouse or pit where they If will get plenty of sunlight.
but better in constitution or some other quality. petals farthest from the centre are likely to produce the best and most double blooms. Salter used to exercised as to the shape of the plant. the foliage clean . form or color is sought for. The treatment The chrysanthemum being so freely propagated by cuttings. pot the plants singly in two-and-a-half-inch pots and move pot is six-inch to larger pots as their growth demands it. I also believe that the rather than to cross indiscriminately. yellow. hybridizing and the growing of seedlings are only necessary when improvement in either size. take a red. to the amateur. as no two will be precisely alike. of those . The foliage of seedlings is always clean and thrifty and the profusion of blossoms following afford great pleasure to the grower. quite large enough A of seedling plants differs from the treatment from cuttings in that no pinching or care need be Mr. When sufficiently ad- vanced. to bloom a seedling in the first year. even plant if cut from the stalk. with stiff stems. The principal object of the hybridizer should be to improve upon the vigor and color. remove them Chrysanthemum seeds germinate freely in from seven to when sown in pots or boxes and placed in a temof 60 degrees. After the pollen is set I withhold giving only enough to keep the plants alive. is nearly matured the seed will in most cases ripen. A first-class chrysanthemum should be of free growth. and if sown early in spring will properature nine days duce blooming plants in the fall. and When the to a dry place to ripen their seed.48 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. but the truth must be told yet sometimes a will appear among a few dozen seedlings that good variety may make the grower's name famous. he say This may be discouraging destroyed at least two thousand. that for every chrysanthemum he named and sent out. Size should not be sought at the expense of these two qualities. or white." water. and cross it with another of the same color.
and has been for more than thirty years. Walcott.Propaga tion . Jardin des Plantes is still unsurpassed in form and color. and of a The colors which are yet to be obtained are pleasing color. a fine clear orange. of Cambridge. and I am sorry to find that so few stand the test. well formed. while the flower should be of good substance. he says: two years are sufficient to test the claims of a seedling chrys- anthemum for a leading place.. and not before. its When a new chrysanthemum year may be regarded as established. " Not one or Mass. 4g itself and clothing the branches up to the flower. on the subject of seedlings. a clear bright red. In an interesting letter from Dr." has survived fifth it c. and the long sought for blue. 4 .
Such plants were rooted in November and December. looking rich and luxuriant when the large woody plants would become stunted. woody select stem. grow with much vigor. them off the ground. com- In most cases. are few plants that will exist under as much neglect as a chrysanthemum. but superior flowers or handsome plants can never be obtained in as this this way. avoiding those that are rather large and have a hard. this account will were stunted through the winter. and if properly cared for cvill retain that condition summer. after they are set out in spring. a little weeding and perchance a stake to keep receive.CHAPTER IV. It is far better to secure vigorous plants with soft wood and in a If well rooted they will soon begin to healthy condition. and on not make a rapid growth. while there are none more THERE of capable of being highly developed under suitOut able conditions than this now popular plant. With such treatment When all conditions are ready to begin planting. healthy young plants in a fresh growing condition. of thousands amateurs who grow chrysanthemums. paratively few give them proper treatment. all (50) . General Culture. is all the cultivation they one may have a plant' in the fall which to most people would appear pretty. They become unhealthy long before the summer are also liable to rust and is over.
taking care that the roots are moist.General Culture. all upon the lower part of the stem. clayey. about two-and-a-half or three feet apart. used." only the center bud requiring removal. Set the plants out carefully. 51 After selecting the plants. the bush form . should be removed on the other hand. when a border is devoted entirely to them. Make the soil rich to a depth of about eighteen inches with cow manure if the soil is If stiff and clayey. and all shoots the surface of the If. when grown given in a mixed border with other plants a space be given each individual. first of two feet at least should About the center shoot pinched out ping. while a little bone dust may be added with good effect: A little sand may also be used to lighten the soil when it is because they may be lifted in the fall more The plants may be placed out of doors as soon as all easily. while in the extreme South and all through the Gulf states they may be put out as soon as February. horse droppings may be light and sandy. be placed beside each plant. If it June every plant should have the an operation known as "stopCare should be taken not to nip it out too low down. and also chrysanthemum thrives better in a rich loose tionately later to suit the climates of the intervening states. to which tied. and not suffer- While this amount of room should be ing for want of water. and propor. The time at which they may be planted must be governed by The latest season at the frost periods in the given locality. in the latitude of New York. which they may be planted with success is that which will allow them a sufficiently long period of growth to become well established in the ground before the dry hot days of summer. soil. where they can have an abundance of sunshine. in week A it strong stick should should be loosely is side branches that desired to grow the plants to a single stem. come from below as fast as they appear. as the soil. choose an open spot. danger of severe frost is over from the middle of April to the end of May will be soon enough.
when which demands considerable attention. never allowing plants Water always in dry weather chrysanit to become baked. to the stem as possible. In a short time there will appear from four to six shoots below the first one pinched out. as the branches will need to spread out so that the air can circulate freely through them and induce their In putting in the stakes. letting them incline outward. plant. . a separate string for each shoot. not tying them all using Later in the season more stakes together like a wheat-sheaf. in pots. themums should never be allowed to suffer for want of water. over the roots. always bear in mind the desired future shape of the of August. thus avoidwill ing the danger of breaking the plant by removing the stakes during the operation. all first which every shoot may be allowed to without further pinching back. The soil for chrysanthemums. In stopping the differgrow ent shoots. These must also be stopped when from four to five inches long and the operation continued until the is desired. be necessary. where it will do the most good. close to the stem. close This is done to have the base of the stakes within the earth which will form the ball of the plant when potted. is a matter To many growers. place them as proper development. to prevent the roots from drying out too rapidly. after v Loop the different shoots singly up to the main stake. This is best accomplished by making a little basin with soil around the stem of the plant. the shoots may be allowed to grow. times during the summer the ground around the should be kept clean and well worked. Through the intense heat of July and August a little mulch of grass or litter may be thrown over the surface of the ground. and causing it to soak in directly A better plan. At all . plants grown. where the supply of water is abundant and many perhaps.52 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. to prevent the water from running away when poured on. is to place* them in trenches that can be irrigated at will.
of the top sod or upper surface of the fibrous roots of the grass. made of ingredients he deems best suited to this purpose. called.t. cut Such loam should form the staple districts it of the compos. It should be cut some time previous to using. as the soil already contains too much lime. 53 particularly among amateurs. must be prepared and stacked from six to twelve months before using. If the sod is light in character and cut where the land is of a sandy nature. but preserving the fibrous roots intact. but if the sod is cut from a limestone region. and in others one-and-a-half inches will be deep enough to obtain all the fibrous parts. ground oyster shells should be added. as soils differ so much in various parts of the country. and nearly every grower has his particular compost. Many growers of chrysanthehave to content themselves with very inferior soil. the secret of success is supposed to lie in the proper selection of a compost in which to grow them.General Culture. which he finds in his own it particular locality. long enough for the grass to decay. they may be dispensed with. as much depends upon the time the pasture has been laid down. a large amount of which is foliage through the summer unfavorable to the chrysanthemum. but in some mums those hard to obtain. In importance. the in this case not being of such a deep green and vigorous character as where the loam is of a Charcoal is of great assistance in keepdifferent character. as is posed below some places it may be cut three inches deep. No absolute rule can be laid down as to what mixture is the that soil best. as the best compost that can ment useless unless the watering and general manageIt is also a mistake to suppose afterwards are correct. is of great Loam. . and is coman old pasture. be secured is This is a mistake. and is such growers are very heavily handicapped compared with who live in sections where there are large and fertile pasture lands.
when it is applied abundantly in the growing season. as the latter do not give up their in this condition. and the cleanings of the poultry house Sheep droppings may when also a powerful adjunct in making up of the compost heaps. as in the latter the moisture does not escape as readily. but care must be taken that it is not entirely spent. it may be used in that state. Thus growers having a rather light soil at their disposal are much more favored than those who have to depend on soil which is of a clayey nature. . a powerful agent when continuously applied. out as in the case of light or porous soils. but can not be approved of for a heavy soil. especially if from horses. as such manure has but little value. as this prevents the free passage of water. Cow manure is good on light soils. and the feeding of the plants afterward cannot be so frequently and safely carried. and the best time to is when the soil is being prepared for potting. bones are also beneficial when used in proper Soot is manurial properties sufficiently during the short period in Dissolved quantities. all is When cow manure dry enough to admit of its being handled also be used conveniently.soil should be sifted to remove the finer portion. The best manure is that prepared by shaking out the straw and reserving little but the droppings. Decomposed manure is frequently recommended. Bones are which the plants have to complete their growth. the. although when used plants. Bones finely ground are better than when coarse. If the turf is of a retentive character. and must one form or another. which should not be used while too fresh. excessively is which apply is it Quicklime an important consideration. as it is far too retentive in character. The nature of the soil at hand must determine the quality of manure to be used. an occa- it has a most injurious effect upon useful for the destruction of worms. ing the soil in the pots porous and acting as a storehouse for ammonia.54 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. Manure be applied is in the next consideration of importance.
In applying lime it should not be used too freely in soils already charged with it. but in the case of plants that have to be grown continuously in pots all through the summer. broken up roughly. When the soil is used for potting plants that have been outside during the summer. after the cuttings are rooted. taking out the fine soil. sional handful being all that 55 is required. six-inch flower pot full of soot to every four bushels of the Where the soil is light in texture. one part of charcoal or wood ashes broken about the size of walnuts. Some discretion should be used in regard to sand also. We will therefore. suggest a comfor light. one-third manure may be added to the soil . as scarcely any is required if the soil is Some growers never use sand at all of a sandy character. so it will be seen that it is difficult to prescribe a single mixture which shall be the best for all climates and soils. and a mixture. it they add enough of finely broken old lime mortar to make porous. It needs a and more retentive soil to grow the chrysanthemum in Tennesssee than in Connecticut. one part horse manure. soil.General Culture. For a heavy soil. use four parts of loam as fibrous as can be obtained. one part decayed leaves. the same quantity of ground . one part of old mortar or lime rubbish. but for those of a sandy nature no harm will follow in using the quantity advised. If the soil is close and heavy. take three parts of fibrous loam. and feed liberally from the surface by top-dressings and liquid manure. which will be found post suitable under most conditions in which the chrysanthemum stiffer is grown. It is where plants have to remain in it best to use a rather poor soil where plants are grown in pots all summer. as an excess of manure has a tendency to sour the for so long a time. and one-fourth part dissolved bones. and another for heavy soil. one part of leaf mold. adding two parts of cow manure. much less manure should be used with the soil.
for an ordinary soil. turning. so that the There may be many growers soil may not get wet in mixing. and a greater quantity of soil is required. in their subsequent culture. choosing a fine day. and in the red clay of Tennessee. and the potmost safely done by the middle of August or first of ting September. and which will be found to answer admirably under most circumstances. followed by neglect of the plant. give one more simple but good compost. When the collection of plants to be potted is large. oyster shells or mortar rubbish. who cannot two composts. the mass becomes too fine by frequent . which nearly can procure from the material they have at hand. Three parts rotted sod. With good care in other respects.56 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. especially of the conveniently procure all the ingredients for these in the case of amateurs who do not articles for the sake wish the trouble of securing the different few plants which they cultivate. Thoroughly incorporate the various parts. in the black peaty soil of Illinois. if the weather is cloudy and favorable. using all as rough as possible. the time of transferring them is a critical period. this will produce excellent plants. We have seen equally as fine chrysanthemums grown in the light sandy soil of Connecticut. Those who cannot get all the material all We described need have no fear that they cannot achieve success. and one part rotted manure. results than the When and potted is cultivated in the ground all summer and taken up in the fall for house or conservatory decoration. it is well to mix the compost at once for the whole. adding a six-inch pot full of bone dust to each wheelbarrow-full of the mixture. The action of mixing reduces the parts considtherefore if the turfy loam and other ingredients be erably chopped small at first. as it allows . with close attention to watering and fre- quent applications of liquid manure. half a part of dissolved bones and the same quantity of soot as advised for the heavier soil. will produce far better most thorough preparation of compost.
will need a good top-dressing or thick coat of manure over the surface when Cow manure is best the pots become well filled with roots. are more liable to suffer for want of water. for this purpose.General Culture. but only needs protection from the frost. The chrysanthemum does not require heat. of frost. unless needed to protect from frost. but not subjected to fire heat. it can be piled an inch above the level of necessary. the plants to 57 become well established in the pots before the if delayed much later. while . The most successful growers of chrysanthemums attribute no small portion of their success to the judicious application of liquid manure as soon as the plants have filled the pots with potted. roots. Liquid manure may be given freely after the plants are and have recovered from the effects of the operation. Pot firmly and give a thorough soaking at the roots place them in a shady spot for a few days. when if any of them still show a tendency to wilt. and the damaging storms that usually occur at the time they are in bloom. Standards. as this keeps them from becoming dry so rapidly otherwise. and consethey quently need more care. The manure in liquid form is most freely assimilated . as the pot water. . and a few days later they may gradu- blooming season arrives. Dry weather is the best time to pot plants from the open ground. After this the pots ought to be sunk in the ground up to the rim. leaving a hollow in the center to hold They may remain out of doors until there is danger if when they should be moved into a cool room or greenhouse. as the soil readily drops away from the ball without injuring the roots. they may be returned to the shade for a few ally days longer. when the pots are exposed to the sun. and in fact all large specimens. keeping the foliage moist by frequent sprinklings. they will have grown so large that they can not be conveniently potted without injuring the roots or branches. the drenching rain. be inured to the sun.
dry. always give a soaking of pure water manure is applied. . wonderful stimulant. can alone determine the proportions of each to be used. and in a short time the plant will endure and If profit is the soil by stronger applications of this stimulant. Never water with gallons of water makes a suitable solution. liquid manure when the plants are first water and then apply the manure. . plants. rather dry. the barrel being then filled with water. . A soaking of sootwater once a week will keep worms out of the pots and give Carbonate of ammonia is also a the foliage a rich green hue. a barrel or cask may be sunk in the ground and the manure water made for the purpose a wheelbarrow full of cow manure. climatic influences. The location. The fortunate grower who has a farm-yard of his own can have a tank or reservoir for the liquid manure to drain into. but guano is dangerous in the hands of the inexperienced. and will be certain to promote the vigor of the plants and add size and beauty to the blooms. It is at first.58 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. and the keen observation of the grower. Where a farm-yard is not at hand. makes an excellent mixture for this use. and about a spade full of soot. but always use clear It is best not to apply until the roots the top dressings or liquid manure copiously have reached the sides of the pots in which they are to bloom. Sheep or hen manure or guano may also be used with advantage. as might otherwise be the case if watered with strong before the liquid manure water while the soil in the pots is in a dry state. which can then be diluted to suit the condition of the plant. There is no hard and fast rule as to the quantity of these manures and stimulants which should be used. and when it can be secured the common barnyard drainings will be safest and most efficacious. and used by many chrysanthemum growno other manure having such an immediate and direct ers One ounce to about five action on the growth of this plant. it by the best to give weak and can be applied at any time desired. so that all the roots are fed and none injured. It then becomes equally diffused through the soil.
allowing none of them to flower at the object in view. in northern Tennessee feet. when large blooms are While large plants may be produced by the " planting out " system. this rule of course applying to a climate where it is necessary to lift and pot them in the fall.A large pit. a great waste to do this.General Culture. the finest forms. in order to bring into the house for final development. it is admitted that where neither labor nor expense are considered. truest colors and best shaped flowers are obtained when the plants are grown continuously in pots. one-third or more of the blooms must be This should be done when they are about the size taken off. to select the large blooms. as a few really fine flowers always command attention. This was originally intended to be planted in Marechal Neil roses. J. where a number of of fine size We would advise him If the large blooms are small blooms would pass unnoticed. Crusman. In the climate of the south fine blooms are annually produced by plants that have never been in a pot. when the grower will have to decide whether few flowers As soon as the buds commence watched. J. were grown in the following manner on the grounds of Capt. but having done it once the grower never regrets it. and the finest the writer has ever had the privilege of seeing. simply rubbing them off with the thumb and It seems finger. 102 by 12 at Clarksville. 59 to form they must be closely be about the first week in September. determined upon. This will usually are desired or a quantity of small ones. with a fall of two feet from the back to front wall. and a side. of radish seed. carefully preserving the end or terminal bud. : . was dug about eight feet deep on a slope facing directly south. away all weak shoots. but it was determined to grow chrysanthemums in it for The pit was banked up on all sides and the first season. It is best also to cut all. sodded so that nothing but the sash appeared from the outThe ground also sloped considerably to the east.
each shoot being tied to a stake. A three-foot bed was made heat of any nature was used. : according to the vigor they showed in making their growth. careful attention was paid to staking. which In the east end. and in six-inch pots. were planted in the pit. E. and not more than four shoots allowed to each plant. many of the varieties having only two. allowing for a bed of that depth if desired. which was comNo artificial pletely above ground. The beds were made by setting oak planks an inch and a-half thick. and September first. and others that do not Abundance of water was at hand. both new and old. a top-dressing of one cow manure. was obtained was necessary for drainage. making the soil a foot deep. as Mrs Alpheus Hardy. The beds were filled about nine inches deep with a compost of the following proportions two thirds sandy loam. By the inch of . About the middle of August a top-dressing of about two inches was given them of a material similar to that used in the construction of beds. and about two hundred varieties. The sashes were all left off until fall. Fitler. two rows stocky in the center bed and one on each side bed about eighteen inches apart. The terminal or crown bud was reserved in most cases. which was staUnder these stationary sash were planted such sorts tionary. the planks being a foot wide. and some only one. three feet in the length of the pit. on edge all around. and stand the sun well. and one of the same size on each side. was the entrance door. H.60 fall of Chrysanthemum Culture for America. and all other shoots and buds removed before they attained much size. using two hundred and fifty plants in all. through the center of the pit. with an eighteen-inch path all around. The plants were selected from all sources. one-third rotten cow manure and a six-inch pot full of bone meal to each wheelbarrow full of this mixture. which filled the beds up level with the edge of the plank. the foremost object being to get the largest blooming sorts in About June first the plants. with the exception of every fourth. being vigorous and cultivation.
and the plants then require constant attention to watering. . water than when planted out in a border or square. and with the first neglect of watering. 61 middle of October there were flower buds as large as pigeon eggs on many of them. though abundance of ventilation was given daily when the weather was favorable. and at this time the sash was put on> chiefly on account of heavy rains. filled with trained specimens in pots. but if hard or spring water must be used. until Toward the end of Octothe plants were through blooming. and railroads gave special rates from all points. the blooms began to open. and it is also essential that they be provided with ample drainage. and the flowers enormous. as they sprinklings all serve only to induce the roots to come near the surface to get the benefit of them. obtainable. as the plants reLittle surface a thorough soaking when watered. quire are productive of more harm than good. Hundreds of people visited the display daily. When soil becomes the system of continuous pot culture is followed. it will greatly improve by exposure to the sun for some hours in When cultivated in pots they require more troughs or tubs. ber. was a sight that can be more easily imagined than described. beside thousands of plants in the open ground. Each variety was kept plainly labeled. display. the filled with roots in July and August. so that This visitors could take lists of those which they liked best. Nothing but a good soakthey are destroyed by the hot sun. 100 by 20. so that 'surplus water may run off quickly. in addition to that in another house. as they are at that time making that portion of their growth upon which Rain or soft river water is best if the flower buds appear. so that for a period of three weeks the display was a common topic of conversation for nearly a hundred miles around. and early in November. while the number of varieties and the proportions of the blooms were a revelation to all. The foliage was thoroughly strong and healthy.General Culture.
so as to cause a moist atmosphere in which the flowers would have a tendency to mould. it is necessary to watch the edge of the ball in the pots. When the plants are in full bloom. and once more after five o'clock. by pressing down the edges so that the water may not run through so rapidly. never permit the plant to wilt for want of moisture. and the plants will have a pure atmosphere. and be thorough soakings. not necessary. ceasing. that permeates every particle of soil in the pot. and should the plants be vigorous and growing. but care should be taken not to spill it floors. leaving a space where the water may trickle down between the soil and the pot. when the plants come into bloom. in which to pass the night. not overcharged with moisture. ing. can produce the best results. . leaving the plants suffering for want of water. however. on the other hand. it is best to go over them in the early morning. as under such conditions a free and vigorous growth cannot be made. at noon. clear water being sufficient after the buds have develIt is oped about the into blossoms. and in dull weather they may not even require it so often. Syringing the foliage each evening is of great advantage in keeping the plants free from the ravages of insects and in giving the foliage a healthy appearance. or at midday. so that one thorough watering each day will be sufficient. although an abundant supply has apparently been given. will be abundantly repaid by their subsequent vigor.62 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. so that plenty of ventilation can be given until the moisture is completely dried away. again at ten o'clock. A good plan is to water in the forenoon. at least two of these waterings should As the plants increase in size. Never water a plant that is not dry . When specimens are grown for exhibition. to give liquid manure. the pots fill with roots. the days will be short and not so warm. A little care given such plants. as sometimes the soil is pressed out from the pot. at this stage of their culture.
and lifted as the season of flowering These will answer approaches. were these plants grown ? Judging from the interest How so widely manifest in the growing of exhibition plants. These are from two-and-a-half to four feet in diameter. the purpose very well. and when exhibitions are being held for the first time in the history of so many communities. and of first honors at their local shows. rapid strides in chrysanthemum culture at present. of graceful contour. and each branch terminated with a good sized and finely formed flower. if the plants are be reduced to a minimum. the rural exhibitions. r-IE ' ' when each recurring season outstrips the past. and the labor of cultivating them will On the other hand. evokes from all ' ' sides the oft repeated question to the successful exhibitor. they may be grown in the open ground through the summer. Exhibition Plants. ideal plant in this country is The The requirements for chrysanthemum exhibitions differ in If plants are grown for one of various parts of the country.CHAPTER V. many the question foremost in the minds of many amateurs that aspire to exhibitions and the standard at all our what is popularly known as the bush plant. . the subject of the production of finely formed chrysanthemums and splendid flowers is in the profession. and potted for fall display.
again from the time of potting. and partially shaded until they to root. is. until root action commences. quarters should be a level piece of ground. that the when. to bear the scrutiny of a Thorpe or a Harris before the blue ribbon is attached. The plants should always be re-potted as soon as the ball becomes filled with roots. a half-inch pots. and should never be allowed to become pot If the cuttings were rooted in February in two and bound. for this. when the shading should be removed. and the begin In about three or four weeks plants kept close to the glass. but set . growth would be arrested and a check to the plant ensue. thus preventing the entrance of worms. Give sufficient ventilation. in The summer immediate contact with the earth. and that continuous cultivation in pots. a different system must be adopted. for if it should get any cooler^than this.64 to Chrysanthemum Culture for America. and allowing the water to pass off freely. and others use slate. and keep up a night temperature of 48 degrees. as by this method Cuttings the finest flowers and best results can be obtained. should be selected from strong healthy plants after they are through flowering. the next change will be into four-inch pots. placing each pot. will find their way Some place the pots on boards. and this will need to be done about the end of March. so that the surface waer from summer showers will arranged Care should be taken not to set the plant readily pass away. and are be exhibited in any of the great cities of the north or west. as for other purposes. if all danger of frost is over. the next shift will be into six-inch It is advisable to place them in the house pots early in May. for a few days. If the plants have grown well. or worms into the pots to the injury of the plants. In no case should the plants be crowded. but perhaps the best method is to set the plants upon a bed of coal-ashes. in a two and a-half inch need transplanting growth may not become weakly. at least. they may be placed in the open air. the plant will into larger pots.
it could be run on and off very easily. constant attention being the keynote of success. or rough handling may destroy the work of months. When finely formed flowers of good size are desired. and is certainly beneficial in shading may for in the climate of the southern states. Take two plants of equal proportions. It is better to tie a little at a time. than to wait until the shoots all get large and do it all at once.Exhibition Plants. and the judicious tying into place. as they look better in pots which are rather small in pro- size. The grower must first fix in his mind them the shape of the plants he desires. not later than the first of August. . frame w ork. in the afternoon. not to put plants into pots larger than are absolutely neces- sary. especially It r It is best diameter. however. whenever the condition of the roots justifies it. These should be about ten or twelve inches in midsummer. and give the final shift into the pots in which they are intended to bloom. depending upon the size of the plants. loth. so that the plants can get the late afternoon If placed on a roller over an sun and the refreshing dew. This best performed by using a pointed stick or penknife. portion to their The stopping of of the young growths. the sun and drying winds. but care must be taken. improvised Shift from six-inch to eight-inch pots. and late should. be used judiciously. and the other into a twelve-inch pot. and putting the difference in appearance in favor of the ten-inch pot plant will be at once apparent. far 65 enough apart so that each plant will have sufficient room When plants are tnus air and sunlight to play about it. must have close attention. be removed in cloudy weather. one into a ten. and work with a view to that end. it will necessitate frequent set in Gauze or other watering on hot days and in windy weather. The last if stopping should not occur later than the first of plants are desired for exhibition before November August. all is but the terminal or crown bud should be removed.
and others. such as Grandiflorum. will show another bud which is termed the crown bud. week in Septemand the buds that make after When growths and small buds that appear the buds. buds that appear in July. When below summer bud is removed several shoots will appear and as many may be left as is thought expedient. delayed. around soon as in When it. After all the shoots are carefully tied down. appear about the ber. as by so doing the plants will be induced to make further growth. into the form provided for in the first der shoots must be carefully tied In tying. as they detract from the progress of the selected buds. if it shows itself at the proper time.66 It Chrysanthemum Culture for America. as they grow. down before the growth matures sufficiently to make it brittle. last week in August or first These are the ones the finest blooms. and will produce only It is best to remove all imperfect or badly shaped flowers. the tenearly blooming period. and the formation allowed to develop. are selected. upon all of which buds will the it. but these are too early. Each of these shoots thus formed. it usually has three vigorous shoots useless and should be removed as it growth for a time. must not be understood that the first flower bud that is the one to be retained. first seen. and is the one most likely to produce the finest flowers. the variety and strength of the plant alone determining this. and could not by any means develop in time to lend any additional charm to the plants during their If bushy plants are desired. must not be pinched too late or they will not bloom at all. the plants will develop. Occasionally these buds appear in July. and are known as the July buds. care must be taken tying down of the branches. as many varieties produce what is known as the summer bud that generally shows itself forms May. is if This bud appears . the plants stop of the next buds will be Some varieties. that the loops that hold the branches are not too tight to move . all the in the axils of the leaves should be removed. when it easily breaks. to be selected.
adopting the system best adapted to our convenience and the beauty of our plants. Many people raise their voices against this system of tying altogether. for nothing can be more unsightly than a forest of sticks in a pot. and the become a necessity. The center with only a small branch or lateral tied to each.Exhibition Plants. String should be used for the main stem branches. als. A stout stake in the centre. as stake. and although from a truly artistic standpoint to the trained specimens may not be all we desire. It is of course desirmust be brought to our assistance at all. if plants will be be safe without them. . in all the training the chrysanthemum receives in many . of course. to which all the shoots are looped <. follow nature's course would be to leave our choicest blooms to training and tying able. to bring into nature. bushy plant is desired. a more natural appearance can be given the plant of this as than if much growth is made before the tying operation laterals is commenced. when art become bedraggled in the mud. The wire can easily be cut with pliers and slipped out. to turn their buds to the light and assume a more natural appearance when in flower than if just tied down. and preserve its shape during the show without their assistance. 67 it progresses. when grown only for conbut for exhibition purpose the English servatory decoration io about England. but outside few as possible should be used. as soon as the plants begin to make their growth. cannot well be dispensed with. By commencing early with the tying. as it is unnatural. but raffia or matting will do for the later- with tiie rapid growth as to sticks serve Remove all the large stakes possible at the same time you do the wire. as it is best to remove it when staged for exhibition. Carefully tie up the about two weeks This gives the shoots a chance before they come into bloom. Wire hoops fastened admirably for tying the shoots where a spreadThere must be three or more to ing. harmony with ur establishments. each plant to give it a good form.
even exceed us ards. old and well the next. and so on. one week a very light dressing of cow manure. it will wonderfully energize him. A good plan is to offer an interest in the final outcome for . umbrella tops.68 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. orchids. pyramids and balloon shaped plants. and proudly shows them as evidences of his when he moves. and he should govern the If the plants should ever surfer supply of water accordingly. but a change of food Use occasionally is best. the head gardener recipient of all prize the from the money and profits of all kinds. or wherever seen. he will soon find out the nature and requirements of the different varieties. in the extent of their training. and will produce surprising results. from want of water and their foliage wilt. liquid manure. towering as they . the certificates. half Their stand- standards. always command attention. a fact which soon becomes apparent to one entrusted with their keeping. Soot water pulverized also be used with advantage at intervals throughout the may whole season. one-fourth the prize attribute to the man in charge . hence the importance of judicious watering. Some varieties require much more water than others. medals. resulting awards made at horticultural exhibitions in favor of the articles he has exhibited. The standard or tree chrysanthemums at exhibitions. according to custom. show that endless care is bestowed upon their The feeding and watering of the plants will then formation. and if he is observant. whether chrysanthemums. and flourish on one or more staple foods. The care of watering is best entrusted to one man. Like human beings they can exist be the all-important care. and many of the successful growers is much of their success to this plan. and ribbons that at one time graced some object of his care in the exhibition tent or hall. In England. skill. He carries with him or the products of the kitchen garden. instance. it will count against the final success. cups.
NYMPH/EA A FRAGRANT CHRYSANTHEMUM. .
as they are apt . to The height of the standards is a matter of taste or conve- nience. A massive specimen six feet high. they are shifted into a larger in the They should be placed greenhouse. if rooted propagated in pots. if are potted into two and a-half inch pots. should be allowed to start from the roots or anywhere upon the stem. some preferring to others consider three feet a grow them six feet high. kept grow- ing without a check of any kind. Standards should if winds in fall. and no branches. To amateurs. under any circumstances. when their growth possible be sheltered from the is completed. first of when they in sand. the standards are all looked upon as plants of several years growth. is to take the first strong healthy shoots that spring up after the January. do above the bush and trained specimens. and pinched again and appear The shoots are so again until the first week of August. or size. these are trained outward. in a cool In about two weeks they will be rooted. which gives the plant a unique appearance. as each pot in turn becomes filled with roots. The plan best suited to this particular mode of culture. In a few days side shoots reached. cutting them off about three inches long and placing them in pots or sand. while more desirable height. the top is pinched out. . with a finely proportioned head of bloom. propagating house.yo Chrysanthemum Culture for America. arranged as to form an evenly balanced and well proportioned No shoots head. and repotted from time to time. They must be kept loosely but securely tied to straight stakes. unless it is When this height is desired for some particular purpose. and others not familiar with the growth of chrysanthemums. appears to the uninitiated as something impossible to produce in a period of ten months. They should be put into large pots at the end of June. and each confined to a single stem until the desired height is reached. be allowed grow. as with other cuttings. and the one usually adopted by the most successful growers.
to down by be top heavy. .Exhibition Plans. since there is danger of losing them when transferring to pots from the ground in the fall. ' ' SINGLE-FLOWERED " CHRYSANTHEMUM. They are best grown by being kept in pots all the time. even with the most painstaking care. and would otherwise perhaps be broken the first strong winds of autumn.
others not half that height. In the south. the same soil and treatment is The plants as for the other purposes described. alwavs remem- . and manure water attain. many desired. required should not be pinched often. ing the complete energy of a plant to the development of a single blossom. and The terminal bud is the and the ono usually retained. as if grown in pots. to which it should be securqly fastened. but they will be taller and less bushy. being governed by his circumstances and requirements. consequently there will not be as To grow Some shoots. the intending exhibitor would do well to folplants low this method. and only one bud retained. where they are grown as an ordinary decorathey may be grown and flowered in the open ground with the same attention to training and stopIf unsuitable varieties are chosen. largest Growers for exhibition often confine their plants to one stout stem. the small flower buds removed. of shoots allowed to remain on each plant is a matter each grower must determine for himself. every lateral shoot being removed as soon as it By this means of devotappears. it is wonderful to what size the blossoms will and where ample room is given and a good supply of on hand. no amount of care will produce good standards. feet high. plants grow eight When the very largest flowers are according to the variety. ping. tive plant for the garden. if he wishes to distance all competitors for large blooms in the November exhibitions. Throughout the season the plants must be well cared for. large flowers. Care at each shoot. and with all these points properly attended in to. watering and thinning the buds is the chief point in growing large flowers.72 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. The number there should be no trouble in securing the finest blooms. A stout stake should be placed should be constantly applied. so that great care must be taken in this particular. all side shoots being rubbed or pinched out from time to time. only one flower should be allowed on a shoot.
as early as . that quantity will be at the expense of quality. and thin out the lateral shoots to two or manner obtain fine blooms. Some growers take out the terminal bud as soon as three. as the flower-producing capacity of each plant can be concentrated into one or more shoots. but not quite the terminal buds were retained on each shoot.Exhibition Plants. 73 Bering. however. or even into a single terminal bud. it and in this if appears.
is singularly free from dis- and with some slight assistance its insect enemies can be speedily overcome. than after they are placed outside. infested plants. The black fly or aphis is its most persistent pest. tine rose and lily. and its attacks are chiefly in winter and spring. or using fresh tobacco stems among the plants on the benches. just before turning them into their summer quarters to thoroughly rid them of all insects that may be upon them. like chrysanthemum. while the plants are indoors. and dusting liberally with dry snuff or tobacco is to will (74) . will cause them to throw off prove fatal to the fly. number of enemies it assail but being of a vigorous constitution. of beauty. syringing the days. most other things . they are apt to be somewhat troublesome throughout the summer. if continued for a few If the plants are in the open ground. is not always free from trouble a like it. as it is more easily done when all the plants are under complete control in the house. The sprinkling of these stems with water at evening just as the house fumes that be closed up. or on the hot water pipes. and if infesting the plants when set out of doors in spring. It is therefore necessary. While in the house they can be destroyed by fumigations. and Diseases.CHAPTER Insects VI. THE ease.
where the refuse can be had at a low cost. and pour boiling water quantity. Its origin is causes of mildew. and as soon as cool. as well as a cold wet soil or bleak situation. especially the incurved sorts. is also a serious evil upon the older leaves. place with it on it. and no trouble will be If tobacco is scarce. Black spot. and it will have the desired effect. and dull cloudy weather. the fall . succeeding sunny days. a thorough syringing every evening will make it unpleasant for them.Insects and is Diseases. and they will not seriously trouble the Clear cold water has many virtues. take a small experienced from the fly. probably another form of mildew. In tobacco growing sections. has a good effect. the plants out of doors can be freely mulched a few times during the season. seem to be most liable to its attacks. is the most effectual remedy. leaving outside late in the fall. . ing. The red spider and the mealy bug will sometimes infest the chrysanthemum. is far more prevalent than it is at others. In the fall caterpillar sometimes preys upon the no remedy for this better than hand pickfoliage. but if a water supply and a garden hose are hand. In some seasons the a brown is and there . and is essential plants. it in a pail or bucket. syringe the infested plants with it. Many of our handsomest sorts are also subject to mildew the Chinese varieties. so as to come in contact with both upper and under sides of the leaves. 75 of eradicating dust. flowers of sulphur dusted liberally on the plant. Overcrowding the plants and insufficient ventilation are fer- November. The best preventive is to avoid overcrowding in giving abundance a dry atmosphere at serving of air through the day. and pre- night. and the best means the fly. at in keeping the plants clean. The mildew generally makes its appearance when the plants are housed or sheltered in disease attributed by some to cold nights or great extremes of temperature. tile Should mildew actually appear.
to discuss their physiological import. According to Adam Forsythe. the question the practical man. in order to obtain from it during the winter a large number of side shoots for cutting. in a bunch. cut the plant down. . but more fre- Mark the branches and cut the medium sized cuttings from the wood few new flowers. flowers. and strike them in a gentle Having done this. Bronze Jardin des Plantes came from that fine old yellow variety. thus THE change All four enlarging our collection. for Not sometimes the new flowers come quently they appear singly. lilac varieties of Cedo Nulli have sprung from one. Sports and Other Variations. ' ' "sports that are developed from time to time. are due to the kindly assisttance of nature. the first keep it. how to for In cases of a sport really worth keeping. It appears that any color is capable of sporting into any other color peculiar to the chrysanthemum. the flowers are most likely to sport and frequently to yellow. excepting the stem upon which the new flowers were produced. having obtained the sport. and Queen of England has sported into six different colors. taking off a that produced the heat. By this course a good stock of plants will be (76.CHAPTER VII. care is to notice how many terminal shoots produced it. is.
. is to take the plant to a propagating house. new that concerned. 77 'THOUSAND SPARKS. secured. in which case the chances for success are greater than when It his labor they appear upon bearing wood." SHOWN IN JAPAN.Sports and Other Variations. is and one may all discover that so far as raising a is lost. variety may happen the new flowers appeared upon a sucker from the root. their stead. turn it out of the pot. the old flowers may appear in . Another excellent plan when a sport is discovered. and in the following season the new flowers may appear but on the other hand.
Many persons think they are in possession of something new. This remove. there confusion of ideas in regard to sports. as the hardened wood is slow to root. cutting the branches except those bearing the on its side and cover the ball with sand. and young shoots will break from every joint. The general system. so for . ters will develop more But in time sportive characcolors than one in a flower. is better than cutting the stems into lengths to strike. so that nothing can move them about. and it is possible that varieties will be found that will show peculiarities little many dreamed of at present. branches firmly. and in nine cases out of ten the sport will be at least as good in quality as the parent. at two totally distinct periods. the inexperienced in chrysanthemum culture. As a rule the varieties which originate from sports are self- away all it colored. There is no end to the range of sportiveness. caused by allowing wrong bud. if covered. When these are large enough to cut them off and propagate in the usual way. of sports and sporting is an interesting subboth from a theoretical standpoint as well as in practical much in vogue.78 first Chrysanthemum Culture for America. and it is from these side shoots. they would rot away. when they are allowed to grow and develop study. lay Spread the branches on the sand of the propagating bed. although there are occasionally exceptions to this rule. There is no its necessary correspondence between blooms of a variety that develops blooms from buds formed growth of the plant. when in reality Among much is the blooms to develop from the they are only bad forms of some variety. and hinder the rooting process. Keep all moist. of growing blooms is not favorable to the large chrysanthemums increase of our varieties by sports. in the The question ject. and cover the entire stem with sand. as. being careful to have the leaves Secure the exposed. sportive flowers. as the side shoots are taken from the plants as fast as they appear.
numerous varieties that will keep the southern garden or the northern conservatory gay through November and December. for it must be a poor collection of summer flowers need the unseasonable help of the chrysanthemum at time from the first of March to the first of September any but after that date every bloom that can be secured for a that can . Mr. filling up the gap between the summer flowers and the November chrysIt is to remarks. and most of the medium and late flowering sorts can be induced to bloom later by a system which we shall presently suggest. grown in their natural bush form. Golden Button. says in regard to sports. Mad. anthemum. There are period of four or five months seems invaluable. when in bloom in mid-summer. Pepin and Illustration.Sports flowers. On the other hand. as up to his time the early kinds were all of little merit. sports appear any and everywhere. 79 if many sports appear. that the causes of their appear- ance are unintelligible to him. Mary. They are also invaluable to florists for cut-flower work through October. EARLY FLOWERING CHRYSANTHEMUMS seem out of place. Some of these are still in cultivation. There are also some varieties that bloom in January. that and Other Variations. Salter for their early blooming qualities. so that the introduction of this group is proving more . Burbridge. were Precocite. and we do not want them so early. For the last thirty this class has steadily improved. in his excellent work on chrysanthemums. with the result of a years series of beautiful varieties flowering in September and October . St. but are not of sufficient value to command general admiration. and calculated to disfigure rather than The varieties that were most valued by to adorn a garden. John Salter was the first to take this class in hand and develop it. the earlier flowering that we now confine our This class is of great use in adorning northern gardens where late kinds would be destroyed by frosts. Mr.
calliopsis. Madame Desgrange. Boyer. Cobbett. C. PINK OR CARMINE. when other flowers To the production of late varieties. as well as the are scarce. and when the golden rod. : WHITE. M. Wm. it useful every season. LATE FLOWERING CHRYSANTHEMUMS. YELLOW. especially tne large flowering Japanese varieties that bloom after Christmas. following is a brief list of available earlier blooming sorts DARK. ite flowers. Fife. Martimas. and dandelion look dim by the wayside. hawk-weed. E. Pequot. M. Lord Mayor.Bryan. but a selection of varieties best suited to this treatment is of great importance in the production of flowers dur- ing the late winter or early spring months. Capucine. Morley. our tion still growers might with profit turn their attenand greatly extend the season of their favorfurther. Golden Shah. the late flowering varieties play an important part. Grace Attick. will doubtless be much developed and add still further form and color to our gardens during that period when the pot marigold. For the purpose of prolonging the blooming season of the chrysanthemum. Golden Desgrange. Roi de Precoces Sam. earlier section. rudbeckias. Gloriosum. Ghys.8o Chrysanthemum Culture for America. Special culture and late pinching has much to do with late flowering. which is the most . sun-flowers and tritomas appear to be on the wane. M. Madame La Croix. although is still must be admitted that there A pure yellow. rose. The room for much improvement. During recent years various cultural practices have been resorted to for the purpose of obtaining short bushy plants that would bloom in January and February. Louis Barthere. October Beauty. Nicholas. a bright and a full crimson of such a type as Madam Desgrange. would be of incalculable advantage to chrysanthemum gardens. Duchess of Elaine. dahlias. and no one familiar with the subject would venture to This section say we may not hope for such improvements. Fleur Parfaite. Lady Selborne.
dreary portion of our
practice generally to a height of six
inches early in May,
the plants are eighteen inches or
This results in a bushy mass of side shoots,
Chrysanthemum Culture of America.
the plants are retarded so that they will bloom later than would A few plants treated in this way from otherwise be the case.
the beginning of May till the end of June will give a fine succession of flowers through January and February. After cutting back in this manner the plants must be kept moist until
new growth appears. It must be borne in mind that the practice is not recommended except in the case of decorative plants, as the individual blooms are not as large when so
It is of special value in the production of flowering plants for greenhouse or conservatory decoration. Late prop-
agation will also induce late blooming qualities, and keeping the plants out of doors as long as possible in the fall is also favorable to this result.
There are some varieties which, under the same treatment
as other chrysanthemums, will not bloom until December is well advanced ; such are Late Duchess, Princess Teck, Mrs.
These should be supplied Cannell, H. Waterer, and others. with liquid manure until the buds commence to show color, but on account of the short dull days in which they bloom they will not require as much water during that period as the
Mr. H. Jones. Goldfinder.
Mrs. C. Carey, Lucrece,
Gov. of Guernsey, Mr. Gladstone,
Gloire de Toulouse.
Mrs. Wanamaker, Mrs. F. Thomson,
Chrysanthemum Shows and Organisations.
London Horticultural Society at Cheswick, in the autumn of 1825, when all the recently introduced novelties from China were shown, about seven hundred plants Another was given in 1829, at Norwich; being exhibited. this was by the Norfolk and Norwich Horticultural Society. A show was held in 1831, in Vienna, where, it is interesting to note, more sorts were known at that time than in England. A few years later, in 1836, Birmingham and Swansea, in South Wales, each held shows. After these shows were inaugurated
they gained steadily each year in public favor, until every town in England had followed their example, and each successive year's display has outdone its predecessor, until
chrysanthemum show not of a competitive was probably that held in the gardens of the nature,
At one of to-day, the craze may be said to be at its height. the recent shows in London, 10,000 people paid for admission
day, and at Hull, Portsmouth, Kingston, and other Almost everytown in Engthe crowds are surprising. places land has a chrysanthemum society, and in all European coun-
Belgium and the North of France, the becoming a very popular flower, as it also chrysanthemum is in New Zealand, Australia and Tasmania.
exhibited for the first time. which has served to greatly stimulate the interest in this popular flower. Hallock.Culture for America. now the most attractive of all the flower exhiand thousands annually flock to see them with as much enthusiasm as the Kentuckians exhibit for their state fairs or so that they are bitions. The Centenary chrysanthemum show was held in Edin- burgh. 1890. in 1889. for three days. In 1882 it was continued for two days. and Wm. when it was held on Wednes- day from twelve o'clock M. Wilson. and so continued until 1889. race meetings.84 It Chrysanthemum. The formation of the New Jersey Floricultural Society. and its annual chrysanthemum exhibit at Orange. has been customary in those countries to . The people on interested. Their first exhibition was held in Novem- . from twelve o'clock M. Whilst chrysanthemums were shown by the Massachusetts Horticultural Society as early as 1830.. the receipts at the door amounting A grand Centenary Festival was to $5. and so continuing until 1879. held in London in November. in 1886. of Astoria. when it was held four days. This was one of the Saturday shows. to ten P. as most of the plants exhibited in New York came from that vicinity. V. this side of the Atlantic have now become and chrysanthemum shows have become as popu- lar as in other countries. at which many new varieties were years large find any record. Son & Thorpe.736 in three days. it was not until the year 1868 that the first exhibition distinctively styled a chrys- anthemum show was held by this society. shows were held. Scotland. H. M. to three P. under the auspices of the National Chrysanthemum Society of England. from Several following of Queens. M. C.offer valuable prizes for the best grown plants and cut blooms. has detracted somewhat from the New York shows of late. The of exhibition in New York in 1882 is the first in that city The plants were chiefly which we can the gardens of Messrs.
In 1887. Since that time chrysanthemum shows have become more general.Chrysanthemum Shows and Organizations. leaving the Society a net profit of $2.300. and once started. their total receipts being $3. OR MEDUSA A JAPANESE FANCY. they have grown rapidly in public favor. Chicago had its first themum show. Philadelphia held its first annual exhibition in 1880. auspices acquired chrysanFlorists' Their second show was in the form of a floral fete. 5 EYE OF THE SERPENT. her. 1886. and the shows under the of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society have now a national reputation. so that their abandonment or retrogradation in a single instance has yet to be chronicled.000 for its three days exhibition. . under the auspices of the Chicago Club.
Atlanta. Wilmington. a most interestof that city. Connecticut. New Bedford and Massachusetts Scranton. upon the grounds of John Lane. Baltimore. had its first show in 1887. in Pike's Opera House. . 1888. . and have been continued Haven. LancasPlymouth. and is perhaps the most popular of all the America at the present time. While they have been confined chiefly to the large cities of the North and West. New first 1887. Georgia. Jersey. ter and Erie. and valuable premiums were offered. Memphis in 1887. and liberal premiums are annually offered under the able management of the Chicago Florists' Club. Delaware Charleston. and several others. and in the same year also. Texas. was given. Springfield. every : . held at its all subsequent display in shows. Indianapolis. Montreal. Canada. in connection with the chrysanthemum exhibitions in Cincinnati held its first show Exposition in 1888. until now its fame has spread to countries where the chrysanthemum is grown. we are glad to note that the Southern cities are also falling in line. . Connecticut Camden. Maryland. and all it has increased annually. Germantown. Evansville. . too. Pennsylvania Hartford.86 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. so that it will probably be but a short time until every city and town of importance will have its annual chrysanthemum show. in November." any importance in the South have had for . South Carolina Montgomery. Tennessee. Nashville. in October. and the Autumn Queen is given a well appointed reception each season. as she bursts into blossom Nearly in the soft all towns of sunny days of the "Indian Summer. in 1886. and in the follow- ing year. Alabama Dallas. a display was made in the Eden Muse'e Each year since. in 1889. while the following cities also now hold chrysanthemum shows regularly fall Worcester. New . ing meeting or exhibition has been held. their first Every season we read of a dozen or more cities holding chrysanthemum show. a grand exhibition. Indiana. in 1889. exclusively of chrysanthemums.
York. many would have said that those who hinted at such a thing would be a good deal safer in some insane asylum. Thorpe has passed. at which no premiums were an admission fee was charged. Probably time is required to lay the foundations of such a glorious institution as we would fain see the National Chrysanthemum Society trust the moving spirits in the organization the good work so cheerfully undertaken until their will pursue fullest ambition is attained. where their utterance would not disturb the So brethren v/ith such absurd predictions. however. as treasurer. minds of their ity to chronicle any of its achievements.I Chrysanthemum Shows and Organizations. during the in that city. a National Chrysanthemum Society would be in said that operation in 1890. of Atlanta. Society of America was New York. and . The National Chrysanthemum organized at Buffalo. as secretary. Georgia." to : The work proposed by Mr. several years a 87 chrysanthemum display. in the enterprise. We of all toilers in the world of "mums. meeting of the Society of American Florists The veteran John Thorpe. the plants being contributed from the gardens of amateurs in the vicinity. of Philadelphia. Thorpe attention of the Association is as receive the first First. and the author regrets his inabilyear. offered. being the River. of Chicago. moving spirit of Pearl New with Edwin Lonsdale. in August. usually for benevolent purposes. 1889. the superand discrimination to be given to seedlings before they vision this is mentioned first because there are so are distributed . took the lead as president. the first of a series of chrysantheshows was held in the fall of 1890. at which valuable mum prizes were offered. and John " If ten years ago it had been Lane. and thereby gain the admiration become. Follows many now foisted upon the market that are worthless." A soon after the formation of the Society. but Through the enterprise of the Piedmont Exposition Com- pany. said Mr.
88 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. tial prizes. the formation and establishing of societies in all cities. supervision as far as possible over of . and as the florist depends upon this taste for his living. the grower can best reach cultivated people by a flower show. Second. however. the prospect of greater reputation in his community. has developed so quickly and grandly from its unassuming . the best method producing the best specimens of all kinds and for all purposes Fourth. and botanical gardens. Fifth. those distributing chrysanthemums. Third. at which papers are read of interest to the craft. and villages. and subjects of importance in both floriAt the autumn culture and horticulture are freely discussed. so that the combined results of these individual efforts is the display of such a collection as under other circumstances would rarely be brought together. and still more. It show. parks or gardens exist. so as to insure their being true to name . monthly exhibitions are held. flower shows are given because the taste is already cultivated. states as well as in England. and developing a market for them. the chrysanthemum holds chief place. is an inducement to the grower to make the best efforts possible to surpass his neighbor. he should endeavor to increase this interIn large cities where there are est by all legitimate means. In most of the large cities where horticultural societies exist. its because of great importance . and decorative plants accompanies the and refinement as naturally as the development taste for music or art. where they do not already exist. thus creating an interest in his In the Eastern plants. the consideration and selection of collections for all purposes . towns. well kept and tastefully public parks taste for flowers of culture A decorated. the people insensibly acquire an increased taste but in communities where no such for fine plants and flowers . and the public desires to see the The temptation of substanbest the gardeners can produce.
combined with good taste. . rather to deform the bloom should be discountenanced. the prize to be awarded for novAll effort to "dress" or elty. has happily never been indulged in to a To one possessing great extent on this side of the Atlantic. . the fostering influence of the shows this must cultivate for If it were not for spirit would soon weaken and die. Numerous innovations are urged in the way of exhibiting chrysanthemums. a sense of propriety and good taste. what is more ridiculous than to exhibit the blooms on flat cards or boards. thousands perhaps appearing every year to displace So great has been the their less favored predecessors. that one dollar is considered a fair price for the merest twig that the florist nearly a year before he can see it bloom. above all do will never regret it. 89 ancestors that the family likeness has scarcely been retained. not forget the children they have a natural love for flowers. One who has announcement ever seen a chrysanthemum show will need no of time further invitation to following exhibitions. demand for new varieties.Chrysanthemum Shows and Organizations. than the simple Those who have never all means avail themselves of the first opportunity that presents itself. and nothing can give them more lasting pleasure and happiness. seen a chrysanthemum show should by . however. that at present they are named by the hundreds. and is not easily recognized except by those who have an inti- mate acquaintance with the plants. squeezing them out to their fullest extent to curl their petals with ivory and place. and they When going to the show. Both Chinese and Japanese types have produced so many different individuals of marvelous beauty. and it is well to encourage all practical ideas and add new features. than the cultivation of this love of theirs. NOTES ON EXHIBITIONS. We might borrow from the French the method of grouping and displaying plants in bloom. This practice. until they and the flowers are fast and inseparable companions.
holes in its top through which the stem was passed to the inside.90 tongs. By this means the blooms. as well as to them of all their grace and ! insert foreign petals that deprive beauty 'There an instance on record where an enterprising competitor. . so that in performing the operation of "dressing" his blooms he brought his cunning into play. in the flat spreading sorts. Chrysanthemum Culture for America. where a zinc tube was usually fixed which contained water to receive the end of the stem. especially tightly down on the board. with numerous . This mode of exhibition afforded ample facilities for the would-be prize winner. Beauty of petal. as they were called. are more to be sought than monstrosities that rival in form the Globe artiPrizes might also be offered for single chrysanthechokes. would indeed be a genius ! shows should be drawn up by people of refined tastes. by a cunning trick. The blooms of the Chinese varieties were most shown in those days they were exhibited on a light wooden bench sloping to the front like a writing desk. With were used to the aid of tweezers and glue pot. who could successfully employ such a device at one of our exhibitions. were drawn many cases. a clear idea of what is meant should be obtained from the mums. of The schedules Intending exhibitors should be careful that they thorunderstand the meaning of the schedules or regulations oughly If the slightest doubt is felt. secured for several years the is premium for the finest cut flowers at the Liverpool Chrysanthemum Show. of the society offering prizes. where the blooms are exhibited in vases or tall glasses. several blooms make one. So dexterously did he unite the parts that he succeeded in baffling The exhibitor both his competitors and the judges for years. form and color. and snip and contort them with tweezers. or exhibition stands. by taking the finest petals from choice flowers. thus greatly augmenting the size of the exhibition bloams that he was so long famous for growing(?).
.HARRY T. WIDENER.
As soon as the plants reach the exhibition hall. The shipping of cut flowers to exhibition points is always attended with anxiety. and placed in a cool dark shed or A piece of the stem cellar. but the amateur who has no complete outfit will do well to observe the following hints All flowers should be cut and placed in water at least twenty-four hours before shipping. with long stems. Flowers that are opening too early should be cut at once. understood. or showing bush plants.92 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. just They should then be placed in tightly enough not to bruise. showing clusters of flowers when individual blooms were expected. should be cut off every third day. where the atmosphere is dry. using damp paper as a packThe same method should ing between each layer of stems. and to have them arrive in perfect condiThose having boxes made expressly purpose do not require any suggestions. In packing. . and the water changed. as they travel more safely and are less liable to be broken when tied in this manner. or disappointment may result on in the wrong class being disqualified . wrap each flower carefully in tissue paper. and if plants or flowers must be sent distinctively a considerable distance. even if a week before the time. the stems to be held in place with other strips. which they will retain by pressing the dirt firmly around the base of each. in tiers. tion requires great care. In boxes. when plants grown to a Be sure that everything is single stem were to be exhibited. In the transportation of specimen plants. the stakes may be pressed back to their original position. make such calculations that they may arrive at the time designated by the promoters of the exhibition. so that they may not press upon each other. account of exhibiting for secretary of the exhibition. for the : boxes or baskets. strips should be nailed far enough apart to prevent the flowers from chafing. the stakes should be drawn together by means of a stout string.
ers. remembering always to make a new surface at the end of each stem by cutting off a piece before again placing them in water upon the stage. all to become wet during packing. those with long and drooping petals will require to be gently shaken before placing in position. Labeling should be legibly and neatly done. Do not allow the petals In staging the flowers. 93 be carried out in basket packing. except that strong string is to be used instead of wooden strips.Chrysanthemum Shows and Organizations. placing the names In arranging the flowconveniently in front of each flower. the smaller ones forming the front rows. UNI7BESIT7 . the large ones should be at the back.
all those in cultivation at the close of the preceding The is classification of the chrysanthemum difficulty. Twelve divisions are given. Anemone. and Japanese Anemone. classification of the to In 1836 another writer contributed a new arrangement or chrysanthemum. which were year. the basis of which was group varieties in classes of the same color. and that more recently they have been classified under the heading of Incurved. owing to (94) . Japanese Reflexed. at which time there were included only forty-eight varieties. in 1833. and it appears to be of value only from the fact of its containing a table of fifty-nine sorts. China-Aster-flowered. double. Classification. Japanese. Ranuculus-flowered. Marigold-flowered. VERY chrysanthemum grower is well aware that the large flowering varieties have for many years past been divided into certain well marked distinctive sections. at the a matter of no small The present day hybridizers have worked much improvement in the different classes. Reflexed. Tassel-flowered. incurved.CHAPTER IX. which were divided into six sections as follows : Ranuculus-flowered. The first attempt to classify the chrysanthemum was by Haworth. Tassel-flowered.
95 FABIAU DE MEDIANA. .
although the general range of character can be indicated without regard to colors. as first. so long known as a prominent intermixed that type of the true reflexed section. came near being tossed into a new class by the National Chrysanthemum Society of England. . ribbon florets. Sevvarieties at the present time are of doubtful classification \ eral even the good old Cullingfordii. which are much more diversified. varying length. like . positive definition cannot be given to embrace all the numerous varieties that claim relationship to this class at the A The greater numbers of leading varieties are present time. One makes . Meg Merrilies like Yellow Dragon third. some also have the tip of the florets cupped. three groups twisted. or The great variety of characters they are strangely lacerated. hollowed or curved upwards. brighter and richer than in any other class. twisted or irregularly incurved ones. . like Soliel Levant florets fluted. many of them have lost their identity. thread. like Cry Kang. while others are scarcely larger than a stout thread . like Comte de Germiny. founded upon the form : of the florets. so distinctly marked that almost each variety would require a special description. the freedom with which they respond to their numerous The different classes have been so crossed and experiments. to long In breadth drooping. It is not our purpose here to attempt to divide the main group . some being an inch in width. fluted. like Peter the Another makes four sections Great florets partly quilled. the petals also vary much. the short tubular disk florets are absent. from short straight spreading florets. Cossack. their place being taken by florets either flat. . JAPANESE.g6 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. second. has led to the proposal of several different methods of class. The forms of the florets and blooms are ample for distinguishIn all well developed Japanese blooms ing the chief types. and florets incurved.fication. flat florets. quilled or tubulated of .
L. Irving Clark. with reflexed florets and a number and small blooms. straight. round at the tip. W. Avalanche.Classification. INCURVED. Phoebus. Edwin Molyneux. Mrs. The accepted type thoroughly flat. H. spreading or of varieties. Elaine. Vallee d' Andorre. with both large some for this section is Elaine. Stanstead White. La Triumphante. Desgranges The varieties belonging to this section are chiefly of Chinese origin. and requisite is possible that it when . JAPANESE REFLEXED. are sufficiently well in which these characters marked to render grouping an easy matter. however. can be selected. The incurved flower should be regular as nearly the shape of a globe as possible. Mr. A hollow center or a prominent eye is a serious defect. Thunberg. namely the Japanese Reflexed. Coles. Following the catalogue of the National Society of England. Hyde. Pelican. W. Comte de Germiny. Mad. Jeanne Delaux. The entire class is characterized by an excellent habit of . Japanese Reflexed Types. Baco. the florets broad and smooth. Harris. all of which. we separate but one section. Etoile de Lyon. is slight modification may be tested. from the main group. Japanese Types. Grandiflorum. Cannell. Mrs. Pres. C. and the color clear and decided. can be exhibited in the ordinary Japanese up class. A. Eynsford White. 97 into these separate classes. The institution of this it group may be regarded as an experi- ment. .. Mad. Ada Spaulding.. as is also a roughness in the flowers or unevenness in outline and want of freshness in the outward florets. They are distinguished by the globular form and outline of the flowers. regularly arranged. Japanese Incurved Types. W. Alcyon. Canning.
curve towards the center. Dr. so regnearly approach perfection. LARGE ANEMONES. Cullingfordi. and only the backs of the florets are seen in the most perfect flowers. Mrs. we have broad ray florets. Heale. Julia Lagravere. Jeanne d' Arc. Violet Tomlin. while the greater proportion of them make good specimens. more or less spherical in form. Webb's Queen. formed centers and regularly distinct . . S. high. so that it is chiefly the inner surface of the floret which is seen. Temple of Solomon. formIn the flowers which most ing the border or ray florets. The flowers should be perfectly circular in outline. and with broad overlapping florets. with no trace of hollowness. are of medium size. White Christine. Golden Beverly. all the florets. Annie Salter.gS Chrysanthemum Culture for America. without a trace of thinness in the center. which are strap-shaped. Reflexed Types. Phidias. Incurved Types. and the center hemispherical. REFLEXED. forming the center or disc and the other flat and more or less horizontally arranged. The flowers of most of the reflexed varieties are too flat. The varieties form- The Reflexed outward or The flowers ing this class are vigorous yet compact growers. ularly arranged as to form a circle. but are val- uable for their distinct character and rich coloring. shaped ray kinds of The Large Anemones have two one the quill. Empress of India. neatly florets. Mrs. Jardin des Plantes. Queen of England. growth and is good for specimens. Sharp. "The is distinctive characteristic of the flowers of this class their large size." florets. Coleman. and are remarkable for their bright and effective colors. As the name implies. varieties differ chiefly from the incurved by the reflex curve of the floret.
.One of the New Japanese forms.
Russell. Duchess of Edinburg. and so regularly arranged as to be more or less small flowers.ioo Chrysanthemum Culture for America. Berthe Pigny. Mad. M. The disc is more or less regular in form. Nulli. in others they are broad and curled. Mad. Mrs. Vald'Or. POMPONS. with a center or disc of circular in outline. Pompon Types." . Louis Bonamy. and are favorites with many on account of their neat growing habit and free bloomThe French growers gave them this name from ing qualities. Osiris. Gladys Spaulding. breadth and arrangement ers they are narrow and much twisted. Bacchus. and As in the large or less regularly arranged ray florets. being slightly and average about one-and-a-half inches in diamethe florets of each bloom being of a single kind. Large Anemone Types. "The Anemone Pompons more are of a dwarf growth. flattened ter. General Canrobert. but the ray florets vary conin some flowsiderably in length. The blooms are nearly globular. Pethers. Snowdrop. florets flat." . ''The flowers of the varieties constituting this group are remarkable for their large size and fantastic form. Mrs.. Soeur Dorothee Souille. and in some instances the ray florets droop and form an elegant fringe. Cedo President. Geo. Owen. Souvenir de Jersey. having quilled florets. the disc should be high. full and neat. JAPANESE ANEMONES. and the ray anemones. Fabian de Mediana. Thorpe. Ratapoil. POMPON ANEMONES. R. Aquisition. Sabine. Gluck. Sand. These are all small compact blooms. Japanese Anemone Types. Bob. Jr. the resemblance of the flower to the tuft or pompon upon the soldiers' caps.
The mums and is This practice is followed mainly for the purpose of enhancing their value from a commercial point of view. The variety is of vigorous growth and make ties are fine specimen : plants. . of Types. we publish a list of those most likely to be met with at the present time. of desirable for the finest floral work. while their delicate perfume and chaste character make them on account of their fragrance. two seasons ago. which is based upon a list published by N. Rose Marguerite. Sharp. Miss Nightingale. . The following varie- sweet scented (see cut. Nymphaea. Davis.Classified tion . a practice that cannot be too strongly condemned. Anemones. They have somewhat of the form and fragrance of the well known pond lily. . being borne separately on long stems. supplemented by additions from other sources. SYNONYMS. Scapin. England. as possible the annoyance likely to arise from two or more names being given to one variety. although it may sometimes have arisen from accident but in either case the In order to mitigate as far disappointment caused is alike. General Canrobert. There have been several varieties in cultivation possessing a noticeable perfume. 69). SWEET SCENTED CHRYSANTHEMUMS. of Camberwell. but it was not until the introduction of that delicately perfumed variety. Progne. and claimed This variety is attention American the flowers are of the purest white. Astie. Dr. Marguerite de Coi. Sydonie. that they became generally known. Lord Derby. Virginale. Calliope. subject of double named or synonymous chrysantheis a matter of no small importance to the cultivator. p. i oi Pompon Anemone Queen Mr. Nymphaea. and about two origin inches in diameter. They are extremely valuable for cut flowers.
Planchenau. Mme.IO2 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. President Sanderson. Forsyth. John's Beaute du Nord Bendigo Belle Paule Bertier Rendatler Silver Ball. Patrick. Berrol. Bertier Rendatler. Mrs. Curiosity. Marguerite de Coi. Canary Cherub Canary. Drin Drin. Aregina Mrs. Bernard Palissy. M. Wave Defiance Delice d'Automne Rose Mignon. Domage. Lord Al- Empress Chinaman Christin. White Ceres. Alix Ambrosia Angelina Albert de Norios Aigle d'Or Harry Townsend. Belle Pauline. Alice Bird Buttercup. of India. Voltaire. Wood Princess of Wales. St. Mabel Ward. Golden Mad. Bixio. CHRYSANTHEMUM SYNONYMS. Gloire d'Or. Humngton. Inner Temple. Synonym. H. The Cossack. Princess of Teck. Singerly. Beethoven Boule de Argent Baron Beust Beauty of St. Mrs. M. Bob Bonnington Bouquet Fait Bruce Findlay Belle Hickey Maroon Model. Album Striatum Alderley Striatum. Comte de Morny Christmas Number Carmen Ceres Cossack Claire Alonzio Purple Pompon. Albert. . Name. Stonewall Jackson. Christmas Eve Crystal Mrs. Chromatelle Charlie Sharman W. Chinoise. Potter. Cannell. Carmien. Fernand Feral. Golden Empress cester. (White) La of Japan.
Little Bob. Dr. Bois Duval Dr. Rogers. Berrol. Dr. Rossa. Synonym.Chrysanthemum Synonyms. Drin Drin Elaine Mrs. Delphine Caboche Dr. Marsham. 103 LEOPARD Name. Rozas Miquellon. White Aigle. . Scarlet Gem.
Domage. Empress of Japan Flamme du Punch Fleur de Marie Fabias de Maderanaz F. E.. Golden St. R. . G. Mrs. Elsie Chrysanthemum Culture for America. La France. Belle Hickey. A. The Daimio. C. Thais. Wermig. Golden Empress of India Gloire de France Golden Eagle Golden Circle Golden George Glenny Golden M'lle Marthe Golden Queen of England George Gordon Geo. Dixori. Mrs. Domage Golden Rhine Grandiflorum Gloire Rayonnante Gold Porcupine. L'Or du Rhin. Golden Queen of England.Yellow Perfection. L' Africaine. Jeanne Delaux. Snowball. Mr. Eliza. Bonnington. Marguerite Solleville. Mr. Mr. Emperor of China Webb's Queen.IO4 Name. Golden Mad. Mrs. Hock Gloire d'Or Orange Perfection... Mrs. Elliott. Late Flora. . Franconette Dufour. Synonym. Golden Mad. Glover. Barnes. Val d'Andorre. Sanderson St. L'rlle des Plaisirs. Davis Favorite de Solleville Fernand Feral Flora Franconette Dufour Gillardia Punch. Cunningham. Clair. Golden Jardin des Plantes. Glory Golden Dragon Golden Jardin des Plantes Sarnia Glory. Monsieur Devielle. -Amy Furz. Hedgehog. Fabian de Mediana. H. Cole. e Harry Townsend . White Queen. Emily Dale. Bruce Findlay.. Jukes Early Rose Queen La Frisure. C. Fleur de Marie. Miss Oubridge. Chromatelle. Castex Desgrange Golden Mad. Yellow Dragon. George Hock. Evans. Empress of India Lady Erectum Superbum Early Red Dragon Emily Dale E. Mad.
Mrs. Lord Derby Lord Alcester L'Africaine George Gordon. Odoratum Purpureum. Chinaman. Helvetic Synonym. Mrs. Cunningham Mrs. Virginale. F. Piercy Mrs. Mad. L'Aube Matinale L'Infante d'Espagne Salmoneum plenum. Lincoln's Inn. Marsham Mrs. Empress of India. Scarlet Bob Gem. Beale. Frank Thomson Mottled Beverly Luxembourg. Name.Chrysanthemum Synonyms. George Rundle. A. Hillier La Bienvenue. Mount Edgcumbe Mr. Howe. Mrs. Rotundiflora. George ParneIncognito. Lucinda Illustration. Domage. Flora. Soliel Levant. Jeanne D'Arc Khedive The Khedive. La Bienvenue La France La Frisure Lady St. Mrs. Clair Lady Trevor Lawrence Late Duchess Late Flora La Chinoise Little Hillier. 105 Hebden Bridge Illustration Lucinda. Mad. J. Helvetia. W. G. Wood. Early Rose Queen. Mrs. Sharpe Mrs. Empress of India. Pecoul. John Salter J. Incognito Inner Temple Jeanne Delaux Jardin des Plantes Japon Fleuri. Refulgence. L' Aube Nationale. L'Or du Rhin Golden Rhine. Lakme Lincoln's Inn Lakme. Madelein Tezier. Gloire de France. Berrol. Mad. George Parnell Mrs. George Rundle. Sharp. George Rundle Mrs. Drover. Elaine. Luxembourg Mrs. . Aregina. Wood Mrs. Princess Imperial. Davis. Mrs.
H. Seux Mile. Delphine Caboche. Mrs. R. Mancy Mrs. Huffington Mrs. Bertier Rendatler Mme.io6 Chrysanthemum. Irving Clark Mrs. Defiance. Wellam Mrs. Potter M. Moussillac M. Dunnett Marvel Mrs. Thomas Todman. Dunnet J. . E. Madeleine Tezier Marguerite de Coi Marguerite de York Marguerite Solleville Augustine. Bendigo. John Laing Mr. Cannell Mrs. Synonym. Golden M'lle. Dixon. Seny. Castex Mrs. Hillier Mr. Miss Thurza. Drain. Miss Marechaux. Fleur de Marie . Dufoy. Alderley. Corbay Mr. Jukes. Gerard Mrs. J J. Mrs. Augustine Gauthent Wermig. Alpheus Hardy Mrs. Mr. Stonewall Jackson. Christmas eve. Jardin des Plantes. J. Name. Volunteer. H. Mr. Greame Mme. N. Marie Longarre Maroon Model Martha Harding Miquellon Miss Marechaux Miss Oubridge Miss Thurza Bob. John Laing. Sunflower. Pilbetz Mme. Gerard. Marvel. . Mabel Ward Mme. M. Marquis de Illustration. Mrs. G. Bouquet Fait. Leopold Catalin. Barnes Mr. H. Deveille Mr. Mrs. Hillier. Culture for America. N. Planchenau Mr. Wellam. Telleville. Ostrich Plume. Domage Mme. J. M. C. Bertier Rendatler. M. Desgranges Mad. Grandiflora. Marthe. Mousillac. Elliott Gold. Virginale. Dixon Mr. Cole Petite Mignon. M'lle Madeleine Tezie. J. Mr. Nouvelle Alveole. Mme.
H. Synonym. 107 Miss ALPHEUS HARDY. Showing a well-grown Pot Plant. C. Glover Tricolor. Golden George Glenny. President. Mr. Mr. . Beale Mrs. Howe John Salter. Starling Mr. Evans Mrs. Murray Mrs. Name. Lady Trevor Lawrence.Chrysanthemum Synonyms. J. Oliver Cromwell.
Dixon Mrs. R. Amsterdam. Curtius Quintus. H. Ballantyne. M.io8 Name. Blush Queen of England. J. Sistou. Golden Eagle. Pompone Toulousaine. Evans. Mary Morgan Pink Perfection. Empress of India. White Christine. Gem Silver Ball Sistou Nanum. Ralph Brocklebank. Snowball Soliel Levant Source Japonaise Souvenir de Amsterdam '. St. Forsyth Mrs. Delice d'Automne. Angelina. Rose Mignon R. Boule de Argent. Ralph Brocklebank Roseum Superbum Robert Bottomley Salmoneum plenum Scarlet Souvenir de Haarlem. Murray. Punch Purple Pompon Perpetual Toulousaine Porcupine Primrose League Mr. Ballantyne Rotundiflora Source Japonaise. Crouts. Queen of England Yellow Snowdrop. Lady Lawrence. Castex. L'Aube Matinale. Nanum Nouvelle Alveole October Beauty Oliver Cromwell M. Golden George Glenny. Chrysanthemum Culture for America. Synonym. . Gloire Rayonnante. Flamme du Punch. Mrs. Comte de Morny. Nichols. Christmas Number.Peter the Great Pollion Mary Morgan. Jones Yellow Ethel. . Mrs. Orange Perfection Princess Imperial Princess of Teck Lord Alcester. Pink Perfection President Sanderson . Quintus Curtius Refulgence Inner Temple. John's Wood. Little Bob. E. Mottled Beverly. Princess of Wales Beauty of Mrs. St. Pompone Toulousaine President Saddington. The Czar. Perpetual Toulousaine. L'Infant d'Espagne. Mr. Mr.
Thorpe. J. St. Virgin-ale Late Duchess. of China. H. Grouts. Mr. Saddington. Album Striatum . D'Hyeres Sultana.Chrysanthemum Synonyms. Empress of India. Charlie Sharman. Name. Marguerite de York. Grouts Patrick Sarnia Glory Stonewall Jackson The Daimio The Globe Thomas Tcdman Thorpe Junior Tricolor Erectum Superbum. Little Beauty. Beverly. Souvenir de Haarlem Striatum St. Crystal Wave. J. Mrs. 109 Synonym. Jones. The Czar Thurza Undine Val d'Andorre Ville Peter the Great. Singerly Yellow Dragon Yellow Ethel Yellow Snowdrop Emperor Elaine. Potter. Mrs. M. J. Volunteer Webb's Queen White Aigle White Beverly White Queen of England William Holmes White Christine White Queen White Saddington White St. Forsyth. Mrs. Starling. William Holmes. Primrose League. Gillardia. Mrs. Miss Marechaux. Irving Clark. White Saddington. Beethoven. Jr. Sultana Sunflower St. Roseum Superbum. While Globe. Snowball. Grouts W. Martha Harding. . White St. Mary Souvenir d'un Ami. Ville d'Hyeres. Mr. Empress of India. Golden Dragon. Glory.
of and varieties more recent introduction occupy well nigh all In view of this it is with hesitation we the honored positions. With some exceptions there is not one of them that would pass muster among the great army of home-raised seedlings that annually come into our plant commerce. we will be so thoroughly (no) . Many of those va- present day rieties that classes. if the next decade will produce varieties as superior to these of the present time. as the varieties of recent introduction are to those grown ten years ago. but a occupied a prominent position in their respective few years since. are now relegated to obscurity. give a list of the best varieties at the present time. To an American grower of the THE in the culture of the it is a little amusing to look over a few of the works by English and other writers and see the varieties there enumerated as the finest in their respective classes. Within the past few years new kinds are annually introduced that eclipse many of the favorites of each preceding year. for Various Purposes. lest future Howchroniclers might deride us for our choice of to-day. ever. wonderful progress made within the past few years chrysanthemum renders it difficult to give a list of varieties suitable for each particular style of culture that would be acceptable to all growers. Nearly every grower has his favorites for each special system of cultivation.CHAPTER Select Lists of Varieties X.
Spotted. Crawford. Ada Spaulding Lord Byron Mrs. Red. Blush. Pink.Select Lists of Varieties for Various Purposes. Audiguier . Boyer October Beauty Puritan Pelican Blush.. White. Red. Mauve. Gold R. in elated at the triumph as to take with complacency any derision of our suggestions. Singerly Golden bronze. The following lists are selected with much care. Mrs. Leopard . Heale Crown Prince White. White. La Triomphante Lord Mayor Lambeth Louis Weille Robert Bottomley Rose Violet. We omit varieties of this year's introduction : Forty-eight of the best varieties for specimen plants or garden decoration. Mrs. White. Pink. Pink. Yellow.. John Wanamaker Amaranth. Pink. Yellow. Frank Thomson Domination Duchess White. Yellow. Blush white. Venus William Robinson William M. Color. and will be found most suitable for the purpose named. Blush. Bullock Bronze. Crimson. John Thorpe Jean d'Arc Gloriosum Mrs.. Cullingfordii Mad.. C. Purple.. Name. Blush. Jr Peter the Great Yellow. Robert Elliott Grandiflorum Yellow. Lilac. Pink. M. Mrs.
C. Bronze. Moseman George Maclure Grandiflorum Mrs. N. red. Red. Color. H. Rose. Pink. Winthrop Sargeant Terra cotta. Pink. Delaux Pink. Yellow. C. White. Orange Pink. White. . White. Troubadour Nymphaea Lucretia White. F. Mahood La Triomphante Le Dauphinois Le Tonkin Mrs. Cream. Mary Weightman Comte de Germiny Mrs. Gerard Mrs. Red. Bird Empress of India L. White. Vannaman Mrs. Frank Thomson G. Red. White. Waterer J. Pink. . Audiguier Domination Mrs. White. W. Forty-eight of the best Japanese varieties. Mad. Judge Rea The Bride White. George Bullock Bronze. Langtry Chrome. Carnegie Lilian B. Price White. Yellow. suitable for exhibition flowers Baronne de Prailly J. C. Amaranth. J. Crimson. Amaranth. Yellow. Pink. white. Lady Matheson Little Tycoon William H. Yellow. J. Yellow. Name. Mrs. John Thorpe Mrs. Lord Byron Mrs. Pink. Coles Chrysanthemum Culture for America. Pink. Langtry Mrs. Lincoln Cream Rose. A. Canning Mrs. Wheeler Mrs. Yellow.H2 W.
Select Lists of Varieties
for Various Purposes.
Magnet Martha Harding
Pearl pink. Pink.
Public Ledger President Arthur
R. Brocklebank R. Crawford, Jr
Cartledge Charles Pratt
Levant Lady Lawrence Miss Mary Wheeler
Mrs. T. H. Spaulding W. W. Coles.!
William Robinson H. Cannell
Mrs. Carnegie Mrs. A. Hardy
Lilian B. Bird
Twenty-four of the
varieties, suitable for exhibition
Comte de Germiny
Mrs. C. H. Wheeler
Mrs. Charles Dissel
Le Tonkin Lord Byron
E. G. Hill
Chrysanthemum Culture for America.
Name. Robert Bottomley
Thomas Cartledge President Harrison
Harry E. Widener
Mrs. Carnegie President Spaulding
Lilian B. Bird
Twenty-four of the
for bush plants, home decorations :
for exhibition or
Grandiflorum Jean d' Arc Mrs. John Wanamaker
R. Crawford, Jr
William Robinson William M. Singerly
Mrs. R. Elliott
Mrs. Carnegie The Bride
White. Red. White.
Gloriosum Mrs. Vannaman
of Varieties for Various Purposes.
Twenty-four of the Name. Alfred Salter
best Chinese varieties, suitable
for exhibition blooms
Bronze Jardin des Plantes Bronze Queen of England
Empress of India Emily Dale
Miss E. A Jacquith Golden Empress
Golden Queen of England
Jardin des Plantes Jean d'Arc
John Salter Mrs. John Wanamaker Lord Wolseley Lady Carey
M. Brunlees Mabel Ward
Desperandum Lady Slade
best varieties for bush plants, suitable for exhibition or conserva-
Twelve of the
Grandiflorum Mrs. John Wanamaker Gold
Mrs. Robert Elliott
Montgolfier Mrs. Carnegie
White. Bronze. Red. White.
Blush white. Jr Yellow. Yellow. Audiguier best Twelve of the Anemone-flowered for exhibition blooms Salmon. Gladys Spaulding Thorpe. J. Bird Crimson. Pink. Pink. B. Moseman Terra cotta. Red. suitable for exhibition Twelve of the best Japanese Name.' Color. B. Blush. White. Harry E. White. Emlen Robert Bottomley The Bride Avalanche Mrs. M. Yellow. Lilac rose. suitable for growing as standards Bronze. . : Comte de Germiny Duchess Mrs. Carnegie White. White. blooms . Pink. C. T. White. Wilson Mrs. Widener Mrs. White. Lilac. Langtry White. Twelve of the best varieties. cotta. J. Yellow. Charles Pratt Fabian de Mediana Bronze. Robert Bottomley Mrs. Pink. Grandiflorum Mrs. Thomson Moseman Terra Blush. Yellow. Lilac. Red. Jr Mrs. Pink. Comte de Germiny Etoile de Lyon G. Red. Pigmy Nouvelle Alveole Rose. Frank G. F. Carnegie Lilian B.n6 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. F. suitable Mad. Gold Jean d'Arc Grandiflorum R. varieties. Eva Empress George Sand Mrs. Judge Benedict Lividia Bronze. Crawford. White. Soeur Souille . Bronze. varieties.
White.Select Lists of Varieties for Various Purposes. Heale Prince Alfred Princess Teck Bronze red. Emily Dale Jean d'Arc Jardin des Plantes Mrs. Lilac. : 117 Twelve of the Name. . Yellow. M. Violet blush. Brunlees . Bronze Queen of England Cullingfordii Empress of India ' Bronze. Blush. suitable for exhibition blooms Color. best Chinese varieties. Crimson. Red. . Lord Wolseley Mrs.Indian red. John Wanamaker Yellow. Blush white..
CHAPTER XI. when plenty of ven- can be given. to the number desired from THE any month in the number of plants Those who require a large each plant. pot off singly and keep close until they tilation commence to start. and should then be Prekept close to the glass to prevent a spindling growth. will . JANUARY. as it will be required for small Where good cuttings are scarce. they should be All cuttings inserted in this (118) . as they appear. well rotted manure and sand pare screen. will of course put in every cutting Where only a few plants are required. found on the stem that will be below the soil. and if any eyes are pared last month. Calendar of Monthly Operations. FEBRUARY. December will be ready for potting month. and will need potting off. a compost of turfy loam. Encourage by a little liquid manure so as to get Towards the end of the strong cuttings early next month. out the suckers. month some of the stronger cuttings inserted in December be rooted. Use two and a-half inch pots and the soil preExamine the cuttings. or break it up fine. obtained with a few rootlets attached . operations of this month are probably the least of year. stout suckers can be pots. thin possible.
with a little sand and leaf -mold added. and the main shoot encouraged in every way possible. the pots clean. is to keep up a vigorous growth from early spring until they are in bloom in your conservatory or upon the stage of an exhibition hall. and close attention paid to those already in. Give abundance of The only air and never let them become dry or pot-bound. . and the potting of those requiring it. many will require shifting into three and a-half inch pots. soon as they appear. Continue propa- secret in their cultivation gating throughout this month. is to spread some tobacco stems or refuse from the toplan bacco factories upon the benches and among the plants. stop them by nipping out the bud in the centre of the shoot when bush plants are desired. securing all the cuttings possible of rare sorts and as many as are needed of other varieties. amine plants already potted. Most need potting and Have all of them will require shifting into larger pots. this During month many things will of the cuttings inserted in February will need attention. as the fumes from this will keep the fly away. Chrysanthemum seed may also be sown this month in pans As or boxes. they should be placed close to If the green the glass on a shelf in the greenhouse or pit. and if a vigorous growth has commenced. MARCH.Calendar of Monthly Operations. fly appears. The chief batch of cuttings should be inserted this month. but if standards are wanted the side buds must be rubbed out. or they will throw up suckers which will rob the main stem of its nourishment. The soil for this potting should be good fibrous loam or rotted sod. and have the many soil Exrich and of such material as has been advised. using a small piece of crock in each pot of four-inch size and larger. A still better dust with snuff or tobacco powder. especially on the inside. 119 rubbed off. in slight bottom heat until the seedlings appear. Towards the end of the month. however.
of the month the early sown seedlings will require potting from the seed boxes or pans using the two and a half inch pots. all be selected this month and their training be- Always have duplicate plants when growing for exhibition if you want to show twenty-five plants start fifty for that purpose. must now be richer than for previous potting. Keep as a close many in as are required. of course. imens must gun. for appointments occur that it is best to make liberal allowances them. Keep the houses in which the established plants are growing Frost. APRIL. until they are thoroughly established. If room and the conveniences are at hand it is even better to start with one hundred. using about three parts of well rotted loam of a sandy nature. In the southern states. get that are rooted. syringing in the evenings after hot days. where . Prepare beds and borders out of doors. the twenty-five needed for exhibition. very cool. keep moving all this month . and a six inch pot-full each of bone meal and finely-broken charcoal to a bushel of this comAbundance of air must be given this month in the post. The plants intended for specstopping and training. houses where chrysanthemums are grown.I2O Chrysanthemum Culture for America. until the time of planting out. So many accidents and dis. without artificial heat. from this time on the plants will do best in cold frames. you may be able to select from the fifty. and into larger pots as the growth of the plants de- watch upon the cuttings pot up all mand it. Most of the plants rooted in February and earlier will now be in six-inch pots. one part of well decayed manure. The stronger growing varieties than the more delicate sorts. must never be allowed to enter. but give all the sunshine possible. and after potting keep near the light but About the end shade from the bright sun. and by the time the shows take place. Where good cold frames are at hand all plants will be better in them than in the will require a little larger pots The soil fully to Attend carehouses.
Prepare tanks or barrels for liquid manure. Place a stout stake to each plant and secure it with some strong ma- Attend to the watering carefully after setting out until terial. and nip away all suckers and side shoots as they appear. making convenient plants in the fall for decorative pur- poses. Prepare a compost for the final potting into their flowering pots and see that heap a sufficient stock of suitable pots is at hand. and stakes and wire for training. Seedlings should also be potted as they advance in growth. Select a shoot for each bloom to be grown on a plant. may yet be rooted. ous growth. syringed a few times a week with clear soot water. old plants should be taken up this month and divided. . the plants have taken hold in the soil. those in pots standing upon ashes or boards as recommended. but allowed to grow unchecked. Many all varieties. . 12 1 In the south all the plants are to stand during the summer. it will keep them away and give the foliage a vigorous appearance. MAY. All plants not intended for pot culture must be now planted out in a place prepared for them as has been directed. especially the pompons. replantPlants standing in cold frames or out of ing where desired. and by cutting back a few every week until the middle of July. and have them washed and put in readiness for the operation.Calendar of Monthly Operations. Specimen plants should be in about eight inch pots at this time do not be in a hurry to get them into their flowering pots give a little weak liquid manure as soon as the plants are making a vigor. If large blooms are desired the shoots must not be stopped. put a firm stake to it. doors should be placed upon boards or coal ashes to prevent the worms from entering the pots. a succession of them may be had. Keep also a sharp lookIf out for the little black fly that is so prone to infest them. By cutting back a few plants at this season to six or eight inches in height they will develop in season for late-flowering. Plants should all be in the open air by this time.
The soil for this purpose is described elsewhere in this book. The final potting is of the utmost importance. room Those not for a top dressing of cow manure in August. for their blooming pots will require liquid manure . leave branch. that were propagated late must not be put blooming pots until July. When the shoot is then bent the strain comes on the string and not on the tender union of shoot to the main In potting do not fill the pots too full of soil . JUNE. however. always having in mind the desired shape of the plant. time a mulch of manure will prevent them from drying out so rapidly. in the pinching of the shoots. and the pots should be from nine to twelve inches in diameter for the The stopping of all plants in the borders should last change. JULY.122 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. frequent syringing. will prevent this if repeated every week. and must be carefully removed at once. and a sharp lookout for insect pests. and the surface not allowed A working with a rake. In a very dry hoe. as a good foundation for all specimen plants must be laid early in July. or pronged to become hard and baked. The tying of all specimens must be given close attention through this month. month is the transferring of the plants into larger pots. be continued . quite ready and the entire lot careful watering. ties The July bud will now be appearing on most varieon the points of the strongest and earliest shoots. and many of the most vigorous plants that are of good size may be put into their blooming pots. principal duty of this into their The Many. being careful not to snap the operation. Plants growing out of doors in the open ground without pots must have plenty of water. Tie down and spread them off in out all long shoots. to the string main stem. as the ultimate success depends in no small degree upon this operation. Two or three shoots will . The safest way is to tie a piece of or matting from the shoot you intend to tie down.
and the growth of the top is checked for a . H. before you begin to stop. are too full of soil to admit of a sufficient dressing. immediately beneath the flower bud. Syringe the plants occasionDo not pot and stop the plants at with quassia water. after reCuttings can be rooted potting. together will include a No need to with staking and top-dressing. Young this month. 123 appear from below. Beneath each terminal bud will be noticed three or four prominent buds growing from the axils These of the leaves. Specimen plants should be set a suitable distance apart. side shoots. if allowed to remain. to bloom in November should not be stopped after which are this ped after the such varieties as Grandiflorum should not be stopfirst of the month. the pots manure can be banked up around the edge of the pot so as to About the end of preserve a basin on top to hold the water. and the terminal bud on each one of these All plants should be put into shoots will produce fine blooms. ally the same time. month you see signs of renewed growth. do not root as readily as in spring. Fitand Mrs. syringing and looking after the insects all closely attended to. the pots in which they watering. K. AUGUST. are to bloom this month. A mulch of sheep or cow manure may be given this month on If the the tops of the pots during hot weather. would draw considerably . and the tying. The work potting will constant attention to watering chiefly. be done this month. Wait until plants started tory late in now make pretty objects for the pit or conservaNovember and will bloom freely in four-inch pots. as each repotting at once sets the roots into active growth. W. Alpheus Hardy are better ler. Harris indoors. Such varieties as E. this month the flower buds will begin to appear at the end of the strong young shoots. and plunged about two thirds the depth of the pots into coal ashes or other material that will prevent the influence of Plants the sun from reaching them and drying them out. Mrs.Calendar of Monthly Operations. but time.
and the tying and closely training of specimen plants should receive the undivided attention of every cultivator. begin to swell rapidly. few days. remove only leaves that have wilted and become brown-dur- Shade well for a ually inure them ing the operation. Nearly all the syringing varieties will be showing their buds by the middle of the month. keeping them sprinkled. it is best to rub them out and let another shoot come and produce another bud which will undoubtedly give the best bloom. Watering. leaving a piled Where basin in the center to hold water. and the top-dressing is the best way At this time it may be to furnish them their nourishment. A variety of liquid manures should be on hand all through this and the next two months. SEPTEMBER. Manure water cannot be advantageously applied when the weather is very wet. and gradStake carefully. and on this account must be After their removal. and liberal applications of liquid manure must be made. large blooms are required. disbudding should be attended to all through this month. and to the full sunlight. .124 Chrysanthemum Liilture for America. All plants intended for indoor decoration that have been growing in the open ground during the summer. being liable to be deformed. should now be taken up and potted. The crown or terminal bud that forms early in August will not as a rule make a good bloom. as all will make good blooms that form after that date. the flowering buds carefully removed. as the rain carries the fertility down to the roots. If the buds appear early in August. and these must be thinned out in accordance with the purpose of the grower. top-dressing and are also important points now. from the nutriment of the bud. a couple of inches above the rim of the pot. Any buds that appear after the last week in August may be retained. which is highly beneficial. so as to give the plants a change occasionally. The top-dressing must be resorted to in wet weather.
all shoots and flower buds should be tied for the last time in the position in which it is This gives them a few weeks desired to have them remain. to the detriment of the blooms unless speedily removed. in their flowering quarters by the first of the month. as there will be a great draft on the vital resources of the plant at this time in developing its blooms. 125 In the operations for this month much depends on the In northern latitudes all plants would have to be locality. and they will then be in a clean Plants grown out of healthy condition to come into bloom. while in more favored localities. than tied in place a few days prior to the exhibition. By the end of Sep- tember or first few days of October. OCTOBER. or earlier . Mildew must be looked after carefully and kept in check by abundant ventilation.Calendar of Monthly Operations. as little shoots and buds will be forming constantly on all the main stems. if there should be any remaining upon them. a little fire heat will be beneficial. shade may be given to the earlier sorts. and it should now be given stronger and more frequently. and allow to turn when no surplus water to remain on the floors over night. and in case of extremely dull weather Should mildew appear. the middle of this month is a good time to move the plants indoors. A few light fumigations after the flowers are placed in their quarters will entirely rid them of the fly. The disbudding must not be forgotten all through this month. as in this section there are usually a few light frosts about . The plants should by this time become thoroughly accustomed to the liquid manure. the plants. if it is necessary to have all in bloom at housing the same time. When dust with flour sulphur upon the affected parts. while the more tardy varieties should be exposed to the full sunlight. up and assume a more natural style of growth. doors in the South will require attention at this time. Preparations should be made to protect them from the first frosts. Keep the house in which they are grown well ventilated.
and arrange the plants to the best advantage for displaying their blooms. making observations and taking notes DECEMBER. leaving one or two of the growing branches. and other improvements will doubtless here and there suggest themselves so.126 Chrysanthemum Culture for America. Liquid manure must be withheld as the flowers expand. and but cultivation. Many little defects will perhaps be observed by the studious grower in his selection of varieties at this season. cuttings will not be produced freely and or tender sorts would be liable to succumb entirely. with new purposes and firm resolves he starts out on the succeeding season's work before the present season is : ended. It is now a good time to go through and see that all kinds are correctly bloom. and when this is deemed necessary. as. and abundance of ventilation alone are necessary. Give each plant as much room as possible. the work should be proceeded with at once. labeled. Plants that are through blooming should be cut down. From the beginning of the month most of them will be in little more remains to be done in regard to Careful watering. 0? THE TJSI7BRSIT7 . a brisk. If protected from these they may the 2oth of the month. and be very beautiful objects through early November. for future ref- erence. dry atmosphere. in order to prevent the water running through without becoming distributed through the soil. continue blooming for a month. if entirely cut down weak the soil. to In taking out the stakes fill the holes up with soil. Some growers insert many cuttings this month. NOVEMBER.
RHRY8A|ITHKMDH8 In their seasons on short notice. Importers and Originators of New Glmjsanthenufms. . SMITH i SON. 167 WEST MAUMEE ST. Catalogues semi-annually to all applicants..
and receiving the highest honors wherever exhibited. N. A revelation to all who have seen them. Sent free to all readers of this book enclosing stamp to pay postage. artistic. The Queen of Autumn" have undoubtedly the most charming novelties in this flower ever introduced. PIERSON. and we are constantly adding to our collection the rarest and best introductions of the noted raisers of America. & PIEHSON. which will give some idea of their choiceness. . These are fully described in our large illustrated Catalogue of all the II is vef y complete. R. They are so elegant that we wholesale the single flowers for twenty-five cents each. of particular interest to all lovers of flowers.Copyright 1889 by F.Y. TARRYTOWN." We ITSIJTIEPIJH5 MPW QPPHQ PLQMTQ RPQT WlDl FLORIST AND SEEDSMAN. F. winners of the First Prize. choice " mentioning Chrysanthemum Culture. CJMsl PILH ODDLIO J1JUI rljjlplla. handsomely illustrated. Europe and Japan. Address.
3. Weather from signs. of light reflected from glass at various angles of inclination. symbols and analyses: 1. Rules for exhibition. XXV. Undoubtedly the best thing of the kind ever published. and Vegetables. Methpis of keeping: and storing fruits and vegetables. How to collect and pre- serve insects. Y. Names and etables histories which have Veg- different names budding. rabbits. florists. Time required for the maturity of kitchen garden vegetables. Longevity offruit plants. BY L. truck gardeners. . Injurious insects. vation and native countries ofcultivated plants. fruits and vegetables. Per cent. etc. THE RURflL PUBLISHING COITIPflHY. English measures for saleof fruits and vegetables. style. Glossary of technical words used XIV. $1 pocket paper. 4. 7. for kitchen gar4. hv horticulturists. Standard Measures and Sizes : i . Names of fruits and vegetables in various in 4. Planting: Tables: i. XI. Cements. 2. Elements. Loudon's rules of horticulture. Methods ofmultiplying plants. Average yields of variouscroi>s. BAILEY. It contains in farmers. OONTENTS I. Titqes Building. Rules: i. Stocks used for various fruits. XII. XXI. with preventives and remedies. notes: i. with preventives and remedies. Quantities required for sowing given areas 2. 5. The book has been prepared with great care and much handy and concise form a great number of the rules and receipts required by fruit-growers. . position of a few common substances. 4. Number of plants required to set an acre at given distances apart. XX. etc. Rules of nomenclature. OJ* THE> XVI. Ways of grafting and England and America. 4. 3. Injuries from mice. and protection frost. Collecting and preserving: How to make an herbarium. 2. and VI. Amount of. XVIII. 6. Time required for the bearing o f fruit Usual distances apart for planting i. VIII. Weight and size of seeds of kitchtn garden XVII. etables in different latitudes. Multiplication and Propagation of Plants: i. Plant diseases. Fertilizers. Perfum- ery. Fungicides for plant diseases. Price in library st\le cloth. The elements and their chemi2. Seed Tables: i. 2. Chemical comcal symbols. Preserving and printing of flowers and other parts of plants. Maturity and Yields: i. 5. 2. labor. 3. Facts and statistics of horticulture and the vegetable kingdom. 2. XIII. 3. Effect of wind in cooling glass roofs. Longevity of seeds. XXIV. Weeds. 4. XVIII. V. X. Calendar. various prod ucts yielded by given quantities offruit. Designed as a pocket companion. 2. Keeping cut-flowers. (c) Soils : Seeds and and Mini. Periods of cultilanguages. narrow margins 50 Cts. Dates for sowing or setting kitchen garden vegvegetables. 3. Weights of various varieties of apples per bushel. Tables of weights and measures. erals. figures II. Miscellaneous tables. paints. 2. 3. Miscellany. Standard flowerpots. Derivation of names of various fruits and vegetables. Editor of The American Garden. 3. 4. XIX. VII. IV.HORTICULTURIST'S RULE-BOOK. III. 3. Waxes and washes for grafting and for wounds. Labels. Tender and hardy vegetables 3. wide margins. IX. Postal rates and regulations. xxil. Insecticides. Thermometer scales. Time required den seeds to germinate. Particular methods by which various fruits are propagated. Horticulturist of the Cornell Experiment Station and Professor of Horticulture in Cornell University. Standard and legal measures. 8. H.. H. 3. with preventives and remedies. Quantities of water held in pipes and tanks. BOOK. etc. birds. Analyses: (b) (a) Fruits plants.
THE RURAL PUBLISHING CO. The Japanesesorts are winter. Inarching. narrow margins. and they grow readily from cuttings of both ripe and soft wood. The following entries will give an idea of the method ACER (MAPI. direct from nature. Maples can also be budded in summer. CHAPTER CHAPTER I. giving directions for making crosses.worked upon imported A. Layerage plants are usually set in nursery rows for a year after removal from the stools. and the English varieties are nearly always layered in this country. This is the great feature of the book. Some cultural varieties are layered but better plants are obtained by grafting. of the mature wood. Including Grafting. forest trees. sets a graft. PHYLLOCEREUS. many directions. and apply only sufficient water to keep from flagging. they may "be laid on dry sand : . hardy herbs. CHAPTKR II. come readily if seeds are simply sown as soon as ripe. Seeds.E). Varieties of native species are worked upon common or native stocks. If the cuttings are very juicy. CHAPTER III. in lo?. ornamental trees and shrubs. or they may be stratified and sown together well with the sand in the spring. for several days before planting. Sow in rather sandy soil. Times Building. Cuttings six to eight inches long. . Cactece. Cuttings from mature shoots. which is well drained. greenhouse plants.. Cuttage. but the American varieties only one (Fig. DISOCACTUS (LEAF-CACTUS). Moundlayering is usually employed. as A. This valuable little manual has been compiled at great pains. Stocks are grown from stratified seeds. By Uniform unusual in facilities for its L. When the seedlings appear. BAILEY. etc. GOOSEBERRY. 27). three to six inches in length. The book treats all kinds of cultivated plants. The book is absolutely devoid Size and Style with Rule-Book of 1890 Edition. Sapindacetz. and is on sale. - CHAPTER VII. Separation and [Division. cloth. any and COVERED LAYER OF VIBURNUM. dasycarpum. This book is now completed. seed. ply tells plainly bri efl y a who sows what everyone makes a cutting. usually grow readily.000 entries are made in the list. Give a temperature of about 60. which should be sown an inch or two deep or some species. wide margins. It is entirely new original in method and matter. Pollination. and CONTENTS. Fresh seeds grow readily. VI. Over 2. having been aided by many experts in of theory and speculation. Budding. th English varieties being allowed to remain in layerage two years. and apply water as for common seeds. $i . PHYLLOCACTUS. polymorphum stocks. vegetables. It simogy. and are made especially for it. The cuts number almost 100.THE NURSERY BOOK A Complete Hand-Book of Propagation and Pollination. Green-layering during summer is sometimes practised for new or rare varieties. Hew York. fruits. Graftage. paper. root readily in sharp sand. etc. or crosses a flower wants to know. The author has had preparation. for the raising of new varieties should be sown as soon as well cured. Illustrated. in library style. inserted two-thirds their length. especially if taken in August or September and stored during winter. Seedage. It has an alphabetical list of all kinds of plants. Pocket style. with a short statement telling which of the operations described in the first five chapters are employed in propagating them. . Layerage. Stronger plants are usually obtained by layers. remove to a light position.m or sandy soil. Price. Nursery List. CHAI-TER IV. either by whip or veneer-grafting. 50 cents. It has nothing ? nor with obstruse reasons of plant growth. BCHAPTER V. H.
). D. Its object will be to show all who raise potatoes. fessor of Botany. CARMAN. the number or eyes. 25 CTS. directly and indirectly. professional men and mechanics. . Ph. J. thrown more light upon the various problems involved in successful potato culture. Times Building. New York. enlarged X. and revised. the size of seed. My Handkerchief Garden. that the yield threefold without a corresponding increase in the cost.. but as the outcome of fifteen years of experimentation earnestly made in the hope of advancing our knowledge of this mighty industry.. Y. may be increased show that the little garden patch. Agricultural College. than any other experiments which have been carried on in America. This book will give the results of the author's investigations and experiments during the past fifteen years. Interesting and valuable to all suburban dwellers. The New Botany. Y. ProThird edition. . Window ALL ON WINDOW GARDENING culture in the house. . THE RURAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. 75 Cents Paper. $20. A LECTURE ON THE BEST METHOD OF TEACHING THE SCIENCE. 1O CENTS. that is to say. N. this pretty little workCovers every phase of plant THE RURAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. THE RURAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. whether for home use solely or for market as well. to of a fortieth of an acre perhaps.The New By Potato Culture Editor of ELBERT S. (M.. PRICE. THE RURAL NEW-YORKER. Y.. Times Building. Barnard's actual operations on a suburban village house lot. Price. may just as well yield ten bushels as three bu shels to induce farmers and gardeners to exwith fertilizers not only as to the kind. the constitperiment uents and their most effective proportions.. not in a theoretical way at all. Cloth. Times Building. By Charles Barnard. the distance apart. It is respectfully submitted that these experiments so long carried on at the Rural Grounds have. the depth to plant. but as to the most economical quantity to use to experiment as to the most telling preparation of the soil. Health and THE RURAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. Sc. PLEASING ILLUSTRATIONS make up Written by expert flower and plant growers. PRICE. Being an explicit account of Mr. 40 Cents. N. . These will be among the subjects considered. .49.. PBICE. LOT OF DELIGHTFUL AND PRACTICAL ARTICLES AND Gardening. 25 CENTS. BEAL. By W. Times Buildint/. Michigan.
$i CO. including the leading journals of the world this year. to the It will form an invaluable contribution knowledge of the origin and variation of plants. An especial feature o f the volume for 1890 will be a census of cultivated plants of American ^ origin. tools and conven- ience of the year. This includes all or- namentals esculents. As a work of reference for all students of plants and nature. lu full cloth. lists of all plant portraits. this will be invaluable. ties of The novel- 1890. .EY. Paper 60 cents. THE RURAL PUBLISHING Times Building. .. ters. BAIL. ? Profusely Illustrated. directories. with dates of introduction j '' and extent of variation under culture. are and other chapeach alone worth many times more than the cost of the book. recent horticultural literature.Annals of Horticulture for 1890 BY PROFESSOR L. and and all will include hundreds of entries. No one who expects to keep up with the progress of the times can be without it. New York. H. What have horticulturists thought about during 1890 This is the theme of the book.
heating. Illustrated. established in 1872.00. 140 articles and 40 illustrations in each number. as does. . M. It is the Livest. new varieties.00 for six months. Professor of Horticulture in Cornell University and Horticulturist of the Cornell Experi- ment Station. the gist of the work of the Experiment Stations extracted from their review of books. etc. //. from apples in Maine and Minnesota to oranges in Florida and California. FLORICULTURE. New varieties. Illustrated. descriptions of varieties and methods of Accounts of all the new introductions conservatory and greenhouse management. diseases of fruits. etc. comprising under glass and out-doors. insect enemies. from park construction and management down to the arrangement of the smallest places. VEGETABLE GARDENING. successful specialists and practical horticulturists in all parts of the world. Development BROAD DISCUSSIONS FRUIT CULTURE. CO. etc. artistic arrangement commercial floricul.TJiE Combines in one BHIERIDRN GHRDEN . GREENHOUSE CONSTRUCTION. Edited by Professor L. most Valuable Rural Magazine published anywhere. On THE RURAL NEW-YORKER. aggregating over 1. established in 1871. embracing all branches. . both one year for $3. and The American Garden of Dr. farming. window gardening. The Gardener's Monthly of Marot and Meehan. practical horticulturist. interest to all it "FIRST FRUITS " chronicles recent happenings in the horticultural field. with a beautiful cover. Williams. It is the only independent. $1. original thinkers. small fruits and tree fruits of every description grapes in the vineyard and under glass. climates and conditions. The old and the new in of new industries. Illustrated. . culture. LANDSCAPE GARDENING in all its phrases. Illustrated. ture. Illustrated. 1. N. ' bulletins. Original from cover to cover. beds and bedding. Largest. established in 1857 The Floral Cabinet of Henry T.. It is in magazine form.00 a year. established in 1846 magazine the old Horticulturist of Andrew Jackson Downing. Handsomest. F. TERMS In club with $2. BAILEY. Relations of soil culture to government and society. Growing vegetables for market and home -use. 50 cents for three months.600 articles and 500 illustrations in a year. etc. Hexamer. Brightest.200 pages. ventilation. averages over 100 pages. "THE EDITOR'S OUTLOOK" discusses current topics of agriculturists. giving. .. nut culture. Trinl TffREG MONTHS FOR 25 CENTS for introduction. Y. Its special features include : of economic questions by leading thinkers. illustrated magazine of Horticulture and Country Life in the world. written and prepared by hundreds of bright writers. "BOOKS AND BULLETINS" is a most important department. THE RURAL PUBLISHING Times Building.
no matter what. Gov. of any paper of its class printed. ten weetes. HARRISON. DONE MORE TO PROMOTE THE TRUE INTERESTS OF AGRICULTURE THE RURAL NEW-YORKER all LT. has DONE MORE FOR FAR- periment We have seen on the farm of the editor of THE RURAL NEWYORKER a crop of 134 bushels of shelled corn raised on one acre of land. JONES. 25 cents. at REDUCED COST. . American Agriculturist. On trial. Everybody that DUALITY The of the a body knows of the UNIQUE INDIVIRURAL along the lines of original experiJ. The best farm weekly in the world. NORMAN J. $2. has than the Experiment Stations put together. President of the Storrs is & Harrison Company. ^"ANYTHING THAT YOU WANT. THE RURAL NEW-YORKER illustrates the PROGRESS made by the agricultural class. J. entirely NEW MERS RURAL NEW-YORKER has opened an FIELD OF INVESTIGATION. Times Building. the possibilities of which cannot be conjectured.OO a year. THE RURAL NEW-YORKER than nine-tenth of stations. GREGORY. much of which is due to the inspiration of THE RURAL NEW-YORKER. New York. in return for sending us clubs of subscriptions.What The is The Rural New-Yorker? MOST TRUSTWORTHY J. J. The New York Times. New all the land-grant colleges and ExYork Tribune. THE RURAL PUBLISHING COMPANY. mental investigation. and the papers which follow its example. F. editor of the H. COLMAN. E. Farm Journal.
LOAtTPERIOD HOME USE .
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.