Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

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Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Copyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloading or redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook. This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do not change or edit the header without written permission. Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can also find out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved. **Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts** **eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971** *****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!***** Title: Higher Lessons in English Author: Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

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Release Date: December, 2004 [EBook #7188] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first posted on March 25, 2003] Edition: 10 Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII *** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH *** Produced by Karl Hagen and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team. ** Transcriber's Notes ** Underscores mark italics; words enclosed in +pluses+ represent boldface; Vowels followed by a colon represent a long vowel (printed with a macron in the original text). To represent the sentence diagrams in ASCII, the following conventions are used: - The heavy horizontal line (for the main clause) is formed with equals signs (==). - Other solid vertical lines are formed with minus signs (--). - Diagonal lines are formed with backslashes (\). - Words printed on a diagonal line are preceded by a backslash, with no horizontal line under them. - Dotted horizontal lines are formed with periods (..) - Dotted vertical lines are formed with straight apostrophes (') - Dotted diagonal lines are formed with slanted apostrophes (`) - Words printed over a horizontally broken line are shown like this: ----, helping '--------- Words printed bending around a diagonal-horizontal line are broken like this: \wai \ ting --------- ** End Transcriber's Notes ** HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH. A WORK ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION, IN WHICH THE SCIENCE OF THE LANGUAGE IS MADE TRIBUTARY TO THE ART OF EXPRESSION. A COURSE OF PRACTICAL LESSONS CAREFULLY GRADED, AND ADAPTED TO EVERY-DAY USE IN THE SCHOOL-ROOM. BY ALONZO REED, A.M., FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN, AND BRAINERD KELLOGG, LL.D., PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Revised Edition, 1896. PREFACE. The plan of "Higher Lessons" will perhaps be better understood if we first speak of two classes of text-books with which this work is brought into competition.

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+Method of One Class of Text-books+.--In one class are those that aim chiefly to present a course of technical grammar in the order of Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. These books give large space to grammatical Etymology, and demand much memorizing of definitions, rules, declensions, and conjugations, and much formal word parsing,--work of which a considerable portion is merely the invention of grammarians, and has little value in determining the pupil's use of language or in developing his reasoning faculties. This is a revival of the long-endured, unfruitful, old-time method. +Method of Another Class of Text-books.+--In another class are those that present a miscellaneous collection of lessons in Composition, Spelling, Pronunciation, Sentence-analysis, Technical Grammar, and General Information, without unity or continuity. The pupil who completes these books will have gained something by practice and will have picked up some scraps of knowledge; but his information will be vague and disconnected, and he will have missed that mental training which it is the aim of a good text-book to afford. A text-book is of value just so far as it presents a clear, logical development of its subject. It must present its science or its art as a natural growth, otherwise there is no apology for its being. +The Study of the Sentence for the Proper Use of Words.+--It is the plan of this book to trace with easy steps the natural development of the sentence, to consider the leading facts first and then to descend to the details. To begin with the parts of speech is to begin with details and to disregard the higher unities, without which the details are scarcely intelligible. The part of speech to which a word belongs is determined only by its function in the sentence, and inflections simply mark the offices and relations of words. Unless the pupil has been systematically trained to discover the functions and relations of words as elements of an organic whole, his knowledge of the parts of speech is of little value. It is not because he cannot conjugate the verb or decline the pronoun that he falls into such errors as "How many sounds have each of the vowels?" "Five years' interest are due." "She is older than me." He probably would not say "each have," "interest are," "me am." One thoroughly familiar with the structure of the sentence will find little trouble in using correctly the few inflectional forms in English. +The Study of the Sentence for the Laws of Discourse.+--Through the study of the sentence we not only arrive at an intelligent knowledge of the parts of speech and a correct use of grammatical forms, but we discover the laws of discourse in general. In the sentence the student should find the law of unity, of continuity, of proportion, of order. All good writing consists of good sentences properly joined. Since the sentence is the foundation or unit of discourse, it is all-important that the pupil should know the sentence. He should be able to put the principal and the subordinate parts in their proper relation; he should know the exact function of every element, its relation to other elements and its relation to the whole. He should know the sentence as the skillful engineer knows his engine, that, when there is a disorganization of parts, he may at once find the difficulty and the remedy for it. +The Study of the Sentence for the Sake of Translation.+--The laws of thought being the same for all nations, the logical analysis of the sentence is the same for all languages. When a student who has acquired a knowledge of the English sentence comes to the translation of a foreign language, he finds his work greatly simplified. If in a sentence of his own language he sees only a mass of unorganized words, how much greater must be his confusion when this mass of words is in a foreign tongue! A study of the parts of speech is a far less important preparation for translation, since the declensions and conjugations in English do not conform to those of other languages. Teachers of the classics and of modern languages are beginning to appreciate these facts.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

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+The Study of the Sentence for Discipline+.--As a means of discipline nothing can compare with a training in the logical analysis of the sentence. To study thought through its outward form, the sentence, and to discover the fitness of the different parts of the expression to the parts of the thought, is to learn to think. It has been noticed that pupils thoroughly trained in the analysis and the construction of sentences come to their other studies with a decided advantage in mental power. These results can be obtained only by systematic and persistent work. Experienced teachers understand that a few weak lessons on the sentence at the beginning of a course and a few at the end can afford little discipline and little knowledge that will endure, nor can a knowledge of the sentence be gained by memorizing complicated rules and labored forms of analysis. To compel a pupil to wade through a page or two of such bewildering terms as "complex adverbial element of the second class" and "compound prepositional adjective phrase," in order to comprehend a few simple functions, is grossly unjust; it is a substitution of form for content, of words for ideas. +Subdivisions and Modifications after the Sentence.+--Teachers familiar with text-books that group all grammatical instruction around the eight parts of speech, making eight independent units, will not, in the following lessons, find everything in its accustomed place. But, when it is remembered that the thread of connection unifying this work is the sentence, it will be seen that the lessons fall into their natural order of sequence. When, through the development of the sentence, all the offices of the different parts of speech are mastered, the most natural thing is to continue the work of classification and subdivide the parts of speech. The inflection of words, being distinct from their classification, makes a separate division of the work. If the chief end of grammar were to enable one to parse, we should not here depart from long-established precedent. +Sentences in Groups--Paragraphs+.--In tracing the growth of the sentence from the simplest to the most complex form, each element, as it is introduced, is illustrated by a large number of detached sentences, chosen with the utmost care as to thought and expression. These compel the pupil to confine his attention to one thing till he gets it well in hand. Paragraphs from literature are then selected to be used at intervals, with questions and suggestions to enforce principles already presented, and to prepare the way informally for the regular lessons that follow. The lessons on these selections are, however, made to take a much wider scope. They lead the pupil to discover how and why sentences are grouped into paragraphs, and how paragraphs are related to each other; they also lead him on to discover whatever is most worthy of imitation in the style of the several models presented. +The Use of the Diagram+.--In written analysis, the simple map, or diagram, found in the following lessons, will enable the pupil to present directly and vividly to the eye the exact function of every clause in the sentence, of every phrase in the clause, and of every word in the phrase--to picture the complete analysis of the sentence, with principal and subordinate parts in their proper relations. It is only by the aid of such a map, or picture, that the pupil can, at a single view, see the sentence as an organic whole made up of many parts performing various functions and standing in various relations. Without such map he must labor under the disadvantage of seeing all these things by piecemeal or in succession. But if for any reason the teacher prefers not to use these diagrams, they may be omitted without causing the slightest break in the work. The plan of this book is in no way dependent on the use of the diagrams. +The Objections to the Diagram+.--The fact that the pictorial diagram groups the parts of a sentence according to their offices and relations, and not in the order of speech, has been spoken of as a fault. It is, on the contrary, a merit, for it teaches the pupil to look through the literary order and discover the logical order. He thus learns what the literary order really is, and sees that this may be varied indefinitely, so long as the logical relations are kept clear. The assertion that correct diagrams can be made mechanically is not borne out by the facts. It is easier to avoid precision in oral analysis than in written. The diagram drives the pupil to a most searching examination of the sentence, brings him face to face with every difficulty, and compels a decision on every point.

of Lafayette College. And we have done more.--Analysis by diagram often becomes so interesting and so helpful that. Prescott. we chose fifty authors. the structure and the function of paragraphs. W. have given the history of constructions where this would deepen interest or aid in composition. Francis A. and have carefully read three hundred pages of each. Analysis for the sake of subsequent Synthesis. Hamerton. We have examined the best works on grammar that have been published recently here and in England. and more thoroughly. In this revised work we have given additional reasons for the opinions we hold. That we might ascertain what present linguistic usage is. we have ourselves had an instructive experience with it in the classroom. George P. have qualified what we think was put too positively in former editions. diagrams should be used only for the more difficult sentences. De Quincey.. Prof. D. We have gone to the original source of all valid authority in our language-. Easy Gradation. and Hawthorne. J. therefore. ***** LESSON 1. Froude. Whitney. the distinguished Prof. we take pleasure in acknowledging our great indebtedness to our critic. James Martineau. We confess to some surprise that so little of what was thought good in matter and method years ago has been seriously affected by criticism since. Among the fifty are such men as Ruskin. and in this edition of the work. Irving. if the sentences are long. Thackeray. Holmes. have quoted the verdicts of usage on many locutions condemned by purists. We have considered hundreds of suggestive letters written us by intelligent teachers using the book.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 5 +The Abuse of the Diagram+. When in the pages following we anywhere quote usage. John Morley. or. We have minutely noted and recorded what these men by habitual use declare to be good English. Upon these four sources of help we have drawn in the Revision of "Higher Lessons" that we now offer to the public. Henry M. it is liable to be overdone. which in number and numbering remain as they were. March. and sometimes are incorporated into the body of the Lessons. Curtis. Motley. When the diagram has served its purpose. and have advanced to some new positions. and Lecky in England. have tried to work into the pupil's style the felicities of expression found in the lesson sentences. Bagehot. During the years in which "Higher Lessons" has been in existence. we wish specially to name Prof. When the ordinary constructions have been made clear. as in the preceding. The books of former editions and those of this revised edition can. AUTHORS' NOTE TO REVISED EDITION. and Lowell in America. now alive or living till recently.the best writers and speakers of it. the Subdivisions and Modifications of the Parts of Speech after the treatment of these in the Sentence. Worrell. be used in the same class without any inconvenience. Emerson. etc. In both oral and written analysis there is danger of repeating what needs no repetition. like other good things. Austin Phelps. it is to the authority of such men that we appeal. Edward Everett. There is danger of requiring too much written analysis. of the Polytechnic Institute. have explained more fully what some teachers have thought obscure. Green. it should be dropped. Prof. . Cardinal Newman. R. Matthew Arnold. have taught the pupil earlier in the work. A TALK ON LANGUAGE. Macaulay. etc. only for the more difficult parts of them. Of the teachers who have given us invaluable assistance in this Revision. But the distinctive features of "Higher Lessons" that have made the work so useful and so popular stand as they have stood--the Study of Words from their Offices in the Sentence. Marsh. and have led him on from the composition of single sentences of all kinds to the composition of these great groups of sentences. The additions made to "Higher Lessons"--additions that bring the work up to the latest requirements--are generally in foot-notes to pages.

But feelings and desires are not the only things we wish to communicate. for words. This Word language we may. of pain. yet Natural language may be used. and always should be used. you need a language more nearly perfect. from your friends and teachers. the language of gestures and postures. even the brute animals in some measure understand it. precedes this Word language. +DEFINITION. These words you learn from your mothers. to assist and strengthen Word language. from its superiority. uses. and use without thinking of it. your playmates and companions. but gives way as Word language comes in and takes its place.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Let us talk to-day about a language that we never learn from a grammar or from a book of any kind--a language that we come by naturally. could you express this by a tone. your thoughts. or that the days are shorter in winter than in summer. and the action. Early in life we begin to acquire knowledge and learn to think. The happy union of the two kinds of language is the charm of all good reading and speaking. also. or it may contradict it.--Language Proper consists of the spoken and the written words used to communicate ideas and thoughts+. its scream. by the varying expression of the face. as was said. To communicate. the language of the eyes. as you know. and you learn them by reading. and thus convict the speaker of ignorance or deception. for instance. and calls or drives away his dog simply by the tone in which he speaks. a look. or even the mental pictures we have called ideas. You learn them. The teacher of elocution is ever trying to recall the pupil to the tones. This language is made up of words. Suppose. its sob. the nose. of delight. makes a fist in anger. 6 +DEFINITION. call +Language Proper+. and so Word language is your mother-tongue. and by the movements of the different parts of the body. leans forward in expectation. so natural to him in childhood and in animated conversation. draws back in fear. laughter. Natural language. by the tone in which we utter them. of grief. and tones. its laugh. and relations of the words of the English language. the whole face.--English Grammar is the science which teaches the forms. The look or the gesture may even dart ahead of the word. It is a universal language.+ ***** . and then we feel the need of a better language. then. or a gesture? If you wish to tell me the fact that yesterday was cloudy. The boy raises his eyebrows in surprise and his nose in disgust. the mouth. This Natural language is the language of cries. the facial expression. People of all lands and of all degrees of culture use it. you find it wholly impossible to do this by means of Natural language. you have formed an idea of a day. The child's cry tells of its wants. In earnest conversation we enforce what we say in words. and consequently needs no interpreter. may be written as well as spoken.

These first words always deal with the things that can be learned by the senses. we may not learn what a thought is. Feathers are soft. and the words arranged to express a thought we call a sentence. if the sentence. In the sentence expressing this thought. . The shining sun are not sentences. something of which we think. because it may not be the expression of a thought. of the animals. something is said. or. meaning. We have already told you that in expressing our ideas and thoughts we use two kinds of words. though it contains the asserting word shines. the second. and what a sentence is. the word spiders names that of which we think. and their spinning is what we think of them.. i. The spinning is not asserted of the spiders. expresses the thought. spiders. The first of these parts we call the +Subject+ of the sentence. A TALK ON THOUGHTS AND SENTENCES. The sentence. consists of two parts. Here the asserting word is supplied. and something is said of something else. ***** LESSON 3. The shines sun is not a sentence. for.e. there must be in the thought two parts to be expressed. and for similar reasons. the arrangement is such that no assertion is made. while a thought cannot be. or asserted. A sentence is a group of words expressing a thought. The sun shines are sentences. and no thought is expressed. Here it is said. or asserted. In any such sentence as this. about something. Not every group of words is necessarily a sentence. book. in studying a sentence. that we have really made up our minds that spiders do spin. This thing in my hand is a book. And there are two: viz. they express the child's ideas of these things. up. Now. meaning. let us see now whether we can find out what a thought is. Soft feathers. It is something that can be seen or heard. then. Spiders spinning is not a sentence. it is a body of which a thought is the soul. Spiders spin. that they spin. we compressed our thought into a single word. and that which is said of it. spoken words and written words. through lack of words. In the thought expressed by Spiders spin. the +Predicate+. There is nothing in this expression to show that we have formed a judgment. the animals. Let us see whether. To express a thought we use more than a single word. A TALK ON SOUNDS AND LETTERS. The child says to his father. composed of two parts. and the word spin tells what we think of spiders. We have spoken of thoughts and sentences. and that which we think of it.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 2. spiders.. are the something of which we think. 7 But there was a time when. Take me up into your lap.--the name of that of which something is said.

Some letters stand each for many sounds. stretched. tongue. The different combinations of these give us all the words of our spoken tongue. a for six. and move. fat. far. A perfect alphabet would have one letter for each sound. or lips. q has the sound of k. This vibration makes sound. as in pine and pin. and you will understand how voice is made. as in expel. The first cry was a suggestion. or had thought out something worth handing down to aftertimes. or the tighter it is drawn. gz. the other kind of consonant sounds is formed. W is a vowel when it unites with a preceding vowel to represent a vowel sound. The written word is made up of characters. 2. the faster will it vibrate. and fur. exist. and Xenophon. the air driven out from your lungs beats against two flat muscles. Some of the letters are superfluous. Take a thread. The shorter the string. Twenty-three letters represent over forty sounds. Spoken words are made up of sounds. c stands for the sound of s or of k. draw it tight and strike it. as in mete and met. full. as in note. and fare. If the voice thus produced comes out through the mouth held well open. not. tub. and the louder will be the sound. fall. like bands. and the need of speech for the purposes of communication was imperative. Our alphabet is imperfect in at least these three ways:-1. as in tube. th in thine. put one end between your teeth. fast. e stands for two sounds. Combinations of letters sometimes represent single sounds. i for two. You are now prepared to understand us when we say that +vowels+ are the +letters+ that stand for the +open sounds+ of the +voice+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg We learned the spoken words first. and the higher will be the pitch of the sound. and that +consonants+ are the +letters+ that stand for the sounds made by the +obstructed voice+ and the +obstructed breath+. Sounds and noises were heard on every side. and sh in shut. The more violent the blow. The alphabet of a language is a complete list of its letters. 8 In talking. the farther will the string vibrate. and causes them to vibrate up and down. But speaking was easy. Just so with these vocal bands or cords. and is held back by these same parts of the mouth. across the top of the windpipe. did they need to write. explain the different degrees of loudness and the varying pitch of the voice. as. which represent to the eye these sounds that address the ear. the lungs. Not until people wished to communicate with those at a distance. we will tell you something about the human voice. u for four. hold the other with thumb and finger. as in city and can. 3. and only one. th in thin. teeth. a class of sounds is formed which we call vowel sounds. ng in sing. and x that of ks. as in quit. as in fate. The varying force with which the breath strikes them and their different tensions and lengths at different times. That you may clearly understand these sounds. Mankind spoke long before they wrote. or z. If the breath is driven out without voice. Every vowel does more than single duty. But if the voice is held back or obstructed by the palate. one kind of the sounds called consonant sounds is made. o for three. or letters. There are over forty sounds in the English language. The air. and y is a vowel when it has . and the organs of the throat and mouth were at hand. provoking imitation.

m-----------------.. used merely as a word. Iron melts. The letters are mostly in pairs. Give the sound of any letter in column 1.. and in the alphabetic i and o.p d. ANALYSIS AND THE DIAGRAM. 8.. put particular emphasis on Lesson 2..--Because it expresses a thought.th (in thine) (in thin) v. Worms crawl. Hares leap. TO THE TEACHER. 5. teeth. and the last or vanishing part of it is the sound of the other letter of the pair. +DEFINITION.k -------------------h j. 7. Here is a pencil. 9. ew... [Footnote: The word spiders. Steam expands....--Analyze the following sentences:-+Model+. Leaves tremble.... ***** LESSON 4.....n-----------------. two parts--the +Subject+ and the +Predicate+. 6. TO THE TEACHER. In each of these sentences there are.... Which word tells what is thought? Ans..s z (in azure).. boy. as above.. and there are the two words naming this idea.. W and y are consonants at the beginning of a word or syllable. and only whisper in those of column 2.. 3... represent those made by the obstructed breath. Vocal Consonants.. the two sounds that unite in each of the compounds. Now note that the tongue.. The various sounds of the several vowels and even of the same vowel are caused by the different shapes which the mouth assumes... Drill them on the vowels also.....r-----------------.... some of the following Lessons may be passed over rapidly...... v.+ ...y-----------------..... we carry in memory a picture of the pencil.. +DEFINITION. also.. and drill the pupils on the sounds till they can see and make these distinctions....... oi.. lips.. Of what is something thought? Ans..sh The consonants in column 1 represent the sounds made by the obstructed voice..--Spiders.. 2...--In reviewing these three Lessons... +Direction+.th. 4.... by..--Write these letters on the board. names our idea of the real thing.... Liquids flow.--Spin..t g.. In closing this talk with you... standing in Roman.. Tides ebb.. as you have learned. except h (which represents a mere forcible breathing). spin.. 9 1..... is in Italics. as in now...--If the pupils have been through "Graded Lessons" or its equivalent. newly. These changes in its cavity produce... TO THE TEACHER... a real thing. the spoken and the written.] 1. ou.. those in column 2..--A Sentence is the expression of a thought in words+. as b... we wish to emphasize one point brought before you.. Aspirates. This use of Italics the teacher and the pupil will please note here and elsewhere. 2. The difference in the sounds of the letters of any pair is simply this: there is voice in the sounds of the letters in column 1..--The Subject of a sentence names that of which something is thought. b....... Why is this a sentence? Ans.z (in zone).. Carbon burns.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg the sound of i....--Spiders spin.. which we call an idea.ch l-----------------.f w-----------------. g. Learn to distinguish clearly these four things... Powder explodes. and palate are placed in the same relative position to make the sounds of both letters in any pair...

--Beavers build. ----. COMPOSITION--SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. Sap ascends. Blood circulates. or commands. let the form of analysis be varied. 2. 3. +PERIOD--RULE.+ +DEFINITION. 8. ----descends. 10.absorb. ----. build is the predicate because it tells what is thought. Hope strengthens.careen. 11. Such figures.+ +Direction+. If you write a word over the second part. by looking at this figure. 5. Love | conquers ========|============ | You see. Muscles tire. 15. the second. 7.--A Diagram is a picture of the offices and the relations of the different parts of a sentence. ----. ----. 5.glisten.sailed.murmur.tarnishes. ----. 12.--The Analysis of a sentence is the separation of it into its parts. Birds twitter.--Analyze these sentences:-1.--The Predicate of a sentence tells what is thought. conquered. ----. 4. 9. 10. we call Diagrams. +DEFINITION.sentence. 6.--The first word of every sentence must begin with a capital letter+. Study pays. 3. [Footnote: When pupils are familiar with the definitions. Cows low. ----. 4. Apes chatter. 6.? 1. 8. that love is the subject.capsize. and conquers the predicate. 4.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +DEFINITION. 3. Here and elsewhere avoid mechanical repetition. ----refines.radiates.gurgle. Corn ripens. 5. 2. Hens sit. Frogs croak.--Construct sentences by supplying a subject to each of the following predicates:-Ask yourselves the questions. This is a sentence because it expresses a thought. Let the first part represent the subject of a sentence. ----. Flies buzz. that Love conquers is a sentence. etc. you will understand that this word is the subject of a sentence. 14. Books aid. the predicate. denies. you will understand that this word is the predicate of a sentence.+ +Direction+.corrode. ----. ***** LESSON 5. 9. Heralds proclaim. ----.surrendered.] 1. 13. ----. Sheep bleat. 7. . 6. Cocks crow. ----. 12.--A period must be placed after every sentence that simply affirms. made up of straight lines. 7. 9. Beavers is the subject because it names that of which something is thought. +Explanation+. ----. Branches wave.conquered. Hearts throb. 8.--Draw a heavy line and divide it into two parts. Buds swell.+ +Direction+. What tarnishes? Who sailed. +CAPITAL LETTER--RULE.--Analyze these sentences:-- 10 +Model+. 11. If you write a word over the first part. The reasons may be made more specific. Noise disturbs. Squirrels climb. 2.

9. Tyrants -----. 12. Electricity has been harnessed. 2. Stars have disappeared. Conclusions are drawn. Moscow has been measured.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. Inventors may be encouraged. 19. 4. 9. 11. Yankees -----. Caesar could have been crowned. COMPOSITION--SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 15. 11. Look first for the word that asserts. Allen was tested. Nuisances should be abated. Life are command. Merchants -----. Life -----. TO THE TEACHER. 23. 12. 1 2 3 Arts is progressing. and several predicates to each subject. Analyze your sentences. 13.--Construct sentences by supplying a predicate to each of the following subjects:-Ask yourselves the question. Tempests have been raging. Reptiles -----. Glycerine does what? 11 1. Meteors -----. Sirius has appeared. Congress -----. Science would released. Chalk -----. Conscience -----. Raleigh have been prevail. the subject may easily be found. 18. ***** LESSON 7. the first and most important step in analysis will have been taken. Truth were falling. 8. +Direction+. Philosophers -----. 4. Constantinople had been captured. Jerusalem was destroyed. Pendulums -----. When this can be done promptly. Rain must have fallen. The predicate sometimes contains more than one word. 3. Planets have been discovered. 5. and then. 16. Caesar -----. Darkness -----. 18. 17. 6. TO THE TEACHER. 17. 5. 7. by putting who or what before this predicate. Leaves are turning. Moisture is exhaled.--Let this exercise be continued till the pupils can readily point out the subject and the predicate in ordinary simple sentences. Industry will enrich. 14. Heat -----.--Point out the subject and the predicate of each sentence in Lessons 12 and 17. Twilight is falling. 20. +Direction+. Theories will prolonged. 24. +Direction+. Seeds -----. 15. 20. 2. 19. 8. Glycerine -----. ***** LESSON 6. 10. 16. 6. 22. 1. 14. 3. Nature -----. Shadows may be burned. Labor -----. ANALYSIS.--This exercise may profitably be extended by supplying several subjects to each predicate. Light can be reflected. Wax -----. Tempests -----. Essex might have been saved. Music -----. Pitch -----.--Analyze as in Lesson 4. Vapors -----. Palaces shall crumble. 13. Storms may be gathering. 7. Bubbles -----. 21. 10. .--Make at least ten good sentences out of the words in the three columns following:-The helping words in column 2 must be prefixed to words in column 3 in order to make complete predicates.

From their likenesses. in the sentence. and are.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Quantity should have been lost. them.--We have now reached the point where we must classify the words of our language. a noun). Without the little words which we shall italicize. pro.--Introduce the class to the Parts of Speech before the close of this recitation. From certain likenesses in form and in structure. and other words are used in place of nouns. we are able to group things that have like qualities. we learn all we need to know of every object in it. me. But God has made things to resemble one another and to differ from one another. we. he. who. PRONOUNS. it would be difficult for one stranger to ask another. or office. we shall die ignorant of English grammar. him. the other would not recognize the name in the place of me. ***** LESSON 8. it. TO THE TEACHER. the elm. and nomen. These we place in one class and call them +Nouns+ (Latin nomen. we put certain flowers together and call them roses. and. CLASSES OF WORDS. Sorting them thus. called +Pronouns+ (Lat. Studying each class. Just so we classify trees and get the oak. We group them according to their similarities in use. NOUNS. which we call Parts of Speech. etc. If we must learn all about the forms and the uses of a hundred thousand words by studying these words one by one. as he has given us the power to detect resemblances and differences. and both would be puzzled to find a substitute for who. what. my. we get another class called lilies. we should never master the botany even of our garden-plants. I. though not in form. therefore. We find that many words name things--are the names of things of which we can think and speak. violets. we find that they all fall into eight classes. But may we not deal with words as we do with plants? If we had to study and name each leaf and stem and flower. a name. you. from others still. for. Review Questions. . 12 What is language proper? What is English grammar? What is a sentence? What are its two parts? What is the subject of a sentence? The predicate of a sentence? The analysis of a sentence? What is a diagram? What rule has been given for the use of capital letters? For the period? May the predicate contain more than one word? Illustrate. from other likenesses. taken singly. a noun). But we are appalled by their number. "Can you tell me who is the postmaster at B?" The one would not know what name to use instead of you. See "Introductory Hints" below. she. The myriad objects of nature fall into comparatively few classes. +Introductory Hints+. the maple. we classify words.

+ The principal office of nouns is to name the things of which we say. hudson. when a class name and a distinguishing word combine to make one individual name. names and words derived from them begin with capital letters. man. Note how it would sound if both should add s. +Direction. We could hardly speak or write without them now. christian. In writing them observe the following rules:-+CAPITAL LETTER--RULE. and write the names of the seasons without capital letters. melt. the predicate does not take s. they so frequently shorten the expression and prevent confusion and repetition.--A Pronoun is a word used for a noun. william.--Abbreviations generally begin with capital letters and are always followed by the period. according to the model. britain. girl. plato.+--Notice that. +Direction. or some word or words used as a noun. jehovah. love. platonic. +Direction+. boston. bible.--A Noun is the name of anything. something in the sentence. state.+--Select and write all the nouns and pronouns. british. chicago.--Proper. river. +Remember+ that. book. when the subject adds s or es to denote more than one. england. city. in the sentences given in Lesson 18. +Model. deity. englishman.Nouns.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg By means of these handy little words we can represent any or every object in existence. Lesson 8.+--Write the names of the days of the week and the months of the year. grow. france. bostonian. europe. the names of things that can burn. miltonic. and in another column those words that are derived from individual names:-Observe Rule 1. country. +Direction.+ ***** LESSON 9. american. beginning each with a capital letter. milton.---Write. or revolve. god. +Every subject+ of a sentence is a +noun+. or individual.+--From the following words select and write in one column those names that distinguish individual things from others of the same class. Wood | Paper | Oil | Houses + burn or burns. mary. messiah. Coal | Leaves | Matches | Clothes | 13 +Remark. easter. scriptures. CAPITAL LETTERS.+ +DEFINITION.+ +PERIOD and CAPITAL LETTER--RULE. But not every noun in a sentence is a subject. or assert. roar.+-. ohio. each . america. broadway. +DEFINITION. whether subjects or not.

as.] +Direction+. as illustrated in the following: Bed river. in the preceding examples. Catskill village. [Footnote: Dead Sea is composed of the class name sea. +Remember+ that. sea of galilee. the word of. +Direction+. New York State. lake george.. as. bay of naples. etc. and a distinguishing word. without adding the explanatory class name. The usage of newspapers and of text-books on geography would probably favor the writing of the class names in the examples above with initial capitals. Usage certainly favors small initials for the following italicized words: river Rhine. Gulf of Mexico. as. the class name begins with a small letter. atlantic ocean. secretary stanton. Atlantic ocean. the class name should begin with a small letter. Mount Vernon. Bunker Hill. Good Friday. New York City. clinton county. Mediterranean Sea. why should river. when the distinguishing word can by itself be regarded as a complete name. John Stuart Mill. Fourth avenue. in Hudson river. doctor brown. Lake Erie.] 14 But. New York state. are not essential parts of the individual names. & Co. westchester county.) we find Connecticut river. . colonel burr.. which distinguishes one sea from all others. city. president adams. the class name and the distinguishing word should each begin with a capital letter. cape cod.. ocean. such words as street. and county begin with capitals. straits of dover. Grand Street. when the distinguishing word can by itself be regarded as a complete name. Astor House. rhode island. using capital letters when needed:-ohio river. New York city. +Remember+ that. etc. Cape May. Grand st. which applies to all seas. Brown. The American Cyclopedia takes a position still further in advance. but we find in the most carefully printed books and periodicals a tendency to favor small letters in such cases.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg word begins with a capital letter. +Examples+. If river and village. white sea. But. White Mountains. About a century ago every noun began with a capital letter. General Jackson. Red River. Pacific Ocean. gulf of Mexico. but it is in the line of progress. Pacific ocean. Queens county. Harper's Ferry. united states. In the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Little. Rocky mountains. Grand street. city of New York. river Rhine. Black sea. North Pole. Fourth Avenue. but we find Gulf of Mexico.--Write these words. and county. Suspension Bridge. state of Vermont. [Footnote: The need of some definite instruction to save the young writer from hesitation and confusion in the use of capitals is evident from the following variety of forms now in use: City of New York. and it tends to uniformity of practice and to an improved appearance of the page. Henry Clay. delaware bay. professor huxley. city of London. quite uniformly. green mountains. New York city. as. Mediterranean sea. empire of china. etc. and the word Dead. isle of man. using capital letters when needed:-city of atlanta. when a compound name is made up of two or more distinguishing words.--Long Island. Kings County. Jersey City. 9th ed. isthmus of darien. steamer Drew. as. queen of england. The principle we suggest may be in advance of common usage. Queens.--Write these words. be treated differently? We often say the Hudson. each word begins with a capital letter. Madison county. Kings county. the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. the Pacific. In the superscription of letters. river Thames. when an individual name is made up of a class name. Atlantic Ocean.

pilgrim's progress. son of man. new orleans. Minnesota. english channel. milton's hymn on the nativity. south carolina. answer. Friday. +Direction+. June. long island sound. essays.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. George. the Holy One of Israel. south. poems. the most high. Saturday. Monday. continent of america. Michigan. clarendon's history of the great rebellion. ABBREVIATIONS. using capital letters when needed:-erie canal. new testament. county. plays. abbreviate these words by writing the first five letters:-Thursday and lieutenant. These by writing the first four letters:-Connecticut. 15 +Remember+ that. cape of good hope. Wednesday. and for convenience may he abbreviated in writing. ***** LESSON 10. and the names of the Deity. Wisconsin. captain. plymouth rock. new york central railroad. England. Tennessee. cape cod bay. using capital letters when needed:-great britain. napoleon bonaparte. Mississippi. in writing the titles of books. lower california. oliver wendell holmes. using capital letters when needed:-declaration of independence. honorable. example. Oregon. Massachusetts. massachusetts bay. professor. Texas. governor. goldsmith's she stoops to conquer. dombey and son. colonel. +Direction+. etc. Arkansas. credit. esquire. governor tilden. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. bancroft's history of the united states. Lesson 8. Delaware. old world. These by writing the first two letters:-Company. and Tuesday. north america. they should begin . Indiana. Supreme Being. as. and west. anderson's history of the united states. Nevada. the holy spirit. indian ocean. pope's essay on criticism.--Write these words. Colorado. flatbush village. Sunday. only the chief words begin with capital letters. These by writing the first three letters:-Alabama. daniel webster.--Write these miscellaneous names. james russell lowell. president. These by writing the first letter:-East. mount washington. +Direction+. Observing Rule 2. reverend. Illinois. north. and July.. british america. Paradise Lost. and the names of the months except May. secretary.--Some words occur frequently.--Write these words. city of boston. Nebraska. new england. California. johnson's lives of the poets. and idem (the same). webster's reply to hayne. tent on the beach. [Footnote: When these words refer to sections of the country. major. Kansas. general.

. Rhode Island. and of p in pp. of the abbreviations Cal. . Ph. it tells what clocks do: it asserts action. Tenn.. oz... madame. philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy). Chas." In the "Guide" Iowa and Ohio are not abbreviated.. Louisiana. But in all the sentences given you. Mrs. ***** LESSON 11. hhd. frequently abbreviated thus: Iowa. Kentucky. street.[Footnote: The doubling of the l to ll and in LL.. South Carolina.. and page. page... i. pp. +Direction..] These by writing the first and the last letter:-Doctor. numero (number). artium magister (master of arts).. 0. or There are clocks.. we could throw the countless objects around us into comparatively few classes. Vermont. New Jersey. collect on delivery.. ll. North Carolina.. l. lines. saint.. has led to much confusion.. with no period between the letters. or being. qt. Ohio. These by writing the first letter of each word of the compound with a period after each letter:-- 16 Artium baccalaureus (bachelor of arts). Fla. LL. debtor.. etc. Maryland. Recd. do. Neb... member (of) Congress..g. When we say Clocks tick. dozen.] Messrs.. ante meridiem (before noon). District (of) Columbia.. or bbl. Mme. vs. New Hampshire. yard. or acct. Pennsylvania. medicinae doctor (doctor of medicine). Ia. messieurs (gentlemen). North America. before Christ. Mts. hogshead. Thomas. barrel. We began to classify words according to their use.+--In this Lesson we have given the abbreviations of the states as now regulated by the "U.. et caetera (and others). Io. D. exempli gratia (for example) etc. and United States. tick is not the name of anything. and we called them nouns.. foot. received.. ft. divinitatis doctor (doctor of divinity). or exist. ditto (the same) doz.. line. superintendent. Robt.. bu. Mo. pages. p. legum doctor (doctor of laws)... mountains. or office. +Remark. or assert that they are. account. Bbl. are is not the name of.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg with capitals. junior. hdkf. post-office. VERBS... (pronounced missis) mistress. we found one class of words that name things.. yd. it simply asserts existence. Penn. id est (that is). Supt. They are. anything. Missouri. +Introductory Hints+. These words. Ia. Thos. Robert. lb..--We told you in Lesson 8 how. in the sentence. versus (against).. D. anno Domini (in the year of our Lord).. Nev. viz.. nor does it tell what clocks do... however.+--The following abbreviations and those you have made should be committed to memory:-Acct. we have had to use another class of words. lean.D. feet. quart. tell what the things do. The similarity. bushel. S. Master.. by noticing the essential likenesses in things and grouping the things thus alike... New York. handkerchief. Georgia. libra (pound).. and Virginia. postmaster. Maine.. comes from pluralizing the nouns line. Mister. when hurriedly written. post meridiem (afternoon). e. videlicet (namely). member (of) Parliament. ounce. Florida. When we say Clocks are. or Io. Charles.. you notice.e. Col.. Official Postal Guide..

we. (or) + spreads.+ +Direction+. or state of being. | rages. mind. Fire | keep. the participle and the infinitive (see Lessons 37 and 40). | burns. mills. education. nor do they tell that clocks act or simply exist. +DEFINITION+. was. and with the pronouns he. see Lesson 17. that is. He. last.+--Unite the words in columns 2 and 3 below.--+A Verb is a word that asserts action. it. I may be used with am. they tell the condition.--Poland was dismembered. a word). Sugar are refined. is learning. stand. or remain. three. Fires | glow. horses. For definition of phrase. and have. and that are. Lawyers. as. verbum. they have been transferred. was dismembered is a verb because it asserts action. +Parsing+. burn. +Model+. | heat. or even four words. you has been imported.--Parse five of the sentences you have written. and with the pronouns we.--Poland is a noun because ----. was. The name was given to this class because it was thought that they were the most important words in the sentence. Give some that assert being. and some that assert state of being. A verb may consist of two. being. As verbs are the only words that assert. Air coined. +Naming the class+ to which a word belongs is the +first step in parsing. +Remark. books. and have are used with nouns naming more than one thing.+--Notice that the simple form of the verb. Give several verbs that assert action. two forms of the verb. +Model. All words that assert action. [Footnote: Such groups of words are sometimes called verb-phrases. or state of being+. were. +every predicate+ must be a verb. and append the verbs thus formed to the nouns and pronouns in column 1 so as to make good sentences:-+Remark. and they. or must contain a verb. Speeches were weighed. melt. | scorches. birds. lie. There are. being. may be learned.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 17 When we say Clocks hang. I. without asserting it. and has are used with nouns naming one thing. do not name anything. she. or state of being. Cotton is exported. these words hang. she. | exists. scorch. etc. and it. they assert state of being. . could have been learned. however. 1 2 3 Words am confused. | melt. last. as. in which clocks are. Teas was delivered.] +Direction. you. stand.--Noun. ***** LESSON 12. we call +Verbs+ (+Lat+.. +Direction.+--Write after each of the following nouns as many appropriate verbs as you can think of:-Let some express being and some express state of being. or state. or exist. adds s or es when its subject noun names but one thing. being-.+--Notice that is. that express action.

and jacere. but the prefixed words ripe and unripe. marking opposite qualities in the apples. eight apples. or by specifying number or quantity limit the scope or add to the meaning of the noun. The cold November rain is falling. They resemble and they differ in what we call their qualities. Things are alike whose qualities are the same.--The subject noun and the predicate verb are not always or often the whole of the structure that we call the sentence. Analysis and Parsing.+--The two lines shaded alike and placed uppermost stand for the subject and the predicate. In the sentence above. many. rain | is falling =========================|============== \The \cold \November | +Explanation. 1. It is by their qualities. 18 We learned in Lesson 8 that things resemble one another and differ from one another. or Logical Subject. or eight limits the word in respect to the number of apples that it denotes. ADJECTIVES. each adjective does not always modify the unlimited noun. and limits the word apple to the one pointed out.--A Modifier is a word or a group of words joined to some part of the sentence to qualify or limit the meaning+. Other words may be built upon them. then. that we know things and group them. [Footnote: TO THE TEACHER.--An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun+. or that points out a particular apple. Here wooden modifies house. +DEFINITION. In these two sentences we have the same word apples to name the same general class of things. limit the word apples in its scope. that apple. some. and that modifies house limited by old and wooden. as an orange and an apple. no apple. ad. stand for the less important parts. +Introductory Hints+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg MODIFIED SUBJECT.--When several adjectives are joined to one noun. That old wooden house was burned. These prefixed words ripe and unripe. to throw). or some. this. we do not mark any quality of the fruit. and an. the modifiers. many. and are called +Modifiers+. +modify+ it. Words that modify nouns and pronouns are called +Adjectives+ (Lat. Ripe apples are healthful. and odor. this. to. whose qualities are different. thus:-- . taste. Unripe apples are hurtful. by pointing out. no. separate the apples into two kinds--the ripe ones and the unripe ones. or an. old modifies house limited by wooden. This may be illustrated in the diagram by numbering the modifiers in the order of their rank. ripe apples or unripe apples applies to fewer things than apples alone applies to. These and all such words as by marking quality. but the. and show that these are of the same rank. and show what is modified. then. apples is the +Simple Subject+ and ripe apples is the +Modified Subject+. placed under and joined to the subject line. though they are the underlying timbers that support the rest of the verbal bridge. The lighter lines. +DEFINITION. and are the principal parts of the sentence. two oranges having the same color. as. The +Subject+ with its +Modifiers+ is called the +Modified Subject+. If we say the. Things are unlike.

2. as they often determine the punctuation and the arrangement. straight. +Direction. +Caution. from experience. If of the same rank. 2. of written analysis is preferred. The famous Alexandrian library was burned. straight. or no form. See Lesson 21. 3. 14. If the pupils are able to see these distinctions. our diagrams can be omitted without break or confusion. 5. and how soon the pupil may dispense with their aid altogether. and two tells the number of honest young men. 10.--While in these "models" we wish to avoid repetition. If they differ in rank. the shortest first. The long Hoosac Tunnel is completed. A free people should be educated. hence these adjectives are of the same rank. we wish to say that the work required in this book can all be done without resorting to these figures. The cold November rain is the modified subject. A Newfoundland pet handsome large dog. COMPOSITION--ADJECTIVES. place them where they will sound best--generally in the order of length. +Explanation. and the pointing out. mellow apples were picked. 7.+--Two honest young men were chosen. A tall. TO THE TEACHER. 11. Tall. +Oral Analysis. ripe. only the teacher can determine how many shall be required in any one Lesson. are clear in the belief that diagrams are very helpful in the analysis of sentences. 6. 8. The oppressed Russian serfs have been freed. care must be taken in their arrangement. 12. it will be well to have them made in the analysis. When diagrams are used.+--The. and November are adjectives modifying rain--cold and November expressing quality. A wooden rickety large building. Young tells the kind of men. 3. 4.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg | ==================|======= \3 \2 \1 | Adverbs. and give your reasons:-1. All nature rejoices. Notice the comma after tall and straight. in the first sentence and cannot be supplied. place nearest the noun the one most closely modifying it. Level low five the fields. cold. 15. luscious. cold.+--Arrange the adjectives below. A poor old wounded soldier returned. we should require of the pupils full forms of oral analysis for at least some of the sentences in every Lesson. Every intelligent American citizen should vote. 13.+--While we. 9.+--(Here and hereafter we shall omit from the oral analysis and parsing whatever has been provided for in previous Lessons. The great Spanish Armada was destroyed.] 19 +TO THE TEACHER. hence these adjectives are not of the same rank.) The. If some other form. and both phrase and clause modifiers often differ in rank in the same way. dignified person entered. The melancholy autumn days have come. ***** LESSON 13. Immense suspension bridges have been built. and November are modifiers of the subject. Five large. The old Liberty Bell was rung. The odious Stamp Act was repealed. +Parsing. I alone should suffer. . and dignified modify person independently--the person is tall and straight and dignified. See Lessons 13 and 21. honest tells the kind of young men.+--When two or more adjectives are used with a noun. and may be supplied.

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4. Blind white beautiful three mice. 5. An energetic restless brave people. 6. An enlightened civilized nation. +Direction.+--Form sentences by prefixing modified subjects to these predicates:-1. ------ have been invented. 2. ------ were destroyed. 3. ------ are cultivated. 4. ------ may be abused. 5. -----was mutilated. 6. ------ were carved. 7. ------ have been discovered. 8. ------ have fallen. 9. ------ will be respected. 10. ------ have been built. +Direction.+--Construct ten sentences, each of which shall contain a subject modified by three adjectives--one from each of these columns:-Let the adjectives be appropriate. For punctuation, see Lesson 21. The dark sunny That bright wearisome This dingy commercial Those short blue These soft adventurous Five brave fleecy Some tiny parallel Several important cheerless Many long golden A warm turbid +Direction+.--Prefix to each of these nouns several appropriate adjectives:-River, frost, grain, ships, air, men. +Direction+.--Couple those adjectives and nouns below that most appropriately go together:-Modest, lovely, flaunting, meek, patient, faithful, saucy, spirited, violet, dahlia, sheep, pansy, ox, dog, horse, rose, gentle, duck, sly, waddling, cooing, chattering, homely, chirping, puss, robin, dove, sparrow, blackbird, cow, hen, cackling. ***** LESSON 14. MODIFIED PREDICATE. ADVERBS. +Introductory Hints+.--You have learned that the subject may be modified; let us see whether the predicate may be. If we say, The leaves fall, we express a fact in a general way. But, if we wish to speak of the time of their falling, we can add a word and say, The leaves fall early; of the place of their falling, The leaves fall here; of the manner, The leaves fall quietly; of the cause, Why do the leaves fall? We may join a word to one of these modifiers and say, The leaves fall very quietly. Here very modifies quietly by telling the degree. Very quietly is a group of words modifying the predicate. The predicate with its modifiers is called the +Modified Predicate+. Such words as very, here, and quietly form another part of speech, and are called +Adverbs+ (Lat. ad, to, and verbum, a word, or verb). Adverbs may modify adjectives; as, Very ripe apples are healthful. Adverbs modify verbs just as adjectives modify nouns--by limiting them. The horse has a proud step = The horse steps proudly. The +Predicate+ with its +Modifiers+ is called the +Modified +Predicate, or Logical Predicate.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +DEFINITION.--An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.+ [Footnote: See Lesson 92 and foot-note.] Analysis and Parsing. 1. The leaves fall very quietly. leaves | fall ========|====== \The | \quietly \very

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+Oral Analysis+.--Very quietly is a modifier of the predicate; quietly is the principal word of the group; very modifies quietly; the leaves is the modified subject; fall very quietly is the modified predicate. +Parsing+.--Quietly is an adverb modifying fall, telling the manner; very is an adverb modifying quietly, telling the degree. 2. The old, historic Charter Oak was blown down. 3. The stern, rigid Puritans often worshiped there. 4. Bright-eyed daisies peep up everywhere. 5. The precious morning hours should not be wasted. 6. The timely suggestion was very kindly received. 7. We turned rather abruptly. 8. A highly enjoyable entertainment was provided. 9. The entertainment was highly enjoyed. 10. Why will people exaggerate so! 11. A somewhat dangerous pass had been reached quite unexpectedly. 12. We now travel still more rapidly. 13. Therefore he spoke excitedly. 14. You will undoubtedly be very cordially welcomed. 15. A furious equinoctial gale has just swept by. 16. The Hell Gate reef was slowly drilled away. ***** LESSON 15. COMPOSITION--ADVERBS. +Caution+.--So place adverbs that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. Have regard to the sound also. +Direction+.--Place the, italicized words below in different positions, and note the effect on the sound and the sense:-1. I immediately ran out. 2. Only one was left there. 3. She looked down proudly. 4. Unfortunately, this assistance came too late. +Direction+.--Construct on each of these subjects three sentences having modified subjects and modified predicates:--For punctuation, see Lesson 21. +Model+. ---- clouds ----. 1. Dark, heavy, threatening clouds are slowly gathering above. 2. Those, brilliant, crimson clouds will very soon dissolve. 3. Thin, fleecy clouds are scudding over. l. ---- ocean ----. 2. ---- breeze ----. 3. ---- shadows ----. 4. ---- rock ----. 5. ---- leaves ----. +Direction+.--Compose sentences in which these adverbs shall modify verbs:-Heretofore, hereafter, annually, tenderly, inaudibly, legibly, evasively, everywhere, aloof, forth.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

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+Direction+.--Compose sentences in which five of these adverbs shall modify adjectives, and five shall modify adverbs:-Far, unusually, quite, altogether, slightly, somewhat, much, almost, too, rather. ***** LESSON 16. REVIEW. TO THE TEACHER.--In all school work, but especially here, where the philosophy of the sentence and the principles of construction are developed in progressive steps, success depends largely on the character of the reviews. Let reviews be, so far as possible, topical. Require frequent outlines of the work passed over, especially of what is taught in the "Introductory Hints." The language, except that of Rules and Definitions, should be the pupil's own, and the illustrative sentences should be original. +Direction+.--Review from Lesson 8 to Lesson 15, inclusive. Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (tell, for example, what three things such words as tick, are, and remain do in the sentence, what office they have in common, what such words are called, and why; what common office such words as ripe, the, and eight have, in what three ways they perform it, what such words are called, and why, etc.). Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules; illustrate what is taught of the capitalization and the abbreviation of names, and of the position of adjectives and adverbs. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. (SEE PAGES 150-153.) TO THE TEACHER.--After the pupil has learned a few principles of analysis and construction through the aid of short detached sentences that exclude everything unfamiliar, he may be led to recognize these same principles in longer related sentences grouped into paragraphs. The study of paragraphs selected for this purpose may well be extended as an informal preparation for what is afterwards formally presented in the regular lessons of the text-book. These "Exercises" are offered only as suggestions. The teacher must, of course, determine where and how often this composition should be introduced. We invite special attention to the study of the paragraph. ***** LESSON 17. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES AND PREPOSITIONS. +Introductory Hints+.--To express our thoughts with greater exactness we may need to expand a word modifier into several words; as, A long ride brought us there = A ride of one hundred miles brought us to Chicago. These groups of words, of one hundred miles and to Chicago--the one substituted for the adjective long, the other for the adverb there--we call +Phrases+. A phrase that does the work of an adjective is called

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg an +Adjective Phrase+. A phrase that does the work of an adverb is called an +Adverb Phrase+.

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As adverbs modify adjectives and adverbs, they may modify their equivalent phrases; as, The train stops only at the station. They sometimes modify only the introductory word of the phrase--this introductory word being adverbial in its nature; as, He sailed nearly around the globe. That we may learn the office of such words as of, to, and at, used to introduce these phrases, let us see how the relation of one idea to another may be expressed. Wealthy men. These two words express two ideas as related. We have learned to know this relation by the form and position of the words. Change these, and the relation is lost--men wealth. But by using of before wealth the relation is restored---men of wealth. The word of, then, shows the relation between the ideas expressed by the words men and wealth. All such relation words are called +Prepositions+ (Lat. prae, before, and positus, placed--their usual position being before the noun with which they form a phrase). A phrase introduced by a preposition is called a +Prepositional Phrase+. This, however, is not the only kind of phrase. +DEFINITION.--A Phrase is a group of words denoting related ideas, and having a distinct office, but not expressing a thought+. +DEFINITION.--A Preposition is a word that introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified.+ Analysis and Parsing. 1. The pitch of the musical note depends upon the rapidity of vibration. TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions in Lesson 12, concerning the use of diagrams. pitch depends ==========|================= \The \of \upon \ \ \ note \ rapidity \-------- \------------ \the \musical \the \of \ \vibration \--------+Explanation+.--The diagram of the phrase is made up of a slanting line standing for the introductory word, and a horizontal line representing the principal word. Under the latter are drawn the lines which represent the modifiers of the principal word. +Oral Analysis+.---The and the adjective phrase of the musical note are modifiers of the subject; the adverb phrase upon the rapidity of vibration is a modifier of the predicate. Of introduces the first phrase, and note is the principal word; the and musical are modifiers of note; upon introduces the second phrase, and rapidity is the principal word; the and the adjective phrase of vibration are modifiers of rapidity; of introduces this phrase, and vibration is the principal word. TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions in Lesson 12, concerning oral analysis. +Parsing+.--Of is a preposition showing the relation, in sense, of note to pitch; etc., etc. TO THE TEACHER.--Insist that, in parsing, the pupils shall give specific reasons instead of general definitions. 2. The Gulf Stream can be traced along the shores of the United States by the blueness of the water. 3. The North Pole has been approached in three principal directions. 4. In 1607, Hudson penetrated within six

5. 9. Have regard to the sound also. many travelers speak with enthusiasm.--Correct these errors in position. ***** LESSON 18. In Mother Goose the cow jumps clear over the moon. for the doctor.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 24 hundred miles of the North Pole. Louis. The Suspension Bridge is stretched across the Niagara river just below the Falls. 8. at the beginning or at the end. 3. +Direction+. England in the eleventh century was conquered by the Normans. Of the scenery along the Rhine. the growing usage among writers is not to set it off. Unless it is desired to make the phrase emphatic. Amid the angry yells of the spectators he died. under the cover of a truce.] +Remark. 3. or to break the continuity of the thought. That small man is speaking . Helena to France. He went. 2.+ [Footnote: An expression in the body of a sentence is set off by two commas. For the sake of emphasis a word or a phrase may be placed out of its natural order.000. COMPOSITION-PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES.] and made emphatic. The body of the great Napoleon was carried back from St. with a chosen band. at the urgent request of the stranger. 6. 4. 5. +COMMA-RULE. \in \ \ ____\below \atmosphere \just \ \_________ \Falls \ \____ \only \ \the +Explanation+. In the dead of night. Between the two mountains lies a fertile valley. or is not.--Punctuate such of these sentences as need punctuation:-1. and use the comma when needed:-1. Genius can breathe freely only in the atmosphere of freedom. 2. +Direction. 11. see Lesson 51. 4. The first standing army was formed in the middle of the fifteenth century. The breezy morning died into silent noon. Coal of all kinds has originated from the decay of plants. should be set off by the comma. 12.--See in how many places the phrases in the sentences above may stand without obscuring the thought. In the Pickwick Papers the conversation of Sam Weller is spiced with wit. 14. by one comma. 2. The honorable member was reproved for being intoxicated by the president. [Footnote: "1607" may be treated as a noun. 13.+--This rule must be applied with caution. The tails of some comets stretch to the distance of 100. and "six hundred" as one adjective. he approached. +Caution+.] 5. 7.000 miles. He went from New York to Philadelphia on Monday.--So place phrase modifiers that there can be no doubt as to what yon intend them to modify. 6. New York on the contrary abounds in men of wealth.----Only modifies the whole phrase. The Delta of the Mississippi was once at St. +Direction+. and just modifies the preposition. used in these sentences:-1.--Phrases that are placed out of their usual order [Footnote: For the usual order of words and phrases.+--Tell why the comma is. or that are loosely connected with the rest of the sentence. +Direction+. 10. The first astronomical observatory in Europe was erected at Seville by the Saracens. It has come down by uninterrupted tradition from the earliest times to the present day.

At the distance a flood of flame from the line from thirty iron mouths of twelve hundred yards of the enemy poured forth. Has been scattered Bible English the of millions by hundreds of the earth over the face.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 25 with red whiskers. ***** LESSON 20. Of affectation of the young fop in the face impertinent an was seen smile. . On Monday evening on temperance by Mr. To the end with no small difficulty of the journey at last through deep roads we after much fatigue came.--Rewrite these sentences. An aerial trip to Europe was rashly planned. toward the Pacific. 3. in Pennsylvania. there 6. between the tropics. earthward +Direction+. 2. ***** LESSON 19. during the reign of Elizabeth. +Direction+. Those homeless children were kindly treated. attending carefully to the punctuation. 2. whence 10.--See into how many good. CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS. incautiously 4. He went over the mountains on a certain day in early boyhood. Gough a lecture at the old brick church was delivered. Of mind of splendor under the garb often is concealed poverty. Bostonian 2. hence 7. nowhere 5. +Direction+. 4. around the world. 5. use these phrases in sentences of your own:-1. The American Continent was probably discovered by Cabot. lucidly 15. The sentence was written with care. With his gun toward the woods he started in the morning. 5. before the application of steam to machinery.--Change these adjectives and adverbs into equivalent phrases. at the Centennial Exposition of 1876. +Direction+. using these phrases as modifiers:-Of copper. from the West Indies. national 9. 3. northerly 8. clear sentences you can convert these by transposing the phrases:-1. lengthy 13.) 1.--Compose sentences. on the 22d of February. changing the italicized words into equivalent phrases:-+Model+. here 11. COMPOUND SUBJECT AND COMPOUND PREDICATE. 5. Much has been said about the Swiss scenery. 4.--Form a sentence out of each of these groups of words:-(Look sharply to the arrangement and the punctuation. A message was read from the President in the Senate. 1.--The sentence was carefully written. COMPOSITION--PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. Ticonderoga was taken from the British by Ethan Allen on the tenth of May in 1775. Arabian 12. 3. why 3. 4. A brazen image was then set up. and then. historical 14. +Direction+. 2.

The three words Edward. 1. Any part of speech may be wrenched from its construction with other words. Ah ---.+ A sentence may have both a compound subject and a compound predicate. +DEFINITION. and being understood between Edward and Mary.--A Conjunction is a word used to connect words. phrases. and may lapse into an interjection. Oh! ah! pooh! pshaw! etc. Mary. +Interjections+ (Lat. Mary and Elizabeth lived and reigned in England. Mary. sisters. and mothers wait for the news. as.--An Interjection is a word used to express strong or sudden feeling. together. The words connecting the parts of a compound subject or of a compound predicate are called +Conjunctions+ (Lat. The line standing for the word modifier is joined to that part of the subject line which represents the entire . as.+--Edward. which stand for the connecting word. was tried. Ah! anxious wives. Two or more connected subjects having the same predicate form a +Compound Subject+. The three predicates was seized.+ Analysis and Parsing.. as. or clauses. con.========'/ \the +Explanation+. Two or more connected predicates having the same subject form a +Compound Predicate+. to throw) are the eighth and last part of speech. It may connect two clauses. or cum. Connected predicates having the same subject form a +Compound Predicate. Connected subjects having the same predicate form a +Compound Subject+. and Elizabeth have the same predicate--the same act being asserted of the king and the two queens. Edward. The equinox occurs in March and in September.--The three short horizontal lines represent each a part of the compound subject. A conjunction may connect other parts of the sentence. express bursts of feeling too sudden and violent for deliberate sentences. express condensed thought as well as feeling. that is. inter. as two word modifiers--A dark and rainy night follows. The x shows that a conjunction is understood.+ +DEFINITION. would be sentences. was seized. and Elizabeth are connected by and. to join).wives ========\ '\ ' \ | wait sisters 'x \=====|=========== ========' \ \anxious \for 'and/ \ ' / \news mothers ' / ----. between. behold! shame! what! Professor Sweet calls interjections sentence-words. Charles I. Hail! fudge! indeed! amen! etc. and Elizabeth reigned in England.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 26 +Introductory Hints. Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously. but the leaves of the maple drop in autumn. was tried. They are connected by dotted lines.. and jungere. and jacere. Mary. expressions that. as. and was beheaded. It may connect two phrases. standing alone. and was beheaded have the same subject--the three acts being asserted of the same king. The leaves of the pine fall in spring.

. the Dead Sea. and the compound phrases in the sentences above. From the Mount of Olives. Between the mind of man and the outer world are interposed the nerves of the human body. 15. 8. A sort of gunpowder was used at an early period in China and in other parts of Asia. 27 +Parsing+. By perfection is meant the full and harmonious development of all the faculties. Ugh! I look forward with dread to to-morrow. powers came ================= ========= \The \ X \ and \ \ and \of \. anxious is a modifier of the compound subject.. +Remark.. and mothers form the compound subject.. 9..\ \. ***** LESSON 21. the complex. request. 6.\ parentage \ \ \muscular \ \----------.--And is a conjunction connecting sisters and mothers. when the parts of compound predicates and of other phrases are long or differently modified. neither--nor...+--Pick out the simple. 5. +Direction.. the pairs are separated according to the Rule. ahis an interjection. comfort. dark and misty and solemn. or. 14. and connects sisters and mothers. friend -------------------\ ' \ ' \ | applauded 'and. 12. The hero of the Book of Job came from a strange land and of a strange parentage. Two or more phrases connected by a conjunction form a +Compound Phrase+.--Words or phrases connected by conjunctions are separated from each other by the comma unless all the conjunctions are expressed. and discuss. 7.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg subject. 16. 10. When one of two terms has a modifier that without the comma might be referred to both.. 13. The opinions of the New York press are quoted in every port and in every capital. Both >===|=========== ' / foe ' / --------'----------/ +Explanation+.. COMPOSITION---CONNECTED TERMS AND INTERJECTIONS. exhort..--The conjunction both is used to strengthen the real connective and. Tush! tush! 't will not again appear.. +Oral Analysis+. The mental. these terms or parts are separated .+--A phrase that contains another phrase as a modifier is called a +Complex Phrase+. Both friend and foe applauded.---Wives. In a letter we may advise. 11. The optic nerve passes from the brain to the back of the eyeball. sisters. Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously. and there spreads out..--When words and phrases stand in pairs. but the words of each pair are not. Either and neither do the same for or and nor in either--or..\ \moral \from \mental \ land \--------4. moral.) 3. 2. is seen.\. and muscular powers are improved by use. expressing a sudden burst of feeling.. Turn this diagram about. and the connected horizontal lines will stand for the parts of a compound predicate. Feudalism did not and could not exist before the tenth century.+ +Remark+. +COMMA--RULE. All forms of the lever and all the principal kinds of hinges are found in the body. (For diagram see the last sentence of the "Explanation" above.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg by the comma though no conjunction is omitted.

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When two terms connected by or have the same meaning, the second is logically explanatory of the first, and is set off by the comma, i. e., when it occurs in the body of a sentence, a comma is placed after the explanatory word, as well as before the or. +Direction.+--Justify the punctuation of these sentences:-1. Long, pious pilgrimages are made to Mecca. 2. Empires rise, flourish, and decay. 3. Cotton is raised in Egypt, in India, and in the United States. 4. The brain is protected by the skull, or cranium. 5. Nature and art and science were laid under tribute. 6. The room was furnished with a table, and a chair without legs. 7. The old oaken bucket hangs in the well. +Explanation.+--No comma here, for no conjunction is omitted. Oakenlimits bucket, old limits bucket modified by oaken, and thelimits bucket modified by old and oaken. See Lesson 13. 8. A Christian spirit should be shown to Jew or Greek, male or female, friend or foe. 9. We climbed up a mountain for a view. +Explanation+.--No comma. Up a mountain tells where we climbed, and for a view tells why we climbed up a mountain. 10. The boy hurries away from home, and enters upon a career of business or of pleasure. 11. The long procession was closed by the great dignitaries of the realm, and the brothers and sons of the king. +Direction+.--Punctuate such of these sentences as need punctuation, and give your reasons:-1. Men and women and children stare cry out and run. 2. Bright healthful and vigorous poetry was written by Milton. 3. Few honest industrious men fail of success in life. (Where is the conjunction omitted?) 4. Ireland or the Emerald Isle lies to the west of England. 5. That relates to the names of animals or of things without sex. 6. The Hebrew is closely allied to the Arabic the Phoenician the Syriac and the Chaldee. 7. We sailed down the river and along the coast and into a little inlet. 8. The horses and the cattle were fastened in the same stables and were fed with abundance of hay and grain. 9. Spring and summer autumn and winter rush by in quick succession. 10. A few dilapidated old buildings still stand in the deserted village. +EXCLAMATION POINT--RULE.--All Exclamatory Expressions must be followed by the exclamation point.+ +Remark+.--Sometimes an interjection alone and sometimes an interjection and the words following it form the exclamatory expression; as, Oh! it hurts. Oh, the beautiful snow! O is used in direct address; as, O father, listen to me. Oh is used as a cry of pain, surprise, delight, fear, or appeal. This distinction, however desirable, is not strictly observed, O being frequently used in place of Oh. +CAPITAL LETTERS--RULE.--The words I and O should be written in capital letters.+ +Direction.+--Correct these violations of the two rules given above:-1. o noble judge o excellent young man. 2. Out of the depths have i cried unto thee. 3. Hurrah the field is won.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 4. Pshaw how foolish. 5. Oh oh oh i shall be killed. 6. o life how uncertain o death how inevitable. ***** LESSON 22. ANALYSIS AND PARSING.

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+Direction+.--Beginning with the 8th sentence of the first group of exercises in Lesson 21, analyze thirteen sentences, omitting the 4th of the second group. +Model+.--A Christian spirit should be shown to Jew or Greek, male or female, friend or foe. spirit |should be shown / Jew ===============|================ /'-------- \A \Christian | \ /' \' Greek \ / ' \-------- \ / ' \to / x ' / male \--/ '/'-------- \ ' \' female \ x ' \-------- \ ' \ ' / friend \_/'--------- \' foe \--------***** LESSON 23. COMPOSITION--CONNECTED TERMS. Direction.+--Using the nouns below, compose sentences with compound subjects; compose others in which the verbs shall form compound predicates; and others in which the adjectives, the adverbs, and the phrases shall form compound modifiers:-In some let there be three or more connected terms. Observe Rule, Lesson 21, for punctuation. Let your sentences mean something. NOUNS. Washington, beauty, grace, Jefferson, symmetry, lightning, Lincoln, electricity, copper, silver, flowers, gold, rose, lily. VERBS. Examine, sing, pull, push, report, shout, love, hate, like, scream, loathe, approve, fear, obey, refine, hop, elevate, skip, disapprove. ADJECTIVES. +Direction.+--See Caution, Lesson 13. Bright, acute, patient, careful, apt, forcible, simple, homely, happy, short, pithy, deep, jolly, mercurial, precipitous. ADVERBS. +Direction.+--See Caution, Lesson 15. Neatly, slowly, carefully, sadly, now, here, never, hereafter. PHRASES.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg On sea; in the city; by day; on land; by night; in the country; by hook; across the ocean; by crook; over the lands; along the level road; up the mountains. ***** LESSON 24. REVIEW. CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION. Direction.+--Give the reason for every capital letter and for every mark of punctuation used below:--

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1. The sensitive parts of the body are covered by the cuticle, or skin. 2. The degrees of A.B., A.M., D.D., and LL.D. are conferred by the colleges and the universities of the country. 3. Oh, I am so happy! 4. Fathers and mothers, sons and daughters rejoice at the news. 5. Plants are nourished by the earth, and the carbon of the air. 6. A tide of American travelers is constantly flooding Europe. 7. The tireless, sleepless sun rises above the horizon, and climbs slowly and steadily to the zenith. 8. He retired to private life on half pay, and on the income of a large estate in the South. +Direction.+--Write these expressions, using capital letters and marks of punctuation where they belong:-1. a fresh ruddy and beardless french youth replied 2. maj, cal, bu, p m, rev, no, hon, ft, w, e, oz, mr, n y, a b, mon, bbl, st 3. o father o father i cannot breathe here 4. ha ha that sounds well 5. the edict of nantes was established by henry the great of france 6. mrs, vs, co, esq, yd, pres, u s, prof, o, do, dr 7. hurrah good news good news 8. the largest fortunes grow by the saving of cents and dimes and dollars 9. the baltic sea lies between sweden and russia 10. the mississippi river pours into the gulf of mexico 11. supt, capt, qt, ph d, p, cr, i e, doz 12. benjamin franklin was born in boston in 1706 and died in 1790 +Direction.+--Correct all these errors in capitalization and punctuation, and give your reasons:-1 Oliver cromwell ruled, over the english People, 2. halloo. I must speak to You! 3. john Milton, went abroad in Early Life, and, stayed, for some time, with the Scholars of Italy, 4. Most Fuel consists of Coal and Wood from the Forests 5. books are read for Pleasure and the Instruction and improvement of the Intellect, 6. In rainy weather the feet should be protected by overshoes or galoches 7. hark they are coming! 8. A, neat, simple and manly style is pleasing to Us. 9. alas poor thing alas, 10. i fished on a, dark, and cool, and mossy, trout stream. ***** LESSON 25. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW. ANALYSIS. 1. By the streets of By-and-by, one arrives at the house of Never.--Spanish Proverb [Footnote: By-and-by has no real streets, the London journals do not actually thunder, nor were the cheeks of William the Testy literally scorched by his fiery gray eyes. Streets, house, colored, thunder, and scorched are not, then, used here in their first and ordinary meaning, but in a secondary and figurative sense. These words we call +Metaphors+. By what they denote and by what they only suggest they lend clearness, vividness, and force to the thought they help to convey, and add beauty to the expression.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

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For further treatment of metaphors and other figures of speech, see pages 87, 136, 155, 156, 165, and Lesson 150.] 2. The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest navigators.--Gibbon. 3. The axis of the earth sticks out visibly through the center of each and every town or city.--Holmes. 4. The arrogant Spartan, with a French-like glorification, boasted forever of little Thermopylae.--De Quincey. 5. The purest act of knowledge is always colored by some feeling of pleasure or pain.--Hamilton. 6. The thunder of the great London journals reverberates through every clime.--Marsh. 7. The cheeks of William the Testy were scorched into a dusky red by two fiery little gray eyes.--Irving. 8. The study of natural science goes hand in hand with the culture of the imagination.--Tyndall. [Footnote: Hand in hand may be treated as one adverb, or with may be supplied.] 9. The whole substance of the winds is drenched and bathed and washed and winnowed and sifted through and through by this baptism in the sea.--Swain. 10. The Arabian Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the Chinese Wall, and from the shores of the Caspian Sea to those of the Indian Ocean.--Draper. 11. One half of all known materials consists of oxygen.--Cooke. 12. The range of thirty pyramids, even in the time of Abraham, looked down on the plain of Memphis.--Stanley. ***** LESSON 26. WRITTEN PARSING. +Direction+.--Parse the sentences of Lesson 25 according to this +Model for Written Parsing. | Nouns. | Pron. | Verbs.| Adj. | Adv. | Prep. | Conj.| Int.| |--------|-------|-------|--------|------|-------|------|-----| 1st |streets,| | |the,the.| |By,of, | | | sentence|By-and- | one. |arives.| | |at,of | | | | by, | | | | | | | | |house, | | | | | | | | |Never. | | | | | | | | --------|--------|-------|-------|--------|------|-------|------|-----| | | | | | | | | | 2d | | | | | | | | | sentence| | | | | | | | | TO THE TEACHER.--Until the +Subdivisions+ and +Modifications+ of parts of speech are reached, +Oral and Written Parsing+ can be only a classification of the words in the sentence. You must judge how frequently a lesson like this is needed, and how much parsing should be done orally day by day. In their +Oral Analysis+ let the pupils give at first the reasons for every statement, but guard against their doing this mechanically and in set terms; and, when you think it can safely be done, let them drop it. But ask now and then, whenever you think they have grown careless or are guessing, for the reason of this, that, or the other step taken. Here it may be well to emphasize the fact that the part of speech to which any word belongs is determined by the use of the word, and not from its form. Such exercises as the following are suggested:-Use right words. Act right. Right the wrong. You are in the right. Pupils will be interested in finding sentences that illustrate the different uses of the same word. It is hardly necessary for us to make lists of words that have different uses. Any dictionary will furnish abundant examples. It is an excellent practice to point out such words in the regular exercises for analysis. ***** LESSON 27. REVIEW.

what the introductory words are called. Lesson 16. Whatever fills out. Austerlitz killed Pitt. and of the punctuation of phrases.+ The complement with all its modifiers is called the +Modified Complement. connected terms. how these expanded forms may be modified. We find the first surnames in the tenth century. took /---------\ Oxford | / ' \ | rank ========|=and' ========== | \ ' / \ ' held / \-------/ revolves /-----------. The invention of gunpowder destroyed feudalism.--Review from Lesson 17 to Lesson 21. ***** LESSON 28. and names that which receives the act. illustrate fully what is taught of the position of phrases. (SEE PAGES 153-156.+ +Analysis. we complete the predicate by naming that which receives the act. God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb. 5. +Direction+. Connected objects completing the same verb form a +Compound Object Complement+. 2. and makes clear writing is the entire predicate. what such words as long and there may be expanded into. we do not fully express the act performed by Washington. 150.+ 1. How many parts of speech are there? Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg TO THE TEACHER. 32 Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (tell. and exclamatory expressions. clear writing is the modified complement. for example.--The Object Complement of a Sentence completes the predicate.) TO THE TEACHER. Oxford took and held rank with the greatest schools of Europe. Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules.). Clear thinking makes clear writing. thinking | makes | writing ============|===================== \ clear | \clear +Oral Analysis+. Washington captured Cornwallis.---Writing is the object complement. Introductory Hints. At the opening of the thirteenth century. how introduced. pages 30. Benjamin Franklin invented the lightning-rod. etc.--See suggestions.+--In saying Washington captured.--See notes to the teacher. as. Washington captured Cornwallis and his army. As Cornwalliscompletes the expression of the act by naming the thing acted upon--the object--we call it the +Object Complement+. If we add a noun and say. Liars should have good memories. 8. or completes. 7. is a +Complement+. 6. NOUNS AS OBJECT COMPLEMENTS. 4. inclusive. and why. +DEFINITION.moon | / ' ======|== and' | \ ' \ ' keeps | side \--------------- . 3.

Hunger rings the bell. and seed displays a figure. 13. 14. the +Predicate Adjective+ and the +Predicate Noun+. [Footnote: We may call the verb the predicate. which was asserts to be identical with that of the subject. 10. Lizards are reptiles. The moon revolves. or attribute to them--The maple leaves become red. The verb become does not make a complete predicate. Every stalk. . denoting the quality we wish to assert of leaves. degraded the brother. James and John study and recite grammar and arithmetic. When the completing word expressing the idea to be attributed does not unite with the asserting word to make a single verb. as it is disputed whether any word can assert without expressing something of the idea asserted. 12.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 33 9. and Cornis lacks the word denoting the idea to be asserted. bud. beef and bacon. oppressed the wife. growing. and call both that which asserts and that which expresses the idea asserted. The noun reptiles. James study grammar =========\ /===========\ /=============== ' \ | / ' \ | / ' 'and ==|== and' ===== and' John ' / | \ ' recite / \ ' arithmetic =========/ \===========/ \=============== ***** LESSON 29. g.] The maple leaves become. performs a like office for the asserting word are. if preferred. it does not fully express the idea to be asserted. Rolfe's wife was Pocahontas. and. The history of the Trojan war rests on the authority of Homer. by one name--the predicate. flower. and orders up coals in the shape of bread and butter. Corn is growing presents the idea of the thing. In logic. when it is followed by a complement.--The subject presents one idea. as one word often performs both offices. naming the class of the animals called lizards. 11.. Corn growing lacks the asserting word. Most grammarians call the adjective and the noun. a harmony. The idea may be completely expressed by adding the adjective red. Corn grows. but. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES AS ATTRIBUTE COMPLEMENTS. and asserts it of the first. of the cocoa-nut palm. e. of the king. the asserting word is called the copula--it shows that the two ideas are coupled into a thought--and the word expressing the idea asserted is called the predicate. pies and puddings.--The Attribute Complement of a Sentence completes the predicate and belongs to the subject. a proportion. 1. when so used. The natives of Ceylon build houses of the trunk. But. and forms the subject of the noblest poem of antiquity. and the idea of the act. Richelieu exiled the mother. corn. 15. Slang is vulgar. Pocahontas completes the predicate by presenting a second idea. be used instead of Attribute Complement. we pass this distinction by as not essential in grammar. and asserts the act of the thing. +Introductory Hints+. we distinguish it as the +Attribute Complement.+ Analysis.] Connected attribute complements of the same verb form a +Compound Attribute Complement+. beyond the reach of art.+ [Footnote: Subjective Complement may. and keeps the same side toward us. it is an incomplete predicate. the predicate presents another. +DEFINITION. and thatch roofs with the leaves. and banished the confessor.

8. assumes that the hearer already understands. and has promise and adventure in it. 7. The sun shines bright and hot at midday. 11. but notice that the line which separates the incomplete predicate from the complement slants toward the subject to show that the complement is an attribute of it. homely. 15. ***** LESSON 30. Here. 6. like the object line. in this example. which--plant or ivy--Dickens supposed the reader to know least about. like an adverb to modify it. Some would say that the conjunction as connects mate to he. The mountains are grand. is an attribute complement. The verb is the life of the sentence. 3. but we think this connection is made through the verb went. and which. and. tranquil. and artificial. ATTRIBUTE COMPLEMENTS--CONTINUED. as --. like an adjective. He went out as mate and came back captain. is vulgar is the entire predicate. 1.' went \ ' mate /======================= He | / ' \out ====|=and ' | \ ' came \ captain \======================= \back +Explanation+. 13. I am here. The north wind is full of courage. a continuation of the predicate line. Analysis.--The subject names that of which the speaker says something. 12. Good-breeding is surface-Christianity. The ear is the ever-open gateway of the soul.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Slang | is \ vulgar ==========|================= | 34 +Explanation+. The west wind is hopeful. 2.--The office of an adverb sometimes seems to fade into that of an adjective attribute and is not easily distinguished from it.--The line standing for the attribute complement is. This is indicated in the diagram. The sea is fascinating and treacherous. therefore. and puts the stamina of endurance into a man.--the predicate. and present an . and looks rich and glossy. and substantial. From their form and usual function. 5. A dainty plant is the ivy green. and you settle which word--plant or ivy--is the subject. 5. 14. The terms in which he says it. and that as is simply introductory. 9. +Oral Analysis+. Stillness of person and steadiness of features are signal marks of good-breeding. of course. Settle. and beautiful. 8. completing the predicate and expressing a quality of slang. Dickens was telling him about. He came a foe and returned a friend. here. +Explanation+.] 6. 4. 2. She grew tall. The east wind is peevishness and mental rheumatism and grumbling.--he. [Footnote: The assertion in this sentence is true only in the main. 3. The Saxon words in English are simple. 7. queenly. The south wind is full of longing and unrest and effeminate suggestions of luxurious ease. Under the Roman law. Plato and Aristotle are called the two head-springs of all philosophy. then.--Vulgar is the attribute complement. 4. and curls one up in the chimney-corner. and lovable. (Is it not the writer's poetical conception of "the green ivy" that the reader is supposed not to possess?) 10. like captain. +Explanation+. I am present. The highest outcome of culture is simplicity. The French and the Latin words in English are elegant. seems to complete am.--Mate. should be called an adverb. every son was regarded as a slave. dignified. Velvet feels smooth.

facere. 4. +DEFINITION. They made Victoria queen. 3. 35 9. +Oral Analysis+. [Footnote: See Lesson 37. White helps made to express the act. He madethe white wall. and the gentleman and idol of the time. but.] Some of the other verbs which are thus completed are call. Here made does not fully express the act performed upon Victoria. Some one has called the eye the window of the soul. James I. created the worthless Villiers Duke of Buckingham. in fact or in thought. He made-white (whitened) the wall. and name. OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS.--The Objective Complement completes the predicate and belongs to the object complement. The brightness and freedom of the New Learning seemed incarnate in the young and scholarly Sir Thomas More. to make). 10. This book is presented to you as a token of esteem and gratitude. Destiny had made Mr. Wm. .--Queen is an objective complement completing made and belonging to Victoria. the weights hung speechless. 5. The warrior fell back upon the bed a lifeless corpse. They | made / queen | Victoria ======|========================= | +Explanation+. 15. and so is called an +Objective Complement+. We do not mean to say. but made-queen(crowned) Victoria. In the fable of the Discontented Pendulum. 2.--He made the wall white. +Introductory Hints+. helps to complete the predicate and at the same time belongs to the object complement. ***** LESSON 31. 14. think. Evarts Secretary of State. choose. Lord Darnley turned out a dissolute and insolent husband. They did not make Victoria. 6. and at the same time it denotes the quality attributed to the wall as the result of the act. The apple tastes and smells delicious. like the adjective white or the noun queen. After a break of sixty years in the ducal line of the English nobility. differs from an attribute complement by belonging not to the subject but to the object complement. last foot-note. Churchill a schoolmaster. 12. made Victoria queen is the complete predicate. 11. They made Victoria queen. As the objective complement generally denotes what the receiver of the act is made to be. 1. We should consider time as a sacred trust. 13. A word that. it is sometimes called the factitive complement or the factitive object (Lat.+ Analysis. Sir Philip Sidney lived and died the darling of the Court. Queen helps made to express the act. President Hayes chose the Hon. and at the same time denotes the office to which the act raised Victoria. Here made does not fully express the act performed upon the wall. M.--The line that separates made from queen slants toward the object complement to show that queen belongs to the object.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg adjective.

and not the manner of her arriving. The boy is running wildly about. 7. transparent | Glass is hard. She looks beautifully.--Correct these errors and give your reasons:-1. iron. 4. +Direction. He felt around awkwardly for his chair. My head feels bad (is in a bad condition. +Direction+. 3. 6. 14. Don't speak harsh. might have been.--As may be used simply to introduce an objective complement. follows. 9. 13. The sun shines brightly on the tree-tops. The sun shines bright (is bright. as perceived by its shining). using these verbs as predicates. +Direction+. 6.+--Be careful to distinguish an adjective complement from an adverb modifier. . The day opened bright. 4. flowers. 10. The boy is running wild. and these pronouns as attribute complements:-Is. 2. Henry the Great consecrated the Edict of Nantes as the very ark of the constitution. Ophelia and Polonius thought Hamlet really insane. and then make complete sentences by asserting these qualities:-+Model.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Explanation+. 10. 8. I feel tolerable well. and transparent.+ Hard | brittle + glass. Shylock would have struck Jessica dead beside him. Coal. It can be bought very cheaply. 5. When the idea of being is prominent in the verb. as in the examples above. war. Longfellow. 5. We here wish to tell the condition of Mary on her arrival. mathematician.+--Mary arrived safe. COMPOSITION--COMPLEMENTS. you see that the adjective. 12. 2. Madame de Stael calls beautiful architecture frozen music. My friend has acted very strange in the matter. they. +Direction+. He appeared promptly and willingly. 9. Niagara Falls. Richmond. ***** LESSON 32. The sun shines bright. and not the adverb. was. +Caution. +Direction+. Socrates styled beauty a short-lived tyranny. I. he. 11. 36 7. as perceived by the sense of feeling). we. He felt awkward in the presence of ladies.--Compose sentences. He appeared prompt and willing. The President and the Senate appoint certain men ministers to foreign courts. brittle.--Compose sentences containing these nouns as attribute complements:-Emperor. My head pains me very bad. They all arrived safe and sound.--Join to each of the nouns below three appropriate adjectives expressing the qualities as assumed. They named the state New York from the Duke of York. 3. 8. +Explanation. Custom renders the feelings blunt and callous.+--Justify the use of these adjectives and adverbs:-1. ships. she.

they. him. 3.--They call me chief. appoint. or polliwog. The Explanatory Modifier is often called an +Appositive+. Solomon's temple = the temple of Solomon. +Model+. 4. We regard composition as very important.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 37 +Remark+. 2. as. becomes a frog. An idle brain is the devil's workshop. This same relation of possession may be expressed by the preposition of. but they are names of things. her. Mahomet. and is therefore a modifier of temple. They represent two kinds of +Noun Modifiers+--the +Possessive+ and the +Explanatory+. and that me. the first word telling whose favorite is meant. and are modified by adjectives and not by adverbs. Raleigh is the modified subject. Dom Pedro. 7. the other an objective complement:-Let some object complements be pronouns. and whom are never used as subjects or as attribute complements of sentences. 6. was beheaded by James I. them. The relation of Solomon to the temple is expressed by the apostrophe and s ('s) added to the noun Solomon. the emperor. NOUNS AS ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS.--Elizabeth's and Raleigh are modifiers of the subject. the apostle. was welcomed by the Americans. +Direction+. It identifies or explains by adding another name of the same thing. call. the wise Solomon's temple. consider. favorite (Raleigh) | was beheaded ====================|============== \Elizabeth's | \by \ James I \----------+Oral Analysts+. St. Analysis. Solomon's and emperor. The tadpole. Elizabeth's favorite. 1. like adjectives. this relation of possession is expressed by the apostrophe alone ('). as. Dom Pedro. boys' hats. The noun emperormodifies Dom Pedro by telling what Dom Pedro is meant. we. A fool's bolt is soon shot. choose. 5. us. the Brazilian emperor. Solomon's limits temple by telling what or whose temple is spoken of. ye. Elizabeth's favorite. Raleigh. Paul. he. Both words name the same person.--Compose sentences in which each of the following verbs shall have two complements--the one an object complement. thou. ***** LESSON 33.--Notice that these forms of the pronouns--I. was born in the year . and let some objective complements be introduced by as. modify nouns. was beheaded in the reign of Nero. and who--are never used as object complements or as principal words in prepositional phrases. Make. When s has been added to the noun to denote more than one. or Mohammed. These are conclusive reasons for calling such words nouns. the second what favorite. +Introductory Hints+. thee.--Solomon's temple was destroyed. she. The best features of King James's translation of the Bible are derived from Tyndale's version.

William the Conqueror. 2. My brother Henry and my brother George belong to a boat-club. e.+--Several words may together be explanatory of one. 8. to wit.] +Explanation+. viz. united for the dismemberment of Poland. +Explanation+. The lamp of a man's life has three wicks--brain. and no comma is needed.--An Explanatory Modifier. blood. +Direction+. but they do not seem to connect them to the words modified. The turtle's back-bone and breast-bone--its shell and coat of armor--are on the outside of its body.--Give the reasons for the insertion or the omission of commas in these sentences:-1. Austria. and in the diagram it stands.--As. lay on his Master's breast. and no comma is needed. I myself. back-bone shell =============\ ========\ '\ /' \ | are and' \==========(======/ 'and \=)=|======= ' / \turtle's \its \ ' / | breast-bone '/ \The \' coat / =============/ ========/ 12. the explanatory term combines closely with the word explained. They scaled Mount Blanc. 15. Lesson 18] +Explanation+. Jacob's favorite sons. and Prussia. on a short line placed after the sentence line. and therefore should be set off by the comma. John. ***** LESSON 34. +Explanation. In each of these expressions. The phrase Joseph and Benjamin explains sons without restricting. In the latter half of the eighteenth century. were Rachel's children. 9. The petals of the daisy. In the diagram they stand like as in Lesson 30. Protector is explanatory of Cromwell's. Cromwell's rule as Protector began in the year 1653 and ended in 1658.--Feat is explanatory of the sentence.. i. when it does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 569 and died in 632. Russia. [Footnote: For uses of each other and one another. that is. They | scaled | Mount Blanc ( feat ) ======|===================== ======= | \a \daring 38 +Explanation+. and that is may introduce explanatory modifiers. namely. limits its application. is set off by the comma.. 10. the beloved disciple.e. The author of Pilgrim's Progress. +COMMA--RULE. 13.+ [Footnote: See foot-note. 14. enclosed in curves. we boys. The phrase I and O restricts words.. and breath.--Each other may be treated as one term. They scaled Mount Blanc--a daring feat. John . namely.g.--The words I and O should be written in capital letters. day's-eye. or each may be made explanatory of bees. by a rapid interlacing of the antennae. Bees communicate to each other the death of the queen. COMPOSITION--NOUNS AS ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS. Joseph and Benjamin. close at night and in rainy weather. 11. see Lesson 124. three powerful nations.

and note the effect. 4. The conqueror of Mexico. mice. Pizarro. hero. New York or the Empire State ----.+--He gave me a book. New Orleans or the Crescent City ----. mouse. You blocks! You stones! 0 you hard hearts! 4. 6. Burns's poems. Elizabeth Queen of England ruled from 1558 to 1603. and give your reasons:-1. Palestine or the Holy Land ----. calves. and note the use of the possessive sign:-The lady's fan. Cortez. and join them to appropriate nouns:-Woman. The Franks a warlike people of Germany gave their name to France. +Direction. and employ each of them in a sentence:-See Remark. ours. +object+.'s business. Book. +Remember+ that ('s) and (') are the possessive signs--(') being used when s has been added to denote more than one. or dative. baby. and ('s) in other cases. My son Joseph has entered college. buffalo. where they are needed. fairies. Lesson 21. hers. was a Spaniard. 6. a distinguished American statesman. they cannot be connected by a conjunction. the great dramatist.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 39 Bunyan. the great English poets. ***** LESSON 35. +Direction+. +Direction. the hermit. 3. five dollars' worth. the girl's bonnet. You see that me and book do not. +Introductory Hints. theirs. was cruel in his treatment of Montezuma. The Emperors Napoleon and Alexander met and became fast friends on a raft at Tilsit. buffaloes. +Caution. a day's work. was the son of a tinker. Brown & Co. Omit or. for they do not stand in the same relation to the verb gave. was careless of his literary reputation. +Direction. . The five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch ----. 3.+--Copy the following. +Direction. in Washington captured Cornwallis and his army. the Imperial City. 2. 5.+--Compose sentences containing these expressions as explanatory modifiers:-The most useful metal. yours. form a compound object complement. Here we have what many grammarians call a double object. children's toys. NOUNS AS ADVERB MODIFIERS. fairy. they call the +indirect+. the conqueror of Peru. his. ladies' calls. they call the direct object. like Cornwallis and army. 3. Shakespeare. and me. heroes. a dollar's worth. naming the person toward whom the act is directed. 5. 4. the capital of Turkey. men's clothing. three years' interest. 1. babies. 7.--Insert commas below. The poet Spenser lived in the reign of Elizabeth. The meaning is not.+--Do not use ('s) or (') with the pronouns its. calf. Mecca a city in Arabia is sacred in the eyes of Mohammedans.+--Make possessive modifiers of the following words. those girls' dresses. naming the thing acted upon. women. 2. He himself could not go.+--Punctuate these expressions. He gave me and the book.

Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules. me. and lend are other examples of verbs that take indirect objects. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great philosophy.. etc. 10. distinguish clearly the three kinds of complements.000 a year. The famous Charter Oak of Hartford. . He sent his daughter home that way.). 3. Puff-balls have grown six inches in diameter in a single night.\ \three \ \ Caesar ----------+Oral Analysis. and ten cents a pound for his sugar. distance. tell. On the fatal field of Zutphen. permit..+ 1. I went home that way. It weighs one pound. We pay the President of the United States $50.+--Caesar and times are nouns used adverbially. 14. 9. being equivalent to phrase modifiers. +nouns denoting measure+. send.. He bought a book for me. The frog lives several weeks as a fish. 40 Besides these indirect objects. his attendants brought the wounded Sir Philip Sidney a cup of cold water. quantity. illustrate what is taught of the forms I. REVIEW. They | offered | crown ========|========================== | \ \ times \the \ ------. Sept. It is worth a dollar a yard. He asked mea question. 2. promise. He magnanimously gave a dying soldier the water.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg We treat these indirect objects. 1586. I gave him a dollar a bushel for his wheat. weight. etc. show what parts of speech may be employed for each. a preposition must be supplied. quality. as. being equivalent to adverb phrases modifying the predicate offered. or identity--is expressed by each attribute complement or objective complement in your illustrations. If we change the order of the words. Conn. Lesson 16. explain and illustrate fully the distinction between an adjective complement and an adverb modifier. and tell what general idea--action. explain what is meant by a complement. 5. show clearly what two things are essential to a complete predicate. They offered Caesar the crown three times. When the indirect object precedes the direct. 6. The idiom of the language does not often admit a preposition before nouns denoting measure. direction. as equivalent to phrase modifiers. 21. etc. ***** LESSON 36. He gave a book to me. us. class. 8. Shakespeare was fifty-two years old the very day of his death. and breathes by means of gills. 13. We walked four miles an hour.--See suggestions. He bought me a book. etc. fell Aug. 1856. or direction are often used adverbially. TO THE TEACHER.+--Review from Lesson 28 to Lesson 35. 7. which generally denote the person to or for whom something is done. no preposition is expressed or understood. Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (for example. 4. 15. time. 11. Teach. In your analysis you need not supply one. Queen Esther asked King Ahasuerus a favor. we. +Analysis. explain and illustrate the use of the possessive sign. 22. Serpents cast their skin once a year. He asked a question of me. 12. The pure attar of roses is worth twenty or thirty dollars an ounce. The wall is ten feet six inches high. +Direction. value. Good land should yield its owner seventy-five bushels of corn an acre. inclusive.

(For definition see Lesson 131.) TO THE TEACHER. and almost for the same reasons. Here growing differs from grows in lacking the power to assert. is a perfectly unwarranted invention. Some would call the simple forms doing." Others call these words modernized forms of the Anglo-Saxon Verbal Nounsin -ung. As a verb it has an adverb modifier. Lesson 38. (SEE PAGES 156-159. [Footnote: Grammarians are not agreed as to what these words that have the nature of the verb and that of the noun should be called. as incredible as that they are from infinitives in -an. Growing is a form of the verb that cannot. A gerund in Latin is a simple form of the verb in the active voice. -ing. delight us. and modified by the and by nouns and pronouns in the possessive? No wonder the grammarian Mason says. and never were or could be followed by objects. and capere." "I recollect his having said that. make a complete predicate because it only assumes or implies that the corn does the act. singing. writing. Corn may be called the assumed subject of growing. naming the act and taking adjective modifiers. and as a noun it names the act. in sentences (1). Corn growing. sweetly. As a verb it has an object complement. Birds. Here singing has the nature of a verb and that of a noun." But does it not tax even credulity to believe that a simple Anglo-Saxon infinitive in -an. following almost any preposition. and expresses a permanent quality of birds--telling what kind of birds. Here singing has lost its verbal nature. or those of a verb and a noun. singing has the nature of a verb and that of a noun. only one form of which followed a preposition.--See suggestions to the teacher. and stands as the principal word in a prepositional phrase. to take) because it partakes of two natures and performs two offices--those of a verb and an adjective. as we have seen. They would also call by the same name such compound forms as being accepted. could have developed into many compound forms. on the contrary. VERBS AS ADJECTIVES AND AS NOUNS--PARTICIPLES.+--Corn grows. Here singing is simply a noun. But this derivation of them encounters the stubborn fact that those verbal nouns never were compound. having been shown. That they are from nouns in -ung is otherwise. This form of the verb is called the +Participle+ (Lat. Others call these words Gerunds. There are two kinds of participles. and (2) as a verb by expressing the act of singing as going on at the time birds delight us. a part. are compound. ***** LESSON 37. used in both voices. and that always to.--and consequently is a mere adjective. like grows. pars. By singing their songs birds delight us." "is the having been shown over a place. never . describing birds by assuming or implying an act. and (7). also. and having said in these expressions: "for the purpose of being accepted. songs. 41 +Introductory Hints. "An infinitive in -ing. and have objects. (6). set down by some as a modification of the simple infinitive in -an or -en. Here. The singing of the birds delights us. Their singing so sweetly delights us. Infinitives. pages 30. and as a noun it names an act and takes a possessive modifier. Here singing does duty (1) as an adjective. and injuring. 150.) Singing birds delight us. These words.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.

See Lesson 79. sometimes (5) are objects of verbs. proceeding from the brain. one part slants to represent the adjective nature of the participle. +Parsing+.] the principal word is hearing. +Explanation+. having seen. or en. 2. The spinal marrow. To call these words in question gerunds is to stretch the term gerund immensely beyond its meaning in Anglo-Saxon. extends down-ward through the back-bone. 1. the other. We submit that the extension of a class term so as to include words having these relations that the Anglo-Saxon gerund never had. like other forms of the verb. What can they possibly be but the forms that all grammarians call participles extended to new uses? If the uses of the original participles have been extended. which is completed by the noun step. some of them Verbal Nouns. the nature of the verb and that of the noun. and some of them Gerunds. being seen.--Hearing is a form of the verb called participle because the act expressed by it is merely assumed. why may we not carry over the name? The name participle is as true to its etymology when applied to the nounal use of the verb as when applied to the adjectival use. is not warranted by any precedent except that furnished above in the extension of the term infinitive or of the term verbal noun! Still others call some of these words Infinitives.] one sharing the nature of the verb and that of the adjective. For convenience of classification we call these disputed forms participles. and never in the accusative (objective) after a verb. Van Twiller sat in a huge chair of solid oak. The fat of the body is fuel laid away for use. stepis modified by a. and it shares the nature of an adjective and that of a verb. I turned when or because I heard a step. sometimes (7) are modified by the. and though the Saxon participle was adjectival. or in sense. and generally (9) do not indicate purpose. The participle. The +participle+ may be used as an +adjective modifier+. and having been seeing.--The line standing for the participle is broken. and the other is horizontal to represent its verbal nature. sometimes (6) are subjects of verbs. I turned. and make it cover words which sometimes (1) are highly compounded. I | turned ===|========= \ | \ hea \ ring | step --------|-----. for instance--are now made from the verb in precisely the same way when partaking the nature of the noun as when partaking the nature of the adjective. and always preceded by the preposition to.\a +Explanation+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 42 found in the nominative. The nounal and the adjectival uses of participial forms we distinguish very sharply.--The phrase hearing a step is a modifier of the subject. ed. Participles commonly end in ing. Hearing a step. +Oral Analysis+. may be followed by an object complement or an attribute complement. The forms in question--seeing. having been seen. as good grammarians long ago called them and still call them. sometimes (4) do not follow any preposition. sometimes (3) follow other prepositions than to. A gerund in Anglo-Saxon is a simple form of the verb in the active voice--the dative case of the infinitive merely--used mainly to indicate purpose. 3. [Footnote: Logically. hearing a step modifies the predicate also. 4.--The complement is here modified by a participle phrase. hewn in the celebrated forest of the Hague. . sometimes (2) are used in the passive voice. Analysis and Parsing. The name participle neither confounds terms nor misleads the student. though some of them may be traced back to the Saxon verbal noun or to the infinitive. sometimes (8) are modified by a noun or pronoun in the possessive.

\ \ \ \star \ \ \ ving \ \sav \------. stirring. "The man was found dead. and (to) stir in the following sentences are objective complements:-I saw the leaves quiet. The two sentences obviously are not equal. and so grammarians say that in this second example dead should be treated simply as an "appositive" adjective modifying man. returning with victorious legions.. 43 5. I saw the leaves stir.. The old miser kept grubbing and saving and starving. He kept me waiting.| miser | kept \ / \ ======|====================== | 10. The +participle+ may be used as an +objective complement+. who was dead" (or." If.] . While dead does not belong to man as expressing the result of the act. but found-dead tells what was done to the man.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Explanation+. [Footnote: Some grammarians prefer to treat the participle in such constructions as adverbial. and belongs to the subject natives. In "I struck the man dead. +Explanation+." the condition is not the result of the act. The +participle+ may be used as an +attribute complement+. The city lies sleeping. Lentulus. "I found the man dead" must equal "I found the man." the condition expressed by dead is the result of the act expressed by struck. If dead is here merely an "appositive" adjective.. If we put the sentence in the passive form. They stood terrified. as. and he was asleep. Kept-waiting expresses the complete act performed upon me. [Footnote: It will be seen by this and following examples that we extend the application of the term objective complement beyond its primary. it is made to belong to man through the asserting force of the verb.\ bbing \------------. I found my book growing dull. But is crowding any more adverbial here than are pale and trembling in "The natives came pale and trembling"?] 7.--The principal word of a prepositional phrase is here modified by a participle phrase." it will be seen that dead is more than a mere modifier. The adjective. 11. 9. See Lesson 31 and page 78. it belongs to manthrough the assertive force of was found. +Explanation+. \and \and \ \. and therefore is not a mere modifier of man..--Crowding here completes the predicate came. The relation of waiting to me may be seen by changing the form of the verb. In "I found the man dead. the participle. He kept-waiting me=He detained me. I saw the leaves stirring.. 12. "I caught him asleep" does not mean. Dead helps foundto express the act. in the construction discussed above.--Waiting completes kept and relates to the object complement me. The natives came crowding around. See Lesson 31. and the infinitive do not here seem to differ essentially in office.\ \ ing \gru \---------. quiet. 8. "and he was dead").\. The philosopher sat buried in thought. had amused the populace with the sports of the amphitheater. 6. The natives are represented as performing the act of coming and the accompanying act of crowding.. "I caught him. I was kept waiting. sense. The assertive force of the predicate came seems to extend over both verbs. or factitive. dead is an objective complement. Not found.

14. by introduces the phrase. it follows the preposition by. writing. 2. All that rests on the subject line is regarded as the subject. Portions of the brain may be cut off without producing any pain.\Your | \neatly \that | \so | / \ | secured | position =========|========='=========== | \the +Explanation+. +Oral Analysis+. as a noun. is modified by your. 15.| I | found / / \ | book =====|============================== | \my 44 +Explanation+. All that stands on the complement line is regarded as the complement. We | receive | good =====|==================== | \by \-----. 4.--Doing is a participle. and vigorously. +Passing+. The adjective dull completes growing and belongs to book. +Oral Analysis+. PARTICIPLES--CONTINUED. writing | letter '-----------------------. which is completed by letter. which is completed by the noun good. found himself suddenly turned into a king. The Coliseum was once capable of seating ninety thousand persons.--The line representing the participle here is broken. on which it is made to rest by means of a support. 6. No one ever saw fat men heading a riot or herding together in turbulent mobs. like a noun.--The diagram representing the phrase complement is drawn above the complement line. The +participle+ may be used as +principal word+ in a +prepositional phrase+. by the adverb . as a verb.--The phrase your writing that letter so neatly is the subject. 1. Saul. We receive good by doing good. Your writing that letter so neatly secured the position. it takes an object complement.) The +participle+ may be the +principal word+ in a phrase used as a +subject+ or as an +object complement+. He owned himself defeated. 16. Notice that the little mark before the phrase points toward the object complement. 3. and. ***** LESSON 38. the principal word is doing. and.--The diagram of the subject phrase is drawn above the subject line. the assumed subject of growing. seeking his father's asses. You may imagine me sitting there. 17. Success generally depends on acting prudently. Analysis and Parsing. and the other as a verb. like a verb. steadily. 13. the first part represents the participle as a noun. I felt my heart beating faster.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg \grow \ wing \ dull \--------------. the principal word of it is writing. ---.doing | good -------------+Explanation+.--The phrase by doing good is a modifier of the predicate. 5. (Suffering is here a noun. You cannot fully sympathize with suffering without having suffered.

4. which consists of a noun used independently with a participle. lighting near my window. and punctuate. Such was the exciting campaign. 13. until the thirteenth century."--Prof. 15. grasping. of course. at the beginning or at the end. greeted me with a song. The +participial form+ may be used as a +mere noun+ or a +mere adjective+. We should avoid injuring the feelings of others. All silencing of discussion is an assumption of infallibility. 14. 9.--Correct these errors in arrangement. 12. A gentleman will let his house going abroad for the summer to a small family containing all the improvements. Talking of exercise. +Explanation+. He was a squeezing. See lesson 44. +Caution+. The bird sitting on the wall is a wren." ***** LESSON 39. Suits ready made of material cut by an experienced tailor handsomely trimmed and bought at a bargain are offered cheap.--The Participle used as an adjective modifier.--In using a participle. 10.--Many modifies song after song has been limited by aand long-forgotten. F. My going there will depend upon my father's giving his consent. +Direction+. of Dickens's "constitutionals. Latin multus vir.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg phrase so neatly. when the article was inserted to emphasize the distribution before indicated by the singular number.] +by the comma unless restrictive+. 11. The +participle+ may be used in +independent+ or +absolute phrases+. 2. giving your reasons:-1. [Footnote: "Manig man in Anglo-Saxon was used like German mancher mann. +Direction+. sitting restricts--limits the application of bird to a particular bird. Seated on the topmost branch of a tall tree busily engaged in gnawing an acorn we espied a . 45 7.--A bird. hardened old sinner. The town contains fifty houses and one hundred inhabitants built of brick. March. The cackling of geese saved Rome. 3. 8. be careful to leave no doubt as to what you intend it to modify.--The diagram of the absolute phrase. +COMMA--RULE. Good reading aloud is a rare accomplishment.--Justify the punctuation of the participle phrases in Lesson37. by one comma. A. the train fell into the river. Lighting describes without restricting. stands by itself. celebrated in many a long-forgotten song. and the like. COMPOSITION--PARTICIPLES. with the words belonging to it. +Explanation+. The bridge at Ashtabula giving way.] +Explanation+. you have heard. is set off+ [Footnote: An expression in the body of a sentence is set off by two commas.

we saw the Atlantic ocean. like the participle. Here also the form with to is equivalent to the participle form reading. as a mere adjective. [Footnote: For the discussion of to with the infinitive. 2. and so does duty as a noun and as a verb. +Direction+. +Direction+. It serves only to introduce the phrase. complement. By giving him a few hints he was prepared to do the work well.--Compose sentences in which each of these three participles shall be used as an adjective modifier. when the infinitive phrase is used as subject or as object complement. I like to read good books.--Climbing to the top of the hill the Atlantic ocean was seen. like other forms of the verb. without limiting it to a subject. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as an +adjective modifier+ or an +adverb modifier+. Entering the next room was seen a marble statue of Apollo. Frequently the infinitive phrase expresses purpose. making the reference of the participle clear. The infinitive. . see Lesson 131. and in an absolute phrase:-Buzzing. This form of the verb is frequently the principal word of a phrase used as a subject or as an object. 3. +Introductory Hints+. the to expresses no relation. ***** LESSON 40. A poor child was found in the streets by a wealthy and benevolent gentleman suffering from cold and hunger. Reading good books is profitable. waving. As this form of the verb names the action in an indefinite way. For definition. and in such cases to expresses relation. and performs its full function as a preposition. and from many grammarians has received the same name--some calling both gerunds.] names the act and is completed by you. as in the first example given above. and in no way affects the meaning of the verb. and in following only the preposition to. Climbing to the top of the hill. following the preposition to. like the participle. but.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 46 squirrel. may have what is called an assumed subject. VERBS AS NOUNS--INFINITIVES. described in Lesson 37. leaping. Analysis and Parsing.--I came to see you. as a mere noun. The infinitive. as.--Recast these sentences. see Lesson 134. may be followed by the different complements. as the principal word in a phrase used as a subject or as an object complement. as the principal word in a prepositional phrase. lacks asserting power--I to see asserts nothing. and punctuating correctly:-+Model+. and others calling both infinitives. Here the verb see. 5. To read good books is profitable. without limit). It differs from this participle in form. infinitus. Came to see=came for seeing. In office it is like the second kind of participles.Incorrect because it appears that the ocean did the climbing. Desiring an early start the horse was saddled by five o'clock. See. The assumed subject denotes that to which the action or being expressed by the participle or the infinitive belongs. 1. we call it the +Infinitive+ (Lat.

To be entirely just in our estimate of others is impossible. +Explanation+. To heal = to be healed. and. 47 +Parsing+.--To introduces the phrase. having no noun to relate to.+ 10. 5. 7. 8. The representative Yankee. Richelieu's title to command rested on sublime force of will and decision of character. The hot-house is a trap to catch sunbeams. 17.--The infinitive phrase here performs the office of an adjective. like a noun.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the predicate. introducing the phrase and showing the relation. 2. To be good is to be great. of the principal word to trap. and again to sell off and wander. Each hill attempts to ape her voice. in each of these phrases.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the adjective hard. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as +subject+ or +complement.--To is a preposition. shows no relation--it serves merely to introduce. We should learn to govern ourselves. +Explanation+.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the adverb enough. He seemed to be innocent. 12. to build another shingle palace. 4. ***** . and sunbeams completes it. it follows the preposition to and names the action. Ingenious Art steps forth to fashion and refine the race. 16. hot-house | is \ trap ============|================ \The | \a \to \ catch | sunbeams \-------'---------+Oral Analysis+.--The infinitive phrase is here used as an object complement. 14. to clear new cornfields. These harmless delusions tend to make us happy. The blind men's dogs appeared to know him. it is completed by sunbeams. These apples are not ripe enough to eat. To eat = to be eaten. selling his farm. 15. To be innocent = innocent.--Happy completes make and relates to us. +Explanation+. +Explanation+. The complements good and great are adjectives used abstractly. Many of the attempts to assassinate William the Silent were defeated. catch is the principal word. wanders away to seek new lands. To bear our fate is to conquer it. +Explanation+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. 9. +Explanation+. in sense.--To. 11. 13. Wounds made by words are hard to heal.| | / \ | is \ / \ ========|================== | Explanation. catch is a form of the verb called infinitive. 6. We will strive to please you. like a verb. \To \to \ be \good \ be \ great \----------------------. 3. The noblest vengeance is to forgive.

Read the sentence without it. For a man to be proud of his learning is the greatest ignorance. It is not all of life to live. and thus gives the sentence balance of parts.\ / \ \our \------. This use of it as a substitute for the real subject is a very common idiom of our language. It is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. 11. \to \ leave | me \-------'---.--The infinitive phrase to find fault explains the subject it.+ 7. but man to mend. \to \ find | fault \-----'-----. It allows the real subject to follow the verb. which is modified by the phrase to know our faults.| It (/ \) | is \ easy =========|=========== | +Explanation+. may become delightful. to teach the young.| friend | is \ / \ ========|===================== \My | +Explanation+. The +infinitive+ and its +assumed subject+ may form the +principal term+ in a phrase introduced by the preposition +for+. us ------. +Explanation+.| / \ | is \ profitable =============|====================== | 48 +Explanation+. +Explanation+. 6. It is easy to find fault.\ about | \ / \ \----------------.--For introduces the subject phrase. 3. No way remains but to go on. God never made his work for man to mend. INFINITIVES--CONTINUED. My friend is about to leave me. and you will see the real nature of the phrase. the principal part is the infinitive phrase to leave me. 5.+ . 2.---The principal term of the phrase for man to mend is not man.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 41. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as +objective complement. 1. 10. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used +after a preposition+ as the +principal term+ of another phrase. For us to know our faults is profitable. the principal word is us. It is not the way to argue down a vice to tell lies about it. This task.| \to \ | \ know | faults \For | \------'-------. the principal part of the entire phrase is us to know our faults.--But is here a preposition. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as an +explanatory modifier. Paul was now about to open his mouth. Analysis. 9. 4. 8.--The preposition about introduces the phrase used as attribute complement.

him.] \to \ be \ true \-------------. thus: I was made to wait.--In the diagram the independent element must stand by itself. etc. to be assassinated. Hero caused his mother. He was seen to do it. Lesson 37. and stick may be more clearly seen by changing the form of the verb. and to be promoted the predicate. [Footnote: These infinitive phrases can be expanded into dependent clauses. Compare He told me to go with He told (to) me a story. He made-wait me = He detained me.] +Explanation+.We found the report to be true. 16. in such cases. Being persuaded by Poppaesa. as.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 12. See Lesson 79. I desire him to be promoted.. 49 +Explanation+.] +Explanation+." Lesson 31. [Footnote: Some prefer to treat the report to be true as an object clause because it is equivalent to the clause that the report is true. [Footnote: Notice the difference in construction between this sentence and the sentence He commanded him to lower the bridge. 13. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used +independently+. Analysis. The stick was made straight. This last sentence = He commanded him that he should lower the bridge. have walked.| We | found / / \ | report ===|========================== | 14. I saw the leaves stir. than.--Stir is an infinitive without the to. The stick was made to bend. equivalent to a clause. INFINITIVES--CONTINUED. In such sentences as (13) and (14) it may not always be expedient to demand that the pupil shall trace the exact relations of the infinitive phrase to the preceding noun and to the predicate verb. the infinitive and its assumed subject may be treated as a kind of phrase object. of a clause would certainly be confusing. foot-note. For the infinitive after as. as. to teach that him is the subject. Participles and infinitives unite with other verbs to make compound forms. and participles used as objective complements. [Footnote: See pages 68 and 69.--The infinitive wait (here used without to) completes made and relates to me. He commanded the bridge to be lowered. He made me wait. Compare I saw him do it with I saw him doing it. Him represents the one to whom the command is given. Compare also He made the stick bend--equaling He made-bend (= bent) the stick--with He made the stick straight--equaling He made-straight (= straightened) the stick. also He taught me to read with He taught (to) me reading. . He was seen doing it. Besides. I desire his promotion. shall walk. The relation of these objective complements to me. I desire that he should be promoted. If preferred. and to lower the bridge is the object complement."] 15. ***** LESSON 42. Agrippina. This construction is similar to the Latin "accusative with the infinitive. see Lesson 63. See "Introductory Hints. But many expressions logically equivalent are entirely different in grammatical construction.

so to speak. and in three as a noun.+--Write nine sentences. 12. 2. Food. It will serve for amusing the children.--that is the question. +Direction+. COMPOSITION--THE INFINITIVE. 4. or on. It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord. I am surprised at seeing you. or not to be. keeping the body in health by making it warm and repairing its waste. +Direction+. is $4. for. her first law broken. I will teach you the trick to prevent your being cheated another time. to put it in round numbers. 7. The fog came pouring in at every chink and keyhole. Swearing is sinful. 15. of. 6. to throw herself out of the window. This sentence is not too difficult for me to analyze. 11. I commenced to write a letter. Busied with public affairs. Stones are used in ballasting vessels.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. 1. ***** LESSON 43. Itis healthful to rise early. For one to rise early is healthful. To rise early is healthful.000. 4. He did not recollect to have paid it. 4. We began ascending the mountain. Equivocating is disgraceful. is changed to toward. 13. 2. 3. We require clothing in the summer to protect the body from the heat of the sun. the only preposition used with the infinitive. +Direction+.+--Write eight sentences in which these verbs shall be followed by an infinitive without the to:-- . in three of which the infinitive phrase shall be used as an adjective. 11. It is inconvenient being poor. I am inclined to believe it. Reading good books is profitable. Slandering is base. 8.--Rising early is healthful. They trembled to hear such words. and the infinitives into participles:-1. Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette were executed. 8. 5.--Improve these sentences by changing the participles into infinitives. England's debt. 50 4. 7. You are prompt to obey. +Direction. 3. 3. I am ashamed to be seen there.--Vary these sentences as in the model:-+Model+. when the infinitive is changed to a participle.000. 5. 5. Infinitives and Participles.--Change the infinitives in these sentences into participles. (Notice that the explanatory phrase after it is not set off by the comma. and the participles into infinitives:-Notice that to. MISCELLANEOUS. 2. 3. in. She threatened to go beyond the sea. the council would sit for hours smoking and watching the smoke curl from their pipes to the ceiling. I supposed him to be a gentleman.000. +Direction. at. Conscience. 14. 2. 6. To be. To make a long story short. It is not wise complaining. to drown herself. in three as an adverb. 9. They delight to do it. 5. Rip Van Winkle could not account for everything's having changed so. wounded lies. Every object has several faces.) 1. She will be grieved to hear it. I rejoice to hear it. is a necessity. 10. 9. 10. Indorsing another's paper is dangerous. There is a time to laugh.

but out of place in ordinary speech. upon this cast. Why. This is called the absolute phrase. Now. why. +Analysis+. let. there are sometimes independent. Well. Poor man is independent by exclamation. Whatever is enclosed within marks of parenthesis is also independent of the rest of the sentence. His master being absent. 51 Thy rod and thy staff. There are pitch-pine Yankees and white-pine Yankees. I stake my fame (and I had fame). need. An absolute phrase consists of a noun or a pronoun used independently with a modifying participle. +Introductory Hints. another there may follow the predicate. To confess the truth. The adverbs well. 2. His master being absent logically modifies the verb was neglected by assigning the cause. . it is already noon.+--In this Lesson we wish to notice words and phrases that in certain uses have no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence. But is an adjective modifying shadows. I was wrong. life is an enigma. Interjections are without grammatical connection. two-story intellects. generally speaking.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Model. and is therefore grammatically independent. There is gold there. are but shadows.+--Tom is independent by address. my soul. as. as in this sentence. that is strange. but the phrase has no connective expressed or understood. Speaking is a participle without connection. Dear Brutus serves only to arrest attention. my hope. 1. and see. Tom. there is used idiomatically. feel. Rod and staff simply call attention to the objects before anything is said of them. Poor man! he never came back again. dare. +Explanation. and with the adverb generally forms an independent phrase. is not in our stars. His conduct.+--We saw the sun sink behind the mountain. and is independent by address. To express place. was honorable. and are independent by pleonasm--a construction used sometimes for rhetorical effect. they comfort me. Bid. +Explanation+. and hence are independent.--Often. dear Brutus. as. merely to throw the subject after the verb. the business was neglected. and three-story intellects with skylights. hear. the idea of place having faded out of the word. make. WORDS AND PHRASES USED INDEPENDENTLY. now. There are one-story intellects. as you have learned. my heart. as. The fault. The infinitive phrase is independent. ***** LESSON 44. The loveliest things in life.

19. there is at Jerusalem. 6. no doubt. surely.+--Write sentences illustrating the several kinds of independent expressions. retreat | began =========|======= \later \---\ \ day \------. 4. there can be no chance in our affairs. as.--See suggestions to the teacher. it may be enclosed within marks of parenthesis. like however. The smith. why. +Direction. +COMMA--RULE. See Lesson 35. Now.--Interjections. still. +Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. the comma is used.+ +Remark+. at least. I shall enter on no encomium upon Massachusetts. however. therefore. +Direction. 8.+ (SEE PAGES 160-162. namely. . but. When the break after pleonastic expressions is slight. in general. by the sheep-market. from Moscow. follow Washington's orders. of course. used merely to introduce. too. (For the uses of the dash and the marks of parenthesis. this is the forest of Arden.--Words and phrases independent or nearly so are set off by the comma. by the way. see Lesson 148.+--Write short sentences in which these words shall modify same particular word or phrase so closely as not to be set off by the comma:-Indeed. as in (5). 10. and punctuate according to the Rule as explained. in short.) TO THE TEACHER.150. of course. a pool. if it is more abrupt. and punctuate them properly:-In short. the artfulness of the woman!) managed the matter extremely well. Properly speaking. and there. we shall arrive to-morrow.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 52 3. however. 14. indeed. and accordingly. as in (15) and (16). indeed.\A 16. Well. as in (14). shall occur. She (oh. in fine. again.+--Write short sentences in which these words and phrases. Lesson 44. 15. But the enemies of tyranny--their path leads to the scaffold. are usually followed by the exclamation point. now. above all. a mighty man is he. all is lost. too. used in a manner nearly independent. Why. further. To speak plainly. Lee did not. the dash is required. No accident occurring. 1812) began the fatal retreat of the Grand Army. but rather the sentence as a whole. Mr. President. +Direction. The teacher being sick. A day later (Oct. this is not revenge. by the bye. accordingly. by the bye. moreover. COMPOSITION--INDEPENDENT WORDS AND PHRASES. is never set off by the comma. 5. 11. for instance. as you have seen.) Words and phrases nearly independent are those which. Hope lost. then. 7. ***** LESSON 45. 13. 9. If the independent expression can be omitted without affecting the sense. there was no school Friday. pages 30. do not modify a word or a phrase alone. then. your habits are your worst enemies. for instance. 12. now and then. Ah! then and there was hurrying to and fro.

--An Exclamatory Sentence is one that expresses sudden thought or strong feeling. (See Lesson 74. or an imperative sentence may become exclamatory when the speaker uses it mainly to give vent to his feelings. Such expressions as You must go. and his glaring eye taking the measure of the blow. 8.+ [Footnote: For punctuation. This sentence is used simply to affirm.--A Declarative Sentence is one that is used to affirm or to deny. How the mountains lift up their heads! In this sentence the thought is expressed with strong emotion. as.+ +DEFINITION. as.) 4. as. or to declare a fact.+--When an interrogative sentence is made a part of another sentence.+ Do the mountains lift up their heads? This sentence expresses a question. He asked.+ +Remark.] +INTERROGATION POINT--RULE. and is called an +Imperative Sentence+.+ +DEFINITION.--Every direct interrogative sentence should be followed by an interrogation point.) Analysis. strike wide of the mortal part? 3. "What is the trouble?" or indirect. and justify the terminal marks of punctuation:-1. Alexander the Great died at Babylon in the thirty-third year of his age.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 46. but a declarative. Let us now look at it as a whole. 7. Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work. How wonderful is the advent of spring! 5. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss.+ +DEFINITION. How and what usually introduce such sentences. Why does the very murderer. 53 The mountains lift up their heads. an interrogative. There are no accidents in the providence of God. classify them. see page 42. This sentence expresses a command.+--Before analyzing these sentences.--An Imperative Sentence is one that expresses a command or an entreaty. He asked what the trouble was.--In the previous Lessons we have considered the sentence with respect to the words and phrases composing it. It is called an +Exclamatory Sentence+. +Introductory Hints+. it may be direct.+ Lift up your heads. How . +Direction. It is impossible! How can I endure it! Talk of hypocrisy after this! +DEFINITION. SENTENCES CLASSIFIED WITH RESPECT TO MEANING. and is called a +Declarative Sentence. 2. his victim sleeping before him.--An Interrogative Sentence is one that expresses a question. (The subject is you understood. and is called an +Interrogative Sentence. You shall goare equivalent to imperative sentences. Oh! a dainty plant is the ivy green! 6. though they have not the imperative form.

The prominent nose of the New Englander is evidence of the constant linguistic exercise of that organ. [Footnote: In Ruth of this sentence. Greek eloquence. 9. Note. went gleaning the silent fields of childhood. over a Tory ministry to-day. like (7). MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW. Pericles and Alexander the Great. Every Latin word has its function as noun or verb or adverb ticketed upon it. floating grandly over a Liberal ministry yesterday. 10. What power shall blanch the sullied snow of character? 13. 1. 2.--Holmes. The Angel of Life winds our brains up once for all. Richelieu would permit no eminent author to stand bareheaded in his presence. 5. 6. and carries the two-and-thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. In that calm Syrian afternoon. the Thistle. 2.--De Quincey.--Earle. in the darkest days of our Revolution. The Queen of England is simply a piece of historic heraldry. 4. Analysis. I want my husband to be submissive without looking so.--Lowell. 11. 3. memory. How beautiful was the snow. we have a type of the metaphor called +Personification+--a figure in which things are raised above their proper plane. 6. By means of steam man realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag.--Canning. Who. The vulgar intellectual palate hankers after the titillation of foaming phrase.-. peace. on the roofs of the living. Prayer is the key of the morning and the bolt of the night. 14.--Curtis. soothes . Lend me your ears. 1. 5. on the graves of the dead! 15. (8). What brilliant rings the planet Saturn has! 12. 4. the Leek. a pensive Ruth. and gives the key into the hands of the Angel of Resurrection. Robertson. a flag. Reason's whole pleasure. [Footnote: Weighty thoughts tersely expressed. falling all day long.--Emerson. become noble by association. 3. Cheerfulness banishes all anxious care and discontent. Things take on dignity and importance as they rise in the scale of being.--Gail Hamilton. drew into strong eddies about themselves all the glory and the pomp of Greek literature. and woke the echoes of old Albion's hills by the thunders of his cannon and the shouts of his triumph? ***** LESSON 47. and competence. 7. Two mighty vortices.--Phillips. lie in three words-. then closes the case. all night long. The Alps. are an image of despotism. The laws of nature are the thoughts of God. W. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW Analysis.-.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 54 sickness enlarges the dimensions of a man's self to himself! 9. 11. Poetry is only the eloquence and enthusiasm of religion. What quality do you think they impart to one's style?] 8. Refusing to bare his head to any earthly potentate. I called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old.Longfellow.--Conway. Greek art.--Lamb. Things mean. 8. all the joys of sense.--Tyler. The setting of a great hope is like the setting of the sun. Extreme admiration puts out the critic's eye. bearded the lion in his den.--Pope. moreover. 10. All the interest that the Ruth of the Bible awakens in us this allusion gathers about so common a thing as memory. are called Epigrams. piled in cold and still sublimity.health.--Wordsworth.Beecher. and the morning sunlight fresh and fair. carried your flag into the very chops of the British Channel. 9. --Stephen. Greek wisdom.] ***** LESSON 48.--F. 7. I love to lose myself in other men's minds. the Broom of the Plantagenets. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. taken up toward or to that of persons.--Warner. that in this instance of the figure we have an +Allusion+. and (10) in this Lesson. and found the scattered grain still golden.

Give. TO THE TEACHER. expect to win victories by turning somersets in the air. it is found desirable to abridge these Lessons on Arrangement and Contraction. illustrate the different uses of the participle and the infinitive. and illustrate the Caution regarding the use of the participle. REVIEW. making the required changes orally. and is therefore an attribute complement. +Example+. The verb follows the subject. TO THE TEACHER. +Direction+. Authors must not. in both the Usual and the Transposed order. To discover the true nature of comets has hitherto proved beyond the power of science. and keeps the soul in a perpetual calm. 46. ***** LESSON 50. REVIEW OF PUNCTUATION. and the object complement follows the verb.--Addison. The preposition beyond shows the relation.--Review from Lesson 37 to Lesson 46. The eight following Lessons may thus be reduced to two or three. and 48. ARRANGEMENT--USUAL ORDER.--Give the reasons. and the punctuation of these independent elements. ***** LESSON 51.--See suggestions. and the pupil may be required to illustrate the positions of the different parts. 47. +Direction+. in some such way as we have outlined in preceding Review Lessons. 10. like Chinese soldiers. and then to read the examples given.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 55 and composes the passions. +Explanation+. so far as you have been taught. Let us recall the +Usual Order+ of words and phrases in a simple declarative sentence.--Drake circumnavigated the globe. the exercises to be written may be omitted. from lack of time or from the necessity of conforming to a prescribed course of study.--Longfellow. the substance of the "Introductory Hints. in sense. Lesson 16. 11.--Beyond the power of science = impossible. of power to the subject phrase. ***** LESSON 49. for the marks of punctuation used in Lessons 44. ." repeat and illustrate definitions and rules. inclusive. illustrate the different ways in which words and phrases may be grammatically independent.--If.

He sailed for Liverpool on Monday. the objective complement follows the object complement. if a word has two or more phrases. follows the verb. huge and precipitous. stood in our path. each sentence containing an adjective. +Direction+. Eastern life is dreamy. write sentences illustrating the positions of participle and prepositional phrases. +Examples+. A rock. on the contrary.--The light far in the distance is so very bright. Phrases follow the words they modify. and follows one or more words of the verb if the verb is compound.--The usual order of words. +Direction+.--Observing this order. He had often been there. If adjectives are of unequal rank. An adverb precedes the adjective. two with possessive modifiers and two with explanatory. I hurt him badly. ARRANGEMENT--TRANSPOSED ORDER. They made Bonaparte consul. is not the only order admissible in an English sentence. if of the same rank. those most closely modifying it stand nearest to it.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+.--Man's life is a brief span. spoken of in the preceding Lesson.--Observing this order.--Observing this order.--Observing this order. They offered Caesar a crown.--Facts once established are facts forever. write four sentences. +Examples+. An adjective or a possessive modifier precedes its noun. or the phrase which it modifies. +Direction+. precedes or follows (more frequently follows) the simple verb or the verb with its complement. Cassino has a lean and hungry look. the lawgiver. +Examples+. Moses.--Egypt is the valley of the Nile. came down from the Mount. +Examples+. write sentences illustrating these several positions of the adverb. the adverb. and the indirect object precedes the direct.--Observing this order. +Examples+.--Two honest young men enlisted. the one most closely modifying the noun stands nearest to it. +Introductory Hints+.--Observing this order. +Direction+. great freedom in the placing of words and phrases is . and an explanatory modifier follows it. write four sentences illustrating the positions of the noun and of the adjective when they perform these offices. 56 The attribute complement. write three sentences each with an object complement. they stand in the order of their length--the shortest first. whether noun or adjective. I soon found him. +Direction+. write three sentences illustrating the relative position of adjectives before and after the noun. ***** LESSON 52.

5. 6. 7. often. we have the extreme example of the transposed order. Under the influence of strong feeling. we have what we may call the +Transposed Order+. +Direction+.----Where. 14. Volatile he was. or restore. "My son. or the principal word of it. they were. and. appearing either at the front of the sentence or at the end. 6. Let the relation of the words be kept obvious and. Him they hanged. When the word or phrase moved to the front carries the verb. each with one of the following nouns or adjectives as a complement. 12. He was a contentious man. They were pretty lads. Strange is the magic of a turban. 4. Aeneas did bear from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder the old Anchises. Require them to show what the sentence has lost or gained in the change. Victories. Flashed all their sabers bare.--Transpose these sentences by placing the italicized words last. +Direction+. The whole of a verb is not placed at the beginning of a declarative sentence except in poetry. 10. the pupils need not write the sentences. on the lips of the people. I dare not venture to go down into the cabin--Venture to go down into the cabin I dare not. transpose. When any word or phrase in the predicate stands out of its usual place. by thus attracting attention to them. in excited speech of any kind. No woman was ever in this wild humor wooed and won. my son!" 8. +Direction+. each with one of the adverbs or phrases as predicate modifier. 2. in our directions in these Lessons on Arrangement and Contraction. 13. under foot. him. the Almighty Power hurled headlong. Their names will forever live on the lips of the people--Their names will. happy. 3. A writer's meaning is never distributed evenly among his words. and note the effect:-1. Overhead I heard a murmur. One strong thing I find here below. A frozen continent lies beyond the sea. consequently. 13. Monmouth had never been accused of cowardice. Such a heart beats in the breast of my people. Freely ye have received. +Direction+. one may deviate widely from this order. He would not escape. and explain the effect:-1. +Direction+. Let a shroud. 9. stripped from some privileged . the thought clear. one may move words out of their accustomed place. It was quoted so. forever live. serene.--Write five sentences. then.--Change these sentences from the usual to the transposed order by moving words or phrases to the front. I must go. 9. 4. That gale I well remember. 8. 12.--Change these sentences from the transposed order to the usual. we say change. They should study them and be able to read them. Him. 2. The great Queen died in the year 1603. The clouds lowering upon our house are buried in the deep bosom of the ocean. 3. long and deeply. To their will we must succumb. 5. and explain the effect:-1. in the market. 4. character. The great fire roared up the deep and wide chimney. A yeoman had he. and in poetry. 11. as. Of noble race the lady came.--Change these to the usual order:-1. as. Once again we'll sleep secure. Slowly and sadly we laid him down.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 57 sometimes allowable. then transpose the ten with these same words moved to the front. 7. 3. 2. She seemed young and sad. 10. You shall die--Die you shall. and explain the effect:-Giant. He ended his tale here. 2. indeed. 11. TO THE TEACHER. in impassioned oratory. before the subject. and five. more of it lies in some words than in others. He could not avoid it. This double office the participle performs. The moon shone bright. Churlish he often seemed. give them additional importance to the reader or hearer. He cried.

+Direction+.--Write three sentences. and then restore them to their usual order:-Pause. and then transpose them:-Rock.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 58 corpse. The dial-plate exclaimed. +Direction+. Washington is styled the "Father of his Country. The man seemed an incarnate demon. horse. 2. +Direction+. peace." 3. early one summer's morning. 2. 4. concealed. in the deep bosom of the earth. be. +Direction+. and tell what is lost by the change:-1.--Write six transposed sentences with these nouns as object complements. 2. and tell what is gained by the change:-1. 3. An old clock. The maiden has such charms. I will make one effort more to save you. the most difficult and valuable.--Transpose these sentences by moving the attribute complement and the verb. and then transpose. The English character has faults and plenty of them. Thorns and thistles shall the earth bring forth. ***** LESSON 53. "Exactly so. glad. You have learned much in this short journey. 6. Feet was I to the lame. Me restored he to mine office." replied the pendulum. A dainty plant is the ivy green. and tell what is gained by the change:-1. had become a despot. 4. of all the acquisitions made in school. 5. 3. 4. A changed France have we. Treasures of gold and of silver are. before the stirring of the family. for its proper price. These evils hath sin wrought. each with the following noun or adjective or phrase in its usual place in the predicate. Henry VIII. 5.--Using these nouns as attribute complements.--Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the object complement and the verb to their customary places. placing these words wherever they can properly go:-Mountains.--Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the attribute complement and the verb to their usual places. words. As a mark of respect was the present given. 5. A mighty man is he. "Lazy wire!" 2. displayed. and tell what is lost by the change:-1. 3. A giant towered he among men. gift. fortress. +Direction+. 4. ARRANGEMENT--TRANSPOSED ORDER. 3.--Transpose these sentences by moving the object complement and the verb. 5. by and by. +Direction+. 5. +Direction+. +Direction+. He was a stark mosstrooping Scot. 4. write three sentences in the usual order. suddenly stopped. The king does possess great power. cry. desert. We are merry brides. Ease and grace in writing are.--Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the adjective complement and the verb to their customary places:-- .

Wide open stood the doors. The secretary stood alone. 7. 2. 11. 10. 12. 7. 10. Through the narrow bazaar pressed the demure donkeys. Venus was yet the morning star. 5. Upon such a grating hinge opened the door of his daily life. 2. thus. Good and upright is the Lord. The anger of the righteous is weighty.--Restore these sentences to the usual order by moving the phrase and the verb to their customary places. 12. yet. 14. In those days came John the Baptist. Boom! boom! went the guns. The air seemed deep and dark. Pale looks your Grace. ARRANGEMENT--TRANSPOSED ORDER. 9. 13. The fall of that house was great. and then restore the sentences to the usual order:-Tempestuous. The Spaniard's shot went whing! whing! 5. 8. There thunders the cataract age after age. +Direction+. On the 17th of June. Seven years after the Restoration appeared Paradise Lost. 9. A sincere word was never utterly lost. 9. 5. 10. 2. Happy are we to-night. Away went Gilpin. 8. Three times were the Romans driven back. 10.--Restore these sentences to the usual order by moving the adverb and the verb to their customary places. 11. and note the loss:-1. The great event occurred soon after. 4. seldom. +Direction+. 7. Doubtful seemed the battle. Louder waxed the applause. Between them lay a mountain ridge. 11. 11. Tictac! tictac! go the wheels of thought.--Transpose these sentences by moving the adjective complement and the verb:-- 59 1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. She had grown tall and queenly. Here stands the man. Hotter grew the air. Catiline shall no longer plot her ruin. ***** LESSON 54. I will never desert Mr. 7. 3. 6. 12. Behind her rode Lalla Rookh. On swept the lines. Dark rolled the waves. In purple was she robed. So died the great Columbus of the skies. each with one of these adjectives as attribute complement. 8. 2. using these adverbs:-Still. 7. 3. You must speak thus. The untrodden snow lay bloodless. so. To such straits is a kaiser driven. lively. 2. fierce. The peacemakers are blessed. Well have ye judged. +Direction+. Then burst his mighty heart. Thus waned the afternoon.--Write ten sentences in the transposed order. here. never. +Direction+. Blood-red became the sun. Wise are all his ways. was fought the battle of Bunker Hill. Lady Impudence goes up to the maid. +Direction+. 3. 9. 9. 4. Weary had he grown. 4. Micawber.--Transpose these sentences by moving the adverb and the verb:-1. 8.--Write five transposed sentences. . huge. Crack! went the ropes. 5. Down came the masts. 8. +Direction+. 4. My regrets were bitter and unavailing. Off went his bonnet. Faithful proved he to the last. Thy proud waves shall be stayed here. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred. It stands written so. The boy stood there with dizzy brain. and note the loss:-1. out. 6. 4. 10. glorious. I came into the world helpless. there. 6. Near the surface are found the implements of bronze. 6. 3. now. The uproar became intolerable. 5. 3. 6. There dozed the donkeys. 1775. boys.

The dreamy murmur of insects was heard over our heads. into. where. I have served in twenty campaigns. in. of. the third as a subject and then as a modifier of the subject:-Who.--Write six sentences in the transposed order. Our sphere turns on its axis. which. and then transpose the sentences. Pepin eventually succeeded to Charles Martel. the order is transposed. Touch proper lies in the finger-tips and in the lips. Write four with the third and the fourth as complements. If the interrogative word is object complement or attribute complement or a modifier of either.--Transpose these sentences by moving the phrase and the verb:-- 60 1. +Examples+. ARRANGEMENT--INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. +Examples+. the second as a subject and then as a modifier of the subject. If the interrogative word is subject or a modifier of it.--Write ten sentences in the usual order. neither. The bridle is red with the sign of despair. why. using these prepositions to introduce phrases. +Direction+. The disciples came at the same time. who. what. 4. by.--Whom did you see? What are personal consequences? Which course will you choose? +Direction+. 10. using the first word below as a subject. 5.--Write five interrogative sentences. the subject stands after the verb when this is simple. 9. what. to. which. 2. ***** LESSON 55. whither. and another with the second word as attribute complement. after the first word of it . at. and compare the two orders:-Beyond.--Who came last evening? What star shines brightest? +Direction+. toward. The house stands somewhat back from the street. 8. 3. the fair young flowers? +Direction+. 6. +Direction+. the order is usual. His trusty sword lay by his side. beginning them with these words:-There (independent).Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. between.--Why is the forum crowded? Where are the flowers. nor. 7. the order is transposed. An ancient and stately hall stood near the village. and four with the third and the fourth as modifiers of the complement:-Whom. If there is no interrogative word. If the interrogative word is an adverb. upon.--Write five interrogative sentences. when. +Examples+.--Write an interrogative sentence with the first word below as object complement. using these adverbs:-How.

+Examples+. 6. and (3) an adverb--in three sentences let the verb follow. must see. 61 +Examples+.--How quietly the child sleeps! How excellent is thy loving-kindness! What visions have I seen! What a life his was! +Direction+. ***** LESSON 57. ***** LESSON 56. 4. The subject is usually omitted in the imperative sentence.--Write six exclamatory sentences with the word how modifying (1) an adjective. and in three precede. 2.--Contract these sentences by omitting the repeated modifiers and prepositions.--Change the sentences you have written in this Lesson into declarative sentences. and so ornamental! 5. a great debater. using these words:-Is. The means used were persuasions and petitions and remonstrances and resolutions and defiance. so delicate. write ten sentences. 7. and all the conjunctions except the last:-1. yet exclamatory sentences ordinarily begin with how or what. might have gone. and of nations. the subject. ARRANGEMENT--IMPERATIVE AND EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES.--Praise ye the Lord. obey. By their valor.--Write six interrogative sentences. Write four sentences with the word what modifying (1) an object complement and (2) an attribute complement--in two sentences let the verb follow. +Direction+. Carthage was the mistress of oceans. +Direction+. expressed:-Remember. in five of which the subject shall be omitted. of kingdoms. use. Give (thou) me three grains of corn. and a great writer. .Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg when it is compound.--Have you your lesson? Has the gentleman finished? +Direction+. can learn. the subject. They are truly prosperous and truly happy. and in two precede. by their policy. and by their matrimonial alliances. Although any sentence may without change of order become exclamatory (Lesson 46). +Direction+. listen. could have been found. +Examples+. they became powerful. devote. live. strive. but. (2) a verb. a great statesman. Webster was a great lawyer. 3. and are usually in the transposed order. has. and in five. choose. when it is expressed. love. CONTRACTION OF SENTENCES. Flowers are so fragile. lend.--Using these verbs. the sentence is in the transposed order. Samuel Adams's habits were simple and frugal and unostentatious.

***** LESSON 58. his career. How great is the mystery! 7. away! 16. 4. wife. Are you here? +Direction+. At your service. I must after him. He was a good son. 15.--Contract these by omitting the subject or the verb:-1. Will you take your chance? 3. and contempt inflamed his heart. the preposition. I offer a world for sale.--Expand these by repeating the adjective. May long life be to the republic. hence. 2. 4. +Direction+. go you to breakfast. and Palestine. for the guns.--Expand these by supplying both subject and verb. indeed.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. and then contract the sentences by omitting both subject and verb:-Why. We will drink a health to Preciosa. Bless me! 7. The tourist traveled in Spain. out. 7. 2. Are you a captain? 5. All hands to the pumps! 5. Honor. 7. Back to thy punishment. 12. Coffee for two.--Write six sentences. truthful. 3. and note the loss in vivacity:-1. Hence. 10. 13. soothless insulter. then. using in each. Off with you. Short. Nobody there. sir. silence. 10. Egypt. Impossible! +Direction+. 8.--Construct ten full sentences. Forward. friend. Thank you. father. 7. Those are my sentiments. sir? 11. 6. and chivalrous. one of these adverbs or phrases or nouns. My kingdom for a horse! 8. His career was ably run. strange! 14. how. the adverb. to your tents. through. All aboard! 4. Greece. Bayard was very brave. 2. brother. Bring ye lights there. Why dost stare so? 3. and. Now. Art thou gone? 2. sir. +Direction+. Half-past nine. Whose footsteps these? +Direction+. Hear me for my cause. 10. Give us this day our daily bread. sir. I offer a penny for your thoughts.--Expand these sentences by supplying subjects:-1. you idle creatures! 9. Whither are you going so early? +Direction+. 6. . false fugitive. to arms. 9. Away. 3. 3. +Direction+. 4. each with one of these words used four times. 5. Thou shalt back to France. Upon them with the lance. What to me fame? 6. Canst thou wonder? 8. Strange. 3.--Contract these by omitting both subject and verb. peaches. water. 9. and then contract them as above. and the conjunction:-- 62 1. madam. shame. May a prosperous voyage be to you. 5. 6. Death to the tyrant. 2.--Expand these by supplying the verb or some part of it:-1. 4. 8. Shine. with. Once more unto the breach. or. and note the effect of the repetition and of the omission:-Poor. Save us. REVIEW. room. When Adam thus to Eve. Where hast been these six months? 6. revenge. the light brigade! 5. 2. Why so unkind? 4. and note the gain in force and animation:-1. Sit you down. 9. I want a word with you. It is true. On with the dance.

--Review from Lesson 51 to Lesson 57. and of an exclamatory sentence. A dependent clause that does the work of an adjective is called an +Adjective Clause+. A youth of discretion makes friends. +Direction+. the dependent clause is connected by its subject that to they. performing the office of a single word.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg TO THE TEACHER. They are called +Simple Sentences+.--See suggestions. The whole sentence. As modifiers are joined by slanting lines to the words they modify. and that touch pitch is the dependent.) TO THE TEACHER. composed of an independent and a dependent clause. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. we call an +Independent Clause+. +Oral Analysis+. 150. A discreet youth makes friends. ***** LESSON 59. A youth that is discreet makes friends. The pronoun that is written on the subject line of the dependent clause. That performs the office of a conjunction also. we call +Clauses+. . inclusive. we call a +Complex Sentence+. illustrate the different positions of the parts of an interrogative. In Lesson 17 you learned that you could expand the adjective discreet into a phrase.--This is a complex sentence because it consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause. illustrate the different ways of contracting sentences. +Introductory Hints+. The adjective clause that is discreet. and by the difference in the shading of the lines. 1. They will be defiled is the independent clause. of an imperative. This office is shown by the dotted line. Analysis. pages 30. and say. A youth makes friends.--See notes to the teacher. not performing such office. That touch pitch is a modifier of they because it limits the meaning of they. A youth makes friends.--The relative importance of the two clauses is shown by their position. you learn from this diagram that that touch pitch is a modifier of they.| +Explanation+. They | will be defiled =======|===================== ` | ` ` that ` | touch | pitch --------|--------'------. Lesson 16. You are now to learn that you can expand it into an expression that asserts. (SEE PAGES 162-165. They that touch pitch will be defiled. containing each a subject and a predicate.--The sentences given for analysis in the preceding Lessons contain each but one subject and one predicate. COMPLEX SENTENCE--ADJECTIVE CLAUSE. we call a +Dependent Clause+. This part of the sentence and the other part. and say. by their connection. 63 Illustrate the different positions--Usual and Transposed--that the words and phrases of a declarative sentence may take.

4. ***** LESSON 60. It is to you that I speak. 17.) 16. In analysis restore the preposition to its usual place--It is you that I speak to. 3. Attention is the stuff that memory is made of. 14. and noting the loss of connection. +Explanation+. +Explanation+. 5. Islands are the tops of mountains whose base is in the bed of the ocean. Wine makes the face of him who drinks it to excess blush for his habits. 11. In 1685 Louis XIV..--The connecting pronoun is here a possessive modifier of base. 8.. I found the place to which you referred. She that I spoke to was blind.\whose +Explanation+. Unhappy is the man whose mother does not make all mothers interesting.--The adjective clause does not always modify the subject. The spirit in which we act is the highest matter.--The pronoun connecting an adjective clause is not always a subject.` | \to ` \ which ` \------9. 64 2. Photography is the art which enables commonplace mediocrity to look like genius.--Here the preposition. +Explanation+. foot-note.] which sprang out of the traffic with Guinea. That I speak to modifies the subject. signed the ordinance that revoked the Edict of Nantes. (Can you find a word that would here sound better than that?) 13. 12. 15. mountains ----------. the preposition never precedes. The lever which moves the world of mind is the printing-press. That = in which. The guilt of the slave-trade. 10. When the pronoun that connects an adjective clause.` \ `.--A preposition is wanting. +Explanation+.. That connects the adjective clause. rests with John Hawkins.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg TO THE TEACHER. 6. 7. is found before the complement of the independent clause. The diagram is similar to that of (8). It was from me that he received the information. which.--The phrase to that modifies referred. The thirteen colonies were welded together by the measures which Samuel Adams framed. [Footnote: See Lesson 61. . I | found | place ====|================== | \the ` ` you | referred ` ------|---------.--Illustrate the connecting force of who. +Explanation+. and that by substituting for them the words for which they stand. which usually would stand last in the sentence.` ` base | is ` ------|----. It was the same book that I referred to. (Me must be changed to I when from is restored to its usual position.. Grouchy did not arrive at the time that Napoleon most needed him.

it may be called a conjunctive adverb. [Footnote: Many grammarians prefer to treat what was right as a noun clause (see Lesson 71). I told him to bring whichever was the lightest. the object of did. 11. Whatever crushes individuality is despotism. Analyze as if arranged thus: The men what (= that or whom) he hadwere true. March. 10. if used. They would treat in the same way clauses introduced by whoever. the double nature of the conjunctive adverb will be seen.] 6. or permitted to be expressed. Lesson 59. He did what was right. Macaulay is the only writer we have found who seldom or never omits them. The smith takes his name from his smoothing the metals he works on. As where performs these two offices. What is false in this world below betrays itself in a love of show. The upper part represents where as a conjunction connecting the adjective clause to place. The swan achieved what the goose conceived. 65 +Explanation+.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted subject (man or he) of the independent clause. 3. F. +Explanation+. and using a diagram similar to (8). +Explanation+. Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth. The relative pronoun what here precedes its noun like an adjective. Socrates was one of the greatest sages the world ever saw. Its possessive whose has. be object complements. 5. Analysis.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ADJECTIVE CLAUSES--CONTINUED. 9.--The line representing where is made up of two parts.| +Explanation+. 13. A depot is a place where stores are deposited. Youth is the time when the . or some word whose meaning is general or indefinite. it is confined to clauses which may be parsed as substantives. What men he had were true. He | did | x ====|====================== | ` ` what ` | was \ right ---------|------------+Explanation+. 4.--The connecting pronoun that [Footnote: When whom. Trillions of waves of ether enter the eye and hit the retina in the time you take to breathe. and before which no antecedent is needed. 7.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted antecedent of whom. Whoever does a good deed is instantly ennobled. they are often omitted.) 14. however. and the lower part represents it as an adverb modifying are deposited. "What was originally an interrogative and introduced substantive clauses. By changing where to the equivalent phrase in which. 8. which. whatever. attained the full construction of a relative.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted word thing."--Prof. Supply him. Its use as a compound relative is an extension of its use as an indirect interrogative. and that would.] is omitted. depot | is \ place =======|============== \A | \a ` \where stores | ` are deposited -------|--------------------. A. 2. 12. (Supply the place before where. whichever. He raised the maid from where she knelt. 1.

+Direction+.+ +Explanation+. Solomon was the son of David who built the Temple. who did not know the law. 2. 2. In the first sentence the adjective clause restricts or limits apple. I picked the apple.--The adjective clause should be placed as near as possible to the word it modifies. each containing an adjective clause equivalent to one of the following adjectives:-. when not restrictive. I have no right to decide who am interested.--The Adjective Clause. I picked the apple. who can be trusted. A wife and children. is set off by the comma. I gave the letter to my friend. +Direction+. My brother caught the fish on a small hook baited with a worm which we had for breakfast. he did not know the law. would class each of these three italicized clauses as an adverb clause of cause. 15. +Direction+. 3.--I picked the apple that was ripe. The Knights of the Round Table flourished in the reign of King Arthur who vied with their chief in chivalrous exploits. making the relative clause independent. Let us examine the following sentences:-John. as. doomed for a certain term to walk the night. which was ripe. Shylock would give the duke no reason why he followed a losing suit against Antonio. 3. as.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 66 seeds of character are sown.Ambitious. or co-ordinate with its antecedent clause. This difference in meaning is shown by the punctuation. COMPOSITION--ADJECTIVE CLAUSE. in the second the adjective clause is added merely to describe the apple picked. 5.--Construct five complex sentences. and insert the comma when needed:-1. No grammarian. Some people.--Change the following simple sentences to complex sentences by expanding the participle phrases into adjective clauses:-1. 139. governs his classification of phrases and clauses strictly by their logical relations. The Constitution framed by our fathers is the sheet-anchor of our liberties. 16. ***** LESSON 61. . Those fighting custom with grammar are foolish. John is innocent because he did not know the law. Do they differ in logical force? The student should carefully note all those constructions in which the grammatical form and the logical force differ. and it was ripe. quick-witted. undervalue the advantages of their native land. is innocent. 4. we think. Those who prefer to let their classification be governed by the logical relation rather than by the grammatical construction call such a sentence compound. 142. for instance. Such classification will often require very careful discrimination. 138. talkative. telling which one was picked. John is innocent. But we know of no author who. in every case. respectful. 4. 143.[Footnote: There are other constructions in which the relative is more nearly equivalent to and he or and it. the sentence being nearly equivalent to. (See pages 119. 121. between the preceding sentence and the following: I gave the letter to my friend. +COMMA--RULE. Mark the majestic simplicity of those laws whereby the operations of the universe are conducted. I am thy father's spirit. having lived abroad. lovable. who will return it to you.--Correct the following errors of position.)] +Caution+.

"on". "wherein" to "in which". 4. 3. ***** LESSON 62. +Direction+.--Change "that which".--He arrived late. He had an ax to grind. 3. or "in which". There were none to deliver. "where" and "when" to "at". . and why. +Direction+. whoever. and "what" to "that which". one whose connective is a possessive modifier. one whose connective is omitted. Whoever lives a pious life blesses his race. You take my life in taking the means whereby I live. +Direction+. I have many things to tell you. what. You have learned that you can expand the adverb late into a phrase. one whose connective is a subject. What God hath joined together let not man put asunder. 2. and say. 4.--Analyze the first nine sentences in the preceding Lesson. one whose connective is a complement. one modifying a complement. +Introductory Hints+. He arrived at midnight. that. Lie in three words--health.--Change these simple sentences to complex sentences by expanding the infinitive phrases into adjective clauses:-1. one whose connective is the principal word of a phrase. Reason's whole pleasure. and whatever. have knelt at your feet on the very threshold of the Senate Chamber. and say. It was a sight to gladden the heart. one modifying the principal word of a phrase. You are now to learn that you can expand it into a clause of +Time+. "whoever" to "he who". It was a din to fright a monster's ear. which. The year when Chaucer was born is uncertain. and write illustrative sentences as here directed:-Give an example of an adjective clause modifying a subject. striving to put their hands on the very spot where brave men died. 6. 67 +Direction+. Whatever we do has an influence. and "whatever" to "anything" or "everything which". When. 2. The play's the thing wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king. COMPLEX SENTENCE--ADVERB CLAUSE. ***** LESSON 63. 7. in the following sentences to "what". A man's heart deviseth his way.--Form complex sentences in which these pronouns and conjunctive adverbs shall be used to connect adjective clauses:-Who. and competence. all the joys of sense. one modifying some word omitted.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg threatened with widowhood and orphanage. 5. Scholars have grown old and blind. 2. That which is seen is temporal. where. +Direction+. peace.--Expand these possessive and explanatory modifiers into adjective clauses:-1. 8. He arrived when the clock struck twelve. and "whereby" to "by which":-1. one whose connective is an adverb. 5.

Many a year is in its grave since I crossed this restless wave. year as modified by a. denoting that the two acts take place at the same time. 1.\ then ` \ ` `When father \ ------------'\ \ \my ' \ \ ' \ \ ' \ | \ forsake | me 'and \----|--------------------. 6. 2. Europe was at war. 4. we listen. While Louis XIV. or. For explanation of the line representing when. The line representing when is made up of three parts to picture these three offices. until. as an adverb modifier. 3. At the timemodifies listen.. [Footnote: See (11). till. and since as prepositions followed by noun clauses. When my father and my mother forsake me." [Footnote: Some prefer. reigned. The clause introduced by as . Just as=just at the time at which.--Many here modifies year. before he durst give himself the fatal stroke. The part representing when as a modifier of calls is. Lesson 38. A closer analysis. Blucher | arrived ===========|=========== | \ \------\ \ `as \ just ` \ ` \ Wellington | \ was meeting | onslaught --------------|-----\-----------------------. The offices of the conjunctive adverb when may be better understood by expanding it into two phrases thus: We listen at the time at which pleasure calls. The +adverb clause+ may express +place+. Cato. for convenience. The +adverb clause+ may express +time+. the offices of these two words will be clearly seen. in constructions like this. to treat before. rather. there is freedom.--When modifies both listen and calls. as modifies profitable. 7.| +Explanation+. 8. to listen. at which modifies calls. we | listen ===|========= | \ `When ` pleasure | \ calls ---------|---\------. Lord | will take | me ======|===================== \The | \up \ . Blucher arrived on the field of Waterloo just as Wellington was meeting the last onslaught of Napoleon. Analysis. see Lesson 14 and (1) above. however would make it a modifier of as. then ths Lord will take me up. and foot-note. and when into at which.] 5. placed above its principal line instead of below it.. and which connects. spent the night in reading Plato's "Immortality..| +Explanation+. telling the +Degree+ of the quality expressed by it.' / | ' / mother ' / ------------'/ \my +Explanation+. Just here modifies at the time.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg He stood where I am. 68 This exercise is as profitable as it is pleasant. and is equivalent to the adverb here or to the phrase in this place. At the time is represented in the diagram by the first element of the asline. after. ere.--By changing then into at the time.] +Explanation+. A clause that does the work of an adverb is an +Adverb Clause+.--Just may be treated as a modifier of the dependent clause. Pope skimmed the cream of good sense and expression wherever . The clause introduced by where expresses +Place+. Where the snow falls. It also connects pleasure calls. When pleasure calls.

] 20. asinto two phrases. Gold is heavier than iron. is not the ordinary adjective the. Dying for a principle is a higher degree of virtue than scolding for it. It is the Anglo-Saxon demonstrative pronoun used in an instrumental sense. +Explanation+. The wind bloweth where it listeth. and modifies humbler.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg he could find it. modified by the adverb clause that the mercury froze. and cannot always be classed under Degree. Frequently words are omitted after than and as. as--He became humbler in that degree in which he became wiser. the humbler he became. [Footnote: The.. Gold | is \ heavier =======|============== | \ ` than ` iron | x \ \ x -------|--------------+Explanation+. Transposing... we have. One's breeding shows itself nowhere more than in his religion. Washington was as good as he was great. It was so cold as to freeze the mercury. The +adverb clause+ may express +degree+. 16.] +Explanation+. see Lesson 124. Cold to what degree? The sentence = It was cold to that degree in which the mercury froze. the better I like it.. 10. the are similar in office to as .` \ `The \ `. [Footnote: In this sentence. The wiser he grew.\ ` \ ` I | ` see | it ----|--`-------------.] +Explanation+.. and modifies wiser. and is therefore a conjunctive adverb. +Explanation+. 18. The first as.. Than modifies heavy (understood) and connects the clause expressing degree to heavier. and than = in which. 69 +Explanation+. It is here an adverb. which is an adverb modifying good.. here.. Good to what extent or degree? The second as modifies great and performs the office of a conjunction. and expanding as . 19. The sentence = Gold is heavy beyond the degree in which iron is heavy.. modified by the adverb clause. as you see. 15. the dependent clause is sometimes termed a clause of Result or Consequence. Is and heavy are omitted. Washington was good in the degree in which he was great. 13. modifies froze and connects the clauses. To preach is easier than to practice. It was so cold that the mercury froze. answers the question. and is therefore a conjunctive adverb.. See diagram of (3) and of (20). The oftener I see it. also in (15) and (17). answers the question. I | like | it =====|=========== | \ \----\ better \the \ . Clauses of Result express different logical relations. 17.\oftener \ . it is therefore a conjunctive adverb.--Heavier = heavy beyond the degree. 11. The adverb so. That.--The degree of the cold is here shown by the effect it produced. 14.--It was so cold as to freeze the mercury (would indicate or require).. To be right is better than to be president. He called so loud that all the hollow deep of hell resounded.. [Footnote: For the use of he instead of the indefinite pronoun one repeated. 12.--The words the . 9.--The adverb clause as he was great modifies the first as.--To be right is better (good in a greater degree) than to be president (would be good). The first the = by how much. the second the = by so much.

13. see when . assigns the +Real Cause+ of the ground's being wet. for the ground is wet. Evidence produces knowledge of an effect. wise people ventilate their sleeping rooms. for through them the blood throws off its impurities. 7. ground | is \ wet ==========|============= \The | ` ` ` because ` it | ` has rained ----|--------------+Explanation+. Sea-bathing is the most healthful kind of washing. We keep the pores of the skin open. (For diagram of as .. Clauses of Evidence are sometimes treated as independent. as it is an affected way of talking. it gives the +Evidence+ of what is asserted. for he overthrew them in the wilderness. Tobacco and the potato are American products.] Analysis. The +adverb clause+ may express +real cause+. does not assign the cause of the raining. ADVERB CLAUSE-CONTINUED. stands on a line wholly dotted. since Raleigh found them here. As the upright man thinks so he speaks.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 64. as it combines fresh air and vigorous exercise with its other benefits. The upright man speaks as he thinks. and is equivalent to the adverb foolishly or to the phrase in a foolish manner. The waves of conversation roll and shape our thoughts as the surf rolls and shapes the pebbles on the shore. [Footnote: Evidence should be carefully distinguished from Cause. introduced by for. As is the boy so will be the man.--Because.. Slang is always vulgar. so. Wheat is the most valuable of grains because bread is made from its flour. He died as he lived. For diagram. is a clause of +Manner+.--He lived as the fool lives.--He died in the manner in which he lived. but the cause of our believing that it has rained. It rained last night. +Explanation+. Since the breath contains poisonous carbonic acid. 2. The adverb clause. The +adverb clause+ may express +manner+. 14. 11. 6. because the ground is .) 4. then (3). The adverb clause. 9. introduced by as. The adverb clause. 12. The +adverb clause+ may express +evidence+. Lesson 63. introduced by because.. God was angry with the children of Israel. +Introductory Hints+. 8. 3. being a mere conjunction. Lesson 63. 70 The ground is wet because it has rained. The ground is wet because it has rained.. Cause produces an effect. It has rained. 1. see (1). 5. 10.

introduced by although. as you see.) 3. If the air is quickly compressed. We Americans must all be cuckoos. 15. purpose. although it has rained. The +adverb clause+ may express +purpose+. It is conceded that a cause for the ground's not being dry exists. Unless your thought packs easily and neatly in verse. you have an image of a dull speaker and a lively listener.--The relative position of the subject and the verb renders the if unnecessary.--That. introduced by that. This omission of if is a common idiom. always use prose. for we build our homes in the nests of other birds. The ground is dry. (Unless = if not. enough heat is evolved to produce combustion. . but. Language was given us that we might say pleasant things to each other. All these dependent clauses of real cause. condition. The +adverb clause+ may express +condition+. so that = that. The adverb clause. as here expressed. The adverb clause.--The phrases in order that. introduced by if. Analysis. The adverb clause. 9. under the general head of +Cause+. 2. if it occurs. Spiders have many eyes in order that they may see in many directions at one time. the fat of the body is thrown into the grate to keep the furnace in play. ADVERB CLAUSE-CONTINUED. 5. +Explanation+. in spite of this opposing cause. Were it not for the warm waters of the Gulf Stream.--If it rains. If ever you saw a crow with a king-bird after him. 6. +Explanation+. The ship-canal across the Isthmus of Suez was dug so that European vessels need not sail around the Cape of Good Hope to reach the Orient. Should the calls of hunger be neglected. introducing a clause of purpose. 7. 1. the harbors and the rivers of Britain would be blocked up with ice for a great part of the year. is only a +Condition+ ready to become a cause. assigns what. is a mere conjunction.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg wet this morning. but. The air draws up vapors from the sea and the land. 8. that it may drop them as rain or dew upon the thirsty earth. and concession come. and retains them dissolved in itself or suspended in cisterns of clouds. assigns the cause or the motive or the +Purpose+ of his exercising. will be the cause of the ground's being wet. although only the first kind assigns the cause proper. ***** LESSON 65. evidence. it is asserted that the ground is dry. the ground will be wet. +Explanation+. He takes exercise that he may get well. expresses a +Concession+. 4. 71 +Introductory Hints+.

but are supplementary. The Bunker Hill Monument stands--place. 3. each is very closely related in thought to the independent clause. 9. Punishment follows every violation of nature's laws--concession. Europe conquered Napoleon at last--concession. Peter the Great worked in Holland in disguise--purpose. If the War of the Roses did not utterly destroy English freedom. Dew does not form in a cloudy night--cause. and may almost be said to be the essential part of the sentence. That thunderbolt fell a mile away--evidence. 11. it arrested its progress for a hundred years. Though the atmosphere presses on us with a load of fifteen pounds on every square inch of surface.--An Adverb Clause is set off by the comma unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies+. and punctuate according to the Rule:-1. and are added almost as afterthoughts. When the adverb clause precedes. Paper was invented in China. 4. degree. Leaves do not turn red because the frost colors them. 72 10. Vesuvius threw its lava so far--degree. 14. 6. +COMPOSITION-ADVERB CLASSES+. 14. etc. Though many rivers flow into the Mediterranean. 16. place. they are not sufficient to make up the loss caused by evaporation.---Write. 13. 2. 15. The leaves of the water-maple turn red--time. it is set off. Though thou shouldst bray a fool in a mortar. +Direction+. 18. COMPOSITION-ADVERB CLAUSES. 12.--If here = even if = though. after these independent clauses.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg The +adverb clause+ may express +concession+. 8. Glass bends easily when it is red-hot. . if the Chinese tell the truth. Many persons died in the Black Hole of Calcutta--cause. see Lesson 100). adverb clauses of time. when I was last abroad. about one-sixth of the blood is sent to it. Our eyes cannot bear the light--time. yet will not his foolishness depart from him. The lion springs upon his prey--manner. The tree is inclined--manner. Here the adverb clauses are restrictive. +Direction+. It will break if you touch it. because it would be unparliamentary. 10. ***** LESSON 66. We dream in our sleep--evidence. 5. +Explanation+.---Tell why the adverb clauses are or are not set off in Lessons 63 and 64. Apples would not fall to the ground--condition. +Explanation+. 11. Millions of soldiers sleep--place. (for connectives. 12. Iron bends and molds easily--condition. +COMMA--RULE. ***** LESSON 67. still we do not feel its weight. We put salt into butter and upon meat--purpose. In these sentences the adverb clauses are not restrictive. 17. Every spire of grass was so edged and tipped with dew--degree. I will not call him villain. 13. 7. Although the brain is only one-fortieth of the body.--I met him in Paris.

they did not exterminate them. Note its force in its several positions. Wycliffe should be called the father of our later English prose. or (3) a noun. 2. 1. An adverb clause may be contracted to a prepositional phrase having for its principal word (1) a participle. Error. Some of these adverb clauses can stand only at the end. and dies among his worshipers.--When night came on. He grew rich because he attended to his business. heat is produced.--When he saw me. for it has cooled to 32 deg.--Contract each of these adverb clauses to an infinitive phrase:-+Model+. of another adverb clause to follow each independent clause in the preceding Lesson.--They will call before they leave the city = They will call before leaving the city. 4. because they absorb heat. writhes with pain.--Contract each of these adverb clauses to a prepositional phrase having a participle for its principal word:-+Model+. for "Probabilities" predicts it.---Think. between the parts of it. +Example+. When oxygen and carbon unite in the minute blood-vessels. or after it.--Contract these complex sentences to simple ones:-1. and attend to the punctuation. The water will freeze. If we use household words. . +Example+. ***** LESSON 68. +Direction+. if you can. Washington retreated from Long Island because his army was outnumbered. 3. we gave up the chase = Night coming on. we shall be better understood. Truth. The Gulf Stream reaches Newfoundland before it crosses the Atlantic. when they die. It will rain to-morrow. +Direction+. form vast islands with their bodies.--She stoops that she may conquer = She stoops to conquer. The adverb clause may stand before the independent clause. (2) an infinitive. +Direction+. he stopped. we gave up the chase. Black clothes are too warm in summer. though she may be crushed to earth. 4. Coral animals. if he is wounded. An adverb clause may be contracted into a participle or a participle phrase.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ARRANGEMENT. will rise again. An adverb clause may be contracted to an absolute phrase. 4. +Direction+. COMPOSITION--ADVERB CLAUSES. 5. Though they persecuted the Christians. 3.--Contract these complex sentences to simple ones:-1. 3. 2. he stopped = Seeing me. If Chaucer is called the father of our later English poetry. 73 +Direction+. 2. and by means of a caret (^) indicate where this adverb clause may properly stand in the sentence.

The pine tree is so tall that it overlooks all its neighbors. and connects a concessive clause.--Contract each of these adverb clauses to a prepositional phrase having a noun for its principal word:-+Model+. because he leaves school so early in life. This is a prose era rather than it is a poetic era. An adverb clause may sometimes be changed to an adjective clause or phrase. ANALYSIS. +Direction+. . What would I not give if I could see you happy! 5. however strongly it may be defended. 2. 2. (Frequently. without friends. 3. built the Armada that he might conquer England. A man is to be pitied if he does not care for music. he lacks three good things. +Direction+. When a man lacks health. Much wealth is corpulence. clauses introduced by as and than are contracted. though it has no lungs. who has no friends. 2.--He fought that he might obtain glory = He fought for glory. +Example+. The general marched as he was ordered. is to be pitied = This man. An adverb clause may be contracted by simply omitting such words as may easily be supplied. if it is not disease. 3. 4. and friends. 2.--However modifies strongly. Philip II. (Sentences like this never appear in the full form. 4.) 5.--Contract these adverb clauses:-1. wealth. A fish breathes. go ahead = When right. We are pained when we hear God's name used irreverently. 3. is to be pitied. 5.--Change each of the following adverb clauses first to an adjective clause and then to an adjective phrase:-1. He is foolish. No other English author has uttered so many pithy sayings as Shakespeare has uttered. Chevalier Bayard was killed while he was fighting for Francis I. +Direction+. Luther died where he was born. you may expect a happy old age.) 6. The sun is many times larger than the earth is large.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 74 1. If you are free from vices.--This man is to be pitied. +Example+. Criminals are punished that society may be safe. 4. +Explanation+.--When you are right. having no friends. 1. is to be pitied = This man. ***** LESSON 69. Error must yield. go ahead. because he has no friends = This man.

and note the different positions in which these clauses stand. and is an +Attribute Complement+ relating to peculiarity. and is the +Object Complement+ of believe. 75 Select two sentences containing time clauses. REVIEW. .) TO THE TEACHER. degree. see Lesson 100. +Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. one. two. pages 30.--See suggestions to the teacher.+--In Lessons 40 and 41 you learned that an infinitive phrase may perform many of the offices of a noun. A peculiarity of English is. Your future depends very much on who your companions are.+--Compose sentences illustrating the different kinds of adverb clauses named in Lessons 63. The +noun clause+ may be used as +subject+. The clause introduced by that is equivalent to a noun. mildew. The dependent clause that men should obey is equivalent to a noun. two. and yeast are plants is wonderful. and is the +Subject+ of is. The clause who your companions are is equivalent to a noun. and analyze them. two. The fact that mold. 64. 150. Analysis. and is the +Principal Term+ of a +Phrase+ introduced by the preposition on. purpose. manner. The dependent clause. two. one. concession. and explain fully the office of each. a place clause. For connectives. and is +Explanatory+ of fact. evidence. Obedience is better than sacrifice = To obey is better than sacrifice = That men should obey is better than sacrifice. real cause. +Direction. The clause introduced by that is equivalent to a noun.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction. Compose sentences illustrating the different ways of contracting adverb clauses. Many people believe that the beech tree is never struck by lightning. Tell why the adverb clauses in Lesson 68 are or are not set off by the comma. condition.+ (SEE PAGES 165-168. two. THE COMPLEX SENTENCE-NOUN CLAUSE. ***** LESSON 71. ***** LESSON 70. is equivalent to a noun. and two. introduced by that. that it has so many borrowed words.+--Tell the kind of adverb clause in each of the sentences in Lesson 68. +Introductory Hints. You are now to learn that a clause may do the same. 65. A clause that does the work of a noun is a +Noun Clause+.

--Here the clause introduced by that is used like a noun as the object complement of taught. The peacock struts about.--The clause that the earth is round is used like a noun as the subject of has been proved. ***** LESSON 72. i.e. He saw that (namely) it was good. 5."--C.' earth | is ' \ round -------|-------------.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1.\the | | | / \ | has been proved =============|================= | 76 +Explanation+. 8. 6. Galileo taught that the earth moves. as. When to quit business = When they are to quit business. above.) 14. Such constructions may be expanded into clauses. When to quit business and enjoy their wealth is a problem never solved by some. The world will not anxiously inquire who you are. 11. for the whole sentence cannot be called a clause. or they may be treated as phrases equivalent to clauses. that ------.] introduces the noun clause. The +noun clause+ may be used as +object complement+. 15. Who was the discoverer of America is not yet fully determined by historians. NOUN CLAUSE--CONTINUED. . P. he saw that. 7. (See explanation of (7).. "Where is Abel. 3. "What a fine tail I have!" 13. "What can you do?" 12. It was good.\the | | Galileo | taught | / \ =========|============== | +Explanation+. there is here no principal clause. +Explanation+. Strictly speaking. +Explanation+. The Esquimau feels intuitively that bear's grease and blubber are the dishes for his table. 10. saying. a part of a sentence. and has become a mere sign of grammatical subordination. where that has been transferred to the accessory clause. That the earth is round has been proved. used to point to the fact stated in an independent sentence. Philosophers are still debating whether the will has any control over the current of thought in our dreams. By an inversion of the order this became. 2. See Lesson 74. and so passed into the form He saw that it was good. That -------. The conjunction that [Footnote: "Thatwas originally the neuter demonstrative pronoun. 4. This is a peculiar kind of complex sentence.--When to quit business and enjoy their wealth is an indirect question. No one can tell how or when or where he will die. thy brother?" smote the ears of the guilty Cain. Mason. We may say that it is a complex sentence in which the whole sentence takes the place of a principal clause.--The subject clause is here an indirect question. or When they ought to quit business. 9. When letters were first used is not certainly known.' earth | ' moves ------|------. It will ask of you. "What have I done?" is asked by the knave and the thief. He does not know which to choose. That the same word is used for the soul of man and for a glass of gin is singular.

***** . 17. "Night's candles are burnt out. that he was invulnerable in every part except the heel. that it has so many borrowed words. 16. 6.] 10. It has been proved that the earth is round.\ of | \why \ / \ \------------+Explanation+. The fact that mold. Shakespeare's metaphor. 13. It is believed that sleep is caused by a diminution in the supply of blood to the brain. 77 1.--Unless in order that is taken as a conjunction connecting an adverb clause of purpose (see (7). The +noun clause+ may be used as +principal term+ of a +prepositional phrase+.--By supposing of to stand before that. Ambrose gave St. 8. 7. The question ever asked and never answered is. "Where and how am I to exist in the Hereafter?" 4. The +noun clause+ may be used as +attribute complement+. There has been some dispute about who wrote "Shakespeare's Plays. This we know. the noun clause will become explanatory. here used as the principal term of a prepositional phrase. The advice that St. Tweed's defiant question was.--Why they sing is an indirect question." 15.--The grammatical subject it has no meaning till explained by the noun clause. The Sandwich Islander is confident that the strength and valor of his slain enemy pass into himself. Lesson 65).\the | | It (/ \) | has been proved ==========|================== | +Explanation+. "What a piece of work is man!" 5. 14. that ------. 9. We are not certain that an open sea surrounds the Pole. 11. mildew. Napoleon turned his Simplon road aside in order that he might save a tree mentioned by Caesar. that our future depends on our present. Hamlet's exclamation was. the noun clause may be treated as the principal term of a prepositional phrase modifying the adjective certain." 12. Augustine in regard to conformity to local custom was in substance this: "When in Rome. in case that. Have birds any sense of why they sing? birds | Have | sense =======|================ they | sing | \any \ -----|-----.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Analysis. and yeast are plants is wonderful. A peculiarity of English is. The +noun clause+ may be used as +explanatory modifier+. +Explanation+. By supplying of the fact. The myth concerning Achilles is. 2. introducing adverb clauses expressing condition. [Footnote: A similar explanation may be made of on condition that. do as the Romans do. "What are you going to do about it?" 3.' earth | is ' \ round ------|-------------. the clause introduced by that is a noun clause explanatory of order." is one of the finest in literature. We are all anxious that the future shall bring us success and triumph. +Explanation+.

+COMMA--RULE. See next Lesson for the punctuation of noun clauses that are questions or quotations. By using it as a substitute for the subject clause. +Direction+. +Example+.1. using the independent clauses parenthetically:-1. 5. The belief of astronomers is. Astronomers believe that stars are suns. 3.) +Direction+.--Write the following sentences. that stars are suns. 4. COMPOSITION--NOUN CLAUSE. this clause may be placed last. It is true that the glorious sun pours down his golden flood as cheerily on the poor man's cottage as on the rich man's palace. +Example+. The noun clause may be contracted by changing the predicate to a participle. The noun clause may be made prominent by separating it and inserting the independent clause between its parts.--The Noun Clause used as attribute complement is generally set off by the comma.--The story of William Tell. except where the comma would contribute to clearness. +Direction+. 2. 3. 2.--Give the reasons for the use or the omission of the comma with the noun clauses in the preceding Lesson.-.--That he was brave cannot be doubted = His being bravecannot be doubted. transpose five subject clauses in Lesson 71. as admit transposition. is set off by the comma. Astronomers are confident that stars are suns. it is now believed. Our conclusion is.--Transpose such of the clauses used as object complements.--That the story of William Tell is a myth is now believed = It is now believed that the story of William Tell is a myth. The punctuation of the explanatory clause is like that of other explanatory modifiers.+ 78 +Remarks+. Often the clause used as object complement may be placed first. That stars are suns is the belief of astronomers. +Direction+. 1. The belief that stars are suns is held by astronomers. We believe that the first printing-press in America was set up in Mexico in 1536. Punctuate them if they need punctuation. (Notice that the principal clause. +Direction+. See Lesson 34. is a myth. .--Vary the following sentence so as to illustrate five different kinds of noun clauses:-+Model+. used parenthetically. that different forms of government suit different stages of civilization. I am aware that refinement of mind and clearness of thinking usually result from grammatical studies. But the real subject made explanatory of it is seldom set off.--Present usage seems to favor the omission of the comma with the clause used as subject or as object complement.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 73.--By the aid of the expletive it. and the subject to a possessive. +Example+. in the preceding Lessons.

3. Every one desires that he may live long and happily. 6. 5. 3. as. A noun clause may be contracted to an infinitive phrase. 2. The effect of looking upon the sun is.--Make the following complex sentences simple by changing the predicates of the noun clauses to objective complements. She was aware that I appreciated her situation. That the caterpillar changes to a butterfly is a curious fact. That we guard our liberty with vigilance is a sacred duty. 1.--Quotation marks ("") inclose a copied word or passage+. 4. 2. +Direction+. 4. We are all anxious that we may make a good impression.--King Ahasuerus commanded that Haman should be hanged = King Ahasuerus commanded Haman to be hanged. the double marks are again used. that the eye is blinded. each part of the quotation is inclosed. The thought that we are spinning around the sun at the rate of twenty miles a second makes us dizzy. He cannot find out how he is to go there. "than be president. +Direction+. as above."'" This introduction of a third quotation should generally be avoided. When a quotation is divided by a parenthetical expression." . The Governor ordered that the prisoner should be set free. 2.--That he should vote is the duty of every American citizen = To vote is the duty of every American citizen. I believe that he is a foreigner. Many people believe that Webster was the greatest of American statesmen. COMPOSITION--NOUN CLAUSE--CONTINUED. "He lies like the telegraph. A man's chief objection to a woman is. If.--Expand into complex sentences such of the sentences in Lesson 41 as contain an objective complement and an object complement that together are equivalent to a clause.--Make the following complex sentences simple by changing the noun clauses to phrases:-- 79 1. 4. still another quotation is made. 'It will soon come to be said.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. the objective complement. within the quotation having single marks. +Direction+. 7. when changed to an infinitive phrase. Caesar Augustus issued a decree that all the world should be taxed.--Single marks (' ') inclose a quotation within a quotation. He does not know whom he should send. 3. +Remarks+. ***** LESSON 74. They hold that taxation without representation is unjust. especially where the three marks come at the end. "I would rather be right. "The incorrectness of the dispatches led Bismarck to declare. +QUOTATION MARKS--RULE. How wide do you think that the Atlantic ocean is? 5. The noun clause may be contracted by making the predicate. and the subjects to object complements:-+Model+. Everybody admits that Cromwell was a great leader. as. +Example+. that she has no respect for the newspaper.--Contract these noun clauses to infinitive phrases:-1. 5. and the subject the object complement." said Clay.

and look carefully to the punctuation and the capitalization. +Direction+. when a question contains a quotation. as. May we not find "sermons in stones"? So also with the exclamation point. An indirect question is not generally set off by a comma. Nathan's words to David were these: "Thou art the man. Cain asked whether he was his brother's keeper. especially in indirect quotations. as. as. and the indirect to direct. whether a question or not. but not directly asked or quoted as such. The direct question introduced into a sentence is set off by the comma (but no comma is used after the interrogation point). are copied. tell why they do or do not begin with capital letters. +Remarks+. and the quotation marks. A +direct question+ introduced into a sentence is one in which the exact words and their order in an interrogative sentence (see Lesson 55) are preserved. Nathan said to David. and justify the use or the omission of the comma. +Direction+. If the direct quotation. as. ANALYSIS. this order is reversed. and is inclosed within quotation marks--though these may be omitted. begins with a capital letter. is formally introduced (see Lesson 147). He asked." An +indirect quotation+ is one whose thought. some of which shall be formally introduced. begins with a capital letter. and is not inclosed within quotation marks.--Analyze the sentences given for arrangement and contraction in Lesson 73. as. as well as thought. changing the direct quotations and questions to indirect. and some of which shall be questions occurring at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. ." He put the question thus: "Can you do it?" +Direction+. Cain asked.--Rewrite these same sentences. but not whose exact words. Guard against this.--The first word of a direct quotation making complete sense or of a direct question introduced into a sentence should begin with a capital letter+. +Direction+. as. and which is followed by an interrogation point. it is preceded by the colon. The direct quotation is set off by the comma.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 80 In quoting a question. "Thou art the man. as.--Write sentences illustrating the last paragraph of the Remarks under the Rule for Quotation Marks.--A +direct quotation+ is one whose exact words. and which is not followed by an interrogation point.--Write five sentences containing direct quotations. The reference here of the pronoun he is somewhat ambiguous. and is inclosed within quotation marks--though these may be omitted. the interrogation point. Nathan told David that he was the man. Change these to the indirect form. the interrogation point must stand within the quotation marks. is copied. does not necessarily begin with a capital letter. does not necessarily begin with a capital letter. The indirect quotation is not generally set off by the comma. "Am I my brother's keeper?" An +indirect question+ is one which is referred to as a question.--Point out the direct and the indirect quotations and questions in the sentences of Lesson 71. +Direction+. and is not inclosed within quotation marks. "What are you living for?" but. ***** LESSON 75. +CAPITAL LETTER--RULE.

but either. the raining. Light has spread.+ +DEFINITION. Light | has spread =======|============= | ' ' ' and .--A Compound Sentence is a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses. The ground is wet.+ Analysis. as effect to cause--the ground is made wet by the raining. THE COMPOUND SENTENCE. The second clause. really stands to the other fact. continues the line of thought begun by the first. Here the conjunction connects independent clauses whose thoughts stand in contrast with each other. But this the real. Sentences made up of independent clauses we call +Compound Sentences. either or both of which may be compound.+ +DEFINITION. really stands to the other fact.+ +DEFINITION. Here the inferred fact. hence the ground is wet. This kind of connection is common.. or a noun. The independent clauses.. Here the inferred fact.--A Complex Sentence is a sentence composed of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. therefore it has rained.--A Dependent Clause is one used as an adjective.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 76. Temperance promotes health. the wetness of the ground. added by the conjunction and to the first. The Tudors were despotic.--Cromwell made one revolution... as cause to effect--the raining made the ground wet. +DEFINITION. Unless the connecting word expresses the dependence of one of the clauses. and bayonets think. the raining.--An Independent Clause is one not dependent on another clause. and Monk made another. intemperance destroys it. It has rained.+ SENTENCES CLASSIFIED WITH RESPECT TO FORM. 81 +Introductory Hints+. connected by or. +Independent Clauses+ in the +same line+ of thought. Here the independent clauses are joined to each other by their very position in the sentence--connected without any conjunction.--A Simple Sentence is a sentence that contains but one subject and one predicate. an adverb. Man has his will. but woman has her way.. the wetness of the ground. present thoughts between which you may choose. 1. accepted. the grammarian regards them both as independent.+ +DEFINITION.--A Clause is a part of a sentence containing' a subject and its predicate. excludes the other.. or history belies them. The two clauses are independent of each other. +DEFINITION. ' ' bayonets | ' think . or logical relation between the facts in either sentence is expressed in a sentence of the compound form--an and may be placed before therefore and hence.

Hamilton smote the rock of the national resources. and some have greatness thrust upon them. 6. The diagram illustrates therefore as connective. Be temperate in youth. Religion--who can doubt it?--is the noblest of themes for the exercise of intellect. 7.--This is a compound sentence because it is made up of independent clauses. some achieve greatness. hence it must be raining. or you will have to be abstinent in old age. 10. As simply introduces it. I have seen.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ===========|========== | 82 +Explanation+. +Oral Analysis+. and the line connecting them is not slanting. 5. The camel is the ship of the ocean of sand. The ship leaps. 16.) +Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts one of which is an +inference+ from the other. 3. (See (16). or the adverb may be regarded as the connective. Put not your trust in money. and so the lines on which they stand are shaded alike.+ 4. the reindeer is the camel of the desert of snow.--The clauses are of equal rank. as it were. Ready writing makes not good writing. 14. As one entire clause is connected with the other.--In such constructions and may be supplied. nor are they extremely warm in summer. 15. but his memory lives. thy spoken word is master of thee. . Either Hamlet was mad. 8. 12. or he feigned madness admirably. speaking of the two Pitts) contains such a father and such a son! ***** LESSON 77. and abundant streams of revenue gushed forth. the connecting line is drawn between the predicates merely for convenience. +Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts in +contrast. +Explanation+. People in the streets are carrying umbrellas. Lesson 20. +Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts in +alternation+. The man dies. +Independent Clauses+ joined in the sentence +without a conjunction+. What grave (these are the words of Wellesley. Places near the sea are not extremely cold in winter. but good writing brings on ready writing. I | have seen ===|=========== | ' ' I | ' believe ===|='========= |\' \therefore +Explanation+. 11.) 9. Some are born great. from billow to billow. COMPOSITION--COMPOUND SENTENCE. therefore I believe. Of thy unspoken word thou art master.--As it were is an independent clause used parenthetically. but put your money in trust. 13. (Here a choice is denied. 2.

+Direction+. A compound sentence may be contracted by simply omitting from one clause such words as may readily be .) +Direction+. 3. 2. or it may be inclosed within marks of parenthesis--the marks of parenthesis showing the least degree of connection in sense. The wind and the rain are over the clouds are divided in heaven over the green hill flies the inconstant sun. or when they are themselves divided into parts by the comma. Read that you may weigh and consider the thoughts of others.--Time waits for no man. Lafayette fought for American independence.] 6. 3. and Baron Steuben fought for American independence. the adversative but. 2. We must conquer our passions. attending carefully to the punctuation:-1. but good is in the ascendant.--Contract these compound sentences.1. It is not simply its vehicle.--Assign reasons for the punctuation of the independent clauses in the preceding Lesson. 2. [Footnote: In this sentence we have a figure of speech called +Antithesis+. and give the reasons for your choice of connectives:-Read not that you may find material for argument and conversation. Sin is a reproach to any people.-. and must triumph at last.--A parenthetical clause may be set oil by the comma or by the dash. the spirit of the Almighty is around us. Great was the fall of it. Can the Ethiopian change his skin? Righteousness exalteth a nation. +Example+. The rain descended. Sentences containing it furnish us our best examples of +Balanced Sentences+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +COMMA and SEMICOLON--RULE. +Examples+. 4. The race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. Antithesis gives great force to the thought expressed by it. and the sweet but fading graces of inspiring autumn dispose the mind for contemplation. and give your reasons:-1. +Direction+.--Punctuate the following sentences. Each part shines with its own light and with the light reflected from the other part. when the clauses are slightly connected. See the last three sentences in the preceding Lesson. You will find other antitheses in this Lesson and in the preceding. but. the miser robs himself. Language is not the dress of thought. the semi-colon is used+. There is a fierce conflict between good and evil. 3.--Using the copulative and. The sweet but fading graces of inspiring autumn open the mind to benevolence. or our passions will conquer us. are separated by the+ +comma. Compound sentences may be contracted by using but once the parts common to all the clauses. Can the leopard change his spots? The winds blew and beat upon that house. The more discussion the better if passion and personality be avoided and discussion even if stormy often winnows truth from error. in which things unlike in some particular are set over against each other. The spirit of the Almighty is within us. when short and closely connected. and compounding the remaining parts. The floods came. Occidental manhood springs from self-respect Oriental manhood finds its greatest satisfaction in self-abasement. 5. The epic poem recites the exploits of a hero tragedy represents a disastrous event comedy ridicules the vices and follies of mankind pastoral poetry describes rural life and elegy displays the tender emotions of the heart. Wealth may seek us but wisdom must be sought. +Direction+. (The rule above is another example.--Independent Clauses. form compound sentences out of the following simple sentences. The prodigal robs his heirs. and the alternative or or nor. 83 +Remark+. It fell. and tide waits for no man = Timeand tide wait for no man. and the spirit of the Almighty is above us.

and just as fruit.--Using and. because it was built upon a rock = The house. or they will govern you. being built upon a rock. but. the principal word in a modifying phrase. Example. but it should not be the web. Resist the devil. and clauses of equal rank. Was Cabot the discoverer of America. (Notice that the imperative form adds force. co-ordinate phrases. It is called so. Mirth should be the embroidery of conversation. COMPLEX AND COMPOUND CLAUSES.--Change these compound sentences to complex sentences:-1. 1. William the Silent has been likened to Washington. 5. +Introductory Hints+. but he is vulgar = He is witty but vulgar. 3. in the adverb clause which modifies would have paused. and then change the dependent clause to a participle phrase:-+Model+. compose three compound sentences. and he will flee from you. Govern your passions. words.--He is witty. +Direction+. Regulus would have paused if he had been the man that he was before captivity had unstrung his sinews. I conquered. 2.--Sun and moon and stars obey. Here just as the word modifier quietly is itself modified by very. I saw. ***** LESSON 78. and he was rewarded. is itself modified by the adjective clause that he was. +Example+. or order. is modified by another phrase. Here we have co-ordinate words. phrases. It was his address that pleased me. to England. and they hastened to meet us.--Change one of the independent clauses in each of these sentences to a dependent clause. and therefore it did not fall = The house did not fall. and so he surrendered.--The house was built upon a rock. +Direction+.--Contract these sentences:-- 84 1. and the hours will take care of themselves = If you take care of the minutes.) +Direction+. He found that he could not escape. and co-ordinate clauses. that is. Peter the Great went to Holland. I heard that you wished to see me.--Take care of the minutes. and I lost no time in coming. 2. A compound sentence may sometimes be changed to a complex sentence without materially changing the sense. They ate of the fruit from the tree in the garden. but it is improperly called so. 2. and was by the adverb clause before captivity had unstrung his sinews. 5. and at the same time he plays a difficult piece of music. +Direction+. did not fall. He converses. and very by so. Leaves fall so very quietly. These three dependent clauses in the complex clause modifier. He was faithful. 3. the hours will take care of themselves. I came. and or as connectives. like the three words and the three phrases in the complex word modifier and the complex phrase . Our friends heard of our coming. each containing three independent clauses. and it was not his dress that pleased me. and he has justly been likened to him.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg supplied from the other. and the principal word of that by another: so man. and to France. 4. or was he not the discoverer of America? 4.

as the which clauses in (3). which are decorated with the most brilliant colors. but Elizabeth would not marry.. had escaped. as illustrated by the short lines under the first two verbs and the line over tarried. and which soar on the most ethereal wings. 4. While modifies had passed. Lesson 46. and oxygen is a supporter of combustion. 2. and the center faster than the adjacent sides. and the peace of England demanded it. rowing. 10. water.` ` ` ` ` `which | are admired ` ` `=====|============= ` ` | ' ` ` ' x ` ` . because it eats the frogs and worms that would injure the dikes.. Some one has said that the milkman's favorite song should be. ` ` ' ` `which | are decorated ` ======|=============== ` | ' ` 'and ` . Analysis. Parallel construction contributes to the clearness. And connects the co-ordinate clauses. 1. When a man becomes overheated by working. and made the welkin ring with the shouts of victory? [Footnote: The when clauses in (11). have passed the greater portion of their lives in the bowels of the earth. as here used. The office of while as connective is shown by the dotted lines.. like a cloud. although Parliament frequently urged it. when Winchester had been defeated. over the land. because one tongue was enough for a woman. and consequently to the force. are formed on the same plan..| that ----' earth | ' is \ round =========|======'======== | ' that ' and ----.] ***** . when your arms on shore were covered by disaster... that one small head could carry all he knew.. ` ' opportunity | ` had escaped ============|==`============ \the | ` \ ` ' ` ' `' ` `while ` he | ` tarried ----|------------. This principle of +Parallel Construction+. and when the gloom of despondency hung.. running. have their words in the same order. of expression. which is as little disputed as any verse in the catechism. Each adjective clause is connected to insects by which. and holds supremely with sentences in the paragraph. both... Milton said that he did not educate his daughters in the languages. In Holland the stork is protected by law. 85 Mary married Philip. but differing in meaning from it. flowing down mountain gorges. Sin has a great many tools. as in (10) and (14)..... Still the wonder grew. when the Army of the Northwest had surrendered. This is a compound sentence. Glaciers.. which is destructive to fire. are not co-ordinate. is used in place of that other. requiring like ideas to be expressed alike. one co-ordinate with the other. In your war of 1812. who first relit the fires of national glory. composed of the simple clause which precedes but and the complex clause which follows it--the complex clause being composed of an independent clause and two dependent clauses. 8... we have a +Pun+--a witty expression in which a word agreeing in sound with another word.. or of equal rank. 11. or making furious speeches... [Footnote: In tongue. ' ' it | ' revolves ' ===|='============'= | He | proved | / \ ====|============= | +Explanation+. 6.] 7. The third diagram illustrates the analysis of a complex sentence containing a compound noun clause. and the two connected by and.--The first diagram illustrates the analysis of the compound adjective clause in (3) below. The +clauses+ of +complex+ and +compound+ sentences may themselves be +complex+ or +compound+. Some of the insects which are most admired. holds also in phrases.. It is one of the most marvelous facts in the natural world that. combined. form an element.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg modifier. and the whole body is bathed and cooled. insects ---------. ` ' ` which | soar ' `======|======= | hour | had passed =========|============= \The |` ' ` ' and ` . the upper surface flows faster than the lower. The second diagram shows that the clause while he tarried modifies both predicates of the independent clauses. 9.. and in (14) and (15). 5.. and tarried. though hydrogen is highly inflammable. as is explained on page 168. "Shall we gather at the river?" 3. but a lie is a handle which fits them all. Not to wear one's best things every day is a maxim of New England thrift. obey the law of rivers. the six or seven millions of perspiration tubes pour out their fluid. Lesson 28.

(Time. (Cause.--Complete these elliptical expressions:-1. I shall be happy to hear of your safe arrival. EXPANSION.--Expand these infinitive phrases into the clauses indicated:-1. (Concession. Much as he loved his wealth. Loved by all. He is braver than wise. (Adjective clause.) 6. so to speak. I will go whether you go or not. The infantry advanced. +Direction+. however awful. All things else being destroyed.) 6. (Adjective clause.) 3.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 79. you will learn to write well.) 5. Oh. takes the helm. They went to the temple.) 3. And so shall Regulus. 6. Analysis. He handles it as if it were glass. Whenever the wandering demon of Drunkenness finds a ship adrift.) 4. 7. +Direction+. 9. that I might have one more day! 3. I regard him more as a historian than as a poet. No examples.) 7. suing for pardon. he must have a genial disposition.) 2. (Concession. ***** LESSON 80.) +Infinitive+ phrases may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+. he steps on board. are cool in summer. no one would be old.) 7. (Cause.) +Direction+. Aeneas came into Italy. (Condition. (Noun clause.) +Absolute phrases+ may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+. reflecting the rays of the sun. I heard the cry of "Fire!" (Time. Troy being taken by the Greeks. (Purpose.) 2. It happens with books as with mere acquaintances. (Noun clause. He is not an Englishman.) 5. She regrets not having read it. He is a fool to waste his time so. (Evidence. (Purpose. They have nothing to wear. (Time. it must have been cloudy or windy last night. (Condition.) 9. The icebergs floated down.) 5. but a Frenchman. +Direction+. Herod will seek the young child to destroy it. no effect is produced. fight as he never fought before. What if he is poor? 5.) 3. (Degree. 4. (Condition. (Cause. Simon Peter. The bridges having been swept away. (Evidence. 2.) 8. drew it. Desiring to live long. +Participles+ may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+. 11. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW.) 4. the cavalry remaining in the rear. and steers straight for the Maelstrom.) 2. There being no dew this morning.--Expand the participles in these sentences into the clauses indicated:-- 86 1. he loved his children better. Sitting there. cooling the air for miles around. we returned. A cause not preceding. 2.) 4. The weather is so warm as to dissolve the snow. 8. He does not know where to go. Writing carefully. 10. 1. sink into the heart. The adversative sentence faces.) 6. half way about on but.--Expand these absolute phrases into the clauses indicated:-1. virtue could sustain itself. having a sword. though dead. (Independent clause.--Holmes. White garments. (Independent clause. The energy which drives our locomotives and forces our .

What is bolder than a miller's neck-cloth. what. The evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is. 10. the women whom women approve. that. No language that cannot suck up the feeding juices secreted for it in the rich mother-earth of common folk can bring forth a sound and lusty book. --Napoleon. 13. Office confers no honor upon a man who is worthy of it.--Curtis.--Irving. Show that an adjective clause may be equivalent to an Infinitive phrase or a participle phrase. or sail obey virtue.--Coleridge. whichever. All those things for which men plow. Give and illustrate fully the Rule for punctuating the adjective clause. 9.--Koran. I fear three newspapers more than a hundred thousand bayonets. It is better to write one word upon the rock than a thousand on the water or the sand. A breath of New England's air is better than a sup of Old England's ale. 12. and. 9. Give examples of adjective clauses connected by who.--Holland. 4. smooth in field.--Tennyson. ***** LESSON 81.--Sallust. Were the happiness of the next world as closely apprehended as the felicities of this. Browne. 10. 12. There is a class among us so conservative that they are afraid the roof will come down if you sweep off the cobwebs. where. 7.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 87 steamships through the waves comes from the sun. Analysis. 8. why. it were a martyrdom to live.--Sir H. which. fair in garden. 6. 2.--Whately. 14. He prayeth best who loveth best all things both [Footnote: See Lesson 20.--Mill. We think in words.--Longfellow. its huge flanks purr very pleasantly for you. we lack fit thoughts. are the men and women who bless their species.--White. 13. There is a good deal of oratory in me.--Goldsmith. and the Caution regarding the position of the adjective clause."--Whittier. 11. To speak perfectly well one must feel that he has got to the bottom of his subject.--Gladstone. than Norman blood. Kind hearts are more than coronets. No scene is continually loved but one rich by joyful human labor. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW. 3.--Cooke. There is no getting along with Johnson. . when.] great and small. like a spitzenburg apple.--Ruskin. 7.--Sir T. We wondered whether the saltness of the Dead Sea was not Lot's wife in solution. he knocks you down with the butt of it. He that allows himself to be a worm must not complain if he is trodden on. ***** LESSON 82. full in orchard. when we lack fit words. 3. The setting sun stretched his celestial rods of light across the level landscape. 15. build. Van Twiller's full-fed cheeks.--Nasby. were curiously mottled and streaked with dusky red. A ruler who appoints any man to an office when there is in his dominions another man better qualified for it sins against God and against the state. Commend me to the preacher who has learned by experience what are human ills and what is human wrong. who loveth us. We are as near to heaven by sea as by land. 5. in any one place. and show that each connective performs also the office of a pronoun or that of an adverb.--Parton.--Lowell. for the dear God.--Holmes. 1. he made and loveth all. The sea licks your feet. out of respect to the memory of Patrick Henry. 8. 14. but it will crack your bones and eat you for all that. 11. REVIEW. which seemed to have taken toll of everything that went into his mouth. but I don't do as well as I can. whose.--Higginson. and they became as blood. that it is robbing the human race.--Phillips. Show that an adjective may be expanded into an equivalent phrase or clause. and simple faith. Of all sad words of tongue or pen the saddest are these: "It might have been. 5. 6. and it will disgrace every man who is not.--Kant. 4. and smote the rivers and the brooks and the ponds. The men whom men respect. if his pistol misses fire. Gilbert.--Boyd. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?--German Proverb.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 88 Show that an adverb may be expanded into an equivalent phrase or clause. Phrase (37. Define a clause. Illustrate and explain fully the distinction between direct and indirect quotations. Give the Rule for the punctuation of independent clauses. Phrase (38. Phrase (38. Tell all about their capitalization and punctuation. ***** LESSON 83. Scheme for the Sentence. Explain the two different ways of treating clauses introduced by in order that. 40).+ Noun or Pronoun (8). Participle (37). Clause (71).+ +Subject. and infinitive phrases. Show how the noun clause may be made prominent.--This scheme will be found very helpful in a general review.+ Adjective (31). 30). 40). REVIEW. and explain the office of each and the fitness of the name. between compound and complex clauses.+ Noun or Pronoun (28). The pupils should be able to reproduce it except the Lesson numbers.+ +Object.+ Adjective (29. Give and explain fully the Rule for the punctuation of adverb clauses. Participle (37). Give and illustrate fully the Rule for quotation marks. 30). Explain the office of the expletive it. (The numbers refer to Lessons. ***** LESSON 84. Give participle phrases. absolute phrases.) +PARTS. Illustrate the different ways of contracting noun clauses. but. . Illustrate and explain the difference between compound and complex word modifiers. Noun or Pronoun (29. Define the different classes of sentences with regard to form. REVIEW. Illustrate and explain the different ways in which independent clauses connected by and. and hence are related in sense. or. 41). and the distinction between direct and indirect questions introduced into a sentence. Clause (72). Illustrate five different offices of a noun clause. etc. +Objective.+ Verb (11). Illustrate and explain the distinction between a dependent and an independent clause. Noun (or Pronoun) (31). Show how independent clauses may be joined in sense without a connecting word. Illustrate the different ways of contracting independent clauses. and expand them into different kinds of clauses. 40). and illustrate fully. Phrase (37. Illustrate the different positions of adverb clauses. Clause (71). Define the different kinds of clauses. +Complements. Illustrate the different ways of contracting adverb clauses. Illustrate the different positions of a noun clause used as object complement. TO THE TEACHER. Illustrate the different kinds of adverb clauses. between compound and complex phrases. What three parts of speech may connect clauses? GENERAL REVIEW. +Predicate. +Attribute.

The sparrows chirped as if they still were proud Their race in Holy Writ should mentioned be. Exclamatory (46). from lack of time or of material. forego The godlike power to do.+ Adjectives (12). 63. 4. --Whittier. Knowing who hears the ravens cry. The questions appended to the following sentences are made easy of answer. Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust. should additional work be needed for reviews or for maturer classes. Clamored their piteous prayer incessantly. Compound (76).+ Declarative. Adverbs (60. These were mingled with the gaud of red peppers.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 89 +Modifiers. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. and 't is prosperous to be just. Then it is the brave man chooses. assembled in a crowd. but. rows of resplendent pewter. 41). It will be evident that this work aims not only to enforce instruction given before Lesson 17. find it convenient to prepare extra or miscellaneous work better suited to their own needs. of course. Let the pupils discuss the thought and the poetic form. 37. 5. Unmindful. the following selections will afford profitable study. Ere her cause bring fame and profit. 2. while the coward stands aside. and said. They are offered to those teachers who may not.+ +Meaning. A door left ajar gave him a peep into the best parlor. In another corner stood a quantity of linsey-woolsey just from the loom. glistened from their covert of asparagus tops. Clauses (59. 71. ADAPTED FROM IRVING'S "SKETCH BOOK. . if you speak at all. 63. +Classes. 64. Interrogative. The robin and the blue-bird. on its flowery strand." 1. We do not advise putting them in diagram. 40. +Independent Parts+ (44). the godlike aim to know. 35). Adverbs (14). Here. 10. +Form. Filled all the blossoming orchards with their glee. TO THE TEACHER. 64. 3. ranged on a long dresser.--We believe that you will find the preceding pages unusually full and rich in illustrative selections. TO THE TEACHER. In this parlor claw-footed chairs and dark mahogany tables shone like mirrors.--Lowell. to prepare the way for what is afterwards presented more formally and scientifically. +Connectives.--These and similar "Exercises" are entirely outside of the regular lessons. Participles (37). This hall formed the center of the mansion and the place of usual residence. this day. Complex. Imperative.+ Conjunctions (20. Carve every word before you let it fall. From this piazza the wondering Ichabod entered the hall. Phrases (17. but. 76). O Lord. "Give us. Better to stem with heart and hand The roaring tide of life than lie. Of God's occasions drifting by. by an easy and familiar examination of words and groups of words. Additional Selections. Doubting in his abject spirit. 60. 7. And hungry crows. our daily bread!" --Longfellow. In one corner stood a huge bag of wool ready to be spun.+ Simple. 38.--Holmes. so frame the questions as more and more to throw responsibility on the pupil. Speak clearly. piping loud. till his Lord is crucified. Andirons. 65. 60). Pronouns (59. as well as the logical construction of these passages. but in continuing such exercises the teacher will. 65). Better with naked nerve to bear The needles of this goading air Than. 64). dazzled his eyes. Nouns and Pronouns (33. in the lap of sensual ease. 6. 8. with their accompanying shovel and tongs. 9. Ears of Indian corn and strings of dried apples and peaches hung in gay festoons along the walls.

We can easily imagine that he could produce the same effect in a great variety of ways. Read in their regular order the two chief words of each. 13. together with the more formal and searching work of the regular lessons. for we have broken it up into single sentences. The and wondering in the first sentence go with what noun? The group of words from this piazza goes with what word? In the second sentence put what before. 12. The parts of this picture as made by Irving were smoothly and delicately blended together. What group of words tells the position of the rows? In the fourth sentence what group of words shows where the bag stood? Of wool ready to be spun describes what? A and huge are attached to what? TO THE TEACHER. To what class of words does each of these chief parts belong? Find in these sentences nouns that are not subjects. found in the preceding sentence? Find the subject and the predicate of each sentence from the sixth to the thirteenth inclusive.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg [Footnote: Asparagus tops were commonly used to ornament the old-fashioned fireplace in summer. Such exercises. displayed immense treasures of old silver and well-mended china. What does of the mansion go with? What does of usual residence describe? In the third sentence what word tells where the dazzling occurred? Find a group of three words telling what the rows were composed of.--Find the two chief words in each of the first three sentences. Do you think the picture gains. As a part of the sentence what is each of these words called? To what class of words. and find the names that answer these questions. In the eleventh sentence what two things does decorated tell something about? In the seventh sentence thesestands for what two nouns.--+ Can you find any reason why we are invited to see this picture through the eyes of the interested and wondering Ichabod? Do you think the word wondering well chosen and suggestive? Look through this picture carefully and tell what there is that indicates thrift. or part of speech. and prosperity. Notice in the third sentence the effect of resplendent and dazzled. by representing the door as "ajar" instead of wide open? Why? Can you see any similar effect from introducing their covert in the tenth sentence? What does the expression knowingly left open suggest to you? This selection from Irving illustrates the +Descriptive+ style of writing. We recommend that this work be varied and continued through the selection above and through others that may easily be made. In the fourth sentence does the expression ready to be spun tell what is actually seen. you may join the sentences neatly together. How is a similar effect produced in the ninth and the tenth sentence? You see that this great artist in words does not here need to repeat his language. will be found of incalculable value to the pupil. formed.] 11. Perhaps some of these sentences may be changed to become parts of other sentences. Mock-oranges and conch-shells decorated the mantelpiece. where it can be done to advantage. or asserts. Strings of various-colored birds' eggs were suspended above it. or what is only suggested? What is gained by this expression and by just from the loom in the next sentence? Do you think an unskillful artist would have used in gay festoons? Read the seventh and make it more common but less quaint. and. In the description above we have taken some liberties with the original. industry. 90 +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. .--We have here suggested some of the devices by which pupils may be led to see the functions of words and phrases. or names. does each belong? Notice that in the fourth and the fifth sentence the subject is put after the predicate. SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITION WORK. and then after. something about both ears and strings? In the ninth sentence put what before the predicate shone and find two nouns that answer the question. In the sixth sentence what word says. Find several compound nouns the parts of which are joined with the hyphen. +The Force and the Beauty of the Description above. Change the order of words and read these sentences. or loses. knowingly left open. Find more common expressions for center of the mansion and place of usual residence. You may rewrite this description. They will not only afford the best mental discipline but will aid greatly in getting thought and in expressing thought. A corner-cupboard.

From these pens sallied forth. now and then. In the study of these selections. and the effect upon the pupil's own habits of thought and expression will necessarily be to lift him above the insipid." 1.--It will be found profitable for pupils to break up for themselves into short sentences model selections from classic English. they might make descriptions of their own. 13. Swallows and martins skimmed twittering about the eaves. employments. Guinea fowls fretted about. to note and. What does forth modify? What does with the treasures of the farm modify? In the third sentence what two nouns form the subject of skimmed? What connects these two nouns? In the fourth what word tells what the rows were enjoying? In the fifth turned up as if watching the weather describes what? As if watching the weathergoes with what? The expression introduced by as if is a shortened form. and crowing in the pride and gladness of his heart--sometimes tearing up the earth with his feet. Putting in some of the words omitted. 10. 2. discontented cry. Seemed does not make sense. For exercises in narration pupils might write about trips to these homes. and acts of hospitality. Regiments of turkeys were gobbling through the farmyard. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. Others were swelling and cooing and bowing about their dames. then. Sleek. formally stated further on. may easily be anticipated informally. This study of the thought. we have as if they were watching the weather.) To insure thoroughness. Some sat with one eye turned up as if watching the weather. like ill-tempered housewives. with their peevish. 6. descriptions of home scenes. Rows of pigeons were enjoying the sunshine on the roof. troops of sucking pigs. How many predicate . 11. Before the barn-door strutted the gallant cock. with their attitudes. Every window and crevice of the vast barn seemed bursting forth with the treasures of the farm. after examining the structure and style as suggested above. They were watching the weather. unwieldy porkers were grunting in the repose and abundance of their pens. 7. and other rules. all such compositions should he short. and. telling about the preparation. What does each of the two phrases under their wings and buried in their bosoms describe? What connects these two phrases? In the seventh sentence were is understood before cooing and before bowing. In these descriptions different persons might be introduced. convoying whole fleets of ducks. and the style of the great masters in language must lead to a discriminating taste for literature. but seemed bursting does. 8. ADAPTED FROM IRVING'S "SKETCH BOOK. A written reproduction of the selection may then be made from memory. (For studies on narrative style. as if to snuff the air. clapping his burnished wings. especially in the work of copying. A stately squadron of snowy geese was riding in an adjoining pond. the structure. 5. so far as possible. 12. Some sat with their heads under their wings or buried in their bosoms. the rules for punctuation. explain how these were blended together in the original. the journey. 9. see pages 157-162.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 91 TO THE TEACHER. and then generously calling his ever-hungry family of wives and children to enjoy the rich morsel which he had discovered. would make a complete sentence. commonplace matter and language that characterize much of the so-called "original" composition work. if standing by itself. +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. The flail was busily resounding within from morning till night.--In the first sentence seemedasserts something about what two things? Every goes with what word or words? What word or words does the phrase of the vast barn make more definite in meaning? The two words window and crevice are joined together by what word? The group of words bursting forth with the treasures of the farm describes what? Notice that bursting also helps seemed to say something about window and crevice. the start. 4. and the reception. drawing from imagination or experience. 3. For composition work more nearly original the class might read together or discuss. You see that one sentence may be made a part of another sentence.

and adverbs. "Guinea fowls are fretting housewives. crowing. fifth. Find the three words that answer the questions made by putting what after clapping. sound. In the twelfth sentence find one word and two phrases joined to fretted. each asserting something about the pigeons represented by others? Why are these verbs not separated by commas? What two nouns form the principal part of the phrase in the eighth sentence? What connects these two nouns? Read the ninth sentence and put the subject before the predicate. Examine the second sentence and compare it with the following: "The men were busy all day pounding out the grain with flails. You may now explain as if to snuff the air. This figure is used above when flocks are called "squadrons" and "fleets. unwieldy porkers would be too high-sounding an expression for you to use ordinarily." or of a table as "groaning with a load of good things. Except in this one fancied resemblance the two are wholly unlike." +The Beauty and the Force of the Description above+. Repose and abundance are thus made the striking features of the pen. It will be noticed that in the questions above we especially anticipate the regular lessons that follow Lesson 27. grain. and content? Which do you prefer. Notice that without which there would be no connection. Were the wings actually burnished? What can you say of this use of burnished? SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITION WORK. burnished. It is shorter and stronger. happiness.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 92 verbs do you find. We often speak of a barn or storehouse as "bursting with plenty. and makes these the principal words in the phrase. Such expressions are called +Figures of Speech+. when read together. Such comparisons frequently made by as and like are called +Similes+. Is a real squadron referred to in the tenth sentence? and were the geese actually convoying fleets? These are figurative uses of words. pronouns. See whether you can find substitutes for these italicized words. In the repose and abundance of their pens is much better than the words substituted above. Which he had discovered = He had discovered morsel. gallant. The sentences in the description above.--It may be well to let the pupils complete the examination of the structure of the sentences above and point out nouns. but it is in tone with the rest of the description. The fourth. It uses instead of the verb reposing and the adjective abundant the nouns repose and abundance. In the third sentence would you prefer skimmed to flew? Why? Compare the eighth sentence with this: "Large fat hogs were grunting in their pens and reposing quietly with an abundant supply of food. ." Sleek. sixth. Arrange the ninth sentence in as many ways as possible and tell which way you prefer. have a somewhat broken or jerky effect. and calling. Young writers find it difficult to make very long sentences perfectly clear in meaning. TO THE TEACHER." Do the words busily resoundingjoined to flail bring into our imagination men. This we do in all such "Exercises. What phrase tells the cause of crowing? The phrase to enjoy the rich morsel which he had discovered tells the purpose of what? Which he had discovered limits the meaning of what? The pronoun which here stands for morsel. tearing. Here you will see a sentence has again been made a part of another sentence. rich morsel. generously." In the thirteenth sentence notice how well chosen and forceful are the words strutted. pounding. If we leave out like and say.--Why may we say that this farmyard scene is surrounded by an atmosphere of plenty. or this substitute for it: "The large barn was entirely full of the products of the farm"? Give every reason that you can find for your preference. and perhaps other things? A good description mentions such things and uses such words as will help us to see in imagination many things not mentioned. all describe what? Notice that all the other words following the subject go with these four. calling. verbs. remembering that a similar expression in the fifth sentence was explained. tearing. ever-hungry. in the thirteenth. You may unite smoothly such as should be joined. Clapping." we have a figure of speech called +Metaphor+. There is danger of making your sentences too long." when there is really no bursting nor groaning. What can you say of regimentsin the eleventh? In the twelfth Guinea fowls are compared to housewives. In the tenth sentence convoying whole fleets of ducksdescribes what? Does convoying assert anything about the squadron? Change it into a predicate verb. and seventh can all be put into one. adjectives. the first sentence above.

and I knew no soul nor where to look for lodging. then. sentence. I bade him give me three-penny worth of any sort. FROM FRANKLIN'S "AUTOBIOGRAPHY. What phrase belongs to went. till near the markethouse I met a boy with bread. In this second part of 2 find the leading subject and its two predicates. The latter I gave the people of the boat for my passage. Drop till and see whether the parts of 1 make separate sentences. a predicate. it seems. inquiring where he got it. walked off with a roll under each arm. Find in it a subject. I went immediately to the baker's he directed me to. I had made many a meal on bread. and my whole stock of cash consisted of a Dutch dollar and about a shilling in copper. Find a phrase belonging to I and representing Franklin as doing something. Put what after inquiring and find the object complement. knowing. who is described as gazing about? What does gazing about modify? Read the group of words that tells how far or how long Franklin walked up the street. and having are all modifiers of I found in the . considering. I was surprised at the quantity. and. who at first refused it on account of my rowing. paragraph 1. three great puffy rolls. 3. Do the same for 2. but took it. their observation. 6. accordingly. in Second Street. paragraph 2. Which read more closely together. and tell what changes this will make in capitals and punctuation. What modifies refused by telling when? What. Find the object complement of gave. having no room in my pockets. What word. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. by telling why? In 1. So not considering or knowing the difference of money. 2. the parts of 2." 1. and want of rest. intending such as we had in Boston. ***** +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. I was very hungry. 3. one a noun and the other a group of five words. 4. 2. The second of these three sentences just made contains several sentences which are not so easily separated. were not made in Philadelphia. it will be almost impossible to secure good work. Such expressions are said to be parenthetical. as some are used like single words to make up the main. Notice the punctuation. and. or their imagination. Notice that this whole group is used like an adverb.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 93 TO THE TEACHER. rowing.--Break up sentence 1. binds these two sentences into one? Read 2 and make of it three distinct sentences by omitting the first and and the word but. I was fatigued with traveling. Then I asked for a three-penny loaf. and was told they had none such. What have you learned about the commas used with these nouns? In making separate sentences of 3 what words do you change or drop? Are these the words that bind the parts of 3 together? What noun is used adverbially after gave? Supply a preposition and then tell what phrases modify gave. intending. but they. or principal. my pockets were stuffed out with shirts and stockings. Find two object complements of knew. telling where? He directed me to (whom) belongs to what? Who is represented as intending? Intending such as we had in Boston belongs to what? As we had in Boston goes with what? Notice that it seems is a sentence thrown in loosely between the parts of another sentence. I was dirty from my journey. and eating the other. it may he well to let them write similar descriptions drawn from their reading. into three distinct sentences. 5. but I insisted on their taking it.--While the pupils' thoughts and style are somewhat toned up by the preceding exercises. and an object complement. Find in 2 a phrase whose principal part is made up of three nouns. gazing about. He gave me. and are more closely connected. or the greater cheapness and the names of his bread. and asked for biscuit. or of 1? How is this shown to the eye? Analyze the first two sentences you made from 1. Notice that gazing. 1. If the compositions contain more than two or three short paragraphs each. inquiring. Then I walked up the street.

--What is here taught of the paragraph and of style will probably not be mastered at one . he fitted the language to the thought. Participles are very useful in slurring over the less important actions that the more important may have prominence. Can you find anything in the meaning of provided that makes previously unnecessary? Do you now understand what Lowell meant when. There are two groups of sentences in this selection because there are two distinct sub-topics developed. that is. his sentence might have taken this form:-"Not having been previously provided with a satchel or other receptacle for my personal effects. stand in two groups. Examine the phrase with a roll under each arm. in praise of Dryden. The closing sentence is slightly humorous. direct. and eating a third roll." Compare this sentence with Franklin's and point out the faults you see in the substitute. simple. to use large words for small ideas. or heading. and natural. and you will see that no assertion is made. and they stand in their usual place. You see that even a short composition like this has a general topic with topics under it. and the expression is commonplace. must have been a laughable sight. Figures of speech are not used. +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. hugging a great roll of bread under each arm. he said. These words illustrate one form of the verb (the participle). foolish writer. Those of each group are more closely related to one another than they are to the sentences of the other group. The matter is somewhat tame. To fit the expression to the thought on every occasion is the perfection of style. Now examine the first group of sentences and see whether its topic might not be put thus: My Condition on Reaching Philadelphia. Put I before any one of these words.--This selection is mainly +Narrative+. or asserting form. the style is clear. spoken of in Lesson 11 as not asserting. to be something like this: My First Experiences in Philadelphia. high-sounding phrases and sentences for plain. Show that they are so used in Franklin's narrative. The words are ordinary. illustrates the other form (the infinitive).Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 94 different sentences of paragraph 2. and look in 1. paragraph 1.--The sentences above. If Franklin had been a weak. Yet the piece has a charm. The sentences of each group stand together because they jointly develop one sub-topic. we will call these under topics sub-topics. "My pockets were stuffed out with shirts and stockings. Then examine the sentences of the second group and see whether all will not come under this heading: How I Found Something to Eat. The thoughts are homely. the expression is in perfect keeping. Benjamin Franklin trudging along the street. were protruding conspicuously with extra underclothing. and long. as you see. my pockets. simple thoughts? Have you ever seen what could be neatly said in three or four lines "padded out" to fill a page of composition paper or a column in a newspaper? When Franklin said. Do you see how? In studying this short selection you may find the general topic. and see if you do not find an illustration of the fact that even great men sometimes make slips. A group of sentences related and held together by a common thought we call a +Paragraph+. Have you ever known boys and girls in writing school compositions." he said a homely thing in a homely way. How is the paragraph indicated to the eye? What help is it to the reader to have a composition paragraphed? What. Change each of these participles to a predicate. Does other properly mean one of three things? Try to improve this expression. which were employed as a substitute. or reporters in writing for the newspapers. You will notice that giving these words the asserting form makes them more prominent and forcible--brings them up to a level with the other predicate verbs. and eating the other. As submeans under. "His phrase is always a short cut to his sense"? TO THE TEACHER. and then read the sentences in which these predicates are found. to the writer to know that he must write in paragraphs? +The Style of the Author+.

6. The work dragged a little--as it is apt to do by the hour. What adjective may be used in place of good in a good deal? What long complex phrase modifies deal? Put what after the preposition about and find a group of words that takes the place of a noun. A couple of plumbers. They seemed to me very good workmen. or would you use a comma? Give a reason for the comma after days. thus making an outline for a composition to be completed from reproduction. Sometimes they would find. They should. It is a great pleasure to meet such men. Use an equivalent adjective in place of a couple of.--We suggest that the pupils reproduce from memory the extract above. There was a good deal of difference of opinion about where the stoppage was. and one would go back to the shop. +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. 6. In the driest days. and his comrade would await his return with the most exemplary patience. and their general observations on other subjects were excellent in their way. I found the plumbers perfectly willing to sit down and talk about it--talk by the hour. upon arrival. Two of them will sometimes wait nearly half a day. a mile and a half. Find in 2 an adverb phrase that expresses purpose. They are patient and philosophical. 4. while a comrade goes for a tool. 2. must be the word that connected the two sentences. It will be found necessary to return to it occasionally. Find in this group a subject and a predicate. that they had forgotten some indispensable tool. 1. 7. ***** Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. When 5 is divided into two sentences. 4. They may also note the amount of description it contains. and sit down and talk--always by the hour. 5. TO THE TEACHER. WARNER'S "MY SUMMER IN A GARDEN. 10. and could hardly have been better if they had been made by the job. 3. FROM C. what word is dropped? This.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg reading. find the topic for each paragraph. when I went near them. Find a compound infinitive phrase and tell what it modifies. They can afford to wait. 9. and to refer pupils to it for aid in their composition work. Notice that the dash helps to show the break made by repeating talk. Some of their guesses and remarks were exceedingly ingenious. It will now require little effort to write simple original narratives of real or imagined experiences. One only wishes there was some work he could do for them by the hour. D. The pupils may be able to note to what extent the narrative follows the order of time and to what extent it is topical. Find in 4 an objective complement. came out to view the situation. so far as possible. Notice that the two main parts of 5 are separated by a semicolon. Explain the use of there in 3. 2. Nor had they any of that impetuous hurry that is said to be the bane of our American civilization. then. the pipe was stopped up. and always willing to stop. To their credit be it said that I never observed anything of it in them. and talk about the job or anything else. 3." 95 1. 11. my fountain became disabled. 5. SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITION WORK. 8. If they had been made by the job is joined like an adverb to what verb? What is the predicate of this modifying group? .--How can you make the last part of 1 express more directly the cause of becoming disabled? Would you use a semicolon to separate the sentences thus joined. The plumbers had occasion to make me several visits. I do not know but it is a habit to have something wanted at the shop. and that other selections of narrative be found in the Readers or elsewhere and studied as above. This enables the writer to show that the two main divisions of 5 are more widely separated in meaning than are the parts of the second division where the comma is used. with the implements of their craft. after it. Give the three leading predicate verbs in 5 and their complements.

next occasional falsehood. there are two paragraphs. Falsehood becomes the instrument of every plan. if the latter. 1. pages 159. must have made an adjective of this sentence and joined it to hurry? What is the object complement of can afford in 7? Supply a preposition after will wait in 8. . a mist of forgetfulness rises up and obscures the memory of vows and oaths. Find a subject and a predicate in the second group. TO THE TEACHER. They should stand in their proper order. +The Author's Style+. His carelessness is somebody's loss. the style is humorous. What is the object complement of could do? What connects this group to work? +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. modifies what? Is me. or generally short? What are the faults or foibles of these real or fancied plumbers? Does the author speak of them in a genial and lenient way? or is he hostile. then. so upon such poverty brood equivocations." 1. and the very best thing an honest man can do with a lazy man is to get rid of him. The sentences of each paragraph should be closely related to one another and to the sub-topic. similes. or does he make us laugh at. Would you call Mr. 2. and then find two groups of words that tell the time of waiting. his neglect is somebody's downfall. Let us take for the general topic The Visits of the Plumbers. If he borrows. exhausts your patience. though there are descriptive touches in it. 4.--There are two distinct sets of sentences in this selection--distinct because developing two distinct sub-topics. they possess the prime quality of +Unity+. What word. Let us see whether all the sentences of the first paragraph will not come under the sub-topic First Visit. 3. 3. Negligence of truth.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 96 The infinitive phrase in 1. Can you make a sentence of this group? What are its principal parts? Does the writer make an unexpected turn after talk? How is this shown to the eye? Put what after do know in 3 and find the object complement. or not? Can you name any writers whose humor or satire is coarse? SUGGESTIONS FOB COMPOSITION WORK. eats up your substance. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. if he begs and gets. What group of words in 5 is used like an adjective to modify hurry? Change the pronoun that to hurry and make a separate sentence of this group. FROM BEECHER'S "LECTURES TO YOUNG MEN. Can you make a sentence of this object complement? What phrase can you put in place of the pronoun it without changing the sense? By using the word it. the plumbers? If the former. it is as the letting out of waters--no one knows where it will stop. He spoils your work.--This selection we may call +Narrative+.--See suggestions. the article remains borrowed. or does it abound with metaphors. disappoints your expectations. 160. to eat their bread and not his own. 5. What explains it in 10? Find the object complement of wishes in 11. abuses your confidence. Warner here giving us a bit of his own experience? Or do you think he is drawing upon his imagination? Would you call the style plain. Indolence promises without redeeming the pledge. As poverty waits upon the steps of indolence. Indolence inclines a man to rely upon others and not upon himself. and hangs a dead weight upon all your plans. the style is satirical or sarcastic. where is it obscure? Is it made interesting and entertaining? Is Mr. The negligence of laziness breeds more falsehoods than the cunning of the sharper. or other figures of speech? Are the sentences generally long. 2. lying denials. Do the paragraphs above stand such tests? If they do. paragraph 2. the object complement of make? Put what after would find in 2 and get the object complement. It is a story of what? Is the story clearly told throughout? If not. Accordingly. a better arrangement can be made. What is the subject of was? The office of there? After work supply the pronoun that and tell the office of the group it introduces. and those of the second under the sub-topic Subsequent Visits. or visits. 4. subterfuges. and does he hold up their foibles to scorn and derision? Does he make us laugh with. Warner's quality of style +Humor+? or that +form of wit+ known as +Satire+? Is our author's use of it delicate and refined? or is it gross and coarse? Does it stop short of making its object grotesque.

and in the three paragraphs is giving three reasons. and who. In what sentence is the style made +energetic+ by the aid of short predicates? How does the alternation of short sentences with long throughout the extract affect you? The alternation of plain with figurative . You will see that the thought is repeated.--This selection is neither descriptive nor narrative. to prove its truth. When stores are broken open. Industry was the road back to honesty. Mr. or arguments. paragraph 3. they are but different parts of the same road. and not far apart. to a clause. it is +Argumentative+. Put together the three thoughts established in these paragraphs and tell what they prove. Examine the other sentences of this paragraph and see whether they enforce the leading thought by illustration. Change the phrase in 1. Beecher makes his thought clearer and stronger.--You can easily learn the sub-topic. Are the quotation marks now needed? In 3 and 4 find clauses introduced by that. in 5. example. Read the first part of 2 and change somebody's first to a phrase and then to a clause used like an adjective. It is first expressed in a general way. Beecher's heart is in his work. paragraph 2. paragraph 1. and mendacity." 4. (See Remark. falsehood. Lesson 45. the third phrase makes the statement more specific. Beecher's repetition is not needless. 3. figures of speech abound. Beecher is contending. But Mr. The needless repetition of the same thought in different words is one of the worst faults in writing. What distinction can you make between the use of the semicolon and the use of the comma in 3? The clause if he borrows is joined like an adverb to what verb? If he begs and gets? What pronoun more indefinite than your might take its place in 4? What noun? Explain the use of the semicolon and the comma in 4. 5. As a consequence. it may be written at the head of the extract as the general topic. or thought. Give the three sub-topics. Supply the words omitted from the last part of each compound. Find in 4 an infinitive phrase used as attribute complement. What merits of the paragraph. Mr. Are negligence. Find in 2 the omitted predicate of the clause introduced by than. See whether you can find it in the first sentence of each. the idle are first suspected.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg then wanton mendacity--these three strides traverse the whole road of lies. would you change the punctuation? A sentence that unites with another to make one greater sentence we call a clause. The men who were thieves were those who had ceased to work. Notice that in 1. is impassioned. +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. and used like adjectives. which. In directing the conduct of the Ephesian converts. used as subjects? Explain their use and punctuation. It is suffused with feeling. each of these paragraphs develops. Find a compound subject in 3. and stimulates his fancy. by the aid of the second phrase we see the same thought from the negative side. "Let him that stole steal no more. is not purely intellectual. Mr. Read the words Indolence inclines a man with each of the four infinitive phrases that follow. This feeling warms and colors his style. 6. are admirably illustrated in this extract? +The Style of the Author+. working with his hands the thing which is good. 97 1. the thought is repeated by means of the infinitive phrases. Find the office of that by placing it after do. What they prove is that for which Mr. Paul says. ***** +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. Supply that after thing and tell what clause is here used like an adjective. Indeed. Beecher is trying to establish a certain proposition. 2. already treated. or consequence. the fourth puts the specific statement negatively. Indolence as surely runs to dishonesty as to lying. how are the words borrowed from Paul marked? Change the quotation from Paul so as to give his thought but not his exact words.) In 3.--Find in 1 two compound infinitive phrases and tell their use. By every repetition here. but rather let him labor. But the argument is not all thought. What shows that the parts of 2 are not closely connected? Would a conjunction bring them more closely together? If a conjunction is used.

4. paragraph 2. ***** +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. Ah! gentlemen. Not to speak of that eye which pierces through all disguises and beholds everything as in the splendor of noon. though it is obvious that life has been destroyed by the blow of the bludgeon. Compositions should be short. Can you tell why? Notice that in the latter part of 2 the door is mentioned. paragraph 2. Pick out the comparisons. tell how. The face of the innocent sleeper is turned from the murderer. through the window already prepared. and the beams of the moon. and that 3 begins with of this. half lighted by the moon. paragraph 1. Can you find any other arrangement by which 3 will follow 2 so naturally? Can you change 3 so as to make the reference of it clearer? What is the office of the till clause? Does the clause following the semicolon modify anything? Would you call such a clause dependent. introduce us to another figure. referring to the door. or are they transposed? In what different places may they stand? Does either phrase need to be transposed for emphasis or for clearness? Explain the punctuation. . True it is that Providence hath so ordained. Something belonging to the men. 1. paragraph 3. He even raises the aged arm that he may not fail in his aim at the heart. It is accomplished. 3. EXTRACT FROM DANIEL WEBSTER. 5. stand in their usual order. It is the assassin's purpose to make sure work. and 5. or similes. 6. 3. 2. True it is. and he plies the dagger. 4. No eye has seen him. paragraph 2. 3. 1. 2. passes out through it as he came in. The fatal blow is given! and the victim passes. Indolence in 1 and 3. by soft and continued pressure. show him where to strike. 3. that "Murder will out. 3. 8. resting on the gray locks of his aged temple. 1. that was a dreadful mistake. and ascertains that it beats no longer. Begin 2 with the lonely hall. For original work we suggest debates on current topics.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 98 sentences? Can you show that the author's style has +Variety+? Pick out the metaphors in 1. 7. he winds up the ascent of the stairs and reaches the door of the chamber. paragraph 1. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. To finish the picture. and escapes. The deed is done. and notice that the sentence is thrown out of harmony with the other sentences. The assassin enters. Such a secret can be safe nowhere." 6. from the repose of sleep to the repose of death. and in 1 and 2.--Do the phrases in 1. and laziness in 2. and beholds his victim before him. he explores the wrist for the pulse. such secrets of guilt are never safe from detection even by men. Of this he moves the lock. no ear has heard him. SUGGESTIONS FOB COMPOSITION WORK. and doth so govern things. or would you call it independent? Explain the punctuation of 3. He feels for it. If you think these do. retraces his steps to the window. without a struggle or a motion. Figures of speech should add clearness and force. He has done the murder. 5. TO THE TEACHER. 2. Such a figure is called +Metonymy+. The secret is his own. 2. and say it is safe. The whole creation of God has neither nook nor corner where the guilty can bestow it. is made to represent the men themselves. and he enters. and places it again over the wounds of the poniard. and that the assassin is for the moment lost sight of. and in 3. that those who break the great law of heaven by shedding man's blood seldom succeed in avoiding discovery. a quality.--Exercises in argumentative writing may be continued by making selections from the discussion of easy topics. and it is safe. 2. in 3. He retreats. till it turns on its hinges without noise. With noiseless foot he paces the lonely hall. 1. into an unoccupied apartment. generally speaking.

Webster. is here allowed free play. and (4) at the larger unity of the four paragraphs--that of each paragraph determined by the relation of each sentence to the sub-topic of the paragraph. Read the first part of 3 and put the explanatory phrase in place of it.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 99 Give the effect of changing resting in 1. Find in 4 and 5 an infinitive phrase and a participle phrase used independently. In studying our questions and suggestions the pupils should have the "Extract" before them. They are mostly of the same length. a remarkable sameness prevails. and of the who clause in 6. in paragraphs 3 and 4. not generic. proof of (3). (2) because +simple words+ are +used+. words understood even by children. Are 7 and 8 identical in meaning? Give the modifiers of passes in paragraph 3. paragraph 2. TO THE TEACHER. What is the office of the though clause? Find in this a clause doing the work of a noun and tell its office. has all the effect of an argument. But it is impossible to read these paragraphs without being most profoundly impressed with their energy. because (6) of the +repetition of the thought+ in successive sentences. paragraph 2. This sameness is not accidental. +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. The more real the murderer's fancied security is made in this paragraph to appear. and that of the four paragraphs determined by their relation to the general topic of the extract. Expand the phrase into a clause. . paragraph 4. The sentences are made to look and sound alike and to be alike that their effect may be cumulative. that the language is plain language. often the words are the same. Find the object complement of ascertains in 6. What does that in 1. to the assertive form. in paragraphs 1 and 3. proof of (4). Explain the as clause. Look (5). Find in 1 a pronoun used adverbially and a phrase used as object complement. Give the modifiers of passesin 2. because (4) of the grateful +variety of sentences+. The meaning will grow upon them. but much of the matter must have come from the imagination of Mr. the principle that sentences similar in thought should be similar in form.+ Its leading facts were doubtless supplied by the testimony given in the case. In paragraph 3. The order of the words in them is the same. Look (3) at the unity of each paragraph. (5) because of the +prevalence of short sentences+. It will. Could Webster have done more to make his thought seen and felt? +The Style of the Author. and lastly. They probably will not fully comprehend it till they have returned to it several times. those in one clause or sentence seem to suggest those in the next. In 4 would his in place of the before aged and before heart be ambiguous? If so. even when they are not. Neither order could be changed without making the stream of events run up hill. in sentences 3. stand for? What kind of clause is introduced by where in 3? By which in 4? Expand the as clause in 4 and tell its office. The sentences here are framed largely on one plan. why? Find in this paragraph an infinitive phrase used independently. The principle of +Parallel Construction+. Tell the office of the that clauses in 5 and 6. It is noticeable also that very little imagery is used. its perspicuity. 4. however. because (7). The style is forcible because (1) the +subject-matter+ is +easily grasped+. at the fact that the sub-topic of each paragraph is found in the first line of each paragraph. because (3) these +words+ are +specific+ and +individual+. Find proof of what we have just said--proof of (2). of (5) and (6).+--This selection is largely +Narrative. and of (7). and 5. their force. be impossible for them to study it without profit.--Do not be discouraged should your pupils fail to grasp at first all that is here taught. One quality of it is its clearness. We add that the obvious reference of the repeated he to the same person. the more startling in the next paragraph will be the revelation of his mistake. throughout. and should try to verify in it all that is taught concerning it.--Look (1) at the order of the sentences in each paragraph. and (2) at the order of the paragraphs themselves. for each order is the order in which the events happened. Everything is so skillfully and vividly put that the story. Hence no novelty in the words or in their arrangement is allowed to distract our attention from the dominant thought. Webster speaks as if it were +now taking place+ in our very sight. and. in the first three paragraphs. and of that and secret in paragraph 4 demonstrates both unities. though the murder took place some time before. touched with description.

The name Sarah is not thus held in common. girl. Any name which belongs in common to all things of a class we call a +Common Noun+. are called +Relative Pronouns+. the one spoken to. The mind cannot see itself. they are a cover. If a noun. or that. speaking of one. her. By adding self to my. Much has been done. or quantity.. is to be modified by a clause. we call a +Proper Noun+. and binding the clauses together. Xerxes himself was the last to cross the Hellespont. or architecture does not distinguish one thing from others of its class. your. etc. etc. your. each thing forms a class by itself. the clause is introduced by who. and them. as. order. and hence does not distinguish one girl from another. DEFINITIONS. and scum.. The latter will do. whatever. and any particular name of an individual. used in asking questions.. but words used instead of names. as. as. CLASSES OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS. thy. thy. as. The sky. Such a word as wheat.--You have now reached a point where it becomes necessary to divide the eight great classes of words into subclasses. he uses who. have this most noticeable feature. The root does not necessarily denote the most essential quality of the thing. . what. and without any word expressed to which they relate. whosoever. and selves to our. Lesson 8. him. Such words we call +Adjective Pronouns+. he may use he. conceal. you were told to begin with capital letters are proper nouns. for instance. and it. The "proper. distinguishing this individual from others of its class. In Lesson 8 you learned that pronouns are not names. thou. and in the adjective obscure. etc. my. speaking to one. instead of his own name. or individual. and scum that name these objects. Is that a man? What is this? or by words telling something of their number. Sarah. These words. By adding ever and soever to who. a shower. he may use you. names" which in Rule 1. we form what are called +Compound Personal Pronouns+. shower(Saxon scu:r). as. +A Noun is the name of anything+. or what. [Footnote: Most common nouns are derived from roots that denote qualities. instead of that person's name.. it does distinguish one girl from other girls. None are perfect. or the one spoken of are called +Personal Pronouns+. instead of that one's name.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** PARTS OF SPEECH SUBDIVIDED LESSON 85. This the root +sku+ signifies. or some word or words used like a noun. Any one speaking of himself may use I. there is but one thing in the class denoted by each. music. and what. 100 +Introductory Hints+. These little words that by their form denote the speaker. relating to words in another clause. You have learned that nouns are the names of things. used either for emphasis or to reflect the action of the verb back upon the actor. she. I know the man that did that. The name girl is held in common by all girls. him. they hide. are called +Interrogative Pronouns+. your. which. Instead of naming things a speaker may indicate them by words pointing them out as near or remote. If the speaker is ignorant of the name of a person or a thing and asks for it. it. her. used in a general way. which. which. and sku is the main element in the words sky. we form what are called the +Compound Relative Pronouns+ whoever. and so we call these words common nouns. etc. Who did that? These pronouns. as. only its most obtrusive quality. whichever.

Pronouns are not the names of things. by the association of this quality with the rest. after which the wind ceased. 2. as. and that their primary function is not to prevent the repetition of nouns. flock. as. except the speaker and the one spoken to. fall into the last list. (the) sleep. like nouns. Some pronouns stand for a phrase. a clause. The sails turned. you. Ought you to go? I cannot answer that. or a state. you when referring to the one addressed. (the) singing. it rains. and he or she or it. How is it with you? 3. It is doubtful whether the North Pole will ever be reached. Who did it? Which of them did you see? the questioner is trying to find out the one for whom Whostands. but it may be well for the student to note that pronouns are something more than mere substitutes for nouns. beauty. and they when referring to the person or persons. In the first of these sentences. An +Abstract Noun+ is the name of a quality. she. +An Adjective Pronoun is one that performs the offices of both an adjective and a noun+. you. the name soon ceases to denote quality. may use I when referring to himself. They seize upon relations that objects sustain to each other and denote the objects by these relations. or a sentence. lay hold of qualities and name things by them. . Which. as Smith is from the man's office of smoothing. Any person. or the one spoken of+. retaining its office as connective. +A Proper Noun is the particular name of an individual+. and he. To what does itrefer in.] +A Personal Pronoun is a pronoun that by its form denotes the speaker. I denotes the speaker. However derived. Herein proper nouns differ from common. Some pronouns are so general.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 101 A noun denoting at first only a single quality of its object comes gradually. [Footnote: In our definition and general treatment of the pronoun. we have conformed to the traditional views of grammarians. mob. or White from his color. 1. the thing or things. going before or coming after. an action. and hence so vague. it. +Remark+.] +A Common Noun is a name which belongs to all things of a class+. the one spoken of. +An Interrogative Pronoun is one with which a question is asked+. may as an adjective accompany its noun. Gestures could express all that many pronouns express. +A Relative Pronoun is one that relates to some preceding word or words and connects clauses+. as. This and thatdenote their objects by the relative distance of these from the speaker. 4. I craved his forbearance a little longer. for a sentence. that stands for a phrase. or even an animal or a thing personified. in their denotement that they show the speaker's complete ignorance of the objects they denote. whiteness. +A Pronoun is a word used for a noun+. the one spoken to. in the last. the corn was ground. and becomes really meaningless. wisdom. and the person or thing that Which denotes. some and few and others indicate parts separated from the rest. I. It and which in the second and third sentences stand for clauses. which forbearance he allowed me. the one spoken to. jury. To be or not to be--that is the question. It follows that pronouns are more general than nouns.--It may be well to note two classes of common nouns--collectiveand abstract. In. spoken of--and all creatures and things. A +Collective Noun+ is the name of a number of things taken together. army. They do not. and he denote their objects by the relations these objects sustain to the act of speaking. a being. existence. to denote them all.

as. and always knocked off his hat when he met him. little. as. But for the fact that such words as brave. such. many. I saw what was done. yourself. these. this. and what. thou. Each. etc. one. To sleep soundly. The compound personal pronouns are:--Myself. is to repair and renew the body. whichever or whichsoever. To lie is to be a coward. etc. these. which is a blessing. I found the person who called and the thing that he wanted. etc. and itself. either. It should be remembered that which and what may also be interrogative adjectives. 102 The simple relative pronouns are:--Who. any. he. none. "Who called" and "what he wanted" here suggest questions--questions referred to but not directly asked. the sublime. but is found to be a preposition--There is not a man here but (= except) the one who would die. [Footnote: The adjective pronouns this.] The compound relative pronouns are:-Whoever or whosoever. etc. which. The first sentence does not mean. and what introduce indirect questions. neither. Some of the more common adjective pronouns are:-All. and what. whole. several. There is not a man here but would die for such a cause. the beautiful. and it. +Direction+. Which side won? What news have you? +Direction+. or clause in the place of which a pronoun is used is called an +Antecedent+. and every boy should know it. that. latter. as. describe--which pronouns never do--we might call them adjective pronouns. it is not always easy to distinguish them from relatives whose antecedents are omitted. are called +Indefinite+ pronouns because they do not point out and particularize like the demonstratives. each.--Analyze these sentences. etc. she. that. same. But used after a negative is sometimes called a "negative relative" = that not. phrase. +Remark+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg The simple personal pronouns are:--I. in such sentences as this: Give such things as you can spare. good. and parse all the pronouns:-- . other. himself. thyself. I saw what was done = I saw the thing that was done. Some adjectives preceded by the are abstract nouns.--Point out the pronouns and their antecedents in these sentences:-Jack was rude to Tom. both. But by expanding the sentence as is seen to be a conjunctive adverb--Give such things as those are which you can spare. other. which. and neither are also called +Distributives+.--When the interrogatives who. you. and those are called +Demonstrative+ pronouns. one. few. which. that. many. All. The interrogative pronouns are:-Who. [Footnote: As. may be treated as a relative pronoun. the grand. Daniel and his companions were fed on pulse. whatever or whatsoever.] The word. in the phrases the brave. either. When the sentence is expanded. or as adjectives modifying nouns to be supplied. any. which one should scorn to be. They may be treated as nouns. those. the good. both. either. each. herself. much. which was to their advantage. enough. For example--I found who called and what he wanted. another. No question is suggested. former. To lie is cowardly.

4. nor the pronoun what for the conjunction that. Prideaux says that. Lysias promised his father never to abandon his friends = Lysias gave his father this promise: "I will never abandon your (or my) friends. 3. The father he died.--Avoid he. and correct these errors:-1. he told him it was a dry subject.--Write.--Do not use pronouns needlessly. [Footnote: What properly introduces a noun clause expressing a direct or an indirect question. if he did not feel better soon. The cat it mewed. and others will love you. 10. +Caution+. 2.--Study the Caution. Whom the gods would destroy they first make mad. and close attention in the class. What was said.--Study the Caution. +Caution+. and the dogs they barked. Give them all. have you heard bad news? 2. omitting needless pronouns:-1. he thought he had better go home. 9. when he took his commentary to the bookseller. and the examples should be read by you. in the same sentence. quote the speaker's exact words. or recast the sentence. They knew whose house was robbed. +Caution+. and who said it? 8. You have guessed which belongs to me. do not. Bestow thou upon us your blessing.--In the recitation of all Lessons containing errors for correction.) 3. It isn't true what he said. for. these sentences. his father would die. which he intercepted. and the man he shouted. they. It is not known to whom the honor belongs. TO THE TEACHER. if he should leave him. 3. 5. I myself know who stole my purse. CONSTRUCTION OF PRONOUNS. he would die = The lad cannot leave his father. Thou art sad. But may be placed before this . A tried to see B in the crowd. if he should leave his father. 2. he gave himself up to the English. and that it was but fair that he should pay him for his loss. for. and relieve these sentences of their ambiguity:-+Model+. 6. Napoleon. but a declarative noun clause is introduced by the conjunction that. 7. but could not because he was so short. Charles's duplicity was fully made known to Cromwell by a letter of his to his wife." 1. The farmer told the lawyer that his bull had gored his ox. 2. Let every one turn from his or her evil ways. To insure care in preparation.--The lad cannot leave his father. You cannot always have thy way. 4.--In addressing a person. ***** LESSON 86. use the two styles of the pronoun. He heard what was said. +Direction+. He said to his friend that.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 103 1. Love thyself last. +Direction+. 5. or any other pronoun when its reference to an antecedent would not be clear. 3. Whatever is done must be done quickly. 4.--The pronoun them should not be used for the adjective those. +Caution+. (This sentence may have four meanings. 4. but she cannot positively tell which. +Direction+. Require specific reasons. 5. Dr. the pupils' books should be closed. read some of the examples in their correct form. Repeat the noun instead. Waterloo having been lost. it. She saw one of them. Who steals my purse steals trash. using what you may suppose were the speaker's words. and the children they were taken sick. the mother she followed.

is generally used. [Footnote: See Lesson 61. 2. and nitrogen. and things. I cannot believe but what I shall see them men again. Longfellow. that is the most popular American poet. The dog who was called Fido went mad. Man. We ought to have a great regard for them that are wise and good. Hand me them things.] +Direction+.--Several connected relative clauses relating to the same antecedent require the same relative pronoun. is also incorrectly used to connect an adverb clause. 3. for but that or but. that is a compound of oxygen. see Lesson 109. that is born of woman. He has some friends which I know. and which saved his father and brothers from famine. 3.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg conjunction to give a negative force to the noun clause. "He is not so bad but what he might be worse.--When the relative clause is not restrictive.--Water.--Study the Caution." But what. and what. and the latter certainty that he will do it. Those which say so are mistaken. The antecedent of what should not be expressed." The former indicates certainty that he will not do it. who became governor of the land. 5. fourth "Example" of the uses of but. and but. It was Joseph that was sold into Egypt. . He told that what he knew.] who or which. 6. has written beautiful prose. 4. that is a precious gift. All what he saw he described. that moves. He who lives. but not three. The intended meaning is.--Study the Caution. and correct these errors:-1. The man that fell overboard. should not be wasted. and correct these errors:-1. 4. for it contains three negatives--no. 104 This use of but requires careful discrimination. "I have no fear but that he will do it. 2. "No one doubts but that he will do it" is incorrect. which. +Direction+. as. +Direction+." or "Every one believes that he will do it. brute animals and inanimate things." or "No one believes but that he will do it. that. and correct these errors:-1. and not that. 2. Two negatives may be used to affirm. Time. is of few days and full of trouble. covers three-fourths of the earth's surface." For this office of but or but that in an adverb clause. For example--"I have no fear that he will do it". LESSON 87. which is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. The earth is enveloped by an ocean of air. "No one doubts that he will do it. 4. +Example+. The horse whom Alexander rode was named Bucephalus. animals. +Direction+.--The relative who should always represent persons. persons. and who has his being in God should not forget him. Who knows but what we may fail? 3.--Study the Caution. CONSTRUCTION OF PRONOUNS--CONTINUED. The lion whom they were exhibiting broke loose. and correct these errors:-1. +Caution+. 3. +Caution+. +Caution+. 2. This is the horse which started first.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these five Cautions. 4. doubts. and who was drowned was the first mate. and that reached the stand last. +Direction+.--Study the Caution. things. 7.

and hence are used to avoid disagreeable repetitions of sounds.--Study the Caution. 3. 3. this and these refer to the last mentioned. the other was hated.--Correct these errors:-1. 9. Especially may this be said of which. they are not confined to them in actual practice. these and those. . same. and correct these errors:-1. and adjectives expressing quality in the highest degree. the indefinite it. and correct these errors:-1. and the other to the last mentioned. The chief material which is used now in building is brick.--He lived near a pond that was a nuisance. the one and the other refer to things previously mentioned. +Direction+. but usage authorizes us to affirm (1) that who and which stand in such clauses oftener without. and (2) that they so stand oftener than thatitself does. or that preceding them. Her hair hung in ringlets. this. very. and Peter the Great were sovereigns: the one was loved by his people. an artist: in the one we most admire the man. e. +Caution+. tact. those. Virgil. (2) when that would prevent ambiguity. However desirable it may seem to confine who and which to unrestrictive clauses. Charles XII. 6.--High and tall are synonyms: this may be used in speaking of what grows--a tree. All who knew him respected him. that. and that and those to the first mentioned. 4. That man that you just met is my friend. +Example+. (That relates to pond--the pond was a nuisance. these are shunned. 7. 6. +Direction+. after that. 5. and that. Which might have. The pupil will receive a reward from his teacher who is diligent. He is the same who he has ever been. 2. 3.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these five Cautions. Who who saw him did not pity him? 4. +Examples+.--The relative that [Footnote: That is almost always restrictive. He is the very man whom we want. The wide use of who and which in restrictive clauses is not accounted for by saying that they occur after this. who scarcely deserved the name of man. in speaking of what does not grow--a mountain. 2.) +Direction+.. This may frequently be the reason for employing who and which in restrictive clauses.] should be used instead of who or which (1) when the antecedent names both persons and things. He sent his boy to a school which did him good. When there is danger of obscurity. pond. for its antecedent. 2. than with. the one refers to the first mentioned. 5.--The relative clause should be placed as near as possible to the word which it modifies.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 105 +Caution+. those. Homer was a genius. or the whole clause He lived near a pond. +Caution+. in the other.--Study the Caution. The wisest men who ever lived made mistakes. g.--When this and that. which was dark and glossy. 8. repeat the nouns. and (3) when it would sound better than who or which. these. these. all. the work. that gets the fees. the interrogative who. while those are sought after. The selfish and the benevolent are found in every community. It was not I who did it. +Direction+. A dog was found in the street that wore a brass collar. Talent speaks learnedly at the bar. Claudius was canonized among the gods. He should not keep a horse that cannot ride. ***** LESSON 88. triumphantly: this is complimented by the bench. and so its use here would be ambiguous. A purse was picked up by a boy that was made of leather.

Adjectives which limit by expressing quality are called +Descriptive Adjectives+. Do you know that gentleman that is speaking? 13. 9. and Heaven will help you. He did that what was right.--You learned in Lesson 12 that. or narrow. The fields were green. as. was the general appearance of the class. or denoting quantity are called +Definitive Adjectives+. and those have not. 3. as apple or apples. this. and which was spoken of by others. 25. the other. by pointing out the particular fruit. ***** LESSON 89. or by expressing certain qualities of the fruit. yellow gold. that served under Washington. . 5.] +A Descriptive Adjective is one that modifies by expressing quality+. or by denoting the quantity of it. in the sentences Ripe apples are healthful. They need no spectacles that are blind. struggled on. The brakemen and the cattle which were on the train were killed.--Give the Cautions which these sentences violate. There are miners that live below ground. or (2) when they are attribute complements. numbering. he aided us in our Revolutionary struggle. or narrow. The reporter which said that was deceived. that is. There is one marked difference between shiners and trout. 20.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg CONSTRUCTION OF PRONOUNS--CONTINUED. the application of apples by describing. 2. is a brilliant gem. Adjectives that complete the predicate belong as freely to pronouns as to nouns. is woven into cloth. 27. that is pure carbon. 11. They know little of men. an adjective joined loosely without restricting: thus--Faint and weary. 10. but he refused to go. the adjectives ripe and unripe limit. 18. 22. CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES. 24. Beer and wine are favorite drinks abroad: the one is made from grapes. some. John's father died before he was born. and correct the errors:-- 106 1. an. are often modified by an "appositive" adjective. these have scales. Boys who study hard. 17. There is no book which. that is a plant. denoting qualities asserted by the verb. by numbering it. had been a British officer. when we look through it sharply. Shall you be able to sell them boots? 23. 19. who reason thus. Witness said that his wife's father came to his house. 6. 12. They buy no books who are not able to read. He who does all which he can does enough. from barley. or narrow.[Footnote: Pronouns. the good God. There are many boys whose fathers and mothers died when they were infants. 8. Unripe apples are hurtful. The diamond. Help thyself. faint and weary. the application of any noun which they modify. He. its application (1) when they denote qualities that always belong to the thing named. Miscellaneous Errors. 15. +An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun+. Reputation and character do not mean the same thing: the one denotes what we are. and many limit. what we are thought to be. 21. You learned also that the. as. I don't know but what I may. he struggled on or. 4. the other. +DEFINITIONS+. +Introductory Hints+. and he ordered him out. Whales are the largest animals which swim. and that study wisely make progress. 7. What pleased me much. 14. no. A man should sit down and count the cost who is about to build a house. we cannot find mistakes in it. The ground was dry and hard. 26. and those which limit by pointing out. Adjectives modifying a noun do not limit. 16. +Direction+. and who seldom see the light. like nouns. the blue sky. General Lee. Cotton. Kosciusko having come to this country.

any book. an hard apple. hundredth anniversary. or denoting quantity+. An or a is called the Indefinite Article. the broad Atlantic. Here the distinguishes this class of animals from other classes. moral qualities. +Caution. size. A noun may take the place of an adjective. happy children. +Examples+. +Direction+. and earl are here meant to denote each the whole of a class. gas. are called +Ordinal+ numerals] The definitive adjectives an or a and the are commonly called +Articles+. few people. brass kettle. Here thebefore horse distinguishes a certain animal. the Pitt diamond.] +Examples+. ***** LESSON 90. small grains. slender cord. a account. first. For the sake of euphony. two. tin pans. and thebefore lot distinguishes the field from the yard or the stable--things in other classes. The poetry and the painting are fine arts. and the before horses distinguishes certain animals. CONSTRUCTION OF ADJECTIVES.+--We can say a horse. a bag. ten mice. meaning any one horse. little thread. an historian. an hero. The huge clouds were dark and threatening. The horse is a noble animal. such a one (one begins with the consonant sound of w). three.--An and a are different forms of one. an hour (h is silent). gold bracelet. because .. an ewer.--Point out the descriptive and the definitive adjectives in Lessons 80 and 81. motion. an hook. and (2) one class of things from other classes. that libel. all men.+--An or a is used to limit a noun to one thing of a class--to any one. diamond pin.[Footnote: Some writers still use an before words beginning with unaccented h. and correct these errors:-A heir. second. a unit (unit begins with the consonant sound of y). this toy. The truthis eternal. or whether they modify in some other way. crushing argument.--Point out the descriptive and the definitive adjectives below. +Caution+. brave Washington. and the is called the Definite Article. One.--Study the Caution. less trouble. William Pitt received the title of an earl because gold. etc. Washington market. some feeling. much rain. and a limits its noun to one thing of a class. three. and tell whether they denote color. third. +Direction+.--An inkstand. What name was given? Which book is wanted? +Direction+. an uniform. The is used to distinguish (1) one thing or several things from others. numbering. the New York press. an drops n and becomes abefore consonant sounds. But we cannot say. are called +Numeral+ adjectives. the patient Hannibal. a inheritance. This is a poor kind of a gas. silver spoons. state papers. Eyes are bright. The horse or the horses must be turned into the lot. and first. Mansard roof. second.--London journals. An is used before vowel sounds. A gold is heavy. from others of the same class. the martyr president. position. a historian. two. a umpire. etc. but we cannot say. etc. shape. The man(meaning the race) is mortal. three cats. a humble petition. as. moving spectacle.[Footnote: The definitive adjectives one. and name such as do not limit:-Able statesmen. +Explanation. The anger is a short madness.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 107 +A Definitive Adjective is one that modifies by pointing out. third--etc. are called +Cardinal+ numerals. an usurper. an hundred.

as well as tiger. 2.--He saved a few things and a little money from the wreck. He saved a little from the fire. +Direction+. Neither the North Pole nor South Pole has yet been reached. The fourth and fifth verse. Little can be done. The Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. 7.+--Study the Caution as explained. or the before each of two or more connected adjectives. 6. 5. +Direction+. There are a few pleasant days in March. 2. Little was said or done about it. The Northern and Southern Hemisphere. 3. the word umbrella is understood after cotton. 7. Unicorn is kind of a rhinoceros. but not many. truth. fewmeans not many.--Use an. The right and left hand. 5. and correct these errors:-1.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these Cautions. A Pullman and Wagner sleeping-coach. a. Dog is a quadruped. a. The sculpture is a fine art. +Examples+. and name things that are sufficiently distinguished without the. the wise and good means one class. The fourth and the fifth verses. Few shall part where many meet. 2. poetry. +Direction+.+--Use an. 9. Oak is harder than the maple. when they modify the same noun. We criticise not the dress but address of the speaker. as it broke out in the night. 8.--Study the Caution. The lion. ***** . The wise and the good means two classes. +Direction. 6. cotton and silk modify the same noun--umbrella.--Study the Caution as explained. expressed or understood. A Webster's and Worcester's dictionary. when these adjectives modify different nouns. +Explanation+. 3. belongs to the cat tribe. because it is a stormy month. 6. Distinguish carefully between an adjective and adverb. Few men live to be & hundred years old. anger. and painting are used in their widest sense. +Caution+. I expected some such an offer.--Study the Caution. There is a difference between the sin and sinner. 3.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 108 man. 4. or the before each of two or more connected nouns denoting things that are to be distinguished from each other or emphasized. 5.--A cotton and a silk umbrella means two umbrellas--one cotton and the other silk. +Caution. and correct these errors:-1. 4. 4. A cotton and silk umbrella means one umbrella partly cotton and partly silk. A hill is from the same root as column. 4. +Direction+. and little means not much. the article should not be repeated. A noun and pronoun are alike in office. and correct these errors:-1. 2. but not much. This is another kind of a sentence. (The secretary and treasurer was absent--referring to one person--is correct. The woman is the equal of man. but. and correct these errors:-1. Churchill received the title of a duke. 3. 7.--A few and a little mean some as opposed to none.) +Caution+. The secretary and treasurer were both absent.

His unusual. the miter. 12. 6. +Direction+. 5. LESSON 92. An old and young man. Two gray fiery little eyes. 3. 17. A fried dish of bacon. and coronet seem to me poor things for great men to contend for. 3. He used less words than the other speaker.--Study the Caution carefully. The victory was complete. The belief in immortality is common and universal. It was splendid fun. and correct these errors:-1. I can bear the heat of summer. I have a contemptible opinion of you. A pupil.--The following adjectives are obviously needless: Good virtues. 8. unexpected. 2. 7. docile and mild. two lazy men. He had deceived me. A few can swim across the Straits of Dover. is here the . Adding Cornwallis. 6. 9. painful toothache. and simple. His penmanship is fearful. She has less friends than I. +Introductory Hints+. 21. 8.--You learned in Lesson 28 that in saying Washington captured we do not fully express the act performed. 15.--Choose apt adjectives. 7. and so all verbs that represent an act as passing over from a doer to a receiver are called +Transitive Verbs+. 20. +Direction+. 11. towering mountain. and correct these errors:-1. 19. 5. The evil is intolerable and not to be borne. The day was delightful and warm. 6. A white and red flag were flying. place them where they will sound best--generally in the order of length. If they are of the same rank. A dried box of herrings. 109 +Remark+. place nearest the noun the one most closely modifying it. 4. 14. 10. an hard apple. but the object. The arm-chair was roomy and capacious. 23. The North and South Pole. 8. +Direction+. for the width is great and the current strong. A new bottle of wine. the shortest first. which names the receiver. verdant green. 3. CLASSES OF VERBS AND ADVERBS. The eldest son of a duke is called a marquis. 13. the verb is still transitive. 2. The scepter. The fat. Such an use! 16. +Direction+. and correct the errors:-1. 18. He wanted a apple. It was a gorgeous apple. and extraordinary success surprised him. The house was comfortable and large. but do not use them needlessly. though a few of the enemy were killed or captured. we complete the predicate by naming the one that receives the act that passes over from the doer. Cornwallis. The truth is mighty and will prevail. CONSTRUCTION OF ADJECTIVES--CONTINUED. +Caution+.--Give the Cautions which these expressions violate. We saw in the distance a precipitous.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 91. It was a blue soft beautiful sky. It was a lovely bun. +Caution+. frugal. A salt barrel of pork. The lad was neither docile nor teachable. 7. If those forming a series are of different rank. He received a honor. but I paid a frightful price for it. A prodigious snowball hit my cheek. 22.--Study the Caution. and so I had a little faith in him. 4. but not cold of winter. Samuel Adams's habits were unostentatious. avoid such as repeat the idea or exaggerate it. 2. It was a tremendous dew. 4. barren. Miscellaneous Errors.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these two Cautions. A docile and mild pupil. 9. umbrageous shade.--So place adjectives that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. 5. If we say Cornwallis was captured by Washington. Transitive means passing over.

A very large per cent of these adverbs modify the verb. as. etc. enters into many words. All verbs that do not form the past tense and the past participle by adding ed to the present. used to modify a word--as. are called +Adverbs of Degree+. very. will go in.. quite. are called +Irregular Verbs+. etc. Away. etc. but we have lost that word. too. hardly. they may be called +sentence-words+. presently. often. as. representing the act as past at the time indicated by closed. are called +Adverbs of Place+. All verbs that. now. so. spoke in. fall. Washington captured Cornwallis. As noand yes represent or suggest complete answers. used to modify a word--as the adjective hot in. No and yes (nay and yea). In Saxon it existed as a word +ne+. etc. verbs.] etc. the object complement. fell. [Footnote: It may be worth remarking that while there are many negative nouns. pronouns. nor. 110 A verb transitive in one sentence. and conjunctions in oar language. thus. "The negative particle in our language is simply the consonant +n+. the war speedily closed. or it may be the object complement. went. like fall in Leaves fall. a participle. He spoke plainly--by expressing manner. All verbs that form the past tense and the past participle by adding ed to the present are called +Regular Verbs+. therefore. show how the thought presented is regarded. as before. never. sufficiently. are called +Adverbs of Time+. The force of yes may be illustrated by substituting certainly--Will you go? Certainly. That is to say. within. as. well. as. Hence. or therefore. neither. the word that names the receiver of the act. may be intransitive in another. Will you go? Yes. It is dark. as you have learned. used to modify any verb--as. the sun is down. Here captured is.. . They are sometimes called independent adverbs. Here captured represents the act as having taken place in past time. fallen. They seem to modify words omitted in the answer but contained in the question. Cornwallis captured. it is a past participle. It is very suggestive that much of what is said consists of denial--is taken up in telling not what is true of things but what is not true of them. and. soon. not. and not. and may therefore be classed with adverbs of manner. Why is it dark?--are called +Adverbs of Cause+. will go in. why. so and as. adjectives. hence. nought."--Earle.. hence. out. Exceedingly. Early. and hence this verb is in the past tense. Plainly.. I will go away--by expressing direction or place. not. used to modify any verb--as. used in making an inference or in expressing cause--as. back. none. gone. as.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg subject of the sentence. Tense means time. hereafter. Notice that ed is added to capture (final e is always dropped when ed is added) to form its past tense and its past participle. Certainly I will go. go. it is largely through the adverb that what the predicate expresses is declared not to be true of the thing named by the subject. and it is now a letter only. as into no. when used to answer Questions. You see that the object. I will go soon--by expressing time. He writes good English. A verb is transitive only when an object is expressed or obviously understood. He writes well--meaning simply He is a good writer. which. Some adverbs fall into more than one class. Did you see him? No = I did no (not) see him. or I will certainly go. are called +Adverbs of Manner+. negation is more frequently expressed in English by the adverb than by any other part of speech--than by all other parts of speech. may be the subject.. elsewhere. do not represent the act as passing over to a receiver. The tea is very hot--by expressing degree. and all that express mere being or state of being are called +Intransitive Verbs+.

as. but do not use them needlessly or instead of other forms of expression. connect clauses. He let go simplybecause he was exhausted.--Choose apt adverbs.--Point out the transitive and the intransitive. +A Regular Verb is one that forms its past tense and past participle by adding ed to the present+. an adjective. Brutus stabbed Caesar. . How. as. avoid such as repeat the idea or exaggerate it. [Footnote: Adverbs have several exceptional uses. as. as. +An Irregular Verb is one that does not form its past tense and past participle by adding ed to the present+.] CLASSES OF ADVERBS. In what way? +Adverbs of Cause are those that generally answer the question+. as. Now. Why? +Direction+. CLASSES OF VERBS WITH RESPECT TO FORM. +A Verb is a word that asserts action. and where is this to be done? and that they may add to the office of the adverb that of the conjunction. They may be used independently. +An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb. DEFINITIONS. Caesar was stabbed by Brutus. +Caution+. ***** LESSON 93. the name of the receiver of the action. there must be an error here. He came just in time. When? +Adverbs of Place are those that generally answer the question+. They may modify a clause or a sentence. See page 187. or an adverb. CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Some adverbs. the regular and the irregular verbs in Lesson 14. +Adverbs of Time are those that generally answer the question+. as you have learned. or state of being+. that is. It may also be noted here that adverbs are used interrogatively. 111 +A Transitive Verb is one that requires an object+. Certainly you may go. Where? +Adverbs of Degree are those that generally answer the question+. I go where I am sent. being. and are therefore called +Conjunctive Adverbs+. and classify the adverbs. CLASSES OF VERBS WITH RESPECT TO MEANING. may be the +object complement+. [Footnote: The +object+ of a transitive verb.] +An Intransitive Verb is one that does not require an object+. when. as. or it may be the +subject+. To what extent? +Adverbs of Manner are those that generally answer the question+. They may modify a phrase or a preposition. It went far beyond the mark.

He is not unjust. and correct these errors:-1. however. [Footnote: Instances of the "cleft. Fitzedward Hall and others have shown this. His nose was very (not terribly or frightfully) red. 5. He isn't no sneak. +but+ did not swim or wade. 11. 3. rowed etc. not the bay etc.--I only rowed across the river = I only (= alone. A diphthong is the union of two vowels (not where or when two vowels unite) in the same syllable. That 'ere horse has the heaves.. and peacefully. Merely to see (not to merely see) her was sufficient.--I could ill (not illy) afford the time. There must be something wrong when children do not love neither father nor mother. +Direction+. Charlie Ross can't nowhere be found. 6. He wrote that (not how that) he had been sick. 4. 4. The affair was settled amicably. He seldom or ever went home sober. +Caution+. or split. Do as (not like) I do. as. I returned back here yesterday. 12. 9.--Do not use adverbs for adjectives or adjectives for adverbs. and correct these errors:-1. No other reason can never be given. I don't think. No man can do nothing. I have thought of marrying often. because it is intended to affirm). [Footnote: Not infrequently we use two negatives to make an affirmation. He said how that he would go. infinitive"--the infinitive separated from its to by an intervening adverb--are found in Early English and in English all the way down. and that adverb only occasionally.-1.] +Examples+. He tries to distinctly speak. +Direction+. 6. 13. They seldom stand between to and the infinitive. 2. .] +Examples+. 5. This is a fearfully long lesson. 3. where it would leave the meaning ambiguous or in any way obscure. sometimes to be determined by the ear alone. But there can be no question that usage is overwhelmingly against an adverb's standing between to and the infinitive. I rowed across the river only = the river only. No unpleasant circumstance happened (proper. The belief in immortality is universally held by all.--No one has (not hasn't) yet reached the North Pole. He isn't improving much.--Study the Caution and the Examples. and these few. do not use two negative words so that they shall contradict each other. and correct these errors. 7. 7. It was awfully amusing. Few writers ever place an adverb there at all. +Direction+.--Unless you wish to affirm. The belief in immortality is universally held (not universally held everywhere). I am dreadfully glad to hear that.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 112 +Examples+.--Study the Caution and the Examples. 8. A direct quotation is when the exact words of another are copied. He hopes to rapidly recruit. and no one else.--So place adverbs that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. He had not hardly a minute to spare. not up or down etc. an adjective). 2. 3. This (not this here or this 'ere) sentence is correct.--Study the Caution and the Examples. 8.. He doesn't do nothing. Whether the adverb should be placed before the to or after the infinitive is often a nice question. He tries distinctly to speak. Have regard to the sound also. 10. All that glitters is not gold. 4. We only eat three meals a day. or = I only rowed etc. His sagacity almost appears miraculous. All is not gold that glitters. 6. 5. 2. Not every collegian is a scholar (not Every collegian is not a scholar). peaceably. I do not like too much sugar in my tea. I rowed only across the river = across. This 'ere knife is dull. It should never stand. +Caution+. +Caution+. only an occasional adverb.

20. on. She is miserable poor. She is most sixteen. recklessly. before. This can be done easier. at. ere. above. about. in. +Direction+. amongst. 2. He can do it as good as any one can. 4. within. He behaved thoughtlessly. 14. He hasn't yet gone. He behaved very bad. I slept soundly (not good or sound). +Direction+. 24. and prodigally spent. and correct these errors:-1. We publish all the information. He spoke up prompt. but. and shows the relation. I will not go but once. The lesson was prodigiously long. beneath. He went most there. ***** LESSON 94. 21. upon. after. The prima donna sings sweet. It is a wonderful fine day. PREPOSITIONS. 31. 6. betwixt. beyond. and carelessly. 2. I don't believe. past. The cars will not stop at this station only when the bell rings.--We give below a list of the prepositions in common use. A circle can't in no way be squared. It was an uncommon good harvest. +Direction+. of its principal word to the word modified. towards. The river runs rapid. 3.--Study the Caution and the Examples. 9. I am real glad to see you. till. The house is extra warm. in sense. The discussion waxed warmly. underneath. +Direction+. 5. throughout. 19. athwart. amid. 11. against. 4. 9. 27. Use two or three of them in a single sentence if you wish:-Aboard. Most everybody talks so. Make short sentences in which each of these shall be aptly used. Miscellaneous Errors. 6. 26. 13. without. by. 29. I don't believe. CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS-CONTINUED. +DEFINITION. My head feels badly. between. since. 15. Generally every morning we went to the spring. behind. Feathers feel softly. under. 8. 30. up. 12. and correct the errors:-1. 5. I have a pencil that long. Most every one goes there. The moon looks down calmly and peacefully on the battlefield (not calm and peaceful. 17. 10.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 113 +Examples+. 22. It is pretty near finished. The tortured man begged that they would kill him again and again. to. among. below.--The moon looks calm and peaceful (not calmly and peacefully. It was a softly blue sky. round. toward. Begin it over again. with. around. 3. That 'ere book is readable. 16. along. . LESSON 95. He tried to not only injure but to also ruin the man. 18. He hasn't his lesson. into. of. for. The fortune was lavishly. unto. profusely. official and otherwise. He is some better just now. 11. 23. I wish to simply state this point. The one is as equally deserving as the other. 28. 10.--A Preposition is a word that introduces a phrase modifier. 7. beside. You must read more distinct. through. 25. 13. 8. This is a remarkable cold winter. down. 12. from. besides. as the words are intended to describe the moon). as the words are intended to tell how she performs the act). This is a mighty cold day. They were nearly dressed alike.+ Composition.--Give the Cautions which these sentences violate. until. I can't find out neither where the lesson begins nor where it ends. across. amidst. 7.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these four Cautions. over. Verbosity is when too many words are used.

Egypt. With what clumsy circumlocutions would our speech be filled if prepositions could never slip the leash of their etymology! What simple and graceful substitute could be found for the last phrase in this sentence. CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS."-J. Guard against such expressions as between each page. concerning. but are they always. "In all senses between has been. except. as. and vocative cases in the neuter. from under. The phrases aboard of. in general." --G."-B."--Addison. according to. "The identity of form between the nominative. That grammarian exceeds his commission who marks out for the pupils' feet a path narrower than the highway which the usage of the best writers and speakers has cast up. should be used with certain words. Holland. "His flight between the several worlds. A happy and discriminating use of prepositions can be acquired only by an extended study of good authors. ***** LESSON 96. Marsh. "A Triple Alliance between England. and such only. as to. and save. "The distinction between these three orders has been well expressed by Prof. instead of(in stead of). notwithstanding. pending. and must they be? "There was a hunting match agreed upon betwixt a lion. Max Mueller.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 114 +Remarks+. and a fox. from its earliest appearance. Green. from between. excepting. G.L'Estrange."--Gibbon. the principal term of which is the phrase that follows from. they are so used. and round about may be called compound prepositions.' or 'to insert a needle among the closed petals of a flower. White. accusative. We do below all that we think it prudent or profitable to do with them. "In the vacant space between Persia. and so delicate in their shades of distinction that a definition of them based upon etymology would mislead.--Most prepositions express relations so diverse.--We give below a few words with the prepositions which usually accompany them. +To the Teacher+. in such a sentence as.] +Direction+. and Ethiopia. out of. "Betwixt the slender boughs came glimpses of her ivory neck. He crawled from under the ruins. during. an ass. 'The choice lies among the three candidates.'"--The New English Dictionary. Whitney."--Bryant. regarding. really introduces a phrase. and touching are still participles in form and sometimes are such in use. are usually classed with prepositions. He rode past."--W. and Sweden. We have collected hundreds of instances of between used by good writers with three or more. from among. because of (by cause of). The Imperial. and while clinging to their derivation. as. B. It is still the only word available to express the relation of a thing to many surrounding things severally and individually--among expressing a relation to them collectively and vaguely: we should not say. But in most cases the participial meaning has faded out of them. Nowhere in grammar is dogmatism more dangerous than here. a choice between one of several. Form short . extended to more than two. He stands above. D. and they express mere relations. P. But. and Webster's. teach that between and betwixt "refer to two. over against. Syria."-. along with." are used "only when two things or sets of things are referred to.--Bating." Ordinarily. But from in these compounds. Grammarians."--Imperial Dictionary. All but or exceptor save him were lost. for instance: There were forty desks in the room with ample space between them? "We observe that between is not restricted to two. [Footnote: Take a single illustration. He should he a man of wide and careful reading who assumes to teach pupils that such prepositions. respecting. Many prepositions become adverbs when the noun which ordinarily follows them is omitted. "Between such dictionaries as Worcester's. saving.

13. 20. he was disappointed in it. compare to. with. He was accused with felony. of. look after. and note carefully the different relations expressed by the different prepositions:-(Consult the dictionary for both the preposition and the accompanying word. 19. 24. This book is different to that.) 115 Abide at. besides = in addition to. 27. You make no use with your talents. argue against. 6. 35. but was disappointed of it. He went in the park. liberal of. He is in want for money. with. of. He lives in the turn of the road. I have need for a vacation. School keeps upon Monday. 3. on. upon. He threw himself onto the bed. He did not take a walk. of. 31. anxious about.--Great care must be used in the choice of prepositions. joined to. impatient for. These plants differ with each other. 12. accommodate to. arrive at. change from one condition or place into another. 18. "When one is outside of a place. CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS--CONTINUED. CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS--CONTINUED. careless about. 16. regard for. I was followed with a crowd. He entered in the plot. He fell from the bridge in the water. and enjoying myself by fishing. with. 38. +Caution+. 25. defend against. . with. into. 15. in. ***** LESSON 97. He stays to home.--Correct these errors:-1. weary of. on. sit in. I saw him over to the house. to. placed in. with. to. towards. I board in the hotel. with. intrude into. 22. to. +Direction+. to. 5. He lives at London. He distributed the apples between his four brothers. You can confide on him. useful for. with. 41. 26. The child died with the croup. The evening was spent by reading. 17. Place a mark between each leaf. remonstrate against. for. consists in. he may be able to get into it. live at. but he cannot do anything in it until he has got into it. of. by. attend on or upon. in. I spent my Saturdays by going in the country. part from. need of. He took a walk. What a change a century has produced upon our country! 40. yearn for. obliged for. He arrived to Toronto. 33. on. He boards to the hotel. 37. [Footnote: In denotes motion or rest in a condition or place. into. They two quarreled among each other."] 7. insensible of. She is angry with your conduct. with. over. to. The boys are hard to work. 9. He placed a letter into my hands. 2. sat beside. touch at. against. share in. with.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg sentences containing these words combined with each of the prepositions which follow them. 11. die by. with. with. 10. many besides. in. [See previous footnote] 8. indulge in. of. agree to. I agree with that plan. from. for. for. with. of. with. Can you accommodate me in one of those? 39. He bears a close resemblance of his father. with. [Footnote: Beside = by the side of. I have other reasons beside these. in. What is the matter of him? 23. 28. He fought into the Revolution. strive for. reconcile to. 42. on. with. solicitous about. for. in. of. 43. influence on. 14. with.] 29. from. 4. He is angry at his father. over. on or upon.--Do with the following words as with those above:-Inquire after. 30. angry at. 21. for. 36. of. communicate to. 32. advantage of. different from. on or upon. 34. The year of the Restoration plunged Milton in bitter poverty. taste for. distinguish by. disappointed in. The Colonies declared themselves independent from England. to. He stays to school late. into. sank beneath. She stays at the North. familiar to. with. +Direction+. ***** LESSON 98. smile at. in.

6. 11." Sentences containing two prepositions before a noun are exceedingly common in English--"The language itself is inseparable from. The boy is like to his father. There is no use going there. 14. they show the relation. +Direction+. He went to home. You can tell by trying of it. 5.[Footnote: "A preposition is a feeble word to end a sentence with. Where are you going to? 12." we are told. DIRECTION. or to be affected by. 22. 7. He lives near to the river. Jack's favorite sport was in robbing orchards. 26. and many in succeeding Lessons violate the rule so carelessly expressed. so long as there is left of Plymouth Rock a piece large enough to make a gunflint of!" "This. What use is this to him? 7. In what latitude is Boston in? 3. but the lowly. in 1834. 21. but the worst that can be urged against them is. His efforts were not for the great. By what states is Kentucky bounded by? 10. Austin Phelps says. Sentences (10) and (13). Of this rule. He received dispatches from England and Russia. They admitted of the fact. 3. and name the words between which. 2. He is worthy our help. Before answering of you. (2). He was banished the country. He is unworthy our charity. Lesson 59. +Direction+. 20. A good place to see a play is at Wallack's. the times. 24. 10. 9. 23. Prof.--Point out the prepositions in Lessons 80 and 81." Such sentences have been condemned. 15. I went there at about noon.--Do not use prepositions needlessly. +Caution+. Where have you been to? 18. I have a brother of five years old. Of what is the air composed of? 16.--Correct these errors:-1. 8. He was born on the 15th August. Lesson 60. He took the poker from out of the fire. 12." and he quotes a burst of feeling from Rufus Choate which ends thus: "Never. Adam and Eve were expelled the garden.--Correct these errors:-1. 4.--Do not omit prepositions when they are needed. I must think. 6. 5. But smoothness is not always desirable. "A preposition as such is by no means a feeble word. To what may Italy be likened to? 25. or essentially a part of. "is purest idiomatic English. in sense. He was born August 15. 'What for?' is as pure English in written as in colloquial speech. Egypt is the west side of the Red Sea. 4.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 99. I was leading of a horse about. 2. Give to me a knife. the thoughts. 29. 1834. I started a week ago from last Saturday. ***** LESSON 100. This is the subject of which I intend to write about. 27. 9." He adds. His servants ye are to whom ye obey."] CAUTION. 8. Keep off of the grass. 13. Sentences containing a transitive verb and a preposition before a noun are very common--"Powerless to affect. 17. In about April the farmer puts in his seed. . It was the size of a pea. 11. Butter brings twenty cents for a pound. Raise your book off of the table. He came in for to have a talk. "The old Scotch interrogative. 28. 116 CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS--CONTINUED. I was prevented going. that they lack smoothness. laid down without regard to usage and thoughtlessly repeated. 19." Professor Phelps says. They offered to him a chair.

When. went. it seemed as [it would seem] if the heavens were lighted up that the nations might behold the scene. in thought.+ +A Conjunction is a word used to connect words. connect. Here and. whichever. .--But and whereas are conjunctions proper. or. whereby. take its office upon themselves and connect the clauses. +Subordinate Connectives. as and and but. what. as well as [Footnote: The as well as in. and hence are called +Subordinate Conjunctions+. and so are called +Co-ordinate Conjunctions+. and yet are conjunctive adverbs. +Adversative+. phrases. which. consequently. hence. or.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS AND OTHER CONNECTIVES. +Alternative+. on the other hand. besides. or both dependent but of unequal rank. wherein. whatever. notwithstanding.+ CONNECTIVES OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.] +Copulative+. At the burning of Moscow. and that connect each a lower.. now. and some are adverbs or adverb phrases. and not that in. phrases. clause to a clause of higher rank.--Neither. +Co-ordinate Connectives. and why are conjunctive adverbs. That. +DEFINITIONS. we regard only the individual sentence and treat such connectives as introductory. +Alternative+ conjunctions join parts so as to offer a choice or a denial. in the absence of the conjunction. and even connect paragraphs. still. and whoever are relative pronouns. Accordingly. sentences separated by the period. He is as well as I am.. some are relative pronouns. or both dependent but of equal rank. and norconnect words. where. may. To THE TEACHER. and. He. Both clauses may be independent.+ [Footnote: +Copulative+ conjunctions join parts in the same line of thought. in addition to their office as modifiers. on the contrary.] are conjunctions proper. +Remark+. See Lesson 76.. nor are conjunctions proper. The pupils should he able to name the different groups. which. However. or order.--Some of the connectives below are conjunctions proper. In analysis and parsing. phrases. likewise. or clauses of the same rank+. nevertheless.. One clause may be independent and the other dependent. then.--We do not advise the memorizing of these lists. and neither. if.] +Co-ordinate Conjunctions are such as connect words.. neither. CONNECTIVES OF ADVERB CLAUSES. both . so. who. also. but. moreover. but neither the living nor the dead are conscious of their gaze. as well as I. and clauses of equal rank. 117 +Introductory Hints+. furthermore. +Subordinate Conjunctions are such as connect clauses of different rank+.--And. [Footnote: Some of the co-ordinate conjunctions. Here as. or clauses+. and therefore are conjunctive adverbs. Else and otherwise are conjunctive adverbs.--The stars look down upon the roofs of the living and upon the graves of the dead. either . +Adversative+ conjunctions join parts contrasted or opposed in meaning. nor. or subordinate.. and some of the most common connectives of each group.

and whereas are conjunctions proper. on condition that.] are conjunctions proper.--Study the lists above. and whilst are conjunctive adverbs. if. when. CONNECTIVES OF NOUN CLAUSES. where. What. but their omission will occasion no break in the course. provided that.--Except. while. until. +TO THE TEACHER+. the six following Lessons may be omitted. and unless are conjunctions proper. with an adjective or an adverb. since. whichever. though. like the use of it with three or more things. but it has burst the bonds of its etymology and is very freely used with three or more.--Write twenty compound sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives named in the three subdivisions of co-ordinate connectives. and whether are conjunctions proper. or if it is found necessary to abridge this work in order to conform to a prescribed course of study. +Direction+. and how. lest. The repetition of whether. provided. for. telling which are relative pronouns. notwithstanding. and who are pronouns introducing questions. and so thatare conjunctions proper.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Time. before.--Because. correlative with adjectives or adverbs. ***** LESSON 101. If. and whoever are relative pronouns used indefinitely. The authors consider these exercises very profitable. which are conjunctions proper. where. 118 Condition. whence.--Whence. Whether or no is also allowed.--After. COMPOSITION--CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. that.--In order that. Evidence. which. . Place. whether is restricted to two. COMPOSITION--CONNECTIVES. in case that. Degree. Real Cause. Purpose. +Direction+. and the are conjunctive adverbs. as. for. whenever.--If the pupils lack maturity. correlative. since. ere. lest (= that not). has been condemned. that. Whatever. because. often. that.--Although. ***** LESSON 102. when. than. and whether [Footnote: Etymologically. Concession.--As. However is a conjunctive adverb. and which are conjunctive adverbs. and since are conjunctions proper. but usage allows us to repeat it. if (= even if). and why are conjunctive adverbs introducing questions.--As. and point out all the connectives in Lessons 80 and 81. Manner. till.--As is a conjunctive adverb. and wherever are conjunctive adverbs.

13. Mount Marcy is not so high as Mount Washington. evidence. +If+ may connect a clause expressing +condition+. It must be raining. Pope continues longer on the wing. If the flights of Dryden are higher. +cause+. +degree+. 11. purpose.] 9. +Lest+ may connect a clause expressing +purpose+.--Write twenty complex sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives of adverb clauses of real cause. If a slave's lungs breathe our air. ***** LESSON 103. ***** LESSON 104. 1. It must be raining. since men are carrying umbrellas.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. or it may introduce a +noun+ clause. place. condition. or +evidence+. But this use of if is common with good authors in early and in modern English. and manner. as water expands in freezing. 8. as men are carrying umbrellas. Analysis. Half-learned lessons slip from the memory. they were persecuted. 5. that moment he is free.--Write twenty complex sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives of adjective clauses. Watch and pray lest ye enter into temptation. and by connectives of adverb clauses of time. Since the Puritans could not be convinced.--Tell what kinds of clauses follow the connectives below. or it may introduce a +noun+ clause. Ice floats. 14. Who knows if one of the Pleiads is really missing? [Footnote: Many grammarians say that if here is improperly used for whether. COMPOSITION--CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. CONNECTIVES. ***** LESSON 105. 12. degree. 10. 4. 7. and by connectives of noun clauses. 3. Many thousand years have gone by since the Pyramids were built. 6. or +evidence+. If wishes were horses. +time+. all beggars might ride. +Since+ may connect a clause expressing +time+. as an icicle from the hand. . I found an altar with this inscription. or +concession+. +cause+. +Direction+. +time+. 2. England fears lest Russia may endanger British rule in India. As I passed by. 119 +Direction+. and what are the usual connectives of such clauses. and concession. and then analyze the sentences:-+As+ may connect a clause expressing +manner+.

an +adjective+ clause. an +adjective+ clause. Vesuvius threw its lava so far that Herculaneum and Pompeii were buried. Take away honor and imagination and poetry from war.) 1. While Charles I. His crime has been discovered. it is . 15. +cause+. When judges accept bribes. or +condition+. Caesar put the proffered crown aside. When the five great European races left Asia is a question. 6. Let but the commons hear this testament. 14. and change these compound sentences to complex without changing the meaning.--Use the appropriate connectives. 1. but he would fain have had it. five. 7. and then analyze the sentences:-+That+ may connect a +noun+ clause. or it may connect +co-ordinate+ clauses. November is the month when the deer sheds its horns.--Tell what kinds of clauses follow the connectives below. 10. 13. 3. 6. concession. 7. and weights protested their innocence. 2. and what are the usual connectives of such clauses. 5. You must eat. We never tell our secrets to people that pump for them. or +purpose+. +When+ may connect a clause expressing +time+. 9. The Pharisee thanked God that he was not like other men. While we sleep. had many excellent traits. and he must flee. The dial instituted a formal inquiry. Analysis. when hands. let three express cause. or you will die. make the most of the present. 17. 2. and they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. 8. what may we expect from common people? 11. Socrates said that he who might be better employed was idle. Wisdom is the principal thing. or a clause expressing +degree+. and it becomes carnage. Analysis. 5. No one has been where Moses was buried. 4. The Aztecs were astonished when they saw the Spanish horses. or it may connect +co-ordinate+ clauses. ***** LESSON 106. wheels. and then analyze them:-(Let one dependent clause be an adjective clause. 3. +Direction+. CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. 12. The smith plunges his red-hot iron into water that he may harden the metal. +cause+. Napoleon was a genius. he was a bad king. or a +noun+ clause. +Where+ may connect a clause expressing +place+. 4. therefore get wisdom. and two. +While+ may connect a clause expressing +time+ or +concession+. 16. Where Moses was buried is still a question. When the future is uncertain. Men are carrying umbrellas. 120 +Direction+. while Wellington was a man of talents. condition. an +adjective+ clause or a +noun+ clause. No one knows the place where Moses was buried. the body is rebuilt.

I cannot find either my book or (not nor) my hat. if. there would never have been an England. Dogs not only bark (not not only dogs bark) but also bite. nor (not or) was he sick (not is expended in the first clause. by either or by whether. He was neither (not neither was) rich nor poor. Who doubts that (not but that or but what) Napoleon lived [Footnote: See foot-note. +Caution+. Take away the grandeur of his cause.--Choose apt connectives. +Examples+. but (but also and but likewise). And may be accompanied by both. No one can deny but that the summer is the hottest season. or by such. Try and recite the lesson perfectly to-morrow. The diamond is a sparkling gem.--Two of the dependent clauses below express condition. page 176. +Caution+. She not only dressed richly but tastefully. by neither. which (not and which) covers the seed. 9. Were I so disposed.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 121 raining. 10. and then analyze the sentences:-12. Be careful that the right words stand in correlation. Neither Massachusetts or Pennsylvania has the population of New York. by then. 15. 16. and need not be repeated by nor). 2. and three express concession. is tenderness. A theatrical part may either imply some peculiarity of gesture or a dissimulation of my real sentiments. . 2. I will try to (not and) do better next time.--Give me neither riches nor (not or) poverty. The Senate knows this. 5. but do not use them needlessly or instead of other parts of speech. 3. I could not gratify the reader. if (not or) ever. There was nothing either strange nor interesting. by so. should an adverb stand between to and the infinitive. and it is pure carbon.] A harrow is drawn over the ground. I could do no more for him. +Direction+. nor is needed to make the second clause negative). the. and Washington is a rebel instead of the purest of patriots. He not only gave me advice but also money. Not only dogs (not dogs not only) bark but wolves also. +Direction+. 13. 3. 6. 6. 7. Thales was not only famous for his knowledge of nature but also for his moral wisdom. by there. Not only he is successful but he deserves to succeed. nor. ***** LESSON 107. He was not well. Place an appropriate conjunction before each. as. by yet. by then.--Some conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs may stand in correlation with other words.--Study the Caution and the Examples.--Seldom. by the. 8. [Footnote: See foot-note. page 176. +Direction+. it can be no worse for us. No one can eat nor drink while he is talking. He seldom or ever went to church. and correct these errors:-1. the Consul sees it. that. 7. Should we fail. The excellence of Virgil. Were he my brother. 14. and yet the traitor lives. No one can deny that (not but) he has money. and which he possesses beyond other poets. by not only. Have ye brave sons? look in the next fierce brawl to see them die. by so.] The doctor had scarcely left when (not but) a patient called. and where. Who can doubt but that there is a God? 4. 11. Had the Plantagenets succeeded in France. He has no love for his father or(not nor) for his mother (the negative no is felt throughout the sentence. or. when. Were I [Admiral Nelson] to die this moment.--Study the Caution. CONSTRUCTION OF CONNECTIVES. and stand where they belong. and correct these errors:-1. more frigates would be found written on my heart. +Examples+. 4. by as. though. 5.

The eye and ear have different offices. 4. This is the same man who called yesterday. and adjectives and adverbs expressing a comparison are usually followed by than. Battles are fought with other weapons besides pop-guns. 17. This dedication may serve for almost any book that has. A knows more. implying something additional. He has . 26. as B. 8. as iron. that he was more puzzled than before. other. 5. Junius was no other than Sir Philip Francis. laid by much. The boy is stronger than his sister. 7. who was here yesterday. 25. It isn't but a short distance. Faithful boys have always and always will learn their lessons. 13. 2. but not so useful. 4. as potatoes. are used in pushing the needle. than that. The right and the left lungs were diseased. But else. 3. Cornwallis could not do otherwise but surrender. 23. I don't suppose. Them scissors are very dull. and which is a great price. He was an humble man. otherwise. 3. 11. He is outrageously proud. It was no other but the President. Gold is heavier.--Else. 2. +Examples+. 24. and that in Europe. other. One would rather have few friends than a few friends. Thimbles. +Examples+. At what wharf does the boat stop at? 20. He would neither go himself or send anybody. 12. Shakespeare was greater than any other poet that has (add lived) or is now alive. but not different in kind. 16. Bread is more nutritious. He said that.--I have always (add said) and still do say that labor is honorable. as his sister). 6. Carthage and Rome were rival powers: this city in Africa.--Study the Caution and the Examples. Not only the boy skated but he enjoyed it. died. 28. and who was picked up insensible. but heavier.--A diamond is nothing else than carbon. 15. MISCELLANEOUS ERRORS. but not so cheap.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg I do not know as I shall like it. The music sounded harshly. My friend has sailed for Europe. He was thrown forward onto his face. The book cost a dollar. 2. This is as valuable. 18. +Direction+. and more. He hasn't. or may be published. ***** LESSON 108. The moon is something else but green cheese. 9. if not more so. There are some men which are always young. 27. the other on the southern. +Direction+. The right and left lung were diseased.--Correct these errors. Gold is not so useful. The boy was graceful and tall. but not so tall (not The boy is stronger. may be followed by but or besides. he tried to capture Canada. 6. +Direction+. The lady that was thrown from the carriage. I rose earlier than I intended. 8. is.--Two or more connected words or phrases referring to another word or phrase should each make good sense with it. The butter is splendid. 5. The cripple cannot walk otherwise than on crutches. Americans would rather travel than stay at home. 4. and correct these errors:-1. 122 +Caution+. that are worn on the finger. 10. being a rash man. than iron. 5. 19. 29. telling what Caution each violates:-1. after he had asked the advice of all his friends. 21. but not so tall. 22. +Caution+. He can converse on other topics besidespolitics. the one on the northern coast of the Mediterranean. 3. Ethan Allen. I only laugh when I feel like it. I cannot think but what God is good. but does not talk so well. He no sooner saw the enemy but he turned and ran.--Study the Caution and the Examples. rather. A told B that he was his best friend. and correct these errors:-1. 14.

--Study the examples given above. would have seemed disdain. The problem was difficult to exactly understand. but (adversative conjunction) it cannot fly. 38. and a +preposition+. regular and irregular. He was all but (conjunction or preposition) dead = He was all dead. and therefore is energetic. and an +interjection+. +Examples+. 6. and but in these sentences. Whom should I obey but thee? 12 What by industry and what by economy. 10. The death is inevitable. There is nobody here but me.] 40. regarding but as a negative relative = that not. It was once supposed that crystal is ice frozen so hard that it cannot be thawed. AND BUT.--He that does a good deed is instantly ennobled.--The ostrich is a bird. the sentence = There is no fireside that has not one vacant chair. There's not a breeze but whispers of thy name. transitive and intransitive. The longest life is but a day.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 123 gone way out West. 7. Not a sparrow falls but (= unless--subordinate conjunction) God wills it. No sooner did I arrive when he called. That life is long which answers life's great end. All but (preposition = except) him had fled. This word has a different source than that. a +definitive adjective+. Life is but (adjective = only) a dream. or. She wore a peculiar kind of a dress. He did nothing but laugh. The fish breathes with other organs besides lungs. a +definitive adjective+. 14. Some people never have and never will bathe in salt water. No man is so wicked but (conjunctive adverb) he loves virtue = No man is wicked to that degree in which he loves notvirtue (so = to that degree. +But+ may be used as a +conjunction+. We eat that we may live. 36. 13. 30. but = in which not). an +adjective+. 33. We meet but(adverb = only) to part. . and then analyze the sentences:-1. It was the length of your finger. and modifies the phrase following it). +Direction+. 2. When shall we meet together? 39. I cannot but remember = I cannot do anything but (preposition = except) remember. and a +conjunctive adverb+. 37. He bought a condensed can of milk. It prevents repetition. 8. +Examples+.--He did what was right. the prisoner found himself reduced to a skeleton (here what = partly. he had amassed a fortune. One should not always eat what he likes. that. The tears of love were hopeless but (preposition = except) for thee. or He was all (anything in that line) except (the climax) dead. ***** LESSON 109. an +adverb+. an +adverb+. an +interrogative pronoun+. I long ago found that out. It was a look that. 16. What! you a lion? +That+ may be used as a +relative pronoun+. There's not a white hair on your face but should have its effect of gravity. an +adjective+ +pronoun+. He came but to return. it abbreviates expression. What if the bee love not these barren boughs? 9. The fine arts were all but proscribed. +Examples+. a +conjunction+. but for its quiet. What did he say? What man is happy with the toothache? What with confinement and what with bad diet. 15. He talks like you do. What love equals a mother's? 4. It was so cold that the mercury froze. 34. Who doubts but what two and two are four? 31. 35. 5. 3. THAT. 17. That is heroism. but he was not dead. What! I the weaker vessel? 11. In its several forms it stands for the finite forms and for the infinitive and the participle of verbs. [Footnote: The use of the verb do as a substitute for a preceding verb is one of the most remarkable idioms in the language. That man is a hero. and hence is euphonic. 41. point out the exact use of what. There is no fireside but (preposition) has one vacant chair (except the one whichhas). 32. +What+ may be used as a +relative pronoun+. VARIOUS USES OF WHAT.

except.--Give and illustrate the Caution as to the choice of prepositions. it. What are the several classes of adverbs? Define them. and save? Of certain compound prepositions? When do prepositions become adverbs? Lesson 98. Lesson 93.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting he. the use of them for those.--Give and illustrate the Cautious respecting the choice and the position of adjectives. What is said of some prepositions ending in ing? Of but. What are the two great classes of conjunctions. and what is their difference? What other parts of speech besides conjunctions connect? What are adverbs that connect called? Into what three classes are co-ordinate connectives subdivided? Give some of the conjunctions and the conjunctive adverbs of each class. and the. REVIEW QUESTIONS--CONTINUED. the one and the other. the two styles of the pronoun.--Define a noun. is the difference between in and into? Lesson 99. Name some of the common prepositions. in general. and the use of adverbs for adjectives and of adjectives for adverbs.--Define an adjective.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting connected relative clauses. a little and little. Lesson 89. the use of double negatives. which. What is the distinction between a common and a proper noun? Why is music a common noun? What is a collective noun? An abstract noun? Define a pronoun. ***** LESSON 111. What are transitive verbs? Intransitive? Illustrate. What distinction is made between the object and the object complement? What are regular verbs? Irregular? Illustrate. What two classes are there? Define them.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 110. and the use of who. a. Lesson 90. the needless use of pronouns. 124 Lesson 85.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting the use of the adjectives an. the position of the relative clause. REVIEW QUESTIONS. and the use of this and that.--Define a preposition.--Give and illustrate the two Cautions relating to the use of prepositions.--Define a conjunction. and they. Lesson 87. the use of that instead of who or which.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting the choice and the position of adverbs.--Define a verb. What adjectives do not limit? Illustrate. What three kinds of clauses are connected by subordinate connectives? The . Lesson 95. the relative in clauses not restrictive. Lesson 100. Lesson 91. and of what for that. What is an antecedent? Lesson 86. What is a conjunctive adverb? Lesson 93. that. What are the classes of pronouns? Define them. What. and the use of a few and few. and what.

if. They tell you that case is a form. case. [Footnote: Those grammarians that attempt to restrict number. Schemes for the Conjunction. and yet insist that nouns have three cases." hardly expecting. when. mode. though only two forms.--Illustrate the offices of what. and the use of the parts of speech we call their +Modifications+. if you construe them rigorously. used to mark changes in the meaning and use of words. and that the thought may be varied by adding modifying words. ***** LESSON 112. those that make what we call Modifications denote only relations or conditions of words cannot cling to these abstract terms. since. or inflection. 99).--what we here call Modifications--to form. that. +Classes+. as well as to form. it meant inflections. (The numbers refer to Lessons. and yet speak of nouns "plural in form but singular in sense. etc. that. They define number. Primarily. and Interjection. we suppose. | THE CONJUNCTION. THE INTERJECTION. The English language has lost most of its inflections. find themselves within bounds which they continually overleap. viz. to take Modifications with such breadth of signification that it will apply to meaning and to use. | | THE PREPOSITION. Preposition. so that many of the changes in the meaning and the use of words are not now marked by changes in form. they ask the pupil to "pronounce and write the possessive of nouns.--You have learned that two words may express a thought. ***** GENERAL REVIEW. 125 +Introductory Hints+. MODIFICATIONS OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH. 21). of course." in which expression singular must be taken to mean singular form to save it from sheer nonsense. "although in fact the two cases are always the same in form"--the two forms always the same in form! On the other hand." that is. and but. For instance. for instance.. the meaning. lest. as a form." or "singular in form but plural in sense. No Classes (95. and they speak of "a noun in the singular with a plural application. Lesson 109. and while.) | Co-Ordinate. that the "condition" of a noun will be sounded or written. No Classes (20. where.--Give and illustrate the four Cautions relating to the construction of connectives. 98. Lesson 107. 105. and speak of the nominative and the objective case of the noun. or forms.--Illustrate two or more offices of each of the connectives as. Lessons 104. You are now to learn that the meaning or use of a word may be changed by simply changing its form.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg connectives of adverb clauses are subdivided into what classes? Give a leading connective of each class. But we shall use Modifications to indicate changes in meaning and use when the . plural or singular in form but singular or plural form in sense. We know no way to steer clear of Scylla and keep out of Charybdis but to do what by the common use of the word we are allowed. These changes in the form. + Subordinate + 106-107.

lens. and use+. embargo. . which became the regular plural ending. however. boys. nowhere. the word boy. arch. +DEFINITIONS+. mulatto. as two hissing sounds will not unite. ditch. The following nouns in o preceded by a consonant add s only. +Direction+. face. denoting more than one thing. chaise. recognizing that as a modification which is not somewhere marked by form. lash. as. hero.] Modifications of Nouns and Pronouns. Number expresses only the distinction of one from more than one. race. In modern English. box.] +Remark+. and note what letters represent sounds that cannot unite with the sound of +s+:-Ax or axe.[Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon. mosquito. +Direction+. e is dropped. many or several boys. cross. the original syllable es is retained. and say two boys. In later English. Lesson 137. hedge. and boys. and s is joined to the singular without increase of syllables. and cage drop the final ewhen es is added. niche. meaning.--Such words as horse. esis added and forms another syllable. NUMBER FORMS. echo.--The plural of nouns is regularly formed by adding s to the singular+. When the singular ends in a sound that cannot unite with that of s. To this rule there are some exceptions. niche. volcano. The following nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant add es without increase of syllables. portico (oes or os). +The Plural Number denotes more than one thing+. adz or adze. when the singular ends in an s-sound. +RULE. cage. is in the +Plural Number+. grotto. calico. as was changed to es. negro. brush. bird-es. innuendo. denoting one thing. This change in the form and the meaning of nouns is called +Number+. as was the plural termination for a certain class of nouns. four boys. The boy shouts. potato.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 126 form in the particular instance is wanting. gas. Boy denotes one lad. is in the +Singular Number+. +Modifications of the Parts of Speech are changes in their form. The boys shout. The form of the subject boy is changed by adding an s to it. horse. we use adjectives. glass. tornado. veto. topaz. cloud-es. to express more precisely how many. But. See Rule 1. two or more lads. cargo.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns.+ +The Singular Number denotes one thing+. The meaning has changed.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Buffalo. +Number is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes one thing or more than one. torpedo. NUMBER. prize. motto.

chimney. The compounds of staff are regular. woman. as. women. cuffs. seraglio. mice. proof. solo. life. The following nouns change f or fe into ves. foot.] thief. lice. waif. two. cuff. Some nouns adopted from foreign languages still retain their original plural forms.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. quarto. cuckoo.) The following plurals are still more irregular. gulf. geese. tooth. leaf. 127 Common nouns [Footnote: See Rule 2. soliloquy. staff. Some of these take the English plural also.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Beef. chief. +Direction+. goose. lasso. kerchief. vanity. memento. In old English.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Belief. see Lesson 124. +Direction+. trio. staves or staffs. feet. reef. domino (os or oes). zero (os or oes). The modern plural simply retains the old spelling and adds s. oxen. colloquy.. fairy. essay. dwarf. [Footnote: In England. money. calf. roof. grief. salvo. half. halo. attorney. [Footnote: U after q is a consonant] daisy. lady. fife. turkey. junto. are regular. (Nouns in ff. staff (a body of officers). safe. brief. hoof. men. Nouns in o preceded by a vowel add s. Messrs. flagstaffs. cameo. loaf. wolf. The following nouns in f and fe are regular. proviso. self. Mr. . mystery. NUMBER FORMS--CONTINUED. louse. embryo. wharf. duodecimo.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Alley. +Direction+. octavo. Lesson 127. except staff. Nouns in y after a vowel add s. knife.] in y after a consonant change y into i and add es without increase of syllables. Bamboo. fancy. lily.] wife. staffs. city. such words as lady and fancy were spelled ladie. folio. +Direction+. fancie. piano. [Footnote: Staff (a stick or support). elf. man. monkey.. portfolio. shelf. teeth. generally wharfs. valley. ally. mouse.--Learn to form the following plurals:-Child. (For the plurals of pronouns.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Canto.) ***** LESSON 113. strife. ox. kidney. scarf. tyro. sheaf. as. children.

analyses. cherub. oasis. General Lee. as. +Direction+. Compounds consisting of a proper name preceded by a title form the plural by varying either the title or the name. focus. The following compounds vary both parts. Norman. we believe that the former is most used by the best authors. fisherman. men-singers. nebula. data.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Courtyard. The following compound nouns.] +Direction+. automaton. basis. tooth-brush. forget-me-not. This expression denotes a number of pails. terminus. hypotheses. automata or automatons.--Form the plural of the following words:-Aid-de-camp. vary the last word. seraphim or seraphs. Mr. genus. stratum.--Form the plural of the following compounds:-Miss Jones. Master Green. beaux or beaus. the Mrs. as.] +Direction+. bandit. A title used with two or more different names is made plural. maid-servant. ignis fatuus. banditti or bandits. tete-a-tete. fungi or funguses. memoranda or memorandums. Messrs. phenomenon. nebulae. gentlemen. The forms.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. synopses. synopsis. radius. when the title Mrs. billet-doux. Clark. magus. except in formal notes or when the title is to be emphasized. man-of-war. messieurs. spoonful. attorney-at-law. the name is usually varied. vertebra. handful. Grimes and Steele. have little authority. dormouse. portemonnaie. errata. mesdames. madame. monsieur. datum. and most compounds. pronounced bil'-la:-doo:z ] commander-in-chief. Dr. the name should always be varied. magi. cousin-german. pianoforte. court-martial. [Footnote: Pails full is not a compound. axis. [Footnote: Plural. Englishman. antitheses. ellipses. appendices orappendixes. when a numeral precedes the title. axes. radii or radiuses. Brahman. crisis. vortex. billets-doux. strata. erratum. vortices or vortexes. +Direction+. as. seraph. father-in-law. as. as. goose-quill. The latter. oases. is rather stiff if not pedantic. [Footnote: Of the two forms. crises. the Miss Clarks or the Misses Clark. The following. is used. Clarks. bases.--Learn to form the following plurals:-- 128 Analysis. Some authorities say that. but. ignes fatui. termini. woman-singer. German. appendix. beau. . each full. vertebrae. parenthesis. Ottoman. Jones. Brown. ellipsis. man-servant. woman-servant. genera. hypothesis. talisman. stepson. man-singer. as. pailfuls.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Man-child. man-trap. the Miss Clarks and the Misses Clark. sons-in-law. cherubim or cherubs. Drs. foci: fungus. vary the first word. hanger-on. memorandum. the two Miss Clarks. fellow-servant. mouthful. in which the principal word stands first. Mussulman. Frenchman. The following nouns (except Norman) are not compounds of man--add sto all. parentheses. phenomena. Clark and Maynard. as. antithesis. the Misses Clarks and the two Mrs.

Apparatus. any. 129 Letters. Mr. Sail. Genius. t. but the (') is here unnecessary. have the same form in both numbers. 2's. Die. 9. . in the same way. as. ----'s. qualities. Green. tins. genii (spirits). Penny. etc. sail (vessels). shad. grouse. which.--Put each of the following expressions in its proper form:-General Lee and Jackson. none.+--Study the following list:-Bellows. +Direction.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. species. (The following have two forms in the plural). Horse. sheep. yoke. x. cannon (in a collective sense). by scores. coppers. a's. that (relative). horse (horse-soldiers). [Yough]. gross. +. the plural ko:rz.] Foot. ***** LESSON 114. brethren (of the same society).] deer. horses (animals). shot (number of balls). [Footnote: The singular is pronounced ko:r. pennies (distinct coins). score. as. thousand. Fish. herring. (These are generally names of materials. 1. hundred. head (of cattle).) Names of materials when taken in their full or strict sense can have no plural. (The following nouns have the same form in both numbers when used with numerals. cannons (individuals). vermin. The compounds of fish. heads (parts of the body). what. heathen or heathens.+--Learn these plurals and their meanings:-Brother. hose. dies (stamps for coining). as. indexes (tables of reference). feet (parts of the body). corps. Miss Mary. heathen. NUMBER FORMS--CONTINUED. 1/4. Stacy.+--Form the plural of each of the following characters:--S. & Co. pains (care). pence (quantity in value). odds. Index.) Dozen. as codfish. The following nouns and pronouns have the same form in both numbers. coffees. dice (cubes for gaming). four score. Julia. they add s in other cases. [Footnote: The names of several sorts of fish. but they may be plural when kinds of the material or things made of it are referred to. trout. the if's and and's. series. or sciences. shots (number of times fired). Head. cottons. sails (pieces of canvas). fishes (individuals). fish (collection). The following nouns have no plural. +Direction. are used in the same way. Some nouns have two plurals differing in meaning. [Dagger]. means. geniuses (men of genius). i. figures. indices (signs in algebra). brothers (by blood). apparatus or apparatuses. foot (foot-soldiers). who. +Direction. and Anna Scott. swine. and other characters add the apostrophe and s to form the plural. Cannon. [Cyrillic: E]. [Footnote: Some good writers form the plural of words named merely as words. as. Shot.] as.

as. (Such words are generally names of things double or multiform in their character. snuffers.) Bitters. and the singular of those that are plural. grass. ox. tin. ashes. suds. remains (dead body). peace. politics (and other names of sciences in ics). valuables. riches (Norman French richesse). . armies. mathematics. physiology. fireworks. oats. news. and those that have no singular:-Hope. compasses (dividers). loss. genius. The following plural forms are commonly used in the singular. hysterics. measles. flagstaff. stays (corsets). The following have no singular corresponding in meaning. house. eaves (A. matins (morning service).--Study the following list:-Aborigines. committees. manners (behavior). bush. staff. lead. S. tidings. cherubim. grounds (dregs). +Direction+. ethics. amends. narrows. pincers.) +Direction+. beaux.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction. shoe. honesty. hay. bench. kangaroo. letters (literature). grammar (science. nippers. gold. Colors (flag). (Collective nouns have plural forms. and note those that have no plural. Alms (Anglo-Saxon aelmaesse). The following were originally singular forms. termini. potato. rickets.. assets. trousers. mesdames. vespers (evening service). bagnio. handkerchief. shears. age. child. give the Rule or the Remark that applies to each. milk. Mr. wharf. mumps. pride. but they are now treated as plural. fife. A committee was appointed. and as singular when the collection as a whole is thought of. water. +Examples+. tongs. spectacles (glasses). marble. and they asked to be discharged. meekness. scissors. clothes. copper.) ***** LESSON 115.+--Study the following list of words:-- 130 Bread. loaf. and its report will soon be made. Collective nouns are treated as plural when the individuals in the collection are thought of. flour.--The committee were unable to agree. Acoustics. colony. pulley. tax. not a book). etc. REVIEW IN NUMBER.--Write the plural of the singular nouns and pronouns in the following list. morals (character). genus. goods (property). thanks. efese). sweets. waltz. coffee. The following words are always plural. molasses. (The singular form is sometimes an adjective. goodness. piano. literati. vitals. iron. greens. victuals. music. annals.

deer. riches. and by the pronoun used in connection with it:-(With the singular nouns use the verbs is. and the pronoun used in connection with it. who.--Construct sentences in which the number of each of the following nouns shall be indicated by the form of the verb. storys. +Direction. and its. it. man-of-war. eaves. NUMBER FORMS IN CONSTRUCTION. geese-quills. scarves. the adjectives an. calicos. In the first sentence something is said about a male lion. his. all. is in the . greens. mosquitos. The modification of the noun to denote the sex of the thing which it names is called +Gender+. gross. heros.+--Correct the following plurals. this. maid-servant. she. Mussulmen. parent. galley. man-childs. him. is. The number of a noun may be determined not only by its form but also by the verb. series. mother-in-laws.) (With the plural nouns use the verbs are. German. teeth-brushes. were. and the remainder both as singular and as plural subjects:-Each. clothes. that. both. +Direction. news. molasses. NOUNS AND PRONOUNS--GENDER. news. and give the Remark that applies to each:-Stagees. chimnies. terminuses. series. ***** LESSON 117. her. genuses. x. ***** LESSON 116. babys. muff. trout. was. oxes. by the adjective.--Compose sentences in which the first three of the following adjective pronouns shall be used as singular subjects. their. Misses. Dr. deer. molasses. heathen. and them.--The lion was caged. foxs. Frenchman. and five that have the same form in both numbers. head (of cattle). either. and in the second something is said about a female lion. sunfish. and two. and has been. denoting a male animal. grounds. Smith. +Introductory Hints+. fish. In the following sentence this. beefs. The lioness was caged. one. family. means. iron. 2s.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 131 theory. spoonful. species. irons. pennies. the adjectives these. the fourth as a plural subject. former. none. and it are incorrectly used: This scissors is so dull that I cannot use it. dice. axises.) Bellows. five that have no singular. politics. +Direction+. colloquy. man-servant. +Direction+. those. soloes. the adjective. +Remark.+--These scissors are so dull that I cannot use them. goods. mystery. pride. swines. bellows. attorney-at-laws. The plurality of scissors is here made known in four ways. mouthsful. the pronouns he.+--Give five words that have no plural. the pronouns they. child. son-in-law. meeting. and have been. elfs. brethren. 1/2. trioes. phenomenons. alms. ms. vermin. any. Brown and Smith. Messrs. oats. aldermans. neither. Lion. and that. crowd.

for in our language gender follows the sex. is neuter. speak-er. Er(A. 2d. editor. Lesson 127). and the English. By different words in the compound names. baron. enchanter. preceptor. waiter. Such nouns as cousin. patron.] ***** +DEFINITIONS+. The masculine is distinguished from the feminine in three ways:-1st. read-er. prophet. [Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon. is in the +Feminine Gender+. the French is feminine. hunter. god (see Rule 3. By using words wholly or radically different. tutor. gender was grammatical. . tailor. No English nouns have distinctive neuter forms. But in such modern languages as the French and the German.) Actor. conductor. heir. deacon. Ess is the most common ending for feminine nouns. you know the gender of the noun in English that names it. of course. since the union of the Norman-French with the Anglo-Saxon to form the English. +The Neuter Gender denotes want of sex+. but a lew have different forms to distinguish the masculine from the feminine. benefactor. +Gender is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes sex+. By a difference in the ending of the words. prior. 3d. but it now generally denotes an agent without reference to sex. tiger. Such words are sometimes said to be in the Common Gender. host. +The Masculine Gender denotes the male sex+. and add ess. instructor. Gender Forms. ambassador. +The Feminine Gender denotes the female sex+. Sex belongs to the thing. S. arbiter. count. child. and gender. S. The German for table is a masculine noun. gender has followed sex. idolater. friend. Names of things that are without sex are said to be in the +Neuter Gender+. The original meaning of ster is preserved in spinster. director. old English ster). Lesson 127). giant. Knowing the sex of the thing or its lack of sex.--Form the feminine of each of the following masculine nouns by adding e s s :-Author. prince (see Rule 1. neighbor are either masculine or feminine. and in Latin and Greek. as in the French and the German. shepherd.] +Direction+. to the noun that names the thing. the mother-tongue of our language. as. ere) was originally a masculine suffix. [Footnote: The suffix ess came into the English language from the Norman-French. denoting a female animal. the gender of nouns naming things without reference to sex is determined by the likeness of their endings in sound to the endings of words denoting things with sex. poet. estre. Jew. (Drop the vowel e or o in the ending of the masculine. but.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 132 +Masculine Gender. It displaced the feminine termination of the mother-tongue (A. lion. and lioness.

executor. George. mistress. feminine she. Francis. and neuter it. It was Mary. damsel or maiden. +Direction+. landlord. he-bear. Mrs. Louis. In some compounds distinguishing words are prefixed or affixed. buck-rabbit. (The following are somewhat irregular. Cornelius. maid-servant. gander.--Learn the following forms:-Administrator. merman. Mr. don. have various endings in the feminine. is used idiomatically to refer to a male or a female as.] +Direction+. drake. lass. hind. executrix. stag. duck. Some words. gentlewoman. widow. belle. wizard.--Give five nouns ending in e r or o r that may be applied to either sex. .) +Direction+. doe. hero. maid. peacock. or Miss Jones. testatrix. Henrietta.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg (Drop the masculine er or or. governor. landgrave.) +Direction+. Jessie. Cornelia.--Learn the following forms:-Bachelor. Words wholly or radically different are used to distinguish the masculine from the feminine. buck.--Learn these forms:-- 133 Abbot. Charlotte. murderer. caterer. lady. grandmother. madam. Henry. Englishwoman. Georgiana. landlady. marquis. grandfather. Frances. steer. nephew. infante. emperor. Augustus. peahen. friar or monk. lord. Jesse. Paul. youth. Charles. sir. master. czar. infanta. Louisa or Louise. signore or signor. gentleman. Jones. Pauline. duchess. hen-sparrow. nun. sultana. sultan. duke. Such words as editor and author are now frequently used to denote persons of either sex. administratrix. Josephine. heroine. +Direction+. heifer. abbess. [Footnote: It. sorcerer. donna. negro. lad. negress. Joseph. mermaid. Julia or Juliet. nanny-goat. beau. empress. hart. Ess was formerly more common than now. marchioness. widower. although a neuter form.--Give five examples of each of the three ways of distinguishing the masculine from the feminine. testator. equestrienne. and add the feminine ess. niece. It was John. roe. cock-sparrow. landgravine. The pronoun has three gender forms:--Masculine he. Englishman. doe-rabbit. earl. Julius. czarina. Augusta. witch. man-servant.) Adventurer. +Direction+. mostly foreign. ***** LESSON 118. countess. goose. (This is a matter pertaining to the dictionary rather than to grammar. she-bear. equestrian.--Learn the following forms:-Billy-goat. siguora.

Life mocks the idle hate of ---. The child was unconscious of ---danger. 2. or productiveness are considered as feminine. yet ---.--Study what is said above.spotted hide. but in grammar it is chiefly important as involving the correct use of the pronouns he.is meek and modest. Each person was required to name his or her favorite flower.beauty and ---chivalry.who denies God. Despair extends ---.work of gladness to contrive. 3. 16. The wild beast from ---. Inanimate things are often represented as living beings. +Direction+. unless some masculine or feminine quality seems to predominate. the wild bird from ---. [Footnote: When it is necessary to distinguish the sexes. 10.habits. it gives two or three graceful springs. it is commonly represented by a masculine pronoun. as. and it. The bat is nocturnal in ---.--Write sentences in which the things named below shall be personified by means of masculine pronouns:-- . 11.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg GENDER FORMS IN CONSTRUCTION. +Remark+.--Every person has his faults. Belgium's capital had gathered then ---. 9.morals. 8.cavern sprang. The elephant is distinguished for ---. +Example+. +Examples+. beauty.--The writer employs he or she according as he fancies the animal to possess masculine or feminine characteristics. A person's manners not unfrequently indicate ---. 18.--The oak shall send his roots abroad and pierce thy mold. +Direction+. The dog is faithful to ---.--It is quite generally used instead of he or she. Everybody should think for ----. power. and the names of those distinguished for grace. The forest's leaping panther shall yield ---. When a singular noun is used so as to imply persons of both sexes. she. 6. a feminine. and are referred to by the pronoun he or she.--When the deer is alarmed.--The names of objects distinguished for size. Death. both the masculine and the feminine pronoun should be used. they are personified. or a neuter pronoun.song. No one else is so much alone in the universe as ---.strength and sagacity. The night-sparrow trills ---. or sublimity are regarded as masculine. 14. 5. He is more frequently employed than she. gentleness.prey. 17. The neuter pronoun it is often used with reference to animals and very young children.cunning.grove. 15. +Remark+. and then fill each of the blanks in the following sentences with a masculine.master.arch-enemy.--The grizzly bear is the most savage of his race. Personification adds beauty and animation to style. The catamount lies in the boughs to watch ---. +Examples+. +Remark+. 134 Gender as a matter of orthography is of some importance. Truth is fearless. 4. that is.raven wing. The fox is noted for ---. and in each case give the reason for your selection:-1. 13. The mocking-bird poured from ---little throat floods of delirious music. The catsteals upon her prey. the sex being disregarded. in referring to an animal. The names of animals are often considered as masculine or feminine without regard to the real sex.] +Example+. 12. The little child reached out its hand to catch the sunbeam. 7. Spring comes forth ---.

thou. England. as you have learned. hlaford-um. Gen. but of nouns the possessive case is the only one that is now marked by a peculiar form. Hlaford. +Introductory Hints+. hlaford-es. The cat. 4. 2. war. contracts and elongates the pupil of her eye. accusative. to name the one spoken of. denoting the speaker. is in the +Third Person+. I. hlaford. and. thou art beside thyself. genitive. hlaford-a. possessive (genitive). The man killed the bear. and he are personal pronouns. as it suffers so much from the heat that he is not easily preserved in confinement. The bear's grease was made into hair oil. Dat. have written. ANGLO-SAXON. In these three sentences the word Paul has three different uses. thou. War leaves his victim on the field. genitive. and ablative. 3. when it comes to the light. . and he. to use the plural you instead of thou. lord. vocative. dative. in the second. Acc. Paul. +Caution+. I. I. and used to denote possession it is in the +Possessive Case+. and decks itself with flowers. Nom. wind. Plural. ***** LESSON 119. [Footnote: The Anglo-Saxon cases are nominative. gender. is in the +Second Person+. Voc. In the first sentence the bear is represented as performing an act. Some of the pronouns have a special form for each case.--Write sentences in which the things named below shall be personified by means of feminine pronouns:-Ship. is in the +First Person+. There are two modifications which do not refer to changes in the meaning of nouns and pronouns but to their different uses and relations. night. Instead of I a writer or speaker may use the plural we. denoting the one spoken of. hlaford-as. hlaford. are modifications affecting the meaning of nouns and pronouns--number being almost always indicated by form. +Direction+. the English are nominative. hlaford-e. denoting the one spoken to. earth. sun. Paul. distinguish person by their form. and through courtesy it came to be customary. Summer clothes herself in green. These uses and relations are not generally indicated by form. and objective. hlaford-as. time. virtue. sometimes. The polar bear is comparatively rare in menageries. river. We inflect below a noun from the Anglo-Saxon. to name the one spoken to. except among the Friends. used as object complement it is in the +Objective Case+. its form is not changed. hlaford-as. These different uses of nouns and pronouns and the forms used to mark these uses constitute the modification called +Person+. winter. the Latin are nominative. NOUNS AND PRONOUNS--PERSON AND CASE. 135 +Direction+. hlaford. vocative. In the first it is used to name the speaker. or inflection. in the third. in the second. Singular.--Correct these errors:-1. or inflection.--Number and gender. and homes desolated by it mourn over her cruelty. or in the language of prayer and poetry. as you see. though. in the third. as possessing something. A noun used as subject is in the +Nominative Case+. as you see. dative. He brought Paul before Agrippa. These different uses of nouns and pronouns and the forms used to mark these uses constitute the modification called +Case+. spring. as receiving an act. The bear killed the man. accusative.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Death. nature. moon.--Avoid changing the gender of the pronoun when referring to the same antecedent.

is ruinous. lord. +DEFINITIONS+. prepositions have largely taken the place of case forms. domin-is. Gen. domin-i.] and one from the Latin. Plural. Pos. +Direction+. +The Nominative Case of a noun or pronoun denotes its office as subject or as attribute complement+. John. etc. Ab. lord-'s. Nom. Pos. +The First Person denotes the one speaking+. +Direction+. Personal pronouns and verbs are the only classes of words that have distinctive person forms. Plural. +The Third Person denotes the one spoken of+. domin-o. select and write in one list all the first person forms. +The Objective Case of a noun or pronoun denotes its office as object complement. +Person is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes the speaker.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 136 LATIN. Acc.] A noun is of the second person when used as explanatory of a pronoun of the second person. Idle time. the parent of the Norman-French. or the one spoken of+. in another list. Nom. domin-um. domin-i. In English. Dominus. and my name is John. Thou seest. I. the one spoken to. as. all the second person forms. all the third person forms. Dat. lord. He sees. in order that you may see how cases and the inflections to mark them have been dropped in English. lord. and in another. Person is regarded in grammar because the verb sometimes varies its form to agree with the person of its subject. It may be said that. in the sentence I. John. saw these things. ENGLISH. +Person Forms+.--Compose sentences in which there shall be two examples of nouns and two of pronouns used in each of the three persons. Singular. domin-o. domin-is. +The Second Person denotes the one spoken to+. A noun is said to be of the first person when joined as an explanatory modifier to a pronoun of the first person. lord-s. as. Ye crags and peaks. the expression meaning. Singular. lord-s. Lord. I. [Footnote: It is doubtful whether a noun is ever of the first person. domin-us. John. as. Voc. +DEFINITIONS+. . +The Possessive Case of a noun or pronoun denotes its office as possessive modifier+. We Americans are always in a hurry. Nom. saw these things. Obj. domin-orum. or when used independently as a term of address. and it is thought that by them our language can express the many relations of nouns to other words in the sentence better than other languages can by their cumbrous machinery of inflection. domin-os.--From the forms of the pronouns given in Lesson 124. I see. lord-s'. John speaks of his own name. domin-i. or as principal word in a prepositional phrase+. +Case is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes its office in the sentence+. domin-e. Obj.

as. +Remark+. A noun or pronoun used as objective complement is in the objective case. or Obj. to which our language is closely allied. he appreciated it.] should make no difference.] is to be a scholar. poor Yorick! He being dead. Some.) as the word to which it relates as attribute." +Examples+. in the objective in five ways. in the sentence I wish (me or myself) to be him. the attribute complement is said to be in the nominative case. would put the attribute complement of the abstract infinitive in the objective. 137 +Examples+. +Examples+. +Direction. +Examples+. When the participle or the infinitive is used abstractly. in the possessive in two ways. I am this day weak.--Study carefully the Definitions and the Remark above. the dry-goods merchant. +Direction+. .--Being an artist. Alas. The nominative and the objective forms of the pronoun occur so rarely in such constructions that it seems impossible to determine the usage.--When the assumed subject of the participle or the infinitive is a possessive. and give the case of each noun and pronoun:-1. its attribute complement is also said to be in the nominative case. reasoning from the analogy of the Latin. I proved it to be him. He made it all it is. is the proper form. ***** LESSON 120. would put this complement in the nominative. supposing for and some other word to be understood. ANALYSIS AND PARSING.--I am.) A noun or pronoun used as explanatory modifier is in the same case as the word explained--"is put by apposition in the same case. etc. Not to know what happened before we were born is to be always a child. Liberty. being in the same case as me. him.+--Analyze the following sentences. For one to be him. It is therefore a matter of no great practical importance.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg A noun or pronoun used independently is said to be in the nominative case. 2. your friend. that of 1774.--They made him speaker. Being a scholar is not being an idler. it has fled! (See Lesson 44. addressed the King. George III. A noun or pronoun used as attribute complement of a participle or an infinitive is in the same case (Nom. and then compose sentences in which a noun or a pronoun shall be put in the nominative case in four ways. Its being he [Footnote: The case of he in these examples is rather doubtful. we shall live. as. Others. reasoning from the German. The assumed subject of the infinitive being omitted when it is the same in sense as the principal subject. To be he [Footnote: See footnote above. His being a Roman saved him from being made a prisoner. though anointed king. He buys is goods at Stewart's. as. without an assumed subject. dear madam. 3.--The first colonial Congress.

i. O you hard hearts! you cruel men of Rome! 11. This news of papa's puts me all in a flutter. and is immeasurably superior to it as intellectual gymnastics.+--The singular one is explanatory of the plural ye. page 247. or even to analyze well. and obey his Son.] burdens. For the agreement of pronouns.--Myself may be treated as explanatory of I. Arnold's success as teacher was remarkable. 5. be specific. +Model for Written Parsing+. but would give it a subordinate place. or one another's may be treated as a compound. What made Cromwell a great man was his unshaken reliance on God. 12. Think'st thou this heart could feel a moment's joy. of "Rules of Syntax. +Explanation.--Select and parse in full all the nouns and pronouns found in the first ten sentences of Lesson 120. the herdsman of Tekoa.--We do not believe that the chief end of the study of grammar Is to be able to parse well. +Explanation.] ***** LESSON 121. subject of such a verb.) 4. introduced by as and used without a possessive sign. 7. King.+--Teacher. 6. But we must be allowed an emphatic protest against the needless and mechanical quoting.--Elizabeth's favorite. What art thou. Bear ye one another's [Footnote: For the use of one another." When a pupil has said that such a noun is in the nominative case. its modifications. (See Lesson 35. when given at all.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 138 +Explanation. +TO THE TEACHER+. in parsing. 15. and Saviour of men. God. (For the case of him see explanation of (3) above. Our great forefathers had left him naught to conquer but his country.+--Nouns used adverbially are in the objective case because equivalent to the principal word of a prepositional phrase. +Explanation+. 8. 9. see Lesson 124. see Lesson 142. thou being absent? 13. page 247. Worship thy Creator. was beheaded by James I. Everybody acknowledges Shakespeare to be the greatest of dramatists. PARSING. execrable shape. +Direction+. the Master. What means that hand upon that breast of thine? [Footnote: See second foot-note. that darest advance? 10. +Parsing+--a word is giving its classification.) 14. Raleigh.. and its syntax. I will attend to it myself.e. We would not do away with parsing altogether. what is gained by a repetition of the definition in the Rule: "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case"? Let the reasons for the disposition of words. Amos. . is explanatory of Arnold's. its relation to other words.] 16. was not a prophet's son. [Footnote: See second foot-note. though without question analysis reveals more clearly than parsing the structure of the sentence.

The weight of usage inclines to the use of s in such names as Miss Rounds's. 34. as. 29. es and is were both used. Nom. in spoken language. Other exercises may be selected from examples previously given for analysis. but exists in the English possessive ending to-day. 60. men's. plural. Mod.--To avoid an unpleasant succession of hissing sounds.--Pronounce the ('s) as a separate syllable (= es) when the sound of s will not unite with the last sound of the nominative. Without the s there would be no distinction. | MODIFICATIONS. see Lessons 28. +Direction+. prince's. | Mod. 31. of favorite. the vowel is generally dropped. as. 46.--Boy's. | SYNTAX. But it has been proved that the his in such expressions is an error that gained its wide currency largely through the confusion of early English orthography. Mas.Num. 59. Hemans'. ber. es was a genitive (possessive) ending of the singular. In modern English. sheeps'. conscience' sake.--For exercises in parsing nouns and pronouns. 78. der. the s in the possessive singular is sometimes omitted. of was beheaded. -----------------|-----------------------|-----------------------------. and in Middle. | Sub. ***** LESSON 122.] +Examples+.Gen. 33.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 139 CLASSIFICATION. Mas. [Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon.--Study the Rule and the Remarks given above. The use of the apostrophe has been extended to distinguish the possessive from other forms of the plural.| 3d Sing. Mas. Phrases like. between Miss Round's and Miss Rounds'.| -----------------|-----------------------|-----------------------------. witness's. boys'. sheep's. phrase. Kind.| 3d Sing. genitive sta:n-es. Nouns have two case forms. goodness' sake. Prop." "The Prince his Players.|son. English.--The Possessive Case of nouns is formed in the singular by adding to the nominative the apostrophe and the letter s ('s). TO THE TEACHER. some place the apostrophe after the s in the plural to distinguish it from the possessive singular. common to the nominative and the objective case. Raleigh Prop. and parsing continued as long as you think it profitable. "Mars his sword. +Remark+. | Prin. 35. In old English. singular. | 3d Sing. Mrs. as. Fem. and then write the possessive singular and the possessive plural of each of the following nouns:-- . 80.--When the singular and the plural are alike in the nominative.|Per. Achilles' sword. Archimedes' screw (the s in the words following the possessive here having its influence). ('s) are both added." "King Lewis his satisfaction" are abundant in Early. 30. and the possessive form. In prose this omission of the s should seldom occur. and 81. If the plural does not end in s. 73. sta:n. | Expl. CASE FORMS--NOUNS. 44. Professor Hadley has clearly shown that the Saxon termination has never dropped out of the language. favorite Com. James I. Case. Pos. of favorite. King James's.| Nouns.Elizabeth's Prop. Hemans's. +RULE. word of Prep. +Remark+. 71. Some have said that our possessive ending is a remnant of the pronoun his.| 3d Sing. Obj. Nom. Mrs. Heman's and Mrs. in the plural by adding (') only. and (') stands in its place. the simple form. +Remark+.

By the use of of. tyro. the possessive sign is removed from the noun and attached to the adjective. William and Henry are represented as jointly owning a boat. attorney. and to words denoting value. a man-of-war's rigging. torrent. lady. chair. somebody else. negro. elf. elephant. the earth's surface. a dollar's worth. princess. day. as may seem most appropriate. the queen of England's palace. using either the possessive sign or the preposition of. fish. Henry the Eighth. year. The possessive sign ('s) is confined chiefly to the names of persons. king of Great Britain. fortune's smile. or the idea of belonging to. wife. attorney-at-law. The possessive sign however is often added to names of things which we frequently hear personified. Socrates. but the leaves of the tree. the possessive sign is added to the last only. expressed or understood. If they modify different words. as. sun. 140 Compound names and groups of words that may be treated as compound names add the possessive sign to the last word. the sign is added to each. aid-de-camp.[Footnote: In parsing the words queen and England separately. of is used more frequently than ('s). ***** LESSON 123. dwarf. As the possessive is the only case of nouns that has a distinctive inflection. seraph.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Actor. +Remarks+. The preposition of with the objective is often used instead of the possessive case form--David's Psalms = Psalms of David. mouse. beau. ocean.--To denote the source from which a thing proceeds. . mosquito. hero. cuckoo. goose. swine. the ('s) must be regarded as belonging to queen.--When several possessive nouns modify the same word and imply common possession.--Study carefully the principles and Remarks given above. child. mothers-in-law's faults may be avoided. farmer. William the Conqueror. eagle. deer. and to names of periods of time. or which we wish to dignify. genius. summer.--William and Henry's boat. such expressions as witness's statement. as. it is only with this case that mistakes can occur in construction. princess. junto. wolf. gunpowder. lion.[Footnote: In such expressions as everybody else's business. house. ox. thief. woman. and then make each of the following terms indicate possession. horse. hour. In the first example. +Caution+. two cents' worth.] Jefferson. +Explanation+. chief. and join an appropriate name denoting the thing possessed:-Father-in-law. book. monkey.--The possessive plural of such terms is not used. CONSTRUCTION OF POSSESSIVE FORMS. +Remark+. fairy.] Frederick the Great's verses. eternity's stillness. buffalo. in the second.) The possessive sign should generally be placed immediately before the name of the thing possessed. each is represented as owning a separate boat--boat is understood after William's. enemy. and of animals and things personified. king. mountain. ally. +Direction+. volcano. a day'swork. but the whole phrase queen of England's may be treated as one noun in the possessive case. We do not say the tree's leaves. William's and Henry'sboat. a year's interest. waif. calf. sheep. (See Lesson lai.

if the explanatory word has several modifiers.'s business prospers. This province is Victoria's.--The president's reception means the reception given by the president.--When the different possessors are thought of as separate or opposed. dominion. but the reception of . This is my wife's father's opinion. But. 5. as. Stacy's. This was James's.--If an article precedes the possessive.) +Caution+. mother's. the possessive sign may be added either to the modifying or to the principal word. as well as James's. We were comparing Caesar and Napoleon's victories. and the name of the thing possessed is omitted.---Tell which of the sentences above may be improved by using other forms to denote possession. Of is not always equivalent to the ('s). +Direction+.--When a common noun is explanatory of a proper noun.--The relation of possession may be expressed not only by ('s) and by of but by the use of such phrases as belonging to. the sign is repeated. +Direction+. In constructing sentences be careful to secure smoothness and clearness and variety by taking advantage of these different forms.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 141 +Remark+. the possessive sign is added to the explanatory word only. 5. 3. +Caution+. I took tea at Brown's. the cardinal's. only the principal word takes the sign. 4. 7. home. +Explanation+. Charles's. the noun immediately before it takes the sign. 2. 7. the distinguished philosopher's statesman's. the jeweler's. the sign may be repeated although joint possession is implied. Leggett's. 2. This belongs to Victoria's. If the name of the thing possessed is given. choice.--Correct these errors. 5. of England. the poet's.--Correct these errors:-1. or We stopped at Tiffany's. 6. This is Tennyson's. my old friend and schoolmate's. My brother's wife's sister's drawings have been much admired. We stopped at Tiffany. The Bank of England was established in William's and Mary's reign. or held by my wife's father. queen of England's. not the people's. France's and England's interest differs widely. as. They are Thomas. 3. +Correction+. He was his father's. and sister's favorite. It was the king. Messrs.--This is the opinion of my wife's father. books. 8. 6. and Robert's estate. This was the sage and the poet's theme. That language is Homer's. or if there are more explanatory words than one. He was the King's. property of. favorite. queen of England's. 6. +Direction+. the jeweler. Frederick the Great was the son of the daughter of George I. +Explanation+. +Remarks+. 4.--When a possessive noun is followed by an explanatory word. Wolsey's. This is my wife's father's farm. 3. the greatest poet of antiquity's. career ended in disgrace. (See the following Caution. and give your reasons:-1. America was discovered during Ferdinand's and Isabella's reign. Green's. This was Franklin's motto.--Improve the following sentences:-1. +Direction+. & Co. 2. The drawings of the sister of the wife of my brother have been much admired. 4. as well as the people's. etc.

BOY. after it is found. men.--Correct these errors:-1. 3. Pos. boys. boys'. Plural. Singular. the participle may be followed by a preposition and so become a pure noun (Lesson 38). Singular. Brown being a politician prevented his election. Grouchy being behind time decided the fate of Waterloo.--Lowell. +Direction+.--Construct sentences illustrating the meaning of the following expressions:-- 142 A mother's love.--Often ambiguity may be prevented by changing the assumed subject of a participle from a nominative or an objective to a possessive. 4.--Emerson.--Matthew Arnold. The writer's being [Footnote: The participle may be modified not only. Poltroonery is the acknowledging an infirmity to be incurable. As seen in this last quotation. as it may mean either that the writer is not doubted because he is a scholar. PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Nom. man. the love of a mother. 2. Declension of Pronouns.--This is ambiguous. Plural. ***** LESSON 124. +Direction+. +Correction+. ladies. ladies'. 5. lady's. that is of consequence. the taking them from under the old conventional point of view. not a leaving them out of mind. I do not doubt him being sincere. lady. MAN. by a noun in the possessive but by the articles a and the---as said in Lesson 37. man. as here.] a scholar is not doubted. boy's. my friend's picture.--Learn the following declensions:-Declension of Nouns. the care of a father. Declension.--Declension is the arrangement of the cases of nouns and pronouns in the two numbers+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg the president means the reception given to the president. or that the writer's scholarship is not doubted. a picture of my friend. or That the writer is a scholar is not doubted. +DEFINITION. Whether it be the imposing a tax or the issuing a paper currency. 6. The writer being a scholar is not doubted. It is not the finding of a thing but the making something out of it. +Caution+. LADY. Not a making war on them. NUMBER AND CASE FORMS. lady.--Bagehot. but the putting a new construction upon them. ladies. . The giving away a man's money. Singular. +Direction+. men's. Plural. I have no doubt of the writer being a scholar.--Burke. boy. boys. men. It should be. No one ever heard of that man running for office. a father's care. man's. Obj. boy.

or I and they. Yours is old. it. Singular. andObj. as. Plural. mine honor. we can hardly be the plural of I. You (the Saxon accusative eow) has now taken the place of ye. your.] COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. THIRD PERSON--Neut. thou. them. Long after its introduction many looked askance at its. yourself. Singular. hers. her.+ ours.] [Footnote +: The forms mine. and that the expression is equivalent to one friend of my friends. Obj. thine.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg FIRST PERSON. others say that of simply marks identity. and Nom.---Carlyle. thine. thee. yours. Singular. says Professor Sweet. Singular. her. etc. But it came to be thought improper to employ his to denote inanimate things as well as animate. that of is partitive. ourself. Pos. us.* you. and their. The literature of the 16th and 17th centuries shows a growing sense of this impropriety. yours. Plural. mine is new = Your book is old. Dim are those heads of theirs. ours. your temper. itself. as. Plural. thine enemy. Plural. you. or ourselves. The explanation generally given is. yours. Plural. their or her or their or its. hers. Plural. They would make the expression = This temper. themselves. The s in ours. you. I and he. myself* thyself himself. [Footnote *: Strictly speaking. [Footnote *: The compound personal pronouns are used (1) for emphasis. Ours. and Nom.) New York (see Lesson 34). the. Obj. Obj. yours.common form old form. herself. and Nom. they. him. His. This naughty world of ours. Nom. etc. I myself saw it: and (2) as . ye(++) or you Pos. her. them.] [Footnote ++: Ye is used in Chaucer and in the King James version of the Bible exclusively in the nominative. and Nom. me. they. Plural. idiomatic English. Singular. the possessive of the masculine he. I and she. as. and theirs are consequently double possessives. Obj. and abounds with of it. was there the possessive (genitive) of the neuter hit also--our it. my or our or your or your or thy or ye(++) or you mine. Some suggest that the word possessing or owning is understood after these possessives. That temper of yours are good. But no one thinks now of shunning what was then regarded as a grammatical monstrosity. Plural. his. it. THIRD PERSON--Fem. you. as does of in city of (=viz. she. them. Singular.--Sheridan Knowles. because of the grammatical blunder it contains--the t in its being a nominative neuter ending. hers. yours. as.* their or theirs. SECOND PERSON-. and theirs is the s of his and its extended by analogy to our. 143 Nom. The expression a friend of mine presents a peculiar construction. Singular. hers. THIRD PERSON--Mas. Plural.SECOND PERSON-. as was its original ge in the Saxon. Shakespeare uses you in the nominative. theirs. Mine and thine were formerly used before words beginning with a vowel sound. Nom. or yourselves. it. This temper of yours (your possessing). he. [Footnote *: The possessive its is our only personal pronoun form not found in Saxon. and it own in place of his as the possessive of it. Obj. they. This moral life of mine. yours. The first appearance of the new coinage its is placed in 1598. and the s a possessive ending. It is said that this construction can be used only when more than one thing is possessed such expressions as This heart of mine. thereof. theirs. Obj. you. Singular. for I does not admit of plurality. Singular.--Byron. and theirs are used only when the name of the thing possessed is omitted. and Nom. I. We means I and you. forms already possessive. Obj. we. and is both nominative and objective.

whatever. and give authority to what they say. Singular and Plural. He found himself deserted by his friends. whomever. the possessive of what transferred to which." or "with one another. Sing. what. whichsoever. On the warrant of usage we say that both expressions are correct. whoever. 1. +Compound Relative Pronouns+. [Footnote: On the pages immediately preceding Lesson 1. We may use +one another+ with only two. and whatsoever do not change their form. is the only authority in language. and such are either singular or plural.--The possessive of these pronouns is wanting. My uncle stopped a minute to look about him.--Bryant. editors. +Adjective Pronouns+. They are not the only words used in this last relation. former. they utterly condemn the first. and Plu. same. whose. none. we may use each other in such a case.] +Remark+. and what. which. Each. In treating of the adjective pronouns we now appeal to it again. neither. "The two countries agreed to stand by one another. "Several able men were in correspondence with each other. some. have no possessive form. have laid them down in their last sleep. in fact. and all. and others to hide their individuality. ------. whosever. and neither are always singular. to turn the action of the verb back upon the actor. or hwaet-lic = who-like. The interrogative pronouns who. farmery latter. +Remark+. which. +Interrogative Pronouns+. and what are declined like the relatives who. whosesoever.--From the composition of which--hwa:-lic. and another. who. Nom. these and those. Ourself and we are used by rulers. Either.Nom. whom.--Dickens.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 144 reflexives. that. as. declined like otherin the singular. In the first twelve paragraphs below we give alternative expressions. both is always plural. Pos." .. And millions in those solitudes . This and that with their plurals. We may use +each other+ with more than two. and lattersometimes take the apostrophe and s ('s) in the singular. what. any. whosoever. We may say. ------. Oneand other are declined like nouns. and Plu. and are alike in the nominative and the objective. we said that +usage+. whose. +Relative Pronouns+. Singular and Plural." 2. Obj. We may say. but it is in general use. either. The compound personal pronouns should not be used as subjects. we may use the simple personal pronouns instead. or what-like. It is. it is evident that whose is not formed from which. Those who regard usage as the final arbiter in speech need not avoid this form of the pronoun. Sing. as determined by the majority of the best writers and speakers of the generation. which. and Plu. Only the second of these alternative locutions in each paragraph is allowed by many grammarians. Sing. Sing. Whichever. has no plural. Obj. which. and we there explained how we are able to appeal to usage as we all along have done. that. whomsoever. where no obscurity would arise. we may use one another in such a case." or "by each other. Pos. Much has been said against this whose.. and Plu.

" or "for any one or for none of them. We may say. We may use the plural +ones+." or "the two others ran away. you may vote for either or for neither of them." 12. etc. We may say. between +other+ and +than+. We may use +none+ in the plural.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 145 3. etc." 6. "None hear thy voice." or "white roses. We may say. Usage is also decidedly in favor of +first two." 5. we may use any one and none in such cases." "Both of the trees. "Such a strong argument." 8." 11." or "So strong an argument. We may use +all." This form is common and convenient. We are advised to shun it. as we do the conjunctions either and neither. and are not declined. we may use none in the singular." 7. We may use the pronouns +either+ and +neither+." "The whole of the farm. There is scarcely any authority for placing the ('s) upon one or body. We may apply +the other two+ to those that remain when one of three things has been taken from the rest. We may say. we may repeat the one in such a case. no one else's. We may say. "Written by Dickens for his own or any one else's children." or "on each side of the Seine. CASE FORMS--PRONOUNS. I have white ones." "Such admirable talent." "The whole farm. "We must look for somee other reasons for it than those suggested." "Both trees." "Talent so admirable." 10. We may insert a noun. instead of two first. "He wrested the land on either side of the Seine. but we need not. three last. we may place the than immediately after other. last three+." The paragraphs below contain noteworthy uses of adjective pronouns but no really alternative expressions." or "All the people." or "along with one. nobody else's+. "The home one must quit.] Descriptive adjectives used as nouns are plural. We may say. instead of any one's else. we may use these words as adjectives qualifying the noun. and +whole+ with a preposition and a noun following. We may use +he+ or some other personal pronoun after the indefinite one. etc. We may say." or "None hears thy voice. "Here are three candidates. 14. We may use +either+ in the sense of each. We may use +a+ before a noun in the singular and +or two+ after it." 4. we may use so with the adjective in such a case." or "in one or two days. the other two ran away. Usage is overwhelmingly in favor of +any one else's. ***** LESSON 125. We may use +such+ before an adjective and its noun.. 13. We may say. we may use the noun for which onesstands. somebody else's. both+. "All of the people. we may use the two others in such a case. We may say. "One of them kept his ground. "You have red roses. yet taking much of its life along with him." or "for some reasons for it other than those suggested. We may say." 9. . with more than two. "I will go in a day or two. Such expressions as "the wretched's only plea" and "the wicked's den" are exceptional. we may use one or two before the noun in the plural. we may use each instead. or a noun and other words.

I believe that he is losing his mind. usage of a majority of the best writers and speakers the grammarian should bow without question.] 3. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend? 20. it's. [Footnote: Her is also a possessive. 6. theirn. Whosoever the court favors is safe. 27. if the argument from the speech of the uneducated is to have weight. I knew that it was him. 28. her. they easily misled him. A Violation of every principle of grammar may be defended. "Who should I meet?" They justify such expressions as It is me from the analogy of the French c'est moi. He is better than me. She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. Whom did you suppose it was? 32. Between you and I. only to these fifteen words. he of whom I so often speak. practically. 19. hern. Remark. It was her. and then correct these errors. he. I am not so old as her. and me too.--Study the Declensions. All the rules of syntax given in the grammars to guide in the use of the nominative and the objective case apply. I referred to my old friend. I thought that tall man was him. she. My hour is come.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 146 The pronouns I. yourn. hisn. thou. and must not be used in the nominative case. 5. 24. It isn't for such as us to sit with the rulers of the land. ye. Who did he choose? Did he choose you and I? 22. 17. 7. Not one in a thousand could have done it as well as him. but not to the accidental slips of even the greatest writers. 29." But such analogy would justify It are them (ce sont eux). and on the ground that they are "more frequently heard than the prescribed form. 12. and asserts that thee and me are correct in. +Direction+. the habitual. but not to render up my soul to such as thee. hi's.+ and +whom+ are objective forms. she. To whatever is the prevailing. 33. thou. 20. Latham defends It is me. He was angry. 9. Construction of Case Forms--Pronouns. I knew it to be he. they. it was her. "Who servest thou under?" and from Steele. . 16. 23. No one has freed himself from the influence of early associations that are in a careless moment some vicious colloquialism may not creep into his discourse. It was Joseph. him whom Pharaoh promoted." Professor Bain justifies If I were him. Who did he refer to. us. their's.] 4. Him and me are of the same age. Dean Alford regards as correct the forms condemned by Latham. 15. and correct these errors:-Our's. him. Who will go? Me. we have good authority for "Her ain't a calling we: us don't belong to she. and.+--Study carefully the Definitions and principles given under the head of case. giving your reasons in every instance:-1. her's.--I. [See previous Footnote. if not quite unknown in American literature.--The eight nominative forms and the seven objective forms here given are the only distinctive nominative and objective forms in the language. He that is idle and mischievous reprove. We will refer it to whoever you may choose." A course of reading will satisfy one that the best writers and speakers in England are not in the habit of using such expressions as It is me. Scotland and thee did in each other live. and that these are almost. Its being me should make no difference. +Caution. he or I? 21. or to the common usage of the unreflecting and the uncultivated.] 2. 14. +Me. 13. "The nations not so blest as thee" "Such weak minister as me may the oppressor bruise. It is not me you are in love with. she is older than me by ten years. I took that tall man to be he.] them. [Footnote: Dr. but condemns It is him. 11. They that are diligent I will reward. happy us! surrounded thus with blessings. Who did you suppose it to be? 31. Them that study grammar talk no better than me. It was not them. 18. You have seen Cassio and she together. 8. +Direction. 30. we. 10. and who are the only words in the language that have each three different case forms. if such inadvertencies are to be erected into authority. Lesson 119. he.+ and +who+ are +nominative+ forms. Him being a stranger. 25. Oh. your's. and even defends the use of who as an objective form by quoting from Shakespeare. and must not be used in the objective case. thee. Who servest thou under? [See previous footnote. and It is her.

Masculine (117. 118). Gender. his brother Philip's wife. 25. Case. 10. 21. Singular (112-116). than whom. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. Ask somebody's else opinion. What need is there of the man swearing? 16. 26. 18. us excepted. This state was south of Mason's and Dixon's line. It was Virgil. 13. Common (85). 9. Us boys enjoy the holidays. Person.) Proper (85). 30. He asked help of men whom he knew could not help him. Neuter (117. and Andrew's occupation was that of fishermen. this would be correct. It did not occur during Washington. Modifications. Define the noun and its classes. Principal word in Prep. none higher sat. 7. Objective Complement (31). our noble and valiant general's. the philanthropist's. Howard's. Jefferson. 17. Second (119).+--If the possessive plural of such nouns were used. Let him be whom he may. +Explanation. Let you and I try it.. 28. Satan except. 5. 14. his sister's. He visited his sons-in-law's homes. He thought it was us." Than whom is an irregularity justified only on the basis of good usage. Number. For the queen's sake. All enjoyed themselves. you or me. Who was Joseph's and Benjamin's mother? 2. 12.--Correct these errors.) NOUN. Third (119). it is sometimes followed by whom. 20. I shall not learn my duty from such as thee. Adjective Modifier (33). Possessive (119. 30). 27. 23. life was a noble one. It being difficult did not deter him. A valuable horse of my friend William's father's was killed. 15. Nominative (119). Peter's. Object Complement (28). 122. 29. He spoke of you studying Latin. Whom here may be parsed as an objective case form used idiomatically in place of who. 8). CONSTRUCTION OF CASE FORMS. Classes. but it is better to avoid these awkward forms. 123). I consulted Webster. 19. 3. 11. Uses. TO THE TEACHER. 1. 6. A lady entered. 4. 8. In some cases a single question may suffice for a whole lesson.. Worcester. Questions on the Noun. (The numbers refer to Lessons." 31. Direction.--Lesson 85. 118). (Abstract and Collective. Objective (119). Feminine (117. and Walker's dictionary. I understood it to be they. him who wrote the "Aeneid. The questions given below may be made to call for minute details or only for outlines. I am sure it could not have been them. Plural (112-116). It is not him whom you thought it was. I am opposed to the gentleman speaking again. Scheme for the Noun. Adverb Modifier (35). whom I afterwards found was Miss B. For Herodias's sake. and give your reasons:-1. or Adams's administration. who I afterwards found to be Miss B. Attribute Complement (29. John's. These are neither George nor Fanny's books. 22. . A lady entered. Phrase (17).--These schemes and questions under the head of General Review are especially designed to aid in securing an outline of technical grammar. Subject (4.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 147 Although than is not a preposition.as in the familiar passage from Milton: "Beelzebub. ***** LESSON 126. It is Othello's pleasure. 118). 24. First (119). Independent (44). MISCELLANEOUS--REVIEW.

Give and illustrate the several ways of distinguishing the genders. Define the pronoun and its classes. Decline the several pronouns. less sweet. unless this particular fruit had more of the quality than ordinary apples possess. 119.--Same as those of the Noun (112. 1. 87). that which expresses the quality in a greater or a less degree. 5. is of the +Comparative Degree+. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the possessive forms. and that which expresses the quality in the greatest or the least degree. Notice. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the number forms. 142). 118. Personal (85.+ 148 PRONOUN. 117. 86. 125. This modification is called +Comparison+. 87. expressing a quality of the three apples. The form of the adjective which expresses the simple quality. 86. 4. +Uses+. or inflection. 6. or. 2. 142. Relative (85. 4.--Lessons 112. or the sweetest of those compared. too. but possessed by them in different degrees. Questions on the Pronoun. 124. COMPARISON. 87). genders. and the case forms. How is the possessive case formed?--Lesson 122. the gender forms.--Lessons 112. This appleis sweet. The adjective sweet. then. Give and illustrate the several ways of forming the plural.--Lesson 124. . 125. that other is sweeter. we should not say. +Modifications+. 117.--Lesson 128.--Same as those of the Noun. persons.+--That apple is sweet. 87). have one modification. as you see.--Lessons 86.--Lesson 85. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the different pronouns. ***** LESSON 127. 3. is of the +Superlative Degree+. +Scheme for the Pronoun. as sweeter. as sweet. 7. but this one is the sweetest. 113.--Lessons 112. Interrogative (85). Adjectives. This apple is sweeter than that. +Classes+. is. But even the positive implies a comparison.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 2. inflected by adding er and est. +Introductory Hints. 114. that the adjective in the comparative and superlative degrees always expresses the quality relatively. When we say. Name and define the several numbers. but only that one apple is sweeter than the other. 119. and cases. we do not mean that any one of the apples is very sweet. 117. least sweet. because it is used when things are compared with one another in respect to some quality common to them all.--Lessons 118. is of the +Positive Degree+. and this is marked by form. 119. 3.--Lesson 117. and give the lists. Name and define the modifications of the noun. Adjective (85. This apple is the sweetest of the three. as sweetest.

Adjectives have one modification.--X. hot. The adjective. far.---Y does not change before 's. is varied in sense the same as when the inflections er and est are added. singeing. Adjectives of more than two syllables are generally compared by prefixing more and most. as. (2) after o. Degrees of diminution are expressed by prefixing less and least[Footnote: This use of an adverb to form the comparison was borrowed from the Norman-French. peaceable. +RULE II. number. dry.+ [Footnote: Different degrees of quantity. viz. this and that.+ +The Comparative Degree expresses a greater or a less degree of the quality. RULES FOR SPELLING. hotter. and est to the positive to form the superlative+. +The Superlative Degree expresses the greatest or the least degree of the quality+. most beautiful. dried.+ witty. dyeing. sweeter. [Footnote: Two adjectives. k. +RULE I. fine. exceedingly. finer. etc. nor in forming the plural of proper nouns. and (3) when it is needed to preserve the identity of the word.] +The Positive Degree expresses the simple quality. wittier. and case. love. still. by far or much the sweetest. as. adjectives have forms to indicate gender. loving. can hardly be called degree forms of the adjective. beginning. as. But note how the adverb is compared. those. however. +Comparison+.--More beautiful. have number forms--this. as. Exceptions. or much. +Exceptions.+--The e is retained (1) after c and g when the suffix begins with a or o. +Comparison is a modification of the adjective (or the adverb) to express the relative degree of the quality in the things compared.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 149 The several degrees of the quality expressed by the adjective may be increased or diminished by adverbs modifying the adjective. that. also. rather.--Final e is dropped before a suffix beginning with a vowel. the Marys. as+. changeable.--In monosyllables and words accented on the last syllable. +Remark+. This method is often used with adjectives of two syllables and sometimes with those of one. and gas has gases in the plural. as+. begin. or somewhat sweet. Exceptions.] +DEFINITIONS+. +RULE III. a final consonant after a single vowel doubles before a suffix beginning with a vowel. We can say very. may sometimes be expressed by comparison. these. as well as adjectives. Some adverbs.--Adjectives are regularly compared by adding er to the positive to form the comparative. +RULE. and v are never doubled. the Henrys. In Anglo-Saxon and Latin. The Saxon . lady's.. and in parsing they may be regarded as separate words. hoeing.---Y after a consonant becomes i before a suffix net beginning with i. The adverbs more and most have the degree forms. are compared. as.

unchanged to +r+. outermost. any. upmost or uppermost. outer or outmost or utter. ----. foolishly. little boy. Comp. furtherest or furthermost. (Up). In "King Lear" Shakespeare uses the double comparative a dozen times. most boldest. and we have the double comparative lesser--in use to-day. hinder. lesser. wisely. smallest boy. fast. least valuable. nearer nearest or next. Most definitive and many descriptive adjectives cannot be compared. . easily. fartherest or fathermost Fore. smaller boy.* after. (Aft). as their meaning will not admit of different degrees. as. polite. as it regularly was. | Evil. soon. and. better. Many or more. aftmost or aftermost. Near. vertical. Some +adverbs+ are compared by adding er and est. +Direction+. witty. hindmost or hindermost. (Out). most. English. both methods were often used with the same adjective. Much.--Correct the following:-Famousest. double comparatives and double superlatives were common. that which is more easily pronounced and more agreeable to the ear is to be preferred.] Adverbs Irregularly Compared. virtuousest. foremost or first. Wooden. common. Under. superior. Pos.--Learn to compare the following adjectives and adverbs:-Adjectives Irregularly Compared. Hind. holy. After the French method of comparing was introduced into English. er was added. nimble. Little. +Direction+. long. further. physical. in the sense of small in size. less valuable. former.]. Superlative. Some adjectives and adverbs are irregular in their comparison. sweet. ----. Top.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 150 superlative ending +st+ is in most and least. thin. Of the two forms of comparison. late. (In). valuable. as. Late. worst. for a time. topmost. undermost. unwelcome. and compare those that remain:-Observe the Rules for Spelling given above. Bad. later or latest or latter last. and the Saxon comparative ending +s+. Good. +Direction+. hot. worser. in coming into English. humble. firmly. amusingest. able. undeviating. Ill | Far. When it was forgotten that less is a comparative. (Forth). utmost or uttermost. happy. + worse. upper. smaller and smallest are substituted. best.--Compare the following:-Early. two-wheeled. eldest. comfortabler. often. Direction. inmost or innermost. is the last letter in less--changed to +r+. older or oldest or elder. that. it is the r in more.] [Footnote +: For the comparative and the superlative of little. one. [Footnote *: The words inclosed in curves are adverbs--the adjectives following having no positive form. and some by prefixing more and most. inner. Old. intemperate. lunar. farther. handsome. as. eloquenter.+ less or least. infinite.--From this list of adjectives select those that cannot be compared.

| -----.--We give below a model for writing the parsing of adjectives. London is the largest city in Europe. It should be.--The comparative degree refers to two things (or sets of things) as distinct from each other. There is no metal so useful as iron.--Study the Caution and the Remark.| " " " dewy | Des. +Caution+. Model for Written Parsing. farther. Ill.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Pos. [Footnote: The comparative is generally used with reference to two things only. of Comp. best. | Far. | Pos. 2. most. I like this book better than any book I have seen. 48.| Kind. Time ought. as. least.--The superlative degree refers to one thing (or set of things) as belonging to a group or class. 14. | " " " still | " | " | Completes are and modifies glades. | All | Def. Well. and correct these errors:-1. 47.] +Direction+. 63.] +Remark+. Exercises for the parsing of adjectives and adverbs may be selected from Lessons 12. ***** LESSON 128. 65. but it may be used to compare one thing with a number of things taken separately or together as.| Modifier of glades. China has a greater population than any nation on the globe. Comp. 151 Badly. 29. The grass is greener to-day. Itcontains more than all the others combined. better. or. London is larger than any other city in Europe. 4. Much. be compared with itself as existing under different conditions. or the term introduced by of. +Correction+. +Caution+. A similar form may be used for adverbs. 30. (A comparison is here stated. and implies that one has more of the quality than the other. |SYNTAX -------------------|---------------|---------------------------------Adjectives. Superlative. London is larger than any city in Europe. Little. . | MODIFICATION. to be free from invasion. although no degree form is employed. any city in Europe. CONSTRUCTION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES. more. worst. furthest. 44. 46.--In stating a comparison avoid comparing a thing with itself. All the metals are less useful than iron. The star is brighter to-night. the | " | -----. 60. | Deg.) 5. and so London is represented as being larger than itself. farthest. [Footnote: A thing may. The comparative degree is generally followed by than. Forth. of course.--The second term of comparison. above all kinds of property. further. includes London.| worse. less. 6. 3.--All the dewy glades are still. CLASSIFICATION. 31. include the former. +Remarks+.--In using the superlative degree be careful to make the latter term of the comparison. He is no better than other men. TO THE TEACHER. 64.

--Correct these errors:-1. as. This is the best of the two.--Macaulay. the most inexcusable. The farmer exchanged five barrel of potatoes for fifty pound of sugar. and correct these errors:-1.--Avoid double comparatives and double superlatives. +Direction+. Remove this ashes and put away that tongs.--A numeral denoting more than one may be prefixed to a singular noun to form a compound adjective. . +Direction+. and the comparison of adjectives whose meaning will not admit of different degrees. 152 Good writers sometimes use the superlative in comparing two things. My chiefest entertainment. 6. as. This is the better of the two. Solomon was the wisest of Hebrew kings. but the most pleasantest. +Correction+. as.--Whittier. 7. +Caution+. It should be.--Of (= belonging to) represents Solomon as belonging to a group of kings. 5. 4. +Correction+. These sort of expressions should be avoided. Most perfect harmony--Longfellow. He was the most active of all his companions.--Study the Caution and the Remark. Divinest Melan. or an adjective denoting more than one.choly.--Byron. We were traveling at the rate of forty mile an hour. (He was not one of his own companions. The extension of these exceptional forms should not be encouraged. and are compared by good writers. 4. That form of expression is more preferable. This was the most satisfactory of any preceding effort. or more nearly perpendicular. Miscellaneous. this is the most satisfactory. route. Profane swearing is. A more beautifuler location cannot be found. Less perfectimitations. He took the longest. and other excludes him from this group--a contradiction in terms.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg and as having more of the quality than any of the rest. The superlative is generally followed by of. Extremesthell. 3. 2. But in such cases usage largely favors the comparative. 3. and correct these errors:-1. Of all the other books I have examined. a ten-foot pole (not a ten-feetpole). The opinion is becoming more universal. 2.] +Direction+. The room is fifteen foot square. of all other vices. the adjective and the noun must agree in number.--Study the Caution and the Remarks. A worser evil awaits us.[Footnote: Many words which grammarians have considered incapable of comparison are used in a sense short of their literal meaning. Draw that line more perpendicular. The most principal point was entirely overlooked. as.) 5. a three-cent stamp. I measured it with a two-feet rule. +Remark+. John is the oldest of any boy in his class. The chiefest prize. 2.--Sheridan. 6. 3.--When an adjective denoting one. 6. is joined to a noun.--Milton. 5. or Solomon was wiser than any other Hebrew king.--Draw that line perpendicular. Solomon was the wisest of all the other Hebrew kings. 4. These kind of people will never be satisfied. +Caution+.

" + 127.--Lesson 128. 2. Deg.--Lesson 92. | Modification. Classes. 3. Give and illustrate the regular method and the irregular methods of comparison. +Correction+. Define the adjective and its classes. | Cause. She was willing to take a more humbler part. page 255. See the second Remark in this Lesson. Definitive (89-91). Modifier (12). 1. Pos. ADVERB. Manner.--Lesson 89.) ADJECTIVE. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of adjectives. The younger of the three sisters is the prettier. Classes. other is unnecessary.--Comparison. He did more to accomplish this result than any other man that preceded or followed him. 128. Attribute Complement (29. --Lesson 93.--Lessons 90. 128.) 4. | Comp.--See suggestions to the teacher. Solomon was wiser than any of the ancient kings. " | Questions on the Adverb. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of comparative and superlative forms. Scheme for the Adjective. This result. GENERAL REVIEW. 1. Deg. He was more active than any other of his companions.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. 5.--Comparison. | Comp. Pos. Objective Complement (31). 6. 8. " | Questions on the Adjective. of all others. I have the most entire confidence in him. Define the adverb and its classes. I don't like those sort of people. 3. Scheme for the Adverb. 10. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of adverbs. 9. He writes better than any boy in his class. Define comparison and the degrees of comparison. (The numbers refer to Lessons. 3.--Lesson 127. is most to be dreaded. Which are the two more important ranges of mountains in North America? 11. Illustrate the regular method and the irregular methods of comparison. Descriptive (89-91).--As he is not one of his companions. 7. 153 2. Sup. 30). This is the more preferable form. | Degree. 91. + 92-94.--Lesson 127. Modification. 4. Sup. Uses. | Place. TO THE TEACHER. 5. --Lesson 127. Time. 2. ***** . (This is the construction which requires the superlative. " + 127.

9. shows that the subject names the thing acted upon. The lady is accomplished. worn--adjective complement). +Direction. +The Active Voice shows that the subject names the actor+.+---Tell which of the following completed predicates may be treated as single verbs. when the thing acted upon is to be made prominent. +Direction. The active voice is used when the agent. This task was not accomplished in a day. Are you prepared to recite? 4. and which should not be so treated:-1. DEFINITIONS. 13. 7. 5. 154 +Introductory Hints+.+--To test the passive voice note whether the one named by the subject is acted upon. +Remark. My body is inclined by years. we do not care to name the agent. The first verb. is to be made prominent. for any reason. You are mistaken. 12. The house is situated on the bank of the river. or actor. and may be resolved into an asserting word (some form of the verb be) and an attribute complement (a past participle of a transitive verb). as. The horse is tired. The same thing is here told in two ways. COMPOSITION--VOICE.+--Name all the transitive verbs in Lesson 78. shows that the subject names the actor. A shadow was mistaken for a foot-bridge. 14. The ship was wrecked. These different forms and uses of the verb constitute the modification called +Voice+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 129. +Examples. 8. MODIFICATIONS OF THE VERB. .passive voice). +Voice is that modification of the transitive verb which shows whether the subject names the actor or the thing acted upon+. An expression consisting of an asserting word followed by an adjective complement or by a participle used adjectively may be mistaken for a verb in the passive voice. Dinner was soon prepared. A fool and his money are soon parted. and whether the verb may be followed by by before the name of the agent without changing the sense.--He picked a rose. The coat was badly worn (was--incomplete predicate. +The Passive Voice shows that the subject names the thing acted upon. The tower is inclined. The first form is in the +Active Voice+. 3. was picked. picked.+ The passive form is compound. the second verb. 11.+--The coat was sometimes worn by Joseph (was worn-. ***** LESSON 130. the passive. A rose was picked by him. the second is in the +Passive Voice+. or when. I am obliged to do this. The man was drunk before the wine was drunk. Money is coined. VOICE. The passive voice may be used when the agent is unknown. 10. I am obliged to you. 2. and give their voice. 6.

We all believe him to be an honest man. 12. That tribunal pronounced Charles a tyrant.) 13. not for a fine. 19. 11. or Gothic. of language. He was offered a pension by the government. sunk to beasts. 15. find pleasure end in pain. they introduced into England their own language. discovered that blood circulates. 10. Even silent night proclaims my soul immortal. 21. 6. +Direction. and note the other changes that occur:-1. I was asked that question yesterday. Some. My wife was chosen as her wedding dress was chosen. money still names the thing directly acted upon. Harvey. 7. Some call it an adverbial modifier. The luxury of Capua. glossy surface. Everybody acknowledged him to be a genius. +object+ is sometimes made the +subject+ of a verb in the passive voice. Mercury. but that it is an idiom of our language. wore a winged cap and winged shoes. 14. an English physician. 4. +Remark. established by good usage. and note the other changes that occur:-18.+--The porter refused him admittance = He was refused admittance by the porter. in the second sentence. 9. It is true that it is a violation of the general analogies. +Remark. the receiver. In "He was offered money. more powerful than the Roman legions. which was a dialect of the Teutonic. there is difference of opinion. the god of wine. vanquished the victorious Carthaginians.+--The Danes invaded England = England was invaded by the Danes.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 155 The +object complement+ of a verb in the +active voice+ becomes the +subject+ when the verb is changed to the +passive voice.+--In each of these sentences change the voice of the transitive verb without altering the meaning of the sentence." him represents the one to whom the act was directed. is beyond controversy. When the Saxons subdued the Britons. was worshiped in many parts of Greece and Rome. (Notice that the objective complement is here an infinitive phrase." and some say that it is a noun without grammatical construction.+ or dative.) 16. and money names the thing directly acted upon. He kept his mother waiting. The town had nicknamed him Beau Seymour.+ +Example.+--Notice that the objective complement becomes the attribute complement when the verb is changed from the active to the passive voice. We saw the storm approaching. 20. Concerning the parsing of the noun following this passive. (Notice that the objective complement is here a participle. Bacchus. 3. He told me to leave the room. In "I offered him money. We found him lying dead on the field.] +Example. some call it a "retained object." the relation of the act to the person and to the thing is not changed. His eloquence had struck them dumb. but for such qualities as would wear well. the messenger of the gods. +Direction. They were refused the protection of the law. 8. 2. 5. or laws. . [Footnote: Some grammarians condemn this construction. The +indirect.+--You will notice that in the first sentence the agent is made prominent.+--Change the voice of the transitive verbs in these sentences. The minds of children are dressed by their parents as their bodies are dressed--in the prevailing fashion. 17. while the object complement is retained after the verb.

he will improve. Some grammarians. Such talents should be made much of. ***** LESSON 131. NUMBER. James may walk. +Direction. but as a command--James is ordered to make . retaining the complement and the preposition to complete its meaning. +Remark.+--Change the voice of the following verbs:-27. They took care of it.+--James walks. analyze the expression as if arranged thus: Sight of his original purpose was lost. others would call was lost sight of a compound verb. The speaker did not even touch upon this topic. +Remark. He was taken care of by his friends. in the active voice. He offered them their lives if they would abjure their religion.+--All his friends laughed at him = He was laughed at(ridiculed) by all his friends. Here the walking is not asserted as a fact. I taught the child reading. as. and determine which is the best:-30. A transitive verb which. MODE.+--Here the infinitive phrase is the object complement. Some of his characters have been found fault with as insipid. I taught the child to read. He dropped the matter there. the principal word of the phrase for its subject. without regard to its being or becoming either an actual or a possible fact. If James walk out. Here the walking is asserted not as an actual. 32. 29. and did not refer to it afterward. Here the walking is asserted as an actual fact. MODIFICATIONS OF THE VERB--CONTINUED. however. and (to) me is used adverbially. +Example. [Footnote: Some would parse of as an adverb relating to was lost.+--He promised me a present = A present was promised me (regular) = I was promised a present (idiomatic).Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Explanation. takes.+--Put the following sentences into several different forms. To leave the room = that I should leave the room. TENSE. This artful fellow has imposed upon us all. 25. AND PERSON. walk out. using first the regular and then the idiomatic construction:-+Model. James. others would treat sight as an object [complement] of was lost. +Direction. His original purpose was lost sight of (forgotten). fact. They told me that your name was Fontibell. but as a possible. Here the walking is asserted only as thought of. The intransitive verb and preposition are together equivalent to a transitive verb in the passive voice. It was taken care of. They must allow us the privilege of thinking for ourselves.+--The following sentences present a peculiar idiomatic construction. and others. would call at an adverb. and sight as a noun used adverbially to modify was lost. +Direction. An intransitive verb is sometimes made transitive by the aid of a preposition. 28. 156 22. believing that the logical relation of these words is not lost by a change of position. +Introductory Hints.+--Change the following transitive verbs to the passive form. is followed by an object complement and a prepositional phrase. in the passive. 26. 24. 33.] 31.+---Was laughed at may be treated as one verb. 23.

supposition. or wish+.+ Shall walk asserts the action as future.+ the second in the +Potential Mode.+ the third in the +Subjunctive Mode. is in the +Present Tense. I shall walk. but the time in which the action takes place is different. by adding +s. as +Tense+ means time. Walk asserts the action as going on in present time. and is in the +Future Tense. +DEFINITIONS+. and is in the +Present Perfect Tense. I walked. possibility.+ For the two forms of the verb called the +Participle+ and the +Infinitive.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 157 it a fact. +The Indicative Mode asserts the action or being as a fact+. +The Infinitive is a form of the verb which names the action or being in a general way. Thou walkest.+ The first verb is in the +Indicative Mode. +Mode is that modification of the verb which denotes the manner of asserting the action or being+.+ Walked asserts the action as past. +The Present Participle denotes action or being as continuing at the time indicated by the predicate+.+ Shall have walked asserts action to be completed in the future. It will be seen that the Indicative Mode may be used in asking a question. +The Present Tense expresses action or being as present+. They walk.+ see Lessons 37 and 40.+ I walk. In these three sentences the manner of asserting the action is the same. He walks. In the second sentence walkis changed by adding +est+. I shall have walked out by to-morrow. These different uses and forms of the verb constitute the modification which we call +Mode. and is in the +Past Tense.+ Had walked asserts the action as completed in the past. +The Participle is a form of the verb partaking of the nature of an adjective or of a noun. +The Past Perfect Participle denotes action or being as completed at a time previous to that indicated by the predicate+. +The Imperative Mode asserts the action or being as a command or an entreaty+. I had walked out when he called. and expressing the action or being as assumed+. . and the hearer is requested to name the person. But this agreement is not generally marked by a change in the form of the verb. or necessity of acting or being+.+ the fourth in the +Imperative Mode. +The Subjunctive Mode asserts the action or being as a mere condition.+ Verbs are said to agree in +Person+ and +Number+ with their subjects.] +The Potential Mode asserts the power. Have walked asserts the action as completed at the present. liberty. in the third sentence. [Footnote: In "Are you going?" or "You are going?" a fact is referred to the hearer for his admission or denial. I walk. and is in the +Future Perfect Tense.+ I have walked out to-day. without asserting it of anything+. +The Past Participle denotes action or being as past or completed at the time indicated by the predicate+. In "Who did it?" the fact that some person did it is asserted. and is in the +Past Perfect Tense. and. +Tense is that modification of the verb which expresses the time of the action or being+.

feed. 158 +Number and Person of a verb are those modifications that show its agreement with the number and person of its subject+. Some weak verbs shorten the vowel of the present without adding anything. These are weak because they add d or t. could.+ List of Irregular Verbs. and some have the present and the past alike. should.we call such Regular. lead.+ The auxiliaries are do. FORMS OF THE VERB. must. have. fed. as. but in many verbs this ending is now lost. CONJUGATION. +DEFINITIONS+. see Lesson 135). as. and the past participle. taught. had. might. weak verbs form their past tense by adding ed. Since most verbs form their past tense and past participle by adding ed. or t. ***** LESSON 132. can. +The Principal Parts of a verb. may. shall. are the present indicative or the present infinitive. +Synopsis is the regular arrangement of the forms of one number and person in all the modes and tenses+. +Conjugation is the regular arrangement of all the forms of the verb+. and all others Irregular. the past indicative.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +The Past Tense expresses action or being as past+. will. +The Past Perfect Tense expresses action or being as completed at some past time+. They have dropped the past tense ending. or those from which the other parts are derived. The past participle of all strong verbs once ended in en or n. led. d is what remains of did. teach. +The Future Tense expresses action or being as yet to come+. tell. Our irregular verbs include all strong verbs and those that may be called "irregular weak" verbs. did. set. Some weak verbs change the vowel of the present. +The Present Perfect Tense expresses action or being as completed at the present time+. as. being written love-did-we. would. and be (with all its variations. d. set. +Auxiliary Verbs are those that help in the conjugation of other verbs. rid.This derivation of d in ed is questioned. for instance. [Footnote: Grammarians have classed verbs on the basis of their form or history as Strong (or Old) and Weak (or New). we did love. The d of the participle is not from did but is . +The Future Perfect Tense expresses action or being to be completed at some future time+. rid. Strong verbs form their past tense by changing the vowel of the present without adding anything. Of the ed added to form the past tense of regular verbs. told.

broke.Do. -----. fell. Present.Know. girded. Lead. bet. bled.[4] Have. digged. gilded. cleaved. gilt. Fling. dealt. holden. chid. Kneel knelt. graved. Hurt. to execute by hanging. hit.[1] could. Bleed. gilt.] [Footnote 2: Gotten is obsolescent except in forgotten. cleft. hewed. bought. Creep. may. hanged. Forbear. cloven. clothed clothed. flung. burned. will. clad.g. and they will be led to correct what has been faulty in their use of other forms. fought. got. bade. cut. flown. led. and those in smaller type are obsolete. bended. must. bended. cut.Knit knit. e. Fight. bitten.] [Footnote 3: Went is the past of wend. hewn. ground. bore. Grind. (Be) Fall. It may always be formed from the present tense by adding ing. Bear. shall. Bite. bit. dwelt. durst. gotten. found. (split) clove. dreamt. held. bore. chid. kneeled. blent. hidden. laid.] [Footnote 5: Hove is used in sea language. fought. dared. I began yesterday. ground.+ The present participle is not here given as a principal part. (En)Grave graved. Feed. He has begun to do better. (venture) dared. and need not be committed to memory. Cost. done. Awake. hung. bidden. knitted. crept. knitted. Past Par.] . Dig.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg from an old participle suffix. awaked. went. Find. girt. Dream. known. Go. cleaved. to frame short sentences illustrating the proper use of the past tense and the past participle. Deal.Bereave. forsaken. Cut. forsook. brought. bred. Bear. bred. cast. dressed. frozen. fallen. drunk. froze. in studying and in reciting these lists of irregular verbs. Dwell dwelt. Drive. did. +Remarks. chosen. gilded.(adhere) clave. girt. fed. Flee.] 159 TO THE TEACHER. awaked. built. been. clad. burned. clung. had. Begin. heaved.Be or am. betted.] [Footnote 4: Hang. cleaved. Hide.Eat. as can and may. cost. drest.(Be)Come. crowed. born.Abide. Lay. borne. Blow. blended. forbore. Burst. blew. Draw. kept. awoke. bid.Hew. laded. Hear. Hang. ate. In adding ing and other terminations. cast. given. gave. beaten. crowed. bit. hurt. found. had. Keep. bereft. caught. (Be)Hold. led. abode. blown. Cleave cleft. Fly. dug. hurt.Bless. burst. bound. bled. Cast. Lade. begun.+--Verbs that have both a regular and an irregular form are called +Redundant. kneeled. beat. besought.Drink. The e in the ea of both these forms is the old connecting vowel. The forms below in Italics are regular. hung. fled. knelt. Can. Heave hove. burnt. Burn burnt. This accounts for their having no change in the third person.Cling. fed.Bid. grew. Bind. girded. digged. caught. chidden.Dress drest. bereaved. blessed. blent. dreamed. Cleave. Bend. drank.Beseech. clave. bent.--It would be well to require the pupils. Clothe. to go. Build. Hit. chose. Break. dwelled. Feel. Bet. hit. [Footnote 1: Can. dug. drove. laid. Catch. graven. Blend. In this way the pupils will be saved the mechanical labor of memorizing forms which they already know how to use. the Rules for Spelling (see Lesson 127) should be observed. burst. dreamt. are called +Defective. laded. Beat. Dare. Freeze. blest. came. fled. Forsake. Crow crew. blessed. (carry) bare. held. built. drew.Gird. hewed. (bring forth) bare. bent. Grow. bereft. clung. bet. (For)Get. come. hove.+ Verbs that are wanting in any of their parts. Bring. Choose. bought. began. brake. blended.[3] gone. dressed. felt. driven. flung.(load) laden. grown. drawn. Past. dreamed. hid. felt. knit. borne.[2] Gild. forborne. cost.(For)Give. hanged. bereaved. was. besought. and ought were originally past forms. betted. dealt. got. dwelled. beat. Buy. Chide. kept. eaten. bound. is regular.[5] heaved. knew. brought. heard heard. hid. bid. Breed. flew. broken. crept. blest. abode.

Smell. taught. from whatever source derived. showed. or strong. Put. (A)Rise. not thencan. spoiled. Send. sped. ----. shorn. (to)wit. threw. rid. strung. shod. sheared. slang Slink. rived. wore. Spin. thrust. woke. May. thrived. Shoot.. Shoe. Stride. Shake. rapped. Stink. . wist. stricken. tore. spake. Shine. spilt. stung. Thrive. seethed. Weep. shot. left. spent. stank. Tell. Tread. meant. trod. Woe worth (A. wove. Rive. Pen. LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS--CONTINUED. (inclose) penned. Say. or May woe be to the day. let. Swim. staved. lighted. Throw. Wax. sent. saw. Other forms nearly obsolete are sometimes met in literature. should. sawed. Shape. worn. waxed. Wet. shrunk. penned. slung. left. staved. told. learnt. Quoth I = said I. stove. rived. rung. sodden. wrought. might. read. met. Shed. Seek. Think. stole. sawed. spread. Mow. S. spoken. Sit. stuck. quitted. to seem. mown.] [Footnote 2: Quoth. put. waked. worked. rapt. spoiled. Run. sworn sware. spilt. Stick. waked. Spring. Stand. smit. Rid. slunk. spoke. shed. woke. paid. let. Wake. stood. shot. strode. stayed. strowed. Slit. shaved. Split. Seethe. smelled. shrank. swung. shapen Shave. seethed. pent. spent. learned. spelt. stolen. waxen. split. mowed." Methinks (A. wept. lit. Past. quitted. rapped. mowed. Work. slit. Take. Saw. sowed. Swing. S. split. spit. swung. slain. Let. wet. Sweat. lost. shrunken. as. strewed. swollen. Sing. shred. tare. I scent the morning air is the subject. even to extend their number whenever possible. stove. pent. Wear. Make. strown. slitted. "Woe worth the day. Write. spun. ----. Spill. written. thinks is the predicate. slid. stuck. Lie. Stay. sold. shod. riven. paid. String. Shut. sunken. ----. Sleep. struck. leapt. swelled. slunk. Swell. lit. wound. But it should be said that new English verbs. set. to think) = seems to me. wept. ------. and adds. ----. slitted. spelt. ridden. smelt. learned. Thrust. striven. sung. staid. Sling. sheared. Speed. or Letwoe be to the day. Spell. lain. won. rang. sent. shred. Wring. strove. sunk. risen. Strike. met." And he instances a few which since 1600 have deserted from the regular conjugation to the irregular. wet. strewed. woven. worked. Quit. sprang. shone. Teach. ----. Tear. Strive. spitten. sung. won. So that while the regular verbs are not increasing by desertions from the irregular. smote. is used only in the first and the third person of the past tense. wrote. slung. put. Spit. Rend. Speak. Weave. strowed. Past Par. told. Strew. struck. strewn.[1] Lose. rung. leapt. taken. the regular verbs are slowly gaining in number. stunk. sunk. thought. shone. Must. form their past tense and participle in ed. spoilt.[2] ----. Lend. (Be)Set. ran. Mean. sped. Learn. slidden. shown. sowed. Read. Sting. weorthan. seen. spread. made. quoth. Shall. Smite. trod. smelled. shaven. showed. leant. Show. shaken. thincan. spelled. spilled. verb] since the reign of Queen Elizabeth". [Footnote 1: Lighted Is preferred to lit. to be or become) the day = Woe be to the day. shrunk.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 133. slid. made. sweat. stung. slept. swam. strung. wound. Steal. ----. rent. swept. quit.--Professor Lounsbury says. throve. set. spat. sought. spelled. sprung. Stave. smelt. In the sentence above. spilled. spit. Win. thriven. swelled. Leap. shaped. Ought. leant. slew. sought. sprung. lighted. swum. rid. Strow. Sink. Sow. leaped. Pay. Shred. ----. shut. and meis a "dative. said.] NOTE. shaped. thrown. sawn. said. read. sweated. sat. lent. trodden. slept. swore. quit. rode. Spoil. rose. Swear. Sell. thrived. wrung. shook. Shear. spoilt. stunk. run. thought. staid. sweated. Slay. thrust. wrought. leaned. Meet. Spend. Present. wrung. sold. swept. "The present disposition of the language is not only to hold firmly to the strong verbs it already possesses but . stayed. waxed. ----. meant. shut. See. torn. stridden. smitten. Ring. Will. sod. Slide. lost. Sweep. lent. sang." or a pronoun used adverbially. leaned. (recline) Light. swum. sown. Leave. shaved. 160 Lean. span. rapt. stood. Shrink. sank. rent.. taught. Rap. spun. shore. "Modern English has lost not a single one [irregular. "Methinks I scent the morning air". learnt. sat. Spread. took. Wind. now nearly obsolete. leaped. sweat. wot. Ride. shed. would. lay. slit.

using the principal parts of the verb walk--present +walk+./. 1.. 2. (You) had /Past Par. (You) will have /Past Par. (They) had /Past Par. 2.[1]. 2. 2./. 1. 1./. (He) had /Past Par././. (I) /Pres. +Direction+. (You) /Pres./. 2. FUTURE TENSE. (They) have /Past Par. (I) /Past/. Singular. 2. +seen+./. (You) have /Past Par. +walkedst+. (He) will /Pres./+s. (Thou) /Pres. (They) will /Pres././Past Par./. (We) shall /Pres. 1. (I) had /Past Par. 1. (He) ha-+s+ /Past Par. 3. and who prefer a more elaborate and technical classification of the mode and tense forms./. +walkest+.. 3. +sees+.--English verbs have few inflections compared with those of other languages. Much of this scheme might well be omitted. FORMS OF THE VERB--CONTINUED. 3./+est. (You) /Pres. 3. (We) have /Past Par.--Fill out the following forms. (I) shall have /Past Par. Plural. 2.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 134. +seeing+./. 2. . (You) will /Pres. Some irregular verbs have seven forms--+see+. PRESENT TENSE././ FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. (You) /Past/./. ]--SIMPLEST FORM././. (You) had /Past Par. (They) /Past/. (You) /Past/.[1] 3. forms. 1. 1. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 2./. and make what are called compound./. 161 CONJUGATION [Footnote: We give the conjugation of the verb in the simplest form consistent with what is now demanded of a text-book. 1. (We) /Past/./ (Thou) had-+st+ /Past Par. (I) shall /Pres./ 2. (Thou) ha-+st+ /Past Par. are referred to pages 373. PAST PERFECT TENSE. (You) will /Pres. +seest+. (We) /Pres././. 3. 2. +saw+. (He) /Pres. (Thou) wil-+t+ /Pres././. (They) /Pres. +walked+. 1././. 1. (He) /Past/./. (You) have /Past Par. 3. 3./. or periphrastic. +sawest+.will have. (They) will have /Past Par. regular verbs have six--+walk+. 374./. REMARK. +walking+. (He). (I) have /Past Par.. (We) had /Past Par. past participle +walked+:-INDICATIVE MODE. Those who wish to reject the Potential Mode. (Thou) wil-+t+ have /Past Par. (You) will have /Past Par. +walks+. 3./. As a substitute for other inflections we prefix auxiliary verbs. past +walked+./. 1.. 1. 2. (We) shall have /Past Par.. (Thou) /Past/+st+./. 3. 3./. 3. PAST TENSE.

[Footnote 2: Those who do not wish to recognize a Potential Mode. 1. PAST PERFECT TENSE. 3.] SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. 3. singular. 2./. Such forms as If he have loved. would. The only distinctive forms remaining (except for the verb be) are the second and the third person singular of the present. The offices of the different mode and tense forms are constantly interchanging. might. 1./. may be used in a true subjunctive sense././. to assert what is a mere conception of the mind././. Should he fall././. old style./. (We) may have /Past Par. 3. In the third person. (You) might have /Past Par. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 162 [Footnote 1: In the indicative present. could. eth is added./. (You) may /Pres. 3. (I) might /Pres./. and should are independent verbs in the indicative. (I) may /Pres.] POTENTIAL MODE. (We) might have /Past Par. (Thou) might-+st+ /Pres./.. 3. a classification based strictly . (If thou) /Pres./. (Thou) may-+st+ /Pres./. e. 3./.[2] PRESENT TENSE. 3. 2. It is true that other forms././. 2. (I) may have /Past Par. (If he) /Pres. (You) might /Pres./. but prefer the unsatisfactory task of determining when may. If he had known././ [Footnote 3: The subjunctive as a form of the verb is fading out of the language./. 1. Singular. PAST TENSE. (You) might have /Past Par. (You) may have /Past Par. (They) may /Pres. what is merely thought of./. and in the third person. the verbs in such constructions may be treated as indicative or potential. are referred to pages 370-374.[3] PRESENT TENSE. i. (They) may have /Past Par. (He) may have /Past Par. 2. second./ 3. 3. 1. Singular. must. (We) may /Pres./. and when auxiliaries in the subjunctive. (We) might /Pres. Plural. old style. In parsing. and even these ate giving way to the indicative. 1. (You) might /Pres. 1. (He) might have /Past Par. 2./. (You) may have /Past Par. Had he been. (Thou) might-+st+ have /Past Par. stis sometimes added in stead of est. Singular. 1. (He) might /Pres. with a subjunctive meaning. (Thou) may-+st+ have /Past Par. are exceptional. 2. 2. (I) might have /Past Par./. es is added when s will not unite. (You) may /Pres. 2. can. (They) might have /Past Par./. 2. (He) may /Pres. etc. as. (They) might /Pres././. without regard to its being or becoming a fact. 1. common style./. but in these cases it is not the form of the verb but the connective or something in the construction of the sentence that determines the manner of assertion.

" or "I desire that the thought may perish./ (you or ye). 2. In the Anglo-Saxon. for it in no way affects the meaning. as." But these verbs express strong wish or desire and by some grammarians are called "optative subjunctives. We cannot see that to is a part of the verb. the to came to be used before the nominative and the accusative."--K. Some would find a first and a third person imperative in such sentences as "Now tread we a measure".[4] PRESENT TENSE. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. Part III. as does an auxiliary. /Pres. Plural. dative to etanne. 2. Hen. This dative of the infinitive. Singular.. and would confuse the learner. it became usual in Elizabethan literature to place for before the to. placed before that of which it forms a part --placed before itself. In the expressions. as they have said. nominative etan (to eat)." "Perish the thought" = "May the thought perish. I came to hear. to was used with the infinitive only in the dative case."-Greene. meaning toward. When the infinitive phrase is used as a noun.] IMPERATIVE MODE. Writers on language are generally agreed that when to introduces an infinitive phrase used as an adjective or an adverb. Overthe fence is out of danger. we do not see why it should change its name. having us for its assumed subject. PRESENT TENSE."] INFINITIVES. though they have no antecedent term of relation. with to. VI." or "Let the thought perish. is not treated as a part of the verb. and let is not of the first person.e. accusative e:tan. Us is the object complement of let. Those who call it a part of the verb confuse the learner by speaking of it as the "preposition to" (which. When the dative ending ne was dropped. Let them talk./ [Footnote 5: To. 163 [Footnote 4: From such forms as Let us sing. and the infinitive singis the objective complement../ (To) have /Past Par. "Perish the thought. "What went ye out for to see?"-Bible. But us is not the subject of the verb-phrase let-sing. For me to do this would be wrong. When. after the dropping of the ne ending. or as does the to in He was spoken to. few grammarians would hesitate to call forand over prepositions. When a word loses its proper function without taking on the function of some other part of speech. it seems merely to introduce the phrase. making the three forms alike. "Shut the gates for to preserve the town. the idea of purpose had to be conveyed by the infinitive. (To)[5] /Pres. as. where it had its proper function as a preposition. etc." i. but without expressing relation.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg on meaning would be very difficult. is not a preposition) "placed before the infinitive. the to expresses no relation. /Pres. was used mainly to indicate purpose. for. as indicated by the (). some grammarians make a first and a third person imperative.. it performs its proper function as a preposition.] PARTICIPLES . "And for to deck heaven's battlements./ (you or thou). I am inclined to believe.

. (We) had been ----. (You) will be ----. (I) have been ----. (I) am ----. (Thou) hadst been ----. Do is prefixed to the imperative also. (He) is ----. and +must+ are potential auxiliaries in the present and the present perfect tense. 3. He beth or bes. 1. PAST TENSE. 3. 1. (You) have been ---. (He) will be ----. (I) was ----. PRESENT TENSE. (They) will be ----. 2. (They) had been ----. 3. (You) will be ---. was. Plural.or 2. +would+. 2. 3. are are from as./ Having /Past Par. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB +BE+. /Past Par. 3. Thou beest. (You) were ----. They be. 1. +could+.or 2. (You) are ---. (We) were ----. (You) were ---.] +Direction+.or 2. (We) are ----. 1. (We) have been ----. FORMS OF THE VERB-CONTINUED. We be. paying no attention to the line at the right of each verb:-INDICATIVE MODE. (He) was ----. 1. (You) had been ---. art.or 2.--Require the pupils to fill out these forma with other verbs. (He) had been ----. [Footnote: The conjugation of be contains three distinct roots--as. in the past and the past perfect. (Thou) wilt be ----. (You) had been ----. 3. 1. using the auxiliaries named above. is./+ing+. 1. (Thou) art ----. FUTURE TENSE. 2. (I) had been ----. +might+.--Learn the following forms. and +should+. /Pres. 3. 2. 1. TO THE TEACHES.or 2. The +emphatic+ form of the present and the past tense indicative is made by prefixing +do+ and +did+ to the present. Ye be. (Thou) hast been ----. 1. (He) has been ----. Am = as-m (m is the m in me)./ 164 +May+. ***** LESSON 135.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg PRESENT PAST PAST PERFECT. +can+. PAST PERFECT 1. (We) shall be ----. Art = as-t (t is the th in thou). Be was formerly conjugated. 2. be. (You) are ----. Singular. (Thou) wast ----. (You) have been ----. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. (I) shall be ----. (They) are ----. (They) have been ----. regular and irregular. 3. Am. 3. I be. 3. (They) were ----.

(We) might have been ----. (Thou) mayst be ----. 3. (You) may be ----. (I) might be ----. Singular. PARTICIPLES. (You) might be ----. (I) shall have been ----. (If you) were ----.1. (He) might be ----.or 2. 2. 2. or (If thou) wert ----. (You) may have been ---. 1. (I) may have been ----. 1.or 2. (You) might have been ----. 3. (Thou) wilt have been ----. (He) will have been ----. Plural. PAST. (You) might be ---. PAST TENSE. 1. Be (you or thou) ----. . (Thou) mightst be ----. PRESENT TENSE. 3. 3. (He) might have been ----. 3.2. Being ----. PBESENT TENSE. Been. (We) might be ----. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. PAST PERFECT. (You) will have been ---. (They) may be ----.or 2. Having been ----. (If I) may have been ----. 2.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. 1. 3. (They) might have been ----. (You) may have been ----. (They) may have been ----.or 2. (You) may be ---. Singular. (If we) may have been ----. 3. INFINITIVES. PAST TENSE.1. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. Singular. (We) shall have been ----.or 2. PRESENT. (If I) were -----. Be (you or ye) ----. 2. 2. 2. (We) may be ----. 1. (They) might be ----. (If you) may have been ----. (Thou) mayst have been ----. PRESENT TENSE.1. 3. Plural. (We) may have been ----. 165 1. 1. IMPERATIVE MODE. (If he) may have been ----. 1. 3. PAST PERFECT TENSE. 2. (If thou) mayst have been ----. PRESENT TENSE. (You) might have been ---. 1. POTENTIAL MODE. (Thou) mightst have been ----. (To) have been ----. 1. (If they) may have been ----. (If you) may have been ---. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. (I) might have been ----. (You) will have been ----. (If he) were ----. 2. Singular. Plural. 3. 3. (He) may be ----.or 2. (To) be ----. (I) may be ----. (They) will have been ----. 3. (He) may have been ----. 3.

having been choosing.] +Direction+. chosen. and is found where the old form would not be ambiguous. Such a form seems to be needed when the simpler form would be ambiguous. in the preceding Lesson. Notice that after the past participle of the verb be no blank is left. as. it is never compound. with the present participle choosing. +Direction+. As now used. A transitive verb is conjugated in the +passive voice+ by joining its past participle to the different forms of the verb be. and the word in ing is treated adjectively. Lesson 138. Simplest form. chosen. the new form stands to the old in about the ratio of three to one. The house is building.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 136. having been chosen. The past participle of the passive is not formed by the aid of be. a contraction from on or in. In modern language the preposition is dropped. Another passive progressive form. +Remark+. Introduced only to prevent ambiguity.--Select other verbs. or was being built. FORMS OF THE VERB--CONTINUED. Verbs that in their simple form denote continuance--such as love. While the ark was a preparing. as.--The progressive form denotes a continuance of the action or being. drive. [Footnote *: This form is not commonly used. +Remarks+. the so-called neologism has pushed its way. All the participles of the verb choose are arranged in order below. While the flesh was in seething. Require them in some of their synopses to . read.* ------. Progressive form. has recently appeared in our language--The house is being built. especially in England.--The progressive form is sometimes used with a passive meaning. 166 A verb is conjugated in the +progressive form+ by joining its present participle to the different forms of the verb be. the past participle is wanting. and then in the passive form by filling these blanks with the past participle chosen. Being choosing. Passive form. consisting of the verb be completed by the present passive participle. Choosing. it has grown rapidly into good use.. Past. and require the pupils to conjugate them in the progressive and in the passive form. when its subject might be taken to name either the actor or the receiver. The birds are singing. as. respect. I love the child--not I am loving the child. TO THE TEACHER. Although condemned by many linguists as awkward and otherwise objectionable.--Write and arrange as above all the participles of the verbs break. had chosen. CONJUGATION--PROGRESSIVE AND PASSIVE FORMS. Require them to give synopses of all the forms. lift. as. We say. having chosen.e. The past participle of a transitive verb is always passive except in such forms as have chosen. Past Perfect.--Conjugate the verb choose in the progressive form by filling all the blanks left after the different forms of the verb be. know--should not be conjugated in the progressive form. Being chosen. i. (See have written. In such cases the word in ing was once a verbal noun preceded by the preposition a.) In the progressive. The child is whipping. Present. The prisoner is trying.

Does he sing? A verb may be conjugated +negatively+ by placing not after the first auxiliary. ***** LESSON 138. singular. can write. Such forms are still common in poetry. A question with negation is expressed in the indicative and potential modes by placing the subject and not after the first auxiliary. Is it right? Have you another? +Direction+. MODE AND TENSE FORMS. +I do write = I do+ or +perform+ the action (to) write.--Write a synopsis in the third person. Does he love? I do not know. We say. and that write is an infinitive used as object complement. or +periphrastic. I will write+. forms+ of the verb consisting of two words may each be resolved into an +asserting word and a participle+ or an +infinitive+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg use it or some noun for the subject in the third person. ***** LESSON 137. of the verb walk conjugated (1) interrogatively. We say. consist each of an asserting word (the verb be). etc. it was common to use the simple form of the present and past tenses interrogatively and negatively thus: Loves he? I know not. Not is placed before the infinitive and the participles. The forms +is writing. INTERROGATIVE AND NEGATIVE FORMS. .--Select other verbs. could write. and a participle used as attribute complement. The verbs be and have are exceptions. If we look at the original meaning of the forms +I do write. Remember that the indicative and the potential are the only modes that can be used interrogatively. (2) negatively. I shall write. and require the pupils to conjugate them negatively and interrogatively in the progressive and in the passive form. as. we shall find that the so-called auxiliary is the real verb. as. not singing. and (3) so as to express a question with negation. CONJUGATION--CONTINUED. To THE TEACHER. Does he not sing? +Remark+. I will write = I determine+ (to) +write+. not to sing. Require the pupils to give synopses of all the forms. might write. +I shall write = I owe+ (to) +write. was written+. COMPOUND FORMS--ANALYSIS. The +compound+. and +should write+ may each be resolved into an asserting word and an infinitive. as. as. must write. +May write.--Formerly. 167 A verb may be conjugated +interrogatively+ in the indicative and potential modes by placing the subject after the first auxiliary. He does not sing. but in prose they are now scarcely used. as they do not take the auxiliary do. would write+.

etc. idioms having the almost universal popular and literary sanction of centuries." "I had as lief not be.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 168 The forms +have written+ and +had written+ are so far removed from their original meaning that their analysis cannot be made to correspond with their history. She is singing. Of these expressions the "Standard Dictionary. from which comes the idea of preference. the infinitive go is the object complement. You should have been working. 8. the critics insisting upon the substitution of would or should.--Study what has been said above and analyze the following verbal forms. condemned by many grammarians who suppose had to be here used incorrectly for would or should. The idea of possession has faded out of have. Stars have disappeared. (3) what frequently or habitually takes place. The farm was sold. 9. is objective complement. as the case may demand. 4. The expression means. and written is a passive participle modifying letter. He mounts the scaffold. for had. 12. "I should more willingly have going. the . Rather is the comparative of the old adjective rathe = early. He may have been tired and sleepy. (2) what is true at all times. The use of this form has been extended to intransitive verbs--Spring has come. 3. +Examples+. Birds have flown.) [Footnote: A peculiar use of had is found in the expressions had rather go and had better go. Had(= should hold or regard) is treated as a past subjunctive. in which have ( = possess) is a transitive verb taking letter for its object complement. 'I would rather not go' is undoubtedly correct when the purpose is to emphasize the element of choice. He writes for the newspapers (habitual). Phillips speaks in Boston to-morrow night (future). but in all ordinary cases 'I had rathernot go' has the merit of being idiomatic and easily and universally understood. TENSE FORMS--MEANING. Has it been decided? 5. may have been+ is composed of the compound auxiliary +may have+ and the participle +been+. The expression equals. The danger might have been avoided. and the adjective rathercompletes had and belongs to go." In the analysis of "I had rather go.' an entirely different meaning is expressed. it is a modifier of had. must not be mistaken for transitive verbs in the passive voice. or will.--I hear a voice (action as present). +Direction+. and the participle has lost its passive meaning.e. They originated from such expressions as I have a letter written. The +Present Tense+ is used to express (1) what is actually present. (4) what is to take place in the future. 11. but had rather and had better are thoroughly established English." an authority worthy of our attention. and +may have+ is composed of the auxiliary +may+ and the infinitive +have+. in the matter. etc. "If for 'You had better stay at home' we substitute 'You should betterstay at home. Times will surely change. The rule has not been observed. 7." "I had sooner go" is condemned by grammarians because sooner is never an adjective. the idea of expediency giving place to that of obligation. Spring is come. distinguishing carefully between participles that may be considered as part of the verb and words that must be treated as attribute complements:-1. 6. "I should hold going preferable. are flown." are similar in construction to "I had rather go."] Compounds of more than two words may be analyzed thus: +May have been written+ is composed of the compound auxiliary +may have been+ and the participle +written. I shall be satisfied. May is the asserting word--the first auxiliary is always the asserting word. I shall be contented. (Is come. The sun gives light (true at all times). I may be mistaken. Birds are flown. i. 10. and it is used (5) in describing past or future events as if occurring at the time of the speaking. 2. says:-"Forms disputed by certain grammatical critics from the days of Samuel Johnson." The expressions "You had better stay. being now regularly used instead of the more logical perfect tense forms. If sooner is here allowed as an idiom." had is the predicate verb..

--I shall write soon (simply future action). 17..| | | | | | | | | | | Oh! |Int. 13. an age--of which the present forms a part). At the end of this week I shall have been in school four years. He will become discouraged before he has thoroughly tried it. +Examples+. He will occasionally lose his temper. Plato reasons well. a year.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg executioners approach to bind him. he struggles.--Study what has been said above about the meaning of the tense forms. He wrote for the newspapers (past habit).--Homer has written poems (the period of time affected by this completed action embraces the present). |Per. The first column of each table has been repeated for easier reference. | " | " | | | a |Adj.|Pres.|Mode. | | | | | | | | . |Sub-C. +Direction+. 6. you would miss me (future events). resists. a period of time--an hour. Moses has told many important facts. Tr. 16. If I were you.) The +Future Perfect Tense+ expresses action to be completed at some specified future time. A triangle has three sides. 14. I go to the city to-morrow. He would sit for hours and watch the smoke curl from his pipe. | | | | | | | | | it |Pro. etc. etc. I should have written (I hadnot time--I did not write. and (2) in a conditional or hypothetical clause it may express past time. ---------|-----------------|---------------------------------------------| Sentence. The +Present Perfect Tense+ expresses (1) action or being as completed in present time (i.| Gen. The clans of Culloden arescattered in fight.. |Voice. To-morrow is the day appointed. she moves. (3) a future event. If he were here. I could have saved you much trouble. (future events now seen in vision). +Examples+. I would try that. 12. +Example+. He will sitthere by the hour (indefinite in time). +Model for Written Parsing adapted to all Parts of Speech+. She starts. 15. | Act. and (4) it may refer to present time. +Examples+. (past events pictured to the imagination as present). When I have finished this. 11.| ad. You may hear when the next mail arrives. (2) a past habit or custom. | MODIFICATIONS. Cicero has written orations. 9. |Nom. he would enjoy this (refers to present time).--The birds sang (simply past action).|Num. |Per. The village master taught his little school. The +Future Tense+ may express (1) simply future action or being. 7. Oh! it has a voice for those who on their sick beds lie and waste away. and describe carefully the time expressed by each of the following verbs:-1. | Ind. Had I known this before.--I shall have seen him by to-morrow noon. |Def.e. she seems to feel the thrill of life along her keel. The +Past Perfect Tense+ expresses (1) action or being as completed at some specified past time. (2) a habit or custom as future or as indefinite in time.|Tense. The ship sails next week. they bleed. 10. they rally. If I should go. 3. 8.] |CLASSIFICATION. She sings well. 2. 169 The +Past Tense+ may express (1) simply past action or being. [Transcriber's Note: The following two tables have been split to fit within Project Gutenberg line-width requirements. 5. |Ir.| Neut. 4. |Case. and (2) action or being to be completed in a future period.|Class. +Examples+.--I had seen him when I met you (action completed at a specified past time). | has |Vb. If I had had time. you shall have it (action to be completed in a future period). | | | |Sing.

| 3d. |Per. phrase. [Footnote: Participles and infinitives have neither person nor number. phrase. I done it myself. | for |Prep. | lie |Vb. Ir. |Co-or. Ir. |Reg. 2. Int. ***** LESSON 139 PARSING. |Ir. word in phrase | Mod.|Pres. who | |Subject of lie and waste. ---------|-------|----------------------------------.| -. has | |Predicate of it. Tr.|Num. on | |Shows Rel. word in Prep.| -. according to the Model below.. | Kind. |Com.. | | | | " | " | Neut. | on |Prep. | -. sick | Pos. select from the preceding Lessons on Analysis.| " | " | " | " | | | away.|Ind. |Des. see Lesson 142. of Yankee. Par.] (See Model for Written Parsing on opposite page. of beds.) ***** LESSON 140.|Tense.Int. wanders away to seek new lands. | | | | " | " | " |Nom. | | | | | | | | | their |Pro. of| | Comp. +Caution+.. | | | | | | | | beds |N. seek |Prin. their | |Possessive Mod. of has to those. CONSTRUCTION OF MODE AND TENSE FORMS.--Lay (to place) is transitive. | | | | | | | | waste |Vb. |Sing. |Place.|Modifier of voice. |Adj.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 170 voice |N. away. | | | |Plu.| Act. lie | |Predicate of who. |Per.| " | -.Sentence. | " |M. of lie to beds. set (to place) is transitive.| -. | -.| wanders |Reg.| *seek |Inf. | | | | | | | | | those |Pro. +Direction+. | " | " | | | and |Conj. 3. ---------------------------|------------------------------| Verbs. | Act. | MODIFICATIONS. word in Prep. selling his farm. |Modifier of beds. the verbs in the sentences of Lesson 42. | | | | " | " | " |Obj. |Voice..| -. waste | |Predicate of who. for I seen him when he done it. |Rel. | | | | " | " | " |Pos. and | |Connects lie and waste. |Com.Verbs. wanders |Pred. +Direction+.. and give your reasons:-1. CLASSIFICATION. of wanders.| Oh! | |Independent.|Mode.. beds | |Prin. those | |Prin.| " | who |Pro.--Be careful to give every verb its proper form and meaning. |Adv.|Modifier of waste.--Correct the following errors.| Ind. +Explanation+. lie (to rest) is intransitive. She sets by the open window enjoying the scene that lays before her. | selling |Mod.--Select and parse.| | | | | | | | | | SYNTAX --------|--------.--The Yankee. it | |Subject of has. or F. |Pres. ----------------------------------------------------TO THE TEACHER. |Obj. | -. a | -. voice | |Object comp of has. | -.Int. of Yankee.| *selling|Pr. For the agreement of verbs. | | | | | | | | -------------------------------------------------------------------------| | SYNTAX. | -. for | |Shows Rel. Tr.--For further exercises in parsing the verb and for exercises in general parsing.|Deg. He throwed it into the river.. +Model for Written Parsing--Verbs+. sit (to rest) . | sick |Adj.

33. he will call this . 28. 11. 2. If there be mountains. I wish the lad were taller. are usually spoken of as signs of the subjunctive mode. I knowed that it was so. 17. The leaves had fell. 23. I laid there an hour. 12. She come just after you left. +Caution+. I guess that I will stop. 12. They sung a new tune which they had not sang before. If (= since) it rains. One may doubt whether the best men be known. Till one greater man (shall) restore us.--When there is doubt as to whether the indicative or the subjunctive mode is required. 5. +Explanation+. 14. If my friend is in town. 34. The bird is setting on its eggs. 16. or in such a clause the speaker prefers to put hypothetically something of whose truth or untruth he has no doubt. 10. If it rains (now). He has went and done it without my permission. and in (12) the subjunctive mode is used in place of the potential. the subjunctive is used. The subjunctive is frequently used in indirect questions. Though it rain to-morrow. 7. I cannot go out.-. 32. If. 5. but these words are now more frequently followed by the indicative than by the subjunctive. 5. I am afraid that I cannot learn him to do it. 4. I will walk with you. a wish in (10) for something not at once attainable and in (11) for something forever unattainable. He had ought to see him. 171 4. The tide sits in. +Explanation+. the work will be delayed.--As ought is never a participle. If it (should) rain. use the indicative. he would enjoy this. I had rode a short distance when the storm begun to gather. 15. 11. 9. Though honey be sweet. etc. I did not see him. 7. 10. The present subjunctive forms may be treated as infinitives used to complete omitted auxiliaries. +Remarks+. He run till he became so weary that he was forced to lay down. There ain't any use of trying. If this were so. The speaker is certain of the truth of what is hypothetically expressed in the conditional clause of (5) and in the concessive clause of (6). Oh! that I were a Samson in strength. This will often serve as a guide in distinguishing the indicative from the subjunctive mode. it cannot be used after had to form a compound tense. Though this seems improbable. for I seen him when he done it. the work will be delayed. Can I speak to you? 35. I have got no mother. we should still believe in it.1. 21. 19. or when the uncertainty lies merely in the speaker's knowledge of the fact. +Direction+. unless. Your dress sets well. as. 13. I am setting by the river. there must be valleys between. one can't make a meal of it. lest. I remember when the corner stone was lain. But when the action or being in such a clause is merely thought of as a contingency. +Examples+. Set in some of its meanings is intransitive. I expect that he has gone to Boston. 18. Go and lay down. 22. 29. though. 31. etc. If it rain. Sit the plates on the table. Set down and talk a little while. 4. 8. it is true. we must march. in expressing a wish for that which it is impossible to attain at once or at all. 6. 26. He sat out for London yesterday. There is an indirect question in (9). If he was there. why do you go? 2. He has laid there an hour. He flew from justice.--Justify the mode of the italicized verbs in the following sentences:-1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg is intransitive. 30. Some valuable land was overflown. 3. 9. the difficulty would vanish. 6.--In (1) the raining is assumed as a fact. and instead of the potential mode in independent clauses. The sun sits in the west. 20. In (2) the speaker is uncertain of the fact. 27. The water I drunk there was better than any that I had drank before. He raised up.--A conditional or a concessive clause takes a verb in the indicative mode when the action or being is assumed as a fact. Though immortality were improbable. I had began to think that you had forsook us. and is certain of the untruth of what is hypothetically expressed in the conditional clause of (7) and in the concessive clause of (8). I found the water froze. If my friend were here. 25. If to-morrow be fine. 24. In the conditional clause of (3) and in the concessive clause of (4) the raining is thought of as a mere contingency. 8. 3. It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck.

Whether he go or not. 8.--In (6) and (7) the coming is referred to as a fact to be decided in future time. we shall know it. 9. +Direction+. I wish I was in Dixie. and.but discreet. If I ---. +Caution+. and give your reasons:-1. 7. permitting. fight. I intended to have called. I tremble lest he ----. Though an angel from heaven command it. 22. If he ---.guilty. If he ---. 20.--Be is often employed in making scientific statements like the preceding. it will swing to the other.--This is incorrect. If one says. 13. I could not gratify you. 2.there. 3.--Correct the following errors. 23. Take heed that thou speak not to Jacob.he. etc. 4. lest sin surprise thee. 10. Though he ---.--Supply in each of the following sentences a verb in the indicative or the subjunctive mode. he will succeed. If he comes by noon. If ye ---. What per cent does he gain? 5. If I had have seen him.--Be careful to employ the tense forms of the different modes in accordance with their meaning. 2. I intended to call. Though it be cloudy to-night. we sometimes prefer a part to the whole. It were well it were done quickly. it should be. 7. Attention to this qualification. hoping. and give a reason for your choice:-1. are followed by verbs denoting present or future time. A man bought a horse for one hundred dollars. Neither will they be persuaded. +Remark+.a false one.--Verbs of commanding. 4. 172 +Explanation+. 6. That custom has been formerly quite popular. I must be there.men. he sells it for two hundred dollars. I would do differently. We should be obliged if you will favor us with a song. The ship leaps. [Footnote: The "Standard Dictionary" makes this restriction: "The doubling of the past tenses in connection with the use of have with a past participle is proper and necessary when the completion of the future act was intended before the occurrence of something else mentioned or thought of. expecting. If a pendulum is drawn = Whenever a pendulum is drawn. I wish that I were a musician. 7. 8. Though the whole exceed a part. unless his tale ---. I did not see him. is especially important and imperative. there would be no colors. we should not steal. from billow to billow. as it were. Would he were fatter! 17. at an expense of ten dollars a month. If there were no light. which has been overlooked in the criticism of tense-formation and connection. 6. 21. I wish it ---. after keeping it three months. I know not whether it is so or not. If a pendulum is drawn to one side. Govern well thy appetite. that he were a son of mine! 19. ***** LESSON 141. 6. 9. the evidence does not show it. I should have known him. though one rose from the dead. 14. desiring. 'I meant to have visited Paris and to have . If he ever comes. 8. He deserves our pity. 15. it will be cold. I should say that it was an hour's ride. +Explanation+. If there be an eye. The act of calling was not completed at the time indicated by intended. and in such a way as to preserve the proper order of time. He that was dead sat up and began to speak. 3. 18. it was made to see. Oh. +Direction+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg evening. intending. 12. This sword shall end thee unless thou yield. Were I so disposed.in my power to help you. and may therefore be allowed. 5. 24. 16. +Explanation+. CONSTRUCTION OF MODE AND TENSE FORMS--CONTINUED. 11. let me know.

I ought to have gone is exceptional. He will go. giving it the form of an indirect quotation. 15. He would not have dared done that. to be obliged) and will (to determine) gives us the real key to their proper use. 20. The General maintained that there was not. I will go. at the time indicated by the principal verb. +Remark+. 10. You will go. Ought has no past tense form. +Examples+. The tense of the dependent verb is sometimes attracted into that of the principal verb.--Use will and would to imply that the subject names the one whose will controls the action. We then fell into a discussion whether there is any beauty independent of utility. We expected that he would have arrived last night. I should not have let you eaten it. Here the action is under the control of the speaker's will. as. Shall I go? Here the speaker puts himself under the control of some external influence--the will of another. 17. Dr. as. he may use the past tense. 16. use shall and should to imply that the one named by the subject is under the control of external influence. When a speaker does not wish to vouch for the truth of the general proposition. Our fathers held that all men were created equal. I knewwhere the place was. is necessary for the expression of the completion of the acts purposed. Is it my will to go?--is not used except to repeat another's question.--What is true or false at all times is generally expressed in the present tense. and the present perfect expresses it as completed.--The original meaning of shall (to owe. 14. He said that iron was the most valuable of metals. but even here we can trace the original meaning of shall and will. Here the speaker either promises the going or determines to compel these persons to go. Even this may be a kind of personification. Will I go?--i. 'I meant to visit Paris and to returnto London before my father arrived from America. 11. The wind will blow..Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 173 returned to London before my father arrived from America. as. because the meeting took place before the time of being glad. I am glad to have met you is correct.. 19. These are the proper forms to express mere futurity. in either case the one who goes is under some external influence. There seems to be danger of applying this rule too rigidly. He shall go. It would be absurd for one to ask what his own will is. e. whatever tense precedes. We hoped to have seen you often. He either promises or determines to go. I have already told you that I was a gentleman. 12. but does not express it. You shall go. Johnson maintained that there was. The only case in which some trace of the original meaning of these auxiliaries cannot be found is the one in which the subject of will names something incapable of volition.' the past [present perfect] infinitive . The experiment proved that air had weight. You ought to have helped me to have done it. I should have liked to have seen it. 18. +Caution+. and so the present perfect infinitive is used to make the expression refer to past time. +Remark+.--I shall go. In the second and third persons it is more courteous to refer to the will of others than to their duty.. ."] The present infinitive expresses an action as present or future. I had never known before how short life really was. 13.' may convey suggestively the thought intended. In the first person the speaker avoids egotism by referring to the act as an obligation or duty rather than as something under the control of his own will.

Though I should receive a thousand shekels of silver in mine hand.--VERBS--PRONOUNS. It was requested that no person would leave his seat. CONSTRUCTION OF NUMBER AND PERSON FORMS.be fatigued if I had walked so far. and give the reasons for your choice:-1. He knew who ---.say so. This is only an apparent exception to the rule.he be allowed to go on? 10. and give your reasons:-1. The same auxiliary is used in the question that is used in the answer. 3. 7. No difficulty shall hinder me. Change the indirect quotations introduced by that to direct quotations. 8. 5. They know that I shall be there. ***** LESSON 142.--A verb must agree with its subject in number and person. 4. I will never see him again. +Direction+. and that he would be there. crushed to earth.come by noon. we have. Change the indirect to a direct quotation. and the force of should will be seen. They do me wrong. . They knew that I should be there.see it. Will you go? Ans. shall rise again.you be ready? 5. He says that he will go. and that he will be there. I shall never see him again. yet will I not deny thee. Will he go? Ans. The difficulty that might do the hindering is not to be left to itself. Thou shalt surely die. making them future as to present time. 4. I ---. Shall you be at liberty to-day? 4. 9. +Caution+. When will we get through this tedious controversy? 6. He will. You ---.have done. will. and refer to his subordinate's willingness to obey. should. Truth. 2. I will.be guilty of falsehood.--Assign a reason for the use of shall or will in each of the following sentences:-1.--Fill each of the following blanks with shall. Shallhe go? Ans. I ---. The same principles apply to should and would that apply to shall and will.you be unhappy. AGREEMENT. yet would I not put forth my hand against the king's son. 5. I think we will have rain. 3.do me the favor. I ---. I shall.be greatly obliged if you ---. I shall be happy to accompany you. for I will speak. ---.betray him.--Correct the following errors. and I ---. He shall. 10.not endure it. ---.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 174 Shall you go? Ans.be disappointed if you ---. I said that he should be rewarded. 6. They requested that the appointment would be given to a man who should be known to his party. Hear me. Where will I leave you? 2. If I ---. Will I be in time? 3. If you will call. 2. A superior may courteously avoid the appearance of compulsion. 8. 9. ---. +Direction+. or would. My friend said that he should not set out to-morrow. but is to be kept under the control of the speaker. if I do not come? +Direction+. and the application of the Caution will be apparent. Though I should die. In this example the events are future as to past time. You will see that my horse is at the door by nine o'clock. 7. If he ---. 6. You did better than I ---. He says that he shall go.

or +t+. the third person singular adds +eth+. Time. 3. 5. when followed by an infinitive without to. as. and child was lost. many a. +st+. The multitude were of one mind. A number were inclined to turn back. most verbs have one person form. and he = we. is a contraction of the indicative present--ha(ve)s). In the common style. Time. 3. or no. and himself last. +Caution+. +Examples+. We say. Thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory. . are generally used instead of needs and dares.-. when one of the subjects is of the second person. the verb is in the second person. +Remark+. +Caution+. the verb agrees with the first and is understood with the second. every.) Need and dare. as. The number present was not ascertained. the plural subject is generally placed next to the verb. this rule applies to but few forms. I. as. Neither he nor they were satisfied. and none of the first. the verb is in the first person.--When a singular and a plural subject are used. In the solemn style. it is generally better to express the verb with each subject or to recast the sentence.--A collective noun requires a verb in the plural when the individuals in the collection are thought of. as. in the present perfect tense. it must agree with them in the plural. when the collection as a whole is thought of. each subject may be emphasized by making the verb agree with that which stands nearest. When the connected subjects are different names of the same thing.--When a verb has two or more subjects connected by and. it is generally more polite for the speaker to mention the one addressed first. woman.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 175 +Remarks+.l. but.--When two or more subjects are connected by or or nor. the verb should be singular. Neither poverty nor wealth was desired.--When one of two or more subjects connected by and is of the first person. When one of the subjects is affirmative and the other negative. as well as patience. When the subjects require different forms of the verb. you and he = you. the verb agrees with the affirmative. When the connected subjects are preceded by each. +Exceptions+. The verb be has +am+ (first person) and +is+ (third person). and.--Practically.--l. Every man. is needed. When several subjects follow the verb. (See Lessons 134 and 135. +Caution+. as. When the subjects are emphatically distinguished. as. The multitude was too large to number. and patience also. (The same is true of subjects connected by as well as. occupy his time. Bread and milk is excellent food. 2. In using pronouns of different persons. you. He need not do it. the second person singular takes the ending +est+. or when they name several things taken as one whole.) 4. as. My old friend and schoolmate is in town. 2. Mary and I shall (not will) be busy to-morrow. is needed. and the verb agrees with the nearest. +Are+ and +were+ are the only plural forms retained by the English verb. and not pleasure. except when he confesses a fault. in the indicative present. the verb agrees in person and number with the nearest. He dare not do it. as. they are taken separately. made by adding +s+ or +es+ (has. Books. 4. the verb must be singular. +Remarks+.

The House has decided not to allow its members the privilege. not words. One or the other have erred in their statement. 8. The hue and cry of the country pursues him. the tendency is to make the verb agree with the noun expressed.] 6. There are one or two reasons. 20. 8." says I. 18. 4. To relieve the wretched was his pride. I want every one of you to decide for themselves. and both are defended. as well as the richest citizen. as picture-writing is logically explanatory of figures. were needed. and person. 28. 3. The nation are prosperous. John. Therein consists the force and use and nature of language. Books is a noun. gender. Mexican figures. Many a kind word and many a kind act has been put to his credit. Man is masculine because it denotes a male. 21. 25. Nine o'clock and forty-five minutes is fifteen minutes of ten. 19. . or are the individual units composing it thought of? The expression = Four taken three times is twelve. Young's "Night Thoughts" is his most celebrated poetical work. Neither wealth nor wisdom is the chief thing. even when singular. Every one is accountable for his own acts.--A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number. sin. 14. Each of these expressions denote action. 10. The second and the third Epistle of John contain each a single chapter. 11. no labor. boys.--Correct the following errors. represent things. 28. There comes the boys. +Direction+. Either you or I am right. 26. 15. Every one of these are good in their place. and give your reasons:-1. 24. Neither the servants nor their master are to blame. 21. is going. Neither you nor he is to blame. Times is a noun used adverbially. is here protected in his right. The assembly was divided in its opinion. 13. Plutarch's "Parallel Lives" are his great work. 5. 30. Not a loud voice. Nine-tenths of every man's happiness depend upon this. 29.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 176 +Caution+. as well as men. the person and number of the complement when this complement immediately precedes the adjective clause. 23. and they asked to be discharged. 20. Is the number four thought of as a whole. by attraction.--Justify the use of the following italicized verbs and pronouns:-1. Neither the intellect nor the heart are capable of being driven. The public is invited to attend. Our welfare and security consists in unity. One of you are mistaken. 32. 13. Two hours is a long time to wait. 12. 17. 27. 22. The lowest mechanic. etc. Either the master or his servants is to blame. The question is (see Caution for collective nouns). The tongs are not in their place. "No. Twice as much is too much. This orator and statesman has gone to his rest. There is several reasons for this. He who writes. 12.] 29. 16. The good are great. as. and his sister also. It is the dews and showers that make the grass grow. Money. no. 19. Many a heart and home have been desolated by drink. [Footnote: "Three times four is twelve" and "Three times four are twelve" are both used. The committee were unable to agree. 6. 9. requires a plural verb. 25. 14.] 31. 15. [Footnote: The verb here agrees with figures. The committee were full when this point was decided. Every book and every paper was found in its place. The pronoun you. "We agree. Five dollars is not too much. 22. He don't like it. as. 2. Victuals are always plural. no money. Three quarters of the men was discharged. or picture-writing. were spared. 24. 30. 5. 26. It is thou that liftest me up. +Direction+. Five years' interest are due. 2. It is I that am in the wrong. Why are dust and ashes proud? 27. [Footnote: When two adjectives differing in number are connected without a repetition of the noun. 10. Flesh and blood hath not revealed it. To profess and to possess are two different things. 11. Where was you? 7. 31. 9. They who write. Neither of them have recited their lesson. and not the body. 23. What sounds have each of the vowels? 4. +Remarks+. 18. Thou who writest. Talking and eloquence are not the same. Three times four is twelve. Now.--The pronoun and the verb of an adjective clause relating to the indefinite subject it take. 3. 17." says they. She fell to laughing like one out of their right mind. The three special Cautions given above for the agreement of the verb will also aid in determining the agreement of the pronoun with its antecedent. The mind. 7. but strong proofs bring conviction. 16. No time.

--Lesson 131.Present. REVIEW QUESTIONS. | Past. Form. + 131. Define the modifications of the verb. Transitive (92). Define the several voices. Define the infinitive. Present Perfect. Plural.--Lesson 138. | Number. figures. | Future Perfect. Singular. 136. Analyze the different mode and tense forms.) 177 VERB. + 131.| 131. ***** LESSON 143. Past Perfect. form the plural? Illustrate. 134-137). 11) To assume action. | Second. and give the functions of the different tenses. Irregular (92. What is said of the . 137. or state.--Predicate (4. | Person. First. | Present Perfect.--What are Modifications? Have English words many inflections? Have they lost any? What is Number? Define the singular and the plural number. 135. Tense.--Lessons 134. 134-137. Participles (37) Infinitives (40) Classes. Past Perfect. Intransitive (92). 2. 131.--Lessons 140. 141. 6. 7. 5. + 131. How is the plural of nouns regularly formed? In what ways may the plural be formed irregularly? Illustrate. 134-137). Third. +Questions on the Verb+. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the mode and tense forms.+ (The numbers refer to Lessons. 134.--Lessons 129. being.--Classes. and of the person and number forms. or state. 132. 142.-. TO THE TEACHER. and tenses. + 131. 135. 8. Define the participle and its classes. 130). etc. Present. 131. How do letters. 134-138.| 140. 130). Uses.--Lessons 92. (Redundant and Defective) Meaning. modes. Give a synopsis of a regular and of an irregular verb in all the different forms. How do compounds form the plural? Illustrate the several ways. Indicative (131. Active (129. Potential (131. To assert action.--Give examples of nouns having each two plurals differing in meaning. +Scheme for the Verb. 136. | Past. Imperative (131. Regular (92). Lesson 112. 132. Subjunctive (131. Modifications. 134.--Lesson 131. Some which have the same form in both numbers.--Lessons 129. being. 133).--Give the plural of some nouns adopted from other languages. 4. 134. Lesson 114.--See suggestions to the teacher. 135. Mode. 1. | Infinitives. 134-137). | Future. Some which have no plural.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg GENERAL REVIEW. Present. page 255*. Voice. Define the verb and its classes. 134. 141. Some which are always plural. 140). Lesson 113. | Participles. 3. Passive (129. 135.

--What is Gender? Define the different genders. Lesson 121. Lesson 128. and when is the feminine? Illustrate. Instead of the possessive form.--In what case alone can mistakes in the construction of nouns occur? Illustrate the Cautions relating to possessive forms.--How many case forms have nouns. the relative and the interrogative.--How is gender in grammar important? When is the pronoun of the masculine gender used? When is the neuter pronoun it used? By the aid of what pronouns are inanimate things personified? In personification. forms of the pronouns? Lesson 127. Give the three gender forms of the pronoun.--What is Person? Is the person of nouns marked by form? Define the three persons.--What is Declension? Decline girl and tooth. Lesson 118.--To how many things does the comparative degree refer? What does it imply? Explain the office of the superlative.--What one modification have adjectives? What is Comparison? Define the three degrees. Lesson 123. . and illustrate them fully. and what are they? How is the possessive of nouns in the singular formed? Of nouns in the plural? Illustrate. Lesson 124. and what the objective.--What words in the language have each three different case forms? What are the nominative.--In what four ways may the number of nouns be determined? Illustrate. What is the possessive sign? To which word of compound names or of groups of words treated as such is the sign added? Illustrate. ***** LESSON 144. What is the difference between sex and gender? The gender of English nouns follows what? Have English nouns a neuter form? Have all English nouns a masculine and a feminine form? In what three ways may the masculine of nouns be distinguished from the feminine? Illustrate. and what the superlative? Give the Cautions relating to the use of comparatives and superlatives. Lesson 122. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Lesson 125. when is the masculine pronoun used. What word usually follows the comparative. 178 Lesson 117. Decline the several personal pronouns. What is the Caution relating to gender? Lesson 119. What adjective pronouns are declined wholly or in part? Illustrate. How are some adverbs compared? Illustrate the irregular comparison of adjectives and adverbs.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg number of collective nouns? Lesson 116. How are adjectives of more than one syllable generally compared? How are degrees of diminution expressed? Can all adjectives be compared? Illustrate. When is a noun in the first person? In the second person? What classes of words have distinctive person forms? Why is person regarded in grammar? What is Case? Define the three cases. What is the case of a noun used independently? Of an explanatory modifier? Of an objective complement? Of a noun or pronoun used as attribute complement? Illustrate all these. How are adjectives regularly compared? What are the Rules for Spelling? Illustrate them. what may be used? Illustrate.--What is Parsing? Illustrate the parsing of nouns.

What is said of the participle in have written. or periphrastic.--Give and illustrate the Cautions relating to the agreement of verbs and pronouns.--Show how the general Caution for the use of the verb is frequently violated.+ +TO THE TEACHER+. Define the infinitive. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Lesson 131. read.--How many inflectional forms may irregular verbs have? How many have regular verbs? What is said of the subjunctive mode? Of to with the infinitive? How is a verb conjugated in the emphatic form? Lesson 136.--What is Mode? Define the four modes.--What is Voice? Of what class of verbs is it a modification? Name and define the two voices. For him to continue its use with these "Additional Examples. Lesson 142.--How is a verb conjugated in the progressive form? How is a transitive verb conjugated in the passive voice? Give an example of a verb in the progressive form with a passive meaning. Define the participle. ***** LESSON 145. break. Define the classes of participles. Illustrate the exceptions and the Remarks.? Give and illustrate the several uses of the six tenses. When is the one voice used. Lesson 137." unless it be to .--The pupil has now reached a point where he can afford to drop the diagram--its mission for him is fulfilled.--Into what may the compound.--How may a verb be conjugated interrogatively? Negatively? Illustrate. had written. shall and should. etc. What is Tense? Define the six tenses. What are the principal parts of a verb? What are redundant and what are defective verbs? Lesson 134. Lesson 140. How may a question with negation be expressed in the indicative and potential modes? Lesson 138. Give and illustrate the Caution in regard to will and would. and when the other? Into what may the passive form be resolved? Illustrate. Lesson 130. What does the progressive form denote? Can all verbs be conjugated in this form? Why? Give all the participles of the verbs choose. When does a conditional or a concessive clause require the verb to be in the indicative? Illustrate.--In changing a verb from the active to the passive. What may be mistaken for a verb in the passive voice? Illustrate. lift.--What is Conjugation? Synopsis? What are auxiliary verbs? Name them. +Suggestions for the Study of the following Selections. Lesson 141. what does the object complement become? How may an intransitive verb sometimes be made transitive? Illustrate. drive. When is the subjunctive used? Illustrate the many uses of the subjunctive. ***** ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS. forms of the verb be resolved? Illustrate fully. What are the number and person of a verb? Lesson 132.--Give and illustrate the general Caution relating to mode and tense forms.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 179 Lesson 129.

and that all this perfect geometry of the heavens. is a part of such a zone. of double negatives. of punctuation. and how. and the brilliancy of Holmes's--the last lines from whom are purposely stilted. following the sun and keeping company with the hours. in fact. In some far-away and yet undreamt-of hour. On this question of principle. is needless. of the distinctions in meaning between allied verbs. here showing vast zaarahs of desert blue sky. while that from Shelley is all imagination. the spectators. for example. Rome. of certain idioms. the pupil would find profitless. Let him try to see which structure is the more natural. But the pupil may here review what has been taught him of the uses of adjective pronouns. and which seem to have been sown broadcast with as much carelessness as grain lies on a threshing-floor. but the part of the sentence following does not. these radii in the mighty wheel. that the one from Lowell is in a higher key. and for the same reason. of the split infinitive. by itself. in the height of her glory. and to some eyes presenting "The beauteous semblance of a flock at rest. and what style gains by a judicious blending of the two. the vividness of Webster's. in the use of these particulars. The pupil may see how ellipses and transpositions and imagery abound in poetry. the relations of the independent and the dependent parts." are. and is crowded with audacious imagery. This will reveal to him the differences between his work and the original. and why. I can even imagine that England may cast all thoughts of . It is thought by some people that all those stars which you see glittering so restlessly on a keen. He may note that poems are not pitched in the same key--that the extracts from Wordsworth and Goldsmith and Cowper. of the relatives in restrictive and in unrestrictive clauses. as lie and lay. make complete sense. etc. the ruggedness of Carlyle's. while actual suffering was yet afar off. is not to be compared--a power which has dotted over the surface of the whole globe with her possessions and military posts. whose morning drum-beat. has that said of her that is inconsistent with her in her new character. and bring into relief the peculiarity of each author's style--the stateliness of De Quincey's. the last sentence in (20)--a sentence that has several points at any one of which a complete thought has been expressed. We know no better way to secure this than to exact of him a careful reproduction in his own words of the author's thought. One gains nothing in doing what he already does well enough--progress is not made in climbing the wheel of a treadmill. He should study the general character of each sentence. and their connection. deal with common facts and in a homely way. order. its divisions and subdivisions. converted by metaphor into a maiden. He should note the +periodic structure+ of some of these sentences--of (4) or (19). for purposes of foreign conquest and subjugation. if we. he will merely be repeating that with which he is already familiar. for instance--the meaning of which remains in suspense till near or at the close. for instance. poets differ from each other. naked or armed. that our own wicked little earth. 1.--De Quincey 2. the poetical beauty of Emerson's. also. of certain prepositions. they [our fathers] raised their flag against a power to which. This will lead him to take a step or two over into the field of literature. would become apparent. could but survey it from the true center. the oratorical character of Macaulay's. circles the earth with one continuous and unbroken strain of the martial airs of England. one condition seems imperative--the pupil should thoroughly understand what the author says. These extracts are not given for full analysis or parsing. as we learn from the context. If the attempt is made. frosty night in a high latitude.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 180 outline the relations of clauses or illustrate peculiar constructions. etc.--Webster. where the moon. there again lying close. the humor of Irving's. He should note in contrast the +loose structure+ of others--for example. to reach. gathered into zones or strata. of the subjunctive mode. with the whole of our peculiar solar system. and which is the more forcible. Especially should the pupil look at the thought in these prose extracts and at the manner in which it is expressed. This. which center may be far too distant for any vision of man. 3. all exquisite except in the first line.

--and he would gaze till it became Far lovelier. And kiss'd her quiet brows. Where. and.Go forth under the open sky. To him who in the love of Nature holds Communion with her visible forms.Earth and her waters and the depths of air-. There sat the life-long creature of the house. Where liberty and justice. when the next sun brake from underground. 5. o'er her hung The silken case with braided blazonings. 4. saying to her."--Saxe. Pleasant it was. So those two brethren from the chariot took And on the black decks laid her in her bed. But. 7. Set in her hand a lily. and that. Underneath whose sloping eaves The shadows hardly move. Pall'd all its length in blackest samite. still more beauteous. the dumb old servitor." and again. saying. "Sister. 8. Whilst all its instruments. Were chosen for their aptness to those ends Which virtue meditates.--Bryant. 10. And winds were soft and low. where great men grew Up to their natural eminence.--her influence and her glory will still survive.--Wordsworth. But the dark foliage interweaves In one unbroken roof of leaves. Or where the denser grove receives No sunlight from above. just.--Longfellow. while the sands of the Indus and adamant of Golconda may yet stiffen the housings of the charger and flash from the turban of the slave.-. lay.--Tennyson .--Henry Taylor. and over which they exercise their control. Loyal. tracing here An emblem of his own unfruitful life. immortal as the intellectual principle from which they derived their origin. 6. when.--Macaulay. and his heart could not sustain The beauty. shall hear savage hymns chanted to some misshapen idol over the ruined dome of our proudest temple." parted all in tears. and sad images Of the stern agony and shroud and pall And breathless darkness and the narrow house Make thee to shudder and grow sick at heart. the long drooping boughs between. His only visitant a straggling sheep. And. when his father thought To clip his morning nap by hackneyed praise Of vagrant worm by early songster caught. she. To lie amid some sylvan scene. "Farewell.Comes a still voice. that ever then Was meritoriously administered. exempt from mutability and decay. and twisted all his face. may at last attain to the virtues and the treasures of a Heathen one.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 181 possessive wealth back to the barbaric nations among whom they first arose. fresh in eternal youth. sweet sister. Cried. the sad chariot-bier Past like a shadow thro' the field. when those who have rivaled her [Athens's] greatness shall have shared her fate."--Ruskin. "These are my Jewels. and shall see a single naked fisherman wash his nets in the river of the ten thousand masts. "Served him right! 'tis not at all surprising. The worm was punished. farewell forever. as a Christian mother. and none Saving the wise. when the scepter shall have passed away from England. to that stream whereon the barge. Stranger. Fixing his downcast eye. those two brethren slowly with bent brows Accompanying. Winking his eyes. while from all around-. for his gayer hours She has a voice of gladness and a smile And eloquence of beauty. but once far-famed. these gloomy boughs Had charms for him. 9. hand in hand. for early rising.--how lovely 't is Thou seest. he many an hour A morbid pleasure nourished. When thoughts Of the last. scarce known by name In these degenerate days. and here he loved to sit. bitter hour come like a blight Over thy spirit. travelers from distant regions shall in vain labor to decipher on some moldering pedestal the name of our proudest chief. that shone Full-summer. and she glides Into his darker musings with a mild And healing sympathy. I like the lad who. she speaks A various language. and be able to lead forth her Sons. or the glancing sand-piper. And on these barren rocks. sir. Then. Where power was of God's gift to whom he gave Supremacy of merit--the sole means And broad highway to power. on deck. from first to last. The tools of state for service high or low. and list To Nature's teachings. when woods were green. when civilization and knowledge shall have fixed their abode in distant continents. eloquent. Shadows dark and sunlight sheen Alternate come and go. perhaps. with fern and heath And juniper and thistle sprinkled o'er. The stone-chat. lifting up his head. he then would gaze On the more distant scene. Ordered the common weal. There were communities. were great. And. that steals away Their sharpness ere he is aware.

and view her stores unrolled. --Byron.The pleasing spectacle at once excites Such recollection of our own delights That. Which only the angels hear. And wherever the beat of her unseen feet. dear my lord. The sober herd that lowed to meet their young. 16. Who steals my purse steals trash.These all in sweet confusion sought the shade. Is the immediate jewel of their souls.This is not solitude. and feels at none. the maiden knight. chide. viewing it. and on the very spot. hacked. With the wild flock that never needs a fold. And post o'er land and ocean without rest. Lodged with me useless. That orbed maiden with white fire laden. unbuttoned. not yet destroyed. To climb the trackless mountain all unseen. to prevent That murmur. Be it a weakness. To sit on rocks.-. Good name in man and woman. May have broken the woof of my tent's thin roof. and seas. Till the calm rivers.--The Cloud. 17. And I laugh to see them whirl and flee Like a swarm of golden bees. And the worn matron smiles where the girl smiled before. When the gray-haired New-Englander sees round his board The old broken links of affection restored. sweet. Up yonder hill the village murmur rose.--Cowper. at evening's close." --Milton. 14. The noisy geese that gabbled o'er the pool. Ah! on Thanksgiving Day. The scene is touching. when oft. and hewed."Doth God exact day-labor.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 182 11.--Lowell. The stars peep behind her and peer. Glides glimmering o'er my fleece-like floor. When the care-wearied man seeks his mother once more. The swain responsive as the milk-maid sung. soon replies. Like strips of the sky fallen through me on high. From North and from South come the pilgrim and guest. In his gilded mail. Where things that own not man's dominion dwell. and has been slave to thousands. Sweet was the sound. The little ones. They also serve who only stand and wait. And mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been. light denied?" I fondly ask: but Patience. and the heart is stone That feels not at the sight. 't is but to hold Converse with nature's charms.We love the play-place of our early days. that flamed so bright It seemed the dark castle had gathered all Those shafts the fierce sun had shot over its wall In his siege of three hundred summers long. Are each paved with the moon and these. But he that filches from me my good name Robs me of that which not enriches him. When I widen the rent in my wind-built tent.-. When I consider how my light is spent Ere half my days. And that one talent. who best Bear his mild yoke. and present My true account.-.-. young and strong And lightsome as a locust leaf. so. as I passed with careless steps and slow. to muse o'er flood and fell.--Shakespeare. Sir Launfal flashed forth in his maiden mail To seek in all climes for the Holy Grail. 't is his. The very name we carved subsisting still. 12. And filled each pause the nightingale had made. lest he. Had cast them forth. Bearing Sir Launfal. we seem almost t' obtain Our innocent. Tho' mangled. to kneel and draw The chalky ring and knuckle down at taw. And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind. There. The playful children just let loose from school. nothing. --Shelley. As happy as we once.--Sonnet on his Blindness. though my soul more bent To serve therewith my Maker. simple years again. returning. The bench on which we sat while deep employed. And. The wall on which we tried our graving skill. And through the dark arch a charger sprang.-. lakes. Or drive it devious with a dexterous pat. binding them all in one blazing sheaf. Alone o'er steeps and foaming falls to lean. "God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. and what brightens the eye? What calls back the past like the rich pumpkin-pie? --Whittier. in this dark world and wide. they serve him best: his state Is kingly. 13. The mingling notes came softened from below. Playing our games. 't is something. thousands at his bidding speed. And makes me poor indeed. glowing hot. 15. .-. Whom mortals call the moon. --Goldsmith. it deserves some praise.What moistens the lip. To pitch the ball into the grounded hat. To slowly trace the forest's shady scene. The drawbridge dropped with a surly clang. The watch-dog's voice that bayed the whispering wind. By the midnight breezes strewn. when from East and from West. which is death to hide. 'T was mine. 18.

though they can never repay advocacy. as it were. 21. Considering our present advanced state of culture. At length. "It's done brown enough by this time"? But no sooner is the stone turned and the wholesome light of day let upon this compressed and blinded community of creeping things than all of them which enjoy the luxury of legs--and some of them have a good many--rush round wildly. just where you found it. but which prevails without exception in Communipaw. I am not sure that even one has ever followed it implicitly. When we see one word of a frail man on the throne of France tearing a hundred thousand sons from their homes. and perhaps more fiercely than ever. This path demands an ear ever open to the plaints of the wronged and the suffering. 23. Next year you will find the grass growing tall and green where the stone lay. when she says to herself. for five thousand years and upwards. close to its edges. are not unwilling to play the despot on a narrower scale. with more or less effect. and the broad fans of insect-angels open and shut over their golden disks. in these times especially.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 183 19. when the air. come across a large flat stone. in view of the certain meagerness of its temporal rewards. Did you never. and how the torch of science has now been brandished and borne about. the heavenly bodies. There is a different and sterner path. in obedience to a kind of feeling that told you it had been lying there long enough. in these bleak upper sides of the planet. stripped of power. and turned it over as a housewife turns a cake. as if Nature would indulge her offspring. we blush for a race which can stoop to such an abject lot.--Irving. insinuated your stick or your foot or your fingers under its edge. and the company alternately nibbled and sipped with great decorum. breaking asunder the sacred ties of domestic life. by a string from the ceiling. 24. until an improvement was introduced by a shrewd and economical old lady. as the rhythmic waves of blissful consciousness pulsate through their glorified being. Is not this a dream? and. but stripped by those who. with the grass forming a little hedge. when. has been written on the subject of Clothes. at almost any season of the year. in the main. the dandelion and the buttercup are growing there. kindled thereat. the ground-bird builds her nest where the beetle had his hole. . indeed. and we bask in the shining hours of Florida and Cuba. wherein the world reaches its perfection. Platbush. and the haste wherewith any fame acquired in a sphere so thoroughly ephemeral as the Editor's must be shrouded by the dark waters of oblivion. so that not the smallest cranny or doghole in nature or art can remain unilluminated. a pen as ready to expose and reprove the crimes whereby wealth is amassed and luxury enjoyed in our own country at this hour as if they had been committed only by Turks or pagans in Asia some centuries ago. not only the torch still burns.--Holmes. sentencing myriads of the young to make murder their calling and rapacity their means of support. we are ready to ask ourselves. how. whether in the way of philosophy or history. we see the tyrant humbled. when the sad reality comes home to us. and to break down the spirit of nations under the same iron sway. and have you not.--Greeley. which was to suspend a large lump directly over the tea-table. and the earth make a harmony. and the cattle that lie on the ground seem to have great and tranquil thoughts. nothing is to desire that we have heard of the happiest latitudes. but innumerable rush-lights and sulphur-matches. nobody knows how long. and those who mainly support newspapers will be annoyed and often exposed by it. and all our uncontaminated Dutch villages.--it might strike the reflective mind with some surprise that hitherto little or nothing of a fundamental character. 20. all round it.---Emerson. butting each other and everything in their way. There are days which occur in this climate. in walking in the fields. which had lain. when everything that has life gives sign of satisfaction. 22. so that it could be swung from mouth to mouth--an ingenious expedient.--Channing. which is still kept up by some families in Albany. a heart as sensitive to oppression and degradation in the next street as if they were practiced in Brazil or Japan.--Carlyle. a lump of sugar was laid beside each cup. and end in a general stampede for underground retreats from the region poisoned by sunshine. are also glancing in every direction. To sweeten the beverage. and extorting from nations their treasures to extend this ruinous sway. Bergen.--I know not whether there be any now qualified to tread it.

+Direction+. "When shall I use O. and (4) phrases or clauses separately numbered or paragraphed should begin with a capital letter.--Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. He who teaches. and (9) numbers in the Roman notation. and other phrases. to accuse me of laziness.. Obsolete words. often learns himself. (6) names of things vividly personified. 12. CAPITAL LETTERS. (7) a direct quotation introduced into a sentence. +Comma+. (6) a word or phrase independent or nearly so. It is easy. 10. and (15) when it is needed to prevent ambiguity. AND THE COMMA. and words derived from them. the semicolon. etc. and (4) Arabic figures used to enumerate.. He rushed into the field. chapters.. 6. (3) a direct quotation making complete sense or a direct question introduced into a sentence. c and q. Write in capital letters (8) the words I and 0. The Holy Land was. LESSON 146. and. and when shall I use oh?" 3. Francis II. and (12) the parts of a compound predicate. Charles IX. The pupil asked. as. etc.] +Period+.--Set off by the comma (1) an explanatory modifier which does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it. with the words belonging to it. unless formally introduced. 4. sat upon the French throne. in 637 A. TERMINAL MARKS.. and Henry III. 8.. three sons of Catherine de Medici and Henry II. for you. Separate by the comma (10) connected words and phrases. Low words. 2. (3) a number written in the Roman notation. Use the comma (13) to denote an omission of words. (8) a noun clause used as an attribute complement. and the quotation marks:-1. 184 +Capital Letters+. (14) after as. among the early conquests of the Saracens. 7. +Exclamation Point+. Some letters are superfluous. 2. except the colon. indeed. SUMMARY OF RULES FOR CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION.--The first word of (1) a sentence. Mistress Dial. unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies. taken Jerusalem. as everybody knows. D. set yourself up above me.. and (7) most abbreviations. 1492.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** COMPOSITION. (3) the adjective clause when not restrictive.--Give the Rule for each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences. [Footnote: Small letters are often used in referring to sections. (2) a participle used as an adjective modifier. (2) a line of poetry. namely. unless all the conjunctions are expressed. fell. and (9) a term connected to another by or and having the same meaning. unless restrictive. introducing illustrations. or slang. (4) the adverb clause. 3.--Place a period after (1) a declarative or an imperative sentence. 5. and give your reasons:-- . Caliph Omar having. (5) a phrase out of its usual order or not closely connected with the word it modifies.--All exclamatory expressions must be followed by the exclamation point. (2) an abbreviation. +Interrogation Point+. No sleep till morn. Begin with a capital letter (5) proper names (including all names of the Deity). 9. foremost fighting.--Every direct interrogative sentence or clause should be followed by an interrogation point. who have always. (11) co-ordinate clauses when short and closely connected. San Salvador. when Youth and Pleasure meet To chase the glowing hours with flying feet! Direction. when long or differently modified. Oct. Purity of style forbids us to use: 1. Foreign words.

oriole. traffic and barter with every little. let them see it who saw their brothers and their sons fall on the field of Bunker Hill: and the very walls will cry out in its support. or (2) when themselves divided by the comma. and it may cost blood.--Co-ordinate clauses. 2. lowell asks and what is so rare as a day in June 6. proclaim it there. +Direction+. the oaks of the mountains fall the mountains themselves decay with years the ocean shrinks and grows again the moon herself is lost in heaven 4. new york apr 30 1789 9. some letters stand each for many sounds. accumulate every assistance you can beg and borrow." . that in note. kennedy taking from her a handkerchief edged with gold pinned it over her eyes the executioners holding her by the arms led her to the block and the queen kneeling down said repeatedly with a firm voice into thy hands o lord i commend my spirit +Colon+. 3. that in move5. The shouts of revelry had died away. as. and give your reasons:-1. Send it to the public halls.--Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences:-1. +Direction+. the last loiterer had retired from the banquet. (1) when slightly connected. and lo from the assembled crowd there rose a shout prolonged and loud that to the ocean seemed to say take her o bridegroom old and gray 2. the roar of the lion had ceased. let them hear it who heard the first roar of the enemy's cannon. spring is a fickle mistress but summer is more staid 7. e. i. and (2) before a quotation or an enumeration of particulars when formally introduced. The result however of the three years' reign or tyranny of jas ii was that wm of orange came over from holland and without shedding a drop of blood became a d 1688 wm in of england 4. You may swell every expense. Ontario.. and it will richly compensate for both.---Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. 3.--Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation (except the colon) in these sentences:-1. +Direction+. SEMICOLON AND COLON. and (4) before as. must be separated by the semicolon. SUMMARY OF RULES--CONTINUED. It may cost treasure. and the lights in the palace of the victor were extinguished. namely. a large rough mantle of sheepskin fastened around the loins by a girdle or belt of hide was the only covering of that strange solitary man elijah the tishbite 3. when they introduce examples or illustrations. still more extravagantly. 2. and strain every effort. golden. as a and o ***** LESSON 147. all parts of a plant reduce to three namely root stem and leaf 2. that in not. if i may judge by his gorgeous colors and the exquisite sweetness and variety of his music autumn is i should say the poet of the family 8. to wit. 2. Some words are delightful to the ear. and that is. Use the semicolon (3) between serial phrases or clauses having a common dependence on something which precedes or follows. when the world is dark with tempests when thunder rolls and lightning flies thou lookest in thy beauty from the clouds and laughest at the storm 3. 4. +Semicolon+. o has three sounds: 1.--Use the colon (1) between the parts of a sentence when these parts are themselves divided by the semicolon. This is a precept of Socrates: "Know thyself.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 185 1. pitiful German prince that sells and sends his subjects to the shambles of a foreign country: your efforts are forever vain and impotent. but it will stand.

though subject to England.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+.--Use the dash where there is an omission (1) of letters or figures. +Apostrophe+.--Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences:-1. +Dash+. and may (6) follow other marks. MARKS OF PARENTHESIS. APOSTROPHE. 6. And--"This to me?" he said. and give your reasons:-- 186 1. and the comma.---Write sentences illustrating the several uses of the semicolon. +Direction+. Carthage--what are they? 5. and Solomon. or another takes its place. or that is.---Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. The dash may be used (5) instead of marks of parenthesis. AND BRACKETS. the human species is composed of two distinct races those who borrow and those who lend 2. adding to their force.--Marks of parenthesis may be used to inclose what has no essential connection with the rest of the sentence. she fainted away. the colon. QUOTATION MARKS.) . HYPHEN.heard of her son's disgrace. and (3) to distinguish the possessive from other cases. Greece. this bill this infamous bill the way it has been received by the house the manner in which its opponents have been treated the personalities to which they have been subjected all these things dissipate my doubts 3. When Mrs. David.--Use quotation marks to inclose a copied word or passage. If the quotation contains a quotation. Use the dash (3) where the sentence breaks off abruptly. yet is distinct from it. the account of a ___'s shame fills pp 1 19 4. Rome. THE DASH. (2) in the pluralizing of letters. and (2) between syllables when a word is divided.--Use the hyphen (-) (1) to join the parts of compound words. B---. His place business is 225--229 High street. and (4) before a word or phrase repeated at intervals for emphasis. +Quotation Marks+. +Direction+. Assyria. we may abound in meetings and movements enthusiastic gatherings in the field and forest may kindle all minds with a common sentiment but it is all in vain if men do not retire from the tumult to the silent culture of every right disposition +Direction+. SUMMARY OF RULES--CONTINUED. and the same thought is resumed after a slight suspension. lord marmion turned well was his need and dashed the rowels in his steed +Marks of Parenthesis+.--toward a nation which. the latter is inclosed within single marks. the advice given ran thus take care of the minutes and the hours will take care of themselves 2. I do not rise to supplicate you to be merciful toward the nation to which I belong. 4. We know the uses--and sweet they are--of adversity. 7. and (2) of such words as as. and give your reasons:-1. figures.--Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. +Hyphen+. (See Lesson 74.--Use the apostrophe (1) to mark the omission of letters. 3. The most noted kings of Israel were the first three--Saul. 2. namely. introducing illustrations or equivalent expressions. and characters. ***** LESSON 148.

Galilee. Red-hot is a compound adjective. 10. casting the long shadow of his frowning tiers far over the sea. the stars and the stripes at the fore. man the life boat 3. As I saw him [Weoster. Hayne of South Carolina] in the evening. Telegraph is divided thus: tel-e-graph. TO THE TEACHER. you insert by way of explanation or correction. dark and terrible. The "beatitudes" are found in Matt. 5. 3. The only fault ever found with him is. Luke says. lying along the eastern edge. 13. 0 Union. new. 1. 3--11. sail on. and bearing down like a tempest upon his antagonist.---Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences." 3. By means of the apostrophe you know that love in mother's love is a noun. and give your reasons:-1. too. or coast. +Direction+. 0 Ship of State. the feelings. This--trial! 11. 8) was a long. 6. my neighbor. An honest man. that seemed to sink beneath him. of the Mediterranean. 5.'" 3. narrow strip. The speaker said american oratory rose to its high water mark in that great speech ending liberty and union now and forever one and inseparable ***** LESSON 149. Acts xxi. require the pupils to justify the punctuation of . "We took up our carriages [luggage]. "The clause which does away with trial by jury--what. The profound learning of Sir William Jones (he was master of twenty-eight languages) was the wonder of his contemporaries. 2. 8. 4. Judea. his broad pendant [pennant] streaming at the main." Trench well says.--Use brackets [ ] to inclose what. v.--If further work in punctuation is needed.--there he stands-Was struck--struck like a dog. in quoting another's words. +Direction+. CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION--REVIEW. On the south. Samaria. the mizzen. 12. is it. "the word 'diligence' contains!" 6. the more light you pour upon it. don't neglect in writing to dot your is cross your ts and make your 7s unlike your 9s and don't in speaking omit the hs from such words as which when and why or insert rs in law saw and raw4. it has quickened to life the giant brood of useful arts.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 187 +Brackets+. Thou. and consisted of three divisions. namely. The land flowing with "milk and honey" (see Numbers xiv. and the will. 7. American nationality has made the desert to bud and blossom as the rose.--Give the reason for each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences:-1. gently rocking on the tranquil tide. strong and great. the asylum of our better liberty. by one who wore The badge of Ursini. and all his thunders roaring from his broadsides. in the name of H----n. dropping his line here and there. or give me death. There are only three departments of the mind--the intellect. This is the motto of the University of Oxford: "The Lord is my light. "I close in the words of Patrick Henry. the more it contracts. O'Connell asks. that he sometimes fights ahead of his orders. 15. A bigot's mind is like the pupil of the eye. and that i's isn't a verb. it has whitened lake and ocean with the sails of a daring. 2. +Direction+. 4. In the middle.--Justify the marks of punctuation used in these sentences:-1. with all his canvas strained to the wind. and went up to Jerusalem. The next morning he was like some mighty admiral. The last sentence of the composition was. On the north. the day before his great reply to Col." 2. 'Give me liberty. the scriptures tell us take no thought anxiety for the morrow 5. and lawful trade. and the peak. flying as clouds. next to a conscience void of offense without which by the bye life isnt worth the living is the enjoyment of the social feelings 2. it has extended to exiles. (if I may borrow an illustration from his favorite amusement) he was as unconcerned and as free of spirit as some here present have seen him while floating in his fishing-boat along a hazy shore. with the varying fortune of the sport. "What a lesson. if it is not the establishment of a revolutionary tribunal?" 9. Sail on.

shun words that have passed out of use. holding to them the relation that its own sentences hold to one another. we select words and images for strength and not for beauty. and they. or make your thought clearer to them than it is to yourself. Do not omit words when they are needed.+--The relations of single words to each other. 2. I. with the sentence that follows. terms. if the thought is not understood. 188 +Style+ is the manner in which one expresses himself. choose specific. and not general. or thoughts having no natural and close connection with each other. When energetic. The sentence should not need rearrangement in order to disclose the meaning.+--Perspicuity is opposed to obscurity of all kinds. its expression might better have been left unattempted. and put the strongest word in the clause. and the ending of each. and do not use a superfluity of them. or it is misunderstood. Avoid what are called bookish. no other. arouse the feelings.--Things stand in many relations to each other. and requires impassioned delivery. and capture the will--lead one to do something. We use energy when we wish to convince the intellect. and slang. ***** LESSON 150.--By energy we mean force. Be cautious in the use of he. inkhorn.+--You cannot express to others more than you thoroughly know. last. the strongest sentence in the paragraph. and in no discourse is it constantly sought. In ordinary discourse. of expression. 4. vigor. +One's Clear Understanding of What One Attempts to Say. Sentences should stand in the paragraph so that the beginning of each shall tally exactly in thought with the sentence that precedes. +Energy+. she. use few words and crowd these with meaning. words newly coined. distinct from other paragraphs. +A Happy Arrangement. Styles differ as men differ. place subordinate clauses before the independent. +The Use of the Right Words. +Figures of Speech+ are those expressions in which. Energetic thought seeks variety of expression. the strongest clause in the sentence.+--Use such words as convey your thought--each word expressing exactly your idea. no less. and of clauses to one another should be obvious at a glance. II. Perspicuity is an indispensable quality of style. it. Perspicuity depends mainly upon these few things:-1. prefer the concrete to the abstract. III. the relation that the several parts of each sentence hold to one another. Use simple words--words which those who are addressed can readily understand. and those that have no footing in the language--foreign words. But there are some cardinal qualities that all good style must possess.+--Many thoughts. it is not often sought. Use words in the senses recognized by the best authority. +Perspicuity.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg the sentences beginning page 314. Some +things are (1) like each other+ in some particular. other +things are (2) unlike each other+ in some particular. should not be crowded into one sentence. It demands that the thought in the sentence shall be plainly seen through the words of the sentence. 3. it means clearness of expression. is usually charged with intense feeling. terms. and still other +things stand to each other (3)+ in some +other+ noteworthy +relation than+ that of +likeness+ or +unlikeness+. of phrases to the words they modify. departing from our ordinary manner in speaking of things. no more. we assert or assume any of these notable relations. Things long seen and associated by us in any of these relations come at last readily to suggest each other. QUALITIES OF STYLE. The first and great service of imagery . +Imagery--Figures of Speech+. Every paragraph should be a unit in thought. +The Unity of the Sentence. and the strongest paragraph in the discourse.

as. In discourse properly varied. and simple sentences by compound and complex. The sea licks your feet. and sentences heavy with meaning and moving slowly are elbow to elbow with the light and tripping. PERSPICUITY--CRITICISM. . clauses have no rigidly fixed position. The most important of these relations are (1) that of the +sign+ to the +thing signified+.--Variety is a quality of style opposed to monotonous uniformity. sly Snake. long words alternate with short. It +raises+ (3) +mere things to+ the plane of +persons+. (3) that of +instrument+ to the +user+ of it. (7) that of the +abstract+ to the +concrete+. In a word. assuming the likeness between two things. ***** LESSON 151. no one form or method or matter is continued so long as to weary. which assume. is a figure of speech in which we point out or assert a likeness between things otherwise unlike. An +Antithesis+ is a figure of speech in which things mutually opposed in some particular are set over against each other. the same word does not appear with offensive frequency. A +Simile+. (2) that of +cause+ to +effect+. It +raises+ (1) +mere things to+ the plane of +animals+. It raises (2) +mere animals to+ the plane of +persons+. Earth fills her lap with pleasures of her own. A +Metaphor+ is a figure of speech in which.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 189 is to the thought--it makes the thought clearer and stronger. The gloom of despondency hung like a cloud over the land. The mountains givetheir lost children berries and water. impassioned language is succeeded by the unemotional. and the reader is kept fresh and interested throughout. or +Comparison+. its huge flanks purr pleasantly for you. Variety is restful to the reader or hearer and therefore adds greatly to the clearness and to the force of what is addressed to him. (5) that of +material+ to the +thing made out of it+. as. we bring over and apply to one of them the term that denotes the other. and (8) that of +part+ to the +whole+ or of +whole+ to the +part+.--Question the pupils upon every point taken up in this Lesson and require them to give illustrations where it is possible for them to do so. So talked the spirited. (4) that of +container+ to the +thing contained+. TO THE TEACHER. Nothing in discourse pleases us more than light and shade. +IV. as. the verb in the assertive form frequently gives way to the participle and the infinitive. as. the sea mocks their thirstand lets them die. long sentences stand side by side with short. declarative sentences are relieved by interrogative and exclamatory. as. the full method of statement is followed by the contracted. the usual order now and then yields to the transposed. Variety+. figures of speech sparkle here and there in a setting of plain language. Imagery adds beauty to style--a diamond brooch may adorn as well as do duty to the dress. This last relation has been thought so important that the metonymy based upon it has received a distinct name--+Synecdoche+. A +Personification+ is a figure of speech in which things are raised to a plane of being above their own--to or toward that of persons. A stately squadron of snowy geese were riding in an adjoining pond. as. (6) that of +contiguity+. A +Metonymy+ is a figure of speech in which the name of one thing connected to another by a relation other than likeness or unlikeness is brought over and applied to that other. and loose sentences with periods.

3. Charles I. making them clear:-- 190 [Footnote: These four sentences and others in these Lessons. 5.--Point out the faults. give these. Two men will be tried for crimes in this town which are punishable with death. and remove the ambiguity:-1. 4. as it peered above the horizon. This tendency will be headed off by approximations which will be made from time to time of the written word to the spoken. He told the coachman that he would be the death of him. 3. 4. Let us trust no strength less than thine. and mind what he said. A large number of seats were occupied by pupils that had no backs. +Direction+. .) 1. James's son. PERSPICUITY--CRITICISM. school would commence at nine o'clock and closed at four in the afternoon allowing an hour for dinner from one until two then we would resume our studies until four in the afternoon. Blake answered the Spanish priest that if he had sent in a complaint. Jewelry was worn in the time of King Pharaoh which is many thousand years before Christ in the time when the Israelites left they borrowed all the jewels of the Egyptians which were made of gold and silver.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +General Direction+. He aimed at nothing less than the crown. 2. then breakfast. if a full court should attend. and told him to consider himself at his service. 3. making them clear:-(If any one of the sentences has several meanings. 2.] 1. Richelieu said to the king that Mazarin would carry out his policy. 5. The moon cast a pale light on the graves that were scattered around. as soon as he stepped out on the ground. +Direction+. When it is made of gold they can not of pure gold but has to be mixed with some other metal which is generally copper which turns it a reddish hue in some countries they use silver which gives it a whitish hue but in the United States and England they use both silver and copper but the English coins are the finest. 4. How can brethren partake of their Father's blessing that curse each other? 7. 4. He was locked in and so he sat still till the guard came and let him out. and recast these sentences. before the breath was out of his body was proclaimed king in his stead. after which we would go to Chapel exercises. he would have punished the sailors severely. Direction. He was overjoyed to see him. Crusoe was surprised at seeing five canoes on the shore in which there were savages. and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:-1. Study had more attraction for him than his friend.--Each of these sentences may have two meanings.. He did not like the new teacher so well as his playmates. 6.--In all your work in Composition attend carefully to the punctuation. if they traveled at all. have been culled from school compositions.--So place these subordinate clauses that they will remove the obscurity. 2. 5. +Direction+.--Point out the faults. 3. which was a very slow way. They used to ring a large bell at six o'clock in the morning for us to get up. given just as we found them. People had to travel on horseback and in wagons. if he did not take care what he was about. supply the two ellipses in each sentence. and he sent for one of his workmen. 2. and recast these sentences. Lovest thou me more than these? ***** LESSON 152. then we had half an hour to dress in. he saw the dead and dying laying about everywhere. but he took it ill that he set the Spaniards on to punish them.

10. The deceased was to-day deposited in his last resting-place. +Direction. Help. 4. He could not face an enraged father in spite of his effrontery. He conducted her to the altar of Hymen. 4. Indeed! 4. He had no capillary substance on the summit of his head. and at them! 3. 7.+--So place the italicized words and phrases in each sentence that they will help to convey what you think is the author's thought. No matter. In Paris. 9. and drove twelve cows on horseback. A devastating conflagration raged. 7.--Change these specific words to general terms. I spent most on the river and in the river of the time I stayed there. Rascal! 12. boys. 2. exclusive of Dorchester. 3. He made a sad faux pas. Are you excavating a subterranean canal?5. 14. Least said. and note the loss in energy:--- . 13. I want to make a present to one who is fond of chickens for a Christmas gift. Hay is given to horses as well as corn to distend the stomach. +Direction+. Boston has forty first class grammar-schools. 5. 12. Exclamation points are scattered up and down the page by compositors without any mercy. Silence there! 9. ***** LESSON 153. I have a wife and six children. and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:-1. 2. ENERGY--CRITICISM. mocking. 3. and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:-1. "He saved. To your tents. Death to the tyrant! 15.+--Make these sentences clear by using simpler words and phrases:-1. These designs any man who is a Briton in any situation ought to disavow. 2. I have partaken of my morning repast. first served. 6. 3. every lady in full dress rides. I saw my friend when I was in Boston walking down Tremont street. 9. I rushed out leaving the wretch with his tale half told. Two owls sat upon a tree which grew near an old wall out of a heap of rubbish. 13. Diligence is the sine qua non of success.--Expand these brief expressions into sentences full of long words.--Condense each of these italicized expressions into one or two words. 11. Up. We do those things frequently which we repent of afterwards. 6. He took the initiative in inaugurating the ceremony. 5. and note the loss of energy:-1. 4. The chief priests. at the age of eighteen. The Prince of Wales was forbidden to become king or any other man.8. 7. Shame on you! 18. with interstices at equal distances between the intersections. and I have never seen one of them. A donkey has an abnormal elongation of auricular appendages." etc. 16. What is his coming or going to you? 5.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 191 Direction. Death or free speech! 11. +Direction+. 8. The inmates proceeded to the sanctuary. +Direction. said among themselves with the scribes. horror-stricken at his crime. To say that revelation is a thing which there is no need of is to talk wildly. I'll none of it. Some say that ever 'gainst that season comes wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated this bird of dawning singeth all night long. 7. Don't give up the ship! 6. soonest mended. He shuffled off this mortal coil yesterday. A network is anything reticulated or decussated. Bah! 5. The author surpassed all those who were living at the same time with him. 2. and note the gain:-1. 10.--So place these italicized phrases that they will remove the obscurity. Murder will out. 8. He wanted to go to sea. First come. Hurrah! 10. 4. She has donned the habiliments of woe. although it was contrary to the wishes of his parents. +Direction+. 3. ho! 17. He rode to town. 0 Israel! 2. He departed this life. Oh! 8. 6.

He doth bestride the narrow world like a Colossus. 2. Borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. 15. and within this House. and their spears into pruning-hooks. The threaded steel flies swiftly. 23. All nations respect our flag. 24. 32. if we do not mean to abandon the struggle. 37. All hands to the pumps! 25. Genius creates. 22. When I'm mad. all that I hope to be. Break down the dikes. and note the gain in energy:-1. 6. If I can catch him once upon the hip. 3. I shall defend it without this House. Anne Boleyn was executed. Then burst his mighty heart. starve back the invaders. All that I am. My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar. The robin knows when your grapes have cooked long enough in the sun. but a prisoner and an exile. phrases. 40. 26. 10. 4. 17. There's no use in crying over spilt milk. .Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 192 1. Three hundred men held the hosts of Xerxes at bay. I weigh a ton. 18. I am as constant as the northern star. Lentulus returned with victorious eagles. 35. I am now ready here to stake upon it. like the Nile. taste appreciates what is created. Consider the flowers how they increase in size. Burn Moscow. 9.--Arrange these words. I shall die an American. I sat at her cradle. Night's candles are burnt out. 3. The destinies of mankind were trembling in the balance. Nations shall beat their swords into plowshares. 36. The marble speaks. 5. pursued. I followed her hearse. Our chains are forged. 39. The pen is mightier than the sword. if we mean to preserve inviolate our rights. We must fight if we wish to be free. 8. 28.--Name the figures of speech. 20. I live an American. The capital of the chosen people was destroyed by a Roman general. A day will come when bullets and bombs shall be replaced by ballots. Traffic has lain down to rest. 3. you are yoked with a lamb that carries anger as the flint bears fire. 14. Beware of the bottle. Death hath sucked the honey of thy breath. and clauses in the order of their strength. The Morn in russet mantle clad walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill. 9. Please address the chair. 27. 34. The good is often buried with men's bones. He will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. 19. O Cassius. with a constant stream. 2. 33. and note the loss of beauty and force:-1. 29. FIGURES OF SPEECH--CRITICISM. 30. Have you read Froude or Freeman?12. 6. 7. 8. The cities of the plain were annihilated. 4. like a river in its banks. +Direction+. It were better for him that a heavy weight were fastened to him and that he were submerged in the waste of waters. 2. in all places. while death fell in showers. and note the gain in energy:-1. and the rack. 4. I was born an American. 31. 21. and jocund Day stands tiptoe on the misty mountain top. placing the strongest last. 13. 5. I have no spur to prick the sides of my intent. surrounded. The gray-eyed Morn smiles on the frowning Night. 3. I called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old. Caesar was slain by the conspirators. in time of peace and in time of war. burning. Their daggers have stabbed Caesar. using plain language. The air bites shrewdly. at all times. and all that I have in this life. The hearth blazed high. Virgil. give Holland back to ocean. Caesar were no lion were not Romans hinds. 7. Homer. The ice is covered with health and beauty on skates. ***** LESSON 154. In proportion as men delight in battles and bull-fights will they punish by hanging. 4. I have bought golden opinions. The soul of Jonathan was knit to that of David. 16. Don't fire till you see the whites of their eyes. 5. and then recast a few sentences. Lend me your ears.--Change these general terms to specific words. 11. 6. and resisted him. He was no longer consul nor citizen nor general nor even an emperor. 5. The nations of the earth repelled. +Direction+. +Direction+. pours out his riches with a sudden overflow. His words fell softer than snows on the brine. 38. 2. 6. I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him.

+Remark+. 17. 18. I see him brewing in the air. is called a mixed metaphor. 19. between the parts of. We must apply the axe to the fountain of this evil. 2. 5. that an adverb clause may be contracted to a participle. 3. to the wretches that will be roasted at the stake. in 57. that compound sentences may be formed out of simple sentences. His banner led the spearmen no more. that it may be contracted by the omission of words.--You learned in Lessons 52. This day we undertake to render an account to the widows and orphans whom our decision will make. The oak stretches out its strong branches. 4. personifications. 7. 16. The cock tears up the ground for his family of hens and chickens. In battle some men are brave. roused the patriotism of the people to a high pitch of . The waves were still. 4. in 61. ***** LESSON 155. in 68. that an adverb clause may stand before. in 73. that adjectives may be expanded into clauses.--Correct these errors:-1. 4. that a noun clause as subject may stand last. +Direction+. 3. in 55. Have you read Lamb's Essays? 15. that simple sentences may be contracted. We have to have money to have a horse. and indirect to direct. that direct quotations and questions may be changed to indirect. I smell a rat.--Recast these sentences.--Illustrate all these changes. The man stalks into court like a motionless statue. Boston is the place where American liberty began. and after. 56. All the ripe fruit of three-score years was blighted in a day. but is completed by a part of another metaphor or by plain language. We have prostrated ourselves before the king. use similes. in 79. His head is as full of plans as it can hold. The water is boiling. The brittle thread of life may be cut asunder. The flowers are the sweet and pretty growths of the earth and sun. The devouring fire uprooted the stubble. metaphors. in 77. that a verb may change its voice. Unravel the obscurities of this knotty question. in 130. a participle phrase. 5. 10. The soldier is giving way to the husbandman. 5. 12. an absolute phrase. and may be contracted. in the last eight. The stars can no longer be seen. The thin mantle of snow dissolved. others are cowardly. in 74. we have what.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. and may be changed to complex sentences. 6. 8. 14. 53. absolute phrases. in 67. 13. English vessels plow the seas of the two hemispheres. 3. metonymies:-- 193 1. VARIETY IN EXPRESSION.--In the first four sentences. I heard a loud noise. and bullets fell. In battle some men are brave. in the second four. may be contracted to simple sentences. The news of the battle of Bunker Hill. a prepositional phrase. 2. and may be changed to an adjective clause or phrase. in the third four. and as object complement may stand first. 11.--If what is begun as a metaphor is not completed as begun. with the cloak of hypocrisy in his mouth. 2. 8. +Direction+. fought on the 17th of June in the year of our Lord 1775. that participles. the independent clause. that one kind of simple sentence may be changed to another. Swords flashed. 6. 20. It requires great care to avoid this very common error. 9. and infinitives may be expanded into different kinds of clauses. 7. Our dispositions should grow mild as we grow old. +Remark+. +Direction+. 54 that the usual order may give way to the transposed. It is then put into stacks. avoiding offensive repetitions of the same word or the same sounds:-1. and. or it is put into barns either to use it to feed it to the stock or to sell it. Wretched people shiver in their lair of straw. that it may be made prominent. but I shall yet nip him in the bud. He flew with the swiftness of an arrow. We sailed across a bay and sailed up a creek and sailed back and sailed in all about fourteen miles. others are cowardly.

It increased in violence. Sentences thus related are grouped together and form. +Direction+. The mercury in the barometer fell. as you have already learned. and tell what each paragraph is about:-- . the rain dashing furiously and in torrents.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg enthusiasm. or a colon is needed to divide them. supplying what you need. marked by a period or other terminal point. Dress uncouth. +Direction+. 4. holding on. Attracted attention. In the profusion and recklessness of her lies. 6. 3. I found such of the passengers as could stand. A calm. a snob. Fowling-piece rusty. Women and children at his heels. though he was pronounced the first gentleman in Europe. at an extraordinary rate. was. Rip was dazed by the question. Barometer fell. nevertheless. ***** LESSON 156. The captain predicted a gale. The wind died away. 5. and the relation to each other of the clauses and the sentences expressing these facts:-After a breeze of some sixty hours from the north and northwest. George IV. Stared in stupidity. but increasing every moment.---Weave the facts below into two paragraphs. +Direction+. It was still quite dark. said that James I. the wind died away about four o'clock yesterday afternoon. what we call a Paragraph.. +Direction+. Four of the sails were already in ribbons: the winds whistling through the cordage. But even sentences may be connected. the noise and spray scarcely less than I found them under the great sheet at Niagara. 2. Was eyed from head to foot. Was asked on which side he voted. Between sentences there exists a wider separation in meaning. at the doors of the hurricane-house.--Notice the facts which this paragraph contains. in the meantime. The clauses of compound sentences are less closely united--a comma.---Using other words wholly or in part. a semicolon. +Direction+. Hurrying on my clothes. and looking out in the utmost consternation. The gale came on about eleven o'clock. supplying all you need to make the narrative smooth:-Rip's beard was grizzled. occasioned by the dashing of the waves against the ship. Elizabeth had no peer in England. and the captain predicted that we should encounter a gale from the southeast. Whether he was Federal or Democrat. was the wisest fool in Christendom. It came on. see in how many ways you can express the thoughts contained in these sentences:-- 194 1. 1. the bond which unites them being their common relation to the thought which jointly they develop. A breeze from the north and northwest.--Give and number the facts contained in the paragraph below:-I awoke with a confused recollection of a good deal of rolling and thumping in the night.--The clauses of complex sentences are so closely united in meaning that frequently they are not to be separated from each other even by the comma. 7.---Weave the facts below into a paragraph. +The Paragraph+. 4. 2. marked by beginning the first word a little to the right of the marginal line. THE PARAGRAPH. 3. not violent at first. The calm continued till about nine in the evening. Cowper's letters are charming because they are simple and natural. Henry IV.

Robins joined in the merriment. Cheerful.--Weave these facts into four paragraphs:-Note that the several paragraphs form a composition. Mulberries. How it looked at the bottom of my basket! A humming-bird's egg in an eagle's nest. writing the margin of each the main thought:-The robin is thought by some to be migratory.---Weave these facts into four paragraphs. Appetite extraordinary. They secreted sugar from the sunbeams. Three crops from December to June. Angleworms his delight. This summer bore a score of bunches. +Person+. The tavern sign. like Dr. A sword. Laughed. or +Theme+. Poor soloist. and too large for any neck. unfurrowed expanse. A few years ago I had a grapevine. Dash of prose in his song. He recognized on it the face of King George. The melting of the mountain snows. Arrived in June at New Amsterdam--New York city. Two small. PARAGRAPHS AND THE THEME. Fond of cherries.--Was five feet six inches high. +Direction+. Shy of bearing. THE PARAGRAPH. Cheeks had taken toll of all that had entered his mouth. In 1629 appointed governor of Nieuw Nederlandts. Taste for fruit. and indigo. Receives two branches only. Eats his own weight in a short time. Subsides. Productions--grain. Johnson's. Descended from burgomasters.--Van Twiller was a Dutchman. The robins beforehand with me. Wore a cocked hat. gray eyes. Begins at the end of June. One of blue and buff in its place. and not a scepter. Nile overflows its banks. and write on the margin what each is about:-The Nile rises in great lakes. Rises till the close of September. Mottled and streaked with dusky red. Born at Rotterdam." ***** LESSON 157. Made shrill. Overflow caused by rains at the sources. Had sacked the vine. Bustled out from the leaves. A foreigner. The red coat gone. six feet five in circumference. ***** LESSON 158. No lines of thought.---Weave the facts below into three paragraphs. A flag was fluttering from it. Only villages above the surface. Whole valley an inland sea. Runs through an alluvial valley. One morning. Minor outlets. +Direction+. cotton. A spice of vulgarity in him. But he stays with us all winter. The deposit. Rises four inches daily. This was strange to Rip. The valley very fertile. A beer-barrel on skids.500 miles. Still the picture was changed. Face a vast. in the hand. II. The fertile strip is from five to one hundred and fifty miles wide. Earliest mess of peas. Sources two thousand miles from Alexandria. Plows into the Mediterranean.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 195 In place of the old tree there was a pole. Renowned for fruitfulness. Eats with a relishing gulp. Course through the valley is 1. the general subject of which is WOUTER VAN TWILLER (according to Diedrich Knickerbocker). went to pick them. +Who he was+. . I. This was tall and naked. Legs short and sturdy. Body capacious. Egypt long the granary of the world. Two principal channels. Nature set it on the back-bone. The flag had on it the stars and stripes. Remnant of a single bunch. But Rip saw something he remembered. Lion's share of the raspberries. Runs north. Direction. Noisy. Underneath was painted--"General Washington. unhandsome remarks about me. Head spherical.

Leap upon the altar. Slept twelve. On evening of the 9th.--Regular. write on the margin the special topic of each. consumes flesh. Used next winter at the siege of Boston. Conceived everything on a grand scale. Cry out twice. and find small row boats.+--Weave these facts into as many paragraphs as you think there should be. Are mocked by Elijah. equally thick. Form. They follow. licks up water. Fall on their faces. Each claims the command. No answer by fire. Fort one hundred feet above the water." Servant reports. small arms. Allen orders all who will follow him to poise their firelocks. he is the God. like a man's hand. +Direction. Cut themselves. Sentinel retreats. Battled with doubts regarding the Yankees. Call on Baal. Bows in prayer. Girding up his loins. Sacrifices. Wore fine garments. and over the whole the general subject of the theme:-Fort Ticonderoga on a peninsula. water on three sides. Repairs an old altar with twelve stones. Determine the number of paragraphs and their order. As self-contained as an oyster.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 196 III. IV. Digs a trench. two hundred and seventy men meet at Castleton. dust. guides them to the fort. Send for a scow.--These facts are thrown together promiscuously. People see it. counted the leaves. made each give the other a receipt." Take the prophets to the brook Kishon. May 7. climbs the stairs. each an hour long. Presided at the council. Four meals daily. Difficulty in crossing. All but forty-six. Shake his head. "Go up now. Blood.+---Weave these facts into four paragraphs. They were . When a question was asked. PARAGRAPHS AND THE THEME. Sentinel snaps his gun at A. Never laughed. Known to sit with eyes closed two hours. a lad. Prays. Demanded why Van Rensselaer seized Bear's Island. Several swords and howitzers. Search. +Direction+. Allen chosen. and write on the margin of each paragraph the speciai topic. and over the whole what you think it the general subject of the theme:-The prophets of Baal accept Elijah's challenge. to surrender. Fronts south. ***** LESSON 159. Smoked and doubted eight hours. They dress a bullock. Vermont. and the constable pay the costs. Classify them as they seem to you to be related. Allen and Arnold there. one for each tribe. Smoke in silence. each produced his account-book. look toward the sea. Perplexed by a joke. Green Mountain boys. But never said a foolish thing. Pours water three times upon it. Noises of contending doubts. Elijah commands the people to come near. One day was sent to inquire after the other sons. weighed the books. in state. equally heavy. it is said. Not prudent to wait. Formed by the outlet of Lake George and by Lake Champlain. Capture forty-eight men. Question left to the officers. Internal commotion shown by guttural sounds. from Mount Defiance. "The Lord. Van T." Orders Ahab to prepare his chariot. Loud cheer. Separated by Lake Champlain from Mount Independence. +Habits+. Cry till the time of the evening sacrifice. and by the outlet. admirers said. Day is dawning when these reach the shore. Elijah ascends Mount Carrael. 1775. A. using the variety of expression insisted on in Lesson 150. and then do as directed above:-Joseph was Jacob's favorite. stones. wood. he runs before Ahab to Jezreel. Rush upon the parade ground. he had doubts. Orders La Place. in the name of the great Jehovah and the Continental Congress. +Exploits. would put on a mysterious look. Every man responds. Nathan Beman. at length. "There is nothing. Meet to plan and execute an attack upon Fort T. Seize a boat at anchor.+--Settled a dispute about accounts thus: sent for the parties." "Go again seven times. Smoked and breathed his last together. Fire falls. Rarely spoke save in monosyllables." "Behold there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea. they reach the lake. +Direction. One hundred and twenty cannon. Misses fire. Swayed a Turkish pipe instead of a scepter. Observe. and ammunition. where they are slain. Only eighty-three able to cross.

Most awful death that of the martyr patriot. "They have done for me at last. Ishmaelites took him down into Egypt. and stars bowed to him. Fifty fell before a shot was returned. in the Royal Sovereign led the lee line of thirteen ships. N.'s death was more than a public calamity." ***** LESSON 160. Rent his clothes and put on sackcloth. These were his last words. +Analysis of the Subject+. Paul's. "How goes the day with us?" he asked Hardy. ***** LESSON 161. Nelson in command of the English fleet. Near the Straits of Gibraltar. While the brothers were eating. Require them to use the imagination and whatever graces of style are at their command. "I hope none of our ships have struck. Has left a name which is our pride." he said. An example which is our shield and strength.587 men won. and read to the class items of facts.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 197 at a distance. C. The victory that cost the British 1. In another the sun." They mourned as for a dear friend. in the Victory led the weather line. "I am a dead man. Buried him in St." N.'s secretary the first to fall. They saw him coming. His articulation difficult. Agreed to report to their father that some beast had devoured Joseph. 1805. Joseph foolishly told these to his brothers. Thus the spirits of the great and the wise live after them. They sat down to eat. In one dream his brothers' sheaves bowed to his. At the intercession of Reuben they did not kill Joseph. Collingwood second in command. Were going down into Egypt. Ishmaelites approached. Thirty-three sail of the line and seven frigates. Heard to say. Most triumphant death that of a martyr. C. The loss seemed a personal one. They took his coat. They bore him below. shot through the shoulder and back. Take any book. At 1. "This have we found.25 ten of the enemy had struck. And the . Jacob recognized the coat. Hardy. Had more and larger cannon than the English. "Thank God. They bore down." Enemy had four thousand troops. "Kiss me. Plotted to throw his body into a pit. At 4. Brought it to Jacob. Refused comfort. Hated him because of the dreams and their father's partiality.--Classify these promiscuous facts.30 he expired. English fleet twenty-seven sail of the line and four frigates.--A Theme is made up of groups of sentences called Paragraphs. fleets of Spain and France. Threw him alive into a pit. Plotted to kill him. I have done my duty. TO THE TEACHER--Continue this work as long as it is needed. Kissed him on the cheek. PARAGRAPHS AND THE THEME. At 2. October 21. Signal received with a shout. C. or thought. N. At 4 fifteen had struck. Delighted at being the first in the fire. Hardy. Off Trafalgar. tending the flocks. Killed a kid and dipped the coat in its blood." Seemed as if they had not known how deeply they loved him. A raking fire opened upon the Victory. because they jointly develop a single point. determine carefully the number and the order of the paragraphs. Hardy. At 12 the Victory opened fire. Camels loaded with spices. in weaving these facts together. Judah advised that he be raised from the pit.15 N. Englishmen turned pale at the news. The sentences of each paragraph are related to each other. Sold him to Potiphar. steered for the center. know now whether it be thy son's coat or no. Most splendid death that of the hero in the hour of victory. Joseph used to dream. engaged the Santa Anna. ANALYSIS OF THE SUBJECT OF THE THEME. The combined fleets in close line of battle. Knelt down again and kissed his forehead. moon. +Direction+. and then do as directed above:-Trafalgar a Spanish promontory. He signaled those memorable words: "England expects every man to do his duty. The best riflemen in the enemy's boats." said N. The wound was mortal. He shook hands with Hardy.

(1). 3. What Does a Proper Observance of Sunday Require of One? ***** LESSON 164. See. that no point is repeated. 7. 2. 6. +Direction+. Upon the thoroughness of this analysis and the natural arrangement of the thoughts thus derived. The return to Spain of the surviving ships and men. ***** LESSON 162. nor (4). +Direction+. Its dispersion and partial destruction by the storm. When and by whom equipped. Reasons why one Should Not Smoke. These points form.--Question the pupils carefully upon every point taken up in this Lesson.--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. Look to the arrangement of the points. ANALYSIS OF SUBJECTS. Suppose you had taken The Armada as your subject. Its purpose. After the subject has been chosen. A Visit to the Moon. and that all the points together exhaust the subject as nearly as may be. A Day's Nutting. when arranged. 3. Perhaps you could say under these heads all you wish: 1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 198 paragraphs are related to each other. The Arrest of Major Andre.--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. Perhaps the 1st point could include the 2d and the 3d. nor (5). The consequences to England and to Spain. the +Framework+ of the theme. because these points which they develop are divisions of the one general subject of the Theme. (6) could not precede (5). 4. TO THE TEACHER. it must be resolved into the main thoughts which compose it. The attack upon it by Admiral Howard and his great Captains--Drake and Hawkins. 2. A Winter in the Arctic Region. too. . (4). Battle of Plattsburg. depends largely the worth of the theme. that no point foreign to the subject is introduced. What the Armada was. +Direction+. Its sail over the Bay of Biscay and entrance into the English Channel. ANALYSIS OF SUBJECTS. 5. 2. and before writing upon it.--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. 3. Be careful not to split your general subject up into very many parts. What Does a Proper Care for One's Health Demand? ***** LESSON 163. ANALYSIS OF SUBJECTS. There is a natural order. 8. 2.

Turn it over in your mind in leisure moments. Avoid a full. Bring the right-hand end toward you. See that no two overlap each other. What are Books Good for? ***** LESSON 165. indicate this. Use familiar words. HOW TO WRITE A THEME. and by further thinking upon the subject. then bring the top down to the middle and fold again. As occasion calls. change from the usual order to the transposed. as. or heads. Write+. Do not write on the fourth page. Study now to find the natural order in which these points should stand. till you have thought yourself empty. Attend to the Mechanical Execution+. let it swing into position on the hinge of a fitting connective. 199 +I. at the right-hand corner. double the lower half of the sheet over the upper. . 3. you get at all the general thoughts into which. TO THE TEACHER. and place these. and compound.--Begin to think about your subject. simple. On the left of the page leave a margin of an inch for corrections. This superscription will be at the top of the fourth page. If any of these seem broad enough for the main points.--Before writing hunt through your material for the main points. and fold through the middle. and the hearer needs to be advised of this. and. Cast out irrelevant matter. at any rate. In expanding the main points into paragraphs.--Choose your subject long before you are to write. and that no one is irrelevant. and better ways of putting the thoughts already noted down. or an inference from it. and across the top write your name and the date. Perhaps this or that thought. use another sheet. if continuative of it.--Give your whole attention to your work as you write. Of course. the subject should be analyzed. Let a fresh image here and there relieve the uniformity of plain language. your phrases. as it stands. and. and should instantly start in your mind many trains of thought. How can a Boy be Patriotic? or Duties which we Schoolmates owe Each Other. and let sentences. and you must look sharply to the spelling. Choose a Subject+. precede that other.--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. See to what general truths or thoughts these jottings and those jottings point. be sure that everything falls under its appropriate head.--Question the pupils closely upon every point in this Lesson. your sentences must pass rigid muster in syntax. Accumulate the Material+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. and let your handwriting be clear. to the clear understanding of which some other point is necessary. that no one appears twice. The Gulf Stream. A Descent into a Whirlpool. adversative to it. long and short. and your clauses. as it seems to you. and to punctuation. round term like Patriotism or Duty. as thoughts flash upon you. complex. and read nothing on it. Talk with no one on the subject. +IV. Do not strain after effect or strive to seem wiser than you are. Construct a Framework+. if you exceed three pages. Let no point. to the use of capital letters. Study these points carefully. where they will make your thought the clearest. or heads. Express yourself easily--only now and then putting your thought forcibly and with feeling. jot them down in your blank-book. and other thoughts will occur to you. includes enough to serve as a head. 2. +V. One sentence should follow another without abrupt break. +II. The subject should be on your level. and even then you should note down what the conversation or reading suggests. take a fragment of it. +III. that by brooding over your material.--Keep your pages clean. study to see what points you can omit without abrupt break or essential loss. should be interesting and suggestive to you. When the writing is done. that no one has been raised to the dignity of a head which should stand under some head. rather than what you have heard or read. If developing all the points would make your theme too long. and at right angles to the ruled lines. Be sure. stand shoulder to shoulder in the paragraph.

" 83. Robin Hood. The Mission of Birds. Ripton. The Schoolmaster in "The Deserted Village. Bach important word begins with a capital letter. THE HEADING. Black Diamonds. Ancient and Modern Warfare. 71. The Making of Beer. Umbrellas. 45. LETTER-WRITING. 1895. The Date consists of the month. A Visit to Neptune. Whiskers. Our Minister. Timepieces. Gypsies.. and the whole closes with a period. Pigeons. Commerce. A Descent in a Diving Bell. 84. 64. and write the following headings according to these models:-1. its name may take the place of the door-number and the name of the street. The Body of the Letter. 37. Theatre-going. 73. If you are at a Hotel or a School or any other well-known Institution. 13. Along the Docks. 5. 62. Street Cries. The Early Bird Catches the Worm. the name of the county. 77. 24. Monday Morning. The Conclusion. The Ship of the Desert. 52. 7. The View from my Window. Robinson Crusoe. Bulls and Bears. 26. My First Sea Voyage. 59. 10. Make Haste Slowly. each item is set off by the comma. give the door-number. ***** LESSON 166. +How Written+. 6. Apples and Nuts. Donkeys. Grandmothers. 42. The Boy of the Story Book. 49. Parasites. 48. A Rainy Saturday. 38. Vt. My Friend Jack. Homes without Hands. The Yankee. 79. The World Owes me A Living. . A Country Store. 75. Of What Use are Flowers? 86. the name of the city. If you write from a city. 4. 3. Over the Sea. and the year. Mosquitoes. 50.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Additional Subjects for Themes. Autumn's Colors. 22.. and the year are written in figures. 17. 11. Cities of the Dead. 31. 36. 72. 63. Letters need special treatment. 20. 27. 67. A Pleasant Evening. A Spider's Web. A Girl's Trials. A Boy's Trials. you may begin the Heading lower down. 65. Addison Co. July 10. 32. Politeness. the second line should begin farther to the right than the first. In writing a letter there are five things to consider--The Heading. 56. 61. 47. and the name of the state. Street Arabs. Our Sunday School. My Walk to School.--Begin the Heading about an inch and a half from the top of the page--on the first ruled line of commercial note. 70. If it occupies more than one line. +Direction+. 15. 58. as may also the number of your post-office box. and the third farther to the right than the second. 30. 39. the name of the street. When my Ship Comes In. and The Superscription. Well-begun is Half-done. Pluck. 23. Famous Streets. 2. 35. Jack Frost 43. 44. The Story of Ruth. 34. Examinations. I Can. 78. A Stitch in Time Saves Nine. Spring Sports 41. 57. Fighting Windmills. +Parts+. Queer People. John Chinaman. 14. Monkeys. Young America. and that of the state. 55. 82. 53. 29. 200 1. The Introduction. 46. 60. The Southern Negro. 8. A Plea for Puss. 69. 21. Irish Characters. 74. the rest. 85. If the letter occupies but a few lines of a single page.--Study what has teen said. 66. My Native Town. How Horatius Kept the Bridge. 16. The Tides. 19. If you write from a village or other country place. Up in a Balloon. 25. give your post-office address. 12. Winter Sports. Our Neighborhood. The door-number. 9. 54. in words.--The Heading consists of the name of the +Place+ at which the letter is written. 18. A Day in the Woods. A Day on a Trout Stream. Castles in Spain. 33. The Watched Pot Never Boils. 51. Jack and Gill. Maple Sugar. and the +Date+. the day of month. 81. 68. Cleanliness Akin to Godliness. 76. 80. School Friendships. 40. A Visit to Olympus. Legerdemain. Begin the first line of the Heading a little to the left of the middle of the page. Clouds. Bore. the day of the month. 28.

1887. on the marginal line or farther to the right or to the left than the second line of the Address when this occupies two lines. Never omit it from the letter except when the letter is written in the third person. the initial words of these lines should slope to the right.. My dear Madam. Washington. to the name of a Cabinet Officer. Every important word in the Salutation should begin with a capital letter. All the items of it should be set off by the comma. the Title.D. Prefix Dr. Prefix His Excellency to the name of the President.. after it. it should close with a period. March. C. or write Rev.. If the letter is of an official character or is written to an intimate friend. to the names of several gentlemen. D. +Direction+. Feb.D. +How Written+. Dr. if you do not know his Christian name. or a Mayor.D. Brooklyn. Salutations vary with the station of the one addressed. Saco. if he is a Doctor of Divinity.. and the whole should be followed by a comma. a State Senator. a Law Judge. Rev. friends as My dear Sir. to a man's name. T. LL... and the Address should begin on the marginal line. and near relatives and other dear friends as My dear Wife.--Write these introductions according to the models:-. D. ] and to that of a Governor or of an Ambassador. champlain co clinton n y jan 14 1800 3. philadelphia 670 1858 chestnut st 16 apr 5. Dr.. N. etc. and standing on the left side of the page. Y. but in ordinary business letters. Smith & Jones.. Messrs. June 6.D. Pa. Titles of respect and courtesy should appear in the Address. acquaintances as Dear Sir. 4. the Address may appropriately be placed at the bottom of the letter. Guard against an excessive use of titles-.the higher implies the lower. To the President. 3. let them stand in the order in which they were conferred--this is the order of a few common ones: A. General. a Member of Congress. Mrs. and Mesdames to those of several married or elderly ladies.1. Prefix Mr. My dear Sir. Strangers may be addressed as Sir.. There should be a narrow margin on the left side of the page. Hon. to the name of a physician (but never Mr. or the writer's degree of intimacy with him. etc. or it may stand in corresponding position after the Body of the Letter and the Conclusion. My dear Jones.--The Introduction consists of the +Address+--the Name. ann arbor 5 July 1820 michigan 2. Every important word in the Address should begin with a capital letter. Easton. Madam. to that of a married lady. May 3. 2. or by a comma and a dash. and. If two literary or professional titles are added to a name. Begin the Salutation on the marginal line or a little to the right of it when the Address occupies three lines. as it is an abbreviated sentence.--The Address may follow the Heading. or write M.. a little to the right of the marginal line when the Address occupies one line. Rev.D. Mr. to the name of a clergyman. Gentlemen. Dear Sir. Ph. and the Place of Business or Residence of the one addressed--and the +Salutation+. Mr. etc. [Footnote: The preferred form of addressing the President is. Prefix Rev. Dear Madam. . 771 Broadway. New York City. before the name and D. saint nicholas new york 1 hotel nov 1855 THE INTRODUCTION. or Rev. If the Address occupies more than one line. President. 1. Misses to the names of several young ladies. after it. Master to the name of a young lad. beginning on the next line. the Salutation is simply. 250 Broadway. it should be placed at the top and as directed above. My dear Boy. Prof. Miss to that of an unmarried lady. Me. Messrs. Executive Mansion. 201 +Parts+.M. 1888. Polytechnic Institute.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 2. 25. on the marginal line when the Address stands below. etc. 1890. Dearest Ellen.). p o box 2678 1860 oct 19 chicago 4. N. Sir.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 3. My dear Mother, When, etc. 4. Messrs. Vallette & Co., Middlebury, Vt. Dear Sirs,

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1. mr george platt burlington iowa sir 2. mass Cambridge prof James r lowell my dear friend 3. messrs ivison blakeman taylor & co gentlemen new york 4. rev brown dr the arlington Washington dear friend d c 5. col John smith dear colonel n y auburn ***** LESSON 167. LETTER-WRITING--CONTINUED. THE BODY OF THE LETTER. +The Beginning+.--Begin the Body of the Letter at the end of the Salutation, and on the same line if the Introduction is long--in which case the comma after the Salutation should be followed by a dash,--on the line below if the Introduction is short. +Style+.--Be perspicuous. Paragraph and punctuate as in other kinds of writing. Avoid blots, erasures, interlineations, cross lines, and all other offenses against epistolary propriety. The letter "bespeaks the man." Letters of friendship should be colloquial, chatty, and familiar. Whatever is interesting to you will be interesting to your friends, however trivial it may seem to a stranger. Business letters should be brief, and the sentences short, concise, and to the point. Repeat nothing, and omit nothing needful. Official letters and formal notes should be more stately and ceremonious. In formal notes the third person is generally used instead of the first and the second; there is no Introduction, no Conclusion, no Signature, only the name of the Place and the Date at the bottom, on the left side of the page, thus:-Mr. & Mrs. A. request the pleasure of Mr. B.'s company at a social gathering, on Tuesday evening, Nov. 15th, at eight o'clock. 32 Fifth Ave., Nov. 5. Mr. B. accepts [Footnote: Or regrets that a previous engagement (or illness, or an unfortunate event) prevents the acceptance of ----; or regrets that on account of ---- he is unable to accept ----.] with pleasure Mr. & Mrs. A.'s kind invitation for Tuesday evening, Nov. 15th. Wednesday morning, Nov. 9th. THE CONCLUSION. +Parts+.--The Conclusion consists of the +Complimentary Close+ and the +Signature+. The forms of the Complimentary Close are many, and are determined by the relations of the writer to the one addressed. In letters of friendship you may use, Your sincere, friend; Yours affectionately; Your loving son or daughter, etc. In business letters you may use, Yours; Yours truly; Truly yours; Yours respectfully; Very respectfully yours, etc. In official letters you should be more deferential. Use, I have the honor to be, Sir, your obedient servant; Very respectfully, your most obedient servant; etc., etc.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg The Signature consists of your Christian name and your surname. In addressing a stranger write your Christian name in full. A lady addressing a stranger should prefix to her signature her title, Mrs. or Miss (placing it within marks of parenthesis), unless in the letter she has indicated which of these titles her correspondent is to use in reply.

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+How Written+.--The Conclusion should begin near the middle of the first line below the Body of the Letter, and, if occupying two or more lines, should slope to the right like the Heading and the Address. Begin each line of it with a capital letter, and punctuate as in other writing, following the whole with a period. The Signature should be very plain. +Direction+.--Write two formal notes--one inviting a friend to a social party, and one declining the invitation. +Direction+.--Write the Conclusion of a letter of friendship, of a letter of business, and of an official letter, carefully observing all that has been said above. +Direction+.--Write a letter of two or three lines to your father or your mother, and another to your minister, talcing care to give properly the Heading in its two parts, the Introduction in its two parts, and the Conclusion in its two parts. Let the Address in the letter to your father or your mother stand at the bottom. ***** LESSON 168. LETTER-WRITING--CONTINUED. THE SUPERSCRIPTION. +Parts+.--The Superscription is what is written on the outside of the envelope. It is the same as the Address, consisting of the Name, the Title, and the full Directions of the one addressed. +How Written+.--The Superscription should begin just below the middle of the envelope and near the left edge--the envelope lying with its closed side toward you--and should occupy three or four lines. These lines should slope to the right as in the Heading and the Address, the spaces between the lines should be the same, and the last line should end near the lower right-hand corner. On the first line the Name and the Title should stand. If the one addressed is in a city, the door-number and name of the street should be on the second line, the name of the city on the third, and the name of the state on the fourth. If he is in the country, the name of the post-office should be on the second line, the name of the county on the third, the name of the state on the fourth. The number of the post office box may take the place of the door-number and the name of the street, or, to avoid crowding, the number of the box or the name of the county may stand at the lower left-hand corner. The titles following the name should be separated from it and from each other by the comma, and every line should end with a comma except the last, which should be followed by a period. [Footnote: Some omit punctuation after the parts of the Superscription. ] The lines should be straight, and every part of the Superscription should be legible. Place the stamp at the upper right-hand corner. +Direction+.--Write six Superscriptions to real or imaginary friends or acquaintances in different cities, carefully observing all that has been said above. +Direction+.--Write two snort letters--one to a friend at the Astor House, New York, and one to a stranger in the country. [Illustration: Envelope with stamp in upper-right corner. Addressed to

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Master H. Buckman, Andover, Mass.] [Cursive Text: Ithaca, N. Y, June 15, '96. My dear Friend,

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You tell me that you begin the study of English Literature next term. Let me assume the relation of an older brother, and tender you a word of counsel. Study literature, primarily, for the thoughts it contains. Attend to these thoughts until you understand them and see their connection one with another. Accept only such as seem to you just and true, and accept these at their proper value. Notice carefully the words each author uses, see how he arranges them, whether he puts his thought clearly, what imagery he employs, what allusions he makes, what acquaintance with men, with books, and with nature he shows, and in what spirit he writes. Your study of the author should put you in possession of his thought and his style, and should introduce you to the man himself. Pardon me these words of unsought advice, and believe me. Your true friend, John Schuyler. Master H. Buckman, Andover, Mass.] A SUMMARY OF THE RULES OF SYNTAX. We here append a Summary of the so-called Rules of Syntax, with references to the Lessons which treat of Construction. I. A noun or pronoun used as subject or as attribute complement of a predicate verb, or used independently, is in the nominative case. II. The attribute complement of a participle or an infinitive is in the same case (Nom. or Obj.) as the word to which it relates. III. A noun or pronoun used as possessive modifier is in the possessive case. IV. A noun or pronoun used as object complement, as objective complement, as the principal word in a prepositional phrase, or used adverbially [Footnote: See Lesson 35.] is in the objective case. V. A noun or pronoun used as explanatory modifier is in the same case as the word explained. +For Cautions, Principles, and Examples respecting the cases of nouns and pronouns, see Lessons 119, 122, 123, 123. For Cautions and Examples to guide in the use of the different pronouns, see Lessons 86, 87.+ VI. A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person, number, and gender. +For Cautions, Principles, and Examples, see Lessons 118,142.+ VII. A verb agrees with its subject in person and number.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +For Cautions, Examples, and Exceptions, see Lesson 142.+ VIII. A participle assumes the action or being, and is used like an adjective or a noun. +For Uses of the Participle, see Lessons 37, 38, 39.+

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IX. An infinitive is generally introduced by to, and with it forms a phrase used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. +For Uses of the Infinitive, see Lessons 40, 41, 42.+ X. Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. +For Cautions and Examples respecting the use of adjectives and of comparative and superlative forms, see Lessons 90, 91, 128.+ XI. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. +For Cautions and Examples, see Lesson 93.+ XII. A preposition introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified. +For Cautions, see Lessons 98, 99.+ XIII. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses. +For Cautions and Examples, see Lessons 100, 107.+ XIV. Interjections are used independently. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. +Remarks+.--The scheme of conjugation presented below is from English text-books. In some of these books the forms introduced by should are classed, not as Future, but as Secondary Past Tense forms of the Subjunctive. If we substitute this scheme of conjugation for the simpler one given in the preceding pages, we still fail to get a classification in which every form corresponds in use to its name. The following examples will illustrate:-He returns to-morrow. (Present = Future.) When I have performed this, I will come to you. (Present Perfect = Future Perfect.) If any member absents himself, he shall pay a fine. (Indicative = Subjunctive.) You shall go. (Indicative = Imperative.) After memorizing all the terms and forms belonging to the conjugation here outlined, the student will find that he has gained little to aid him in the use of language. For instance, in this synopsis of the Subjunctive are found nineteen forms. As there are three persons in the singular and three in the plural, we have one hundred and fourteen subjunctive forms! How confusing all this must be to the student, who, in his use of the

and how much to be a "notional. might. but these verbs. Can denotes power from within. must. or will must have to be an auxiliary. If he teach! Beyond these. some philologists regard them as originally transitive. will. Must denotes power from without coming from circumstances or the nature of things. transitive. 5. Active Voice. and that may. 11. Among these is our distinguished critic. But in parsing these words as separate verbs the student is left in doubt as to whether they are transitive or intransitive. and. I could do this at one time. shall. To say just how little of its common or original meaning may.--hence permission or possibility. He may be there. might. can. May you be happy. Should. These are some of the difficulties--not to say inconsistencies--met by the student who is taught that there is no Potential Mode. can. He would not come when called. 2. and can. You should not have done that. May denotes power from without coming from a removal of all hindrance. 9. We are told that can and must are always independent verbs in the indicative. in their original meaning. and could are past forms of shall. could in (6) above expresses power or ability to do. after passing through various shades of meaning. he would succeed. shall. and the latter a "notional. 8. Those English authors and their American copyists who eliminate the Potential Mode from their scheme of conjugation tell us that the so-called potential auxiliaries are either independent verbs in the indicative or are subjunctive auxiliaries. In some constructions the meaning is fainter or less emphatic than in others. as does could in (11). The forms italicized above are said to be subjunctive auxiliaries. so that it would be worse than useless to attempt to analyze these periphrastic tenses of our moods. The auxiliaries take different shades of meaning. or will love. could. have at last become little more than conventional symbols. not from the conjugation of the verb. It is hard to see why the former may is necessarily a mere auxiliary. can. yet we are told that the former could is a mere auxiliary. and should are either subjunctive auxiliaries or independent verbs parsed in the indicative. Wrightson. He might have done it if he had liked. those below are said to be independent verbs in the indicative. 6. 4. speaking of I may. May in (1) denotes a desired removal of all hindrance. verb would be extremely venturesome For instance. He might ask you to go. In a scholarly work revised by Skeat. would. . If he were. With the meager instruction given by any one or by all of these authors. 10. I would not tell you if I could. while the latter is an independent verb." or independent. Francis A. May. INDICATIVE MODE. March. separately from the infinitives with which they seem to combine. Prof. 7. says. Shall (to owe) and will (to determine) are. 3. I could not do this if I were to try. I learn that I may be able to teach. "These auxiliary verbs had at some time such a clear and definite meaning that it would have been tolerably easy to determine the case function discharged by the infinitive. needs to distinguish only such as these: If he be." A CONJUGATION OF TEACH. the subjunctive manner of assertion is discovered from the structure of the sentence or the relation of clauses. as the infinitive with which they combine names the act on which this power is exercised. and must denote power (hence potential). the student will find it exceedingly difficult to determine when these auxiliaries are true subjunctives. If he should try.--hence necessity or obligation. and as to the office of the infinitives that follow. may. To illustrate:-1." or independent. would.--hence ability. verb. may in (7) denotes a possible removal of hindrance.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 206 subjunctive.

.......... Passive Voice.. Past Indefinite...... Past Imperfect.... .. Present Indefinite...(If) he had been teaching. Past Perfect Continuous......Present Perfect................Having taught..................(If) he should teach...Teaching.........(If) he be taught.....He has taught....... Future Imperfect.. Perfect..... Present Imperfect.... Present Perfect...Teach [thou].............. Present Imperfect.......He was teaching.....He will be taught..He teaches.. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE....................(To) have been teaching.. Present Perfect... Past Perfect.. Past Perfect.... INDICATIVE MODE. Future Indefinite... Present Indefinite...........He is teaching....................... Past Imperfect...He is taught..He is being taught......(If) he have taught.....(If) he have been taught......(If) he teach.............He will be teaching....(To) teach......He was taught.... SUBJUNCTIVE MODE............ Present Imperfect. Imperfect........ Present Indefinite...........................He taught...He had taught............... Future Perfect. PARTICIPLES....... Future Imperfect......-----------------------.....Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 207 Present Indefinite... Present Imperfect...... Future Perfect.................(To) have taught...Future Perfect............. Perfect Continuous. IMPERATIVE MODE..............He will teach......Having been teaching. INFINITIVE MODE.................... Present Perfect Continuous.. Past Perfect Continuous. Future Imperfect......He was being taught. Past Indefinite.............. Past Imperfect.......... Present Perfect Continuous.......(If) he have been teaching..................He has been taught..He will have been taught.. Present Perfect..(If) he should be teaching......(If) he taught......He had been teaching. Present Perfect..(If) he were teaching............... Past Perfect...He will have taught.(If) he be teaching... Past Indefinite......... Present Indefinite..........(If) he had taught.. Present Perfect Continuous. Future Indefinite....................... Future Perfect Continuous........-----------------------................(To) be teaching.. Present Imperfect..............He has been teaching.............(If) he should have taught..(If) he should have been teaching....... Future Perfect Continuous.He had been taught.He will have been teaching..... Future Indefinite... Present.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Past Indefinite...............(If) he were taught. Past Imperfect................(If) he were being taught. Past Perfect..................(If) he had been taught. Future Indefinite.............(If) he should be taught. Future Imperfect..............------------------------ Future Perfect................(If) he should have been taught. IMPERATIVE MODE. Present.......................Be [thou] taught. INFINITIVE MODE. Present Indefinite............(To) be taught. Present Perfect...............(To) have been taught. PARTICIPLES.

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Imperfect.....................Being taught. Perfect.......................Taught. Compound Perfect..............Having been taught. INDEX. A, or an, uses of A and the uses of distinguished A (day) or two, or one or two (days) +Abbreviations+ common ones how made and written of names of states +Absolute Phrases+ definition of diagram of expansion of +Adjective+ an, definition of +Adjectives+ apt ones to be used +classes+ definitive (numeral) descriptive +comparison+ adjectives not compared adjectives irregularly compared form preferred in er and est with adverb descriptive, used as nouns errors in use of having number forms needless ones avoided not always limiting not used for adverbs numeral cardinal ordinal proper order of scheme for general review used as abstract nouns +Adjective Clauses+ connectives of definition of = adjectives = explanatory modifiers = independent clauses = infinitive phrases = participle phrases = possessives modifying omitted words position of restrictive and unrestrictive unrestrictive, punctuation +Adjective Complement+ distinguished from adverb modifier +Adjective Modifiers+ analysis of nouns as +Adverb+ an definition of +Adverbs+ apt ones to be used classes of comparison of errors in use of expressing negation irregular comparison of modifying clauses phrases prepositions sentences not used for adjectives not used needlessly position of scheme for general review sometimes like adjective attributes +used+ independently (note) interrogatively (note) with connective force (note) +Adverb Clause+, definition of +Adverb Clauses+ +classes+ cause, real concession condition degree (result) evidence manner place purpose time +contracted+ by omitting words to absolute phrases to participles and participle phrases to prepositional phrases = adjective clauses and phrases (note) = adverbs = independent clauses (note) position of punctuation of +Adverbial Modifiers+ analysis of nouns as parsing of +Adversative Connectives+, list +Adversative+, meaning of (note) A few, a little, vs. few and little +Agreement+ of parts of a metaphor of pronoun with its antecedent of verb with the subject +Allusion+ (note) +Alphabet+ definition of perfect one what the English imperfect how +Alternative+, meaning of (note) +Alternative Connectives+, list +Ambiguity+ of pronouns, how avoided +Analysis+ examples for, additional of a sentence of subjects of themes +Antecedent+, a clause, phrase, or word (note) +Antithesis+ (note) Any body (or one) else's (note) +Apostrophe+ the +Appositives+ +Argumentative Style+ +Arrangement+ +Articles+ +classes+ definite indefinite errors in use of repeated when uses of a, or an, and the As introductory conjunction relative pronoun (note) with clauses of degree, manner, and time with variety of clauses As ... as, construction of As it were, construction of +Aspirates+ +Assumed Subject+, what +Attribute Complement+ definition of diagram of +Auxiliary Verbs+ Be, conjugation of derivation of (note) Beside and besides distinguished (note) Best of the two Between with three or more (note) +Brackets+, use of But adversative conjunction a preposition various uses of with or without that with what incorrect for but that or but Can +Capital Letters+ in abbreviations in beginning

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sentences in class names in compound names in names of the Deity in proper names in titles rule for I and O summary of rules for +Case+ defined of attribute complement of explanatory modifier of noun or pronoun independent of noun or pronoun used adverbially of objective complement +Cases+ definitions of in Anglo-Saxon and in Latin +Case Forms+ errors in use of five pronouns have three nouns have two only eight nominative only seven objective +Cause+, adverbs of +Cause Clauses+, divisible +Classification+ necessity of not governed by logical relation +Clauses+ classes dependent independent complex and compound +dependent+ adjective adverb noun +independent+ (the thought) in alternation in contrast in same line inferred +Collective Nouns+ form of verb with of what number +Colon+ +Comma+, rules for +Comparison+ adjectives without it cautions to guide in definition of degree used with two degrees of, defined...257. 268 double, origin of double, to be shunned errors in use of forms of irregular when adverb used which form preferred +Complement+ is what the modified is what +Complements+ attribute (subjective) object objective +Complex Sentences+ definition treatment of +Compound Attribute Complement+ +Compound Object Complement+ +Compound Personal Pronouns+ +Compound Predicate+, defined +Compound Relative Pronouns+ +Compound Sentence+ changed to complex contracted defined treatment of +Compound Subject+, defined +Condition Clauses without conjunction+ +Conjugation+ definition of forms of more elaborate form +Conjunction a, definition of+ +Conjunctions+ +classes+ co-ordinate subordinate +co-ordinate+ adversative alternative +Conjunctions+ (cont.) +co-ordinate+ copulative co-ordinate connect sentences and paragraphs scheme for review +Conjunctive Adverbs+ are what offices of +Connectives+ apt ones to be chosen +co-ordinate+ adversative alternative copulative errors in use of in correlation introductory +subordinate+ of adjective clauses of adverb clauses of noun clauses +Consonants+, classes of +Contraction+ of +Sentences+ +Co-ordinate Conjunctions+ +Copulative+, meaning of +Copula+, what +Correlatives+, errors in use of D of the ed of verbs in past tense D of the ed of past participles Dare, without s form +Dash+ the +Declarative Sentence+, defined +Declension+ defined of interrogative pronouns of nouns of personal pronouns of relative pronouns +Degree+, adverbs of +Descriptive Style+ +Diminution+, degrees of +Diagram+ a, what may be omitted Do, idiomatic use of Each other construction of with two or more Ed of past tense and participle Either and neither, pronouns and conjunctions, with two or more Either may be used for each +Elocution+, object of +Energy+ defined exercises in secured how +English Grammar+, definition of +Epigrams+ are what +Evidence+ distinguished from +Cause+ +Exclamatory Sentences+ definition of order of words in +Expansion+ of absolute phrases of infinitive phrases of participles of sentences +Explanatory Modifier+ definition of punctuation of +Figures of Speech+ basis of definition illustrations of names of uses of First two, etc. +Force+ (see +Energy+) For to +Gender+ defined distinguished from sex of names of animals of what importance of pronouns, errors in used in personification +Gender Forms+ +Genders+, the three defined Had better, rather, sooner Hand in hand, construction of Have written, history of He or one after the indefinite one +Humor+, in style +Hyphen+, use of +Idea+ distinguished from object If for even if, although for whether omission of variety of uses +Imagery+, discussion of +Imperative Sentence+ definition of order of words in In and Into distinguished In case that, construction of +Independent Clauses+ definition of joined without conjunction punctuated +Independent Expressions+, punctuated +Indirect+, or +Dative+, Object +Inference+, expressed by an independent clause +Infinitive+ (the), and assumed subject after for definition of double nature of old dative of use of present perfect after past indicative why called infinitive +Infinitive Phrase+ after a preposition as adjective as adjective modifier as adverb modifier as attribute complement as explanatory modifier as object complement as objective complement as subject cleft or split does not with the noun form a clause expansion into clauses independent In order that, construction of +Interjections+ +Interrogation Point+, use of +Interrogative

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Pronouns+ declension definition list +Interrogative Sentences+ definition of order of words in +Intransitive Verbs+, definition +Introductory Words+ +Invitations+, form of +Irregular Verbs+ definition of inflections of list of persistence of It for a clause idiomatic use of use for animals and children vague It is me, him, etc. Just as, construction of +Language+ definition of made up of words natural word Last two, etc. Lay and lie Less, the final s of, and lesser Lest equaling that not various uses of with noun clause +Letters+, the alphabet +Letters+ body of conclusion of heading of illustration of introduction of parts of superscription of +Letter-Writing+ +Loose Sentence+ Many a, explanation of +Manner+, adverbs of +Masculine Gender+ distinguished +Masculine Pronoun+, use of May +Metaphor+ definition of exercises in use of Methinks +Metonymy+ definition of exercises in use of Mine, thine, of mine, etc +Mode+ is what +Modes+ +classes+, imperative indicative potential subjunctive definitions of imperative, no 2d and 3d persons indicative, uses of potential omitted subjunctive +Modifications+, definition +Modified Complement+ +Modifiers+, definition different rank explanatory, punctuation Must Myself, explanatory +N+, Saxon ne, the negative particle +Narrative Style+ +Natural Language+ Need, without s form +Negation+ by adverbs +Negatives+, double No and yes, sentence-words No body (or one) else's +Nominative Forms+, eight +Noun+ a, definition of +Nouns+ abstract as adjective modifiers as adverb modifiers cases of classes of collective common and proper declension gender of number, kinds of person of roots of scheme for general review +Noun Clauses+ as attribute complement as explanatory modifier as object complement as principal term of prepositional phrase as subject connectives of contraction of definition of position of punctuation of +Noun Modifier+ explanatory (appositive) explanatory of a sentence possessive +Number+ definition of kinds of of noun agreeing with adjective of nouns determined of verbs shows what 0 and oh distinguished +Object+ and +Object Complement+ distinguished +Object+, indirect +Object+, indirect, made subject +Object Complement+ becoming subject compound definition of retained after verb in passive +Objective Forms+, seven +Objective Complement+ an infinitive phrase a participle becoming an attribute complement definition of extended beyond its factitive sense Of in place of possessive sign not always indicating possession Of mine, etc On condition that One another syntax of with two or more Only, position of syntax of +Order+ (words and phrases) transposed usual Other, misuse of Ought +Paragraph+ (the) composition of definition of topics and subtopics of unity of +Paragraphing+, exercises in +Parallel Construction+ +Parenthesis+, marks of +Parenthetical Classes+, punctuation +Parsing+ definition of first step in models for written +Participles+ adjectival as adjective modifiers as attribute complements as mere adjectives as mere nouns as objective complements as prepositions as principal word in a phrase definition of expansion of forms of in independent phrases misuse of modified by a and the modified by a possessive nounal, called gerunds, infinitives, verbal nouns place of punctuation of used in slurring +Passive Voice+, idiomatic constructions +Period+, use of +Periodic Sentence+ +Person+ forms of a noun or pronoun of a verb why regarded in the grammar +Personification+, the figure +Persons+, the three defined +Perspicuity+ definition of exercises in +Phrases+ absolute adjective and adverb as prepositions complex and compound definition of infinitive interchange with clauses interchange with words participial position of prepositional punctuation of used independently verb +Place+, adverbs of +Plural Number+ +Plural+ ending, origin foreign forms of formed irregularly formed regularly form same as singular forms treated as singular no form for of compound words of letters, figures, etc. of proper names some originally singular some words always two forms with different meaning without singular of like meaning +Possessive Ending+ added to explanatory word ambiguity avoided by attached to the adjective confined to what error respecting errors in use of of for of compound names origin of when omitted when pronounced es +Predicate+ adjective defined a verb or contains one compound definition of modified noun defined of two or more words +Preposition+ a, defined +Prepositions+ becoming adverbs ending a sentence ending in ing errors in use of list of two before a noun where sometimes found with verb before a noun +Pronoun+ a, defined +Pronouns+ agreement Nom. and Obj. forms +classes+ adjective interrogative personal relative declension of denote relations errors in use of need of number scheme for review vagueness of +Pronouns (Adjective)+ a (day) or two all, both, and whole before of any body (or one) else's, etc. declension of definition of demonstrative distributive each other, with two or more either, neither, with two or more either for each first two, last three, etc., he, etc. after indefinite one indefinite none in both numbers ones, plural other and than, words between other two, when one of three is

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taken partial list of such or so with adjectives +Pronouns (Interrogative)+ declension definition list +Pronouns (Personal)+ avoided when compound consistent use of declension definition its, history of misuse of them for those my and mine, etc. order of ours, yours, etc., double possessives +Pronouns (Personal)+ (cont.) use of compound used needlessly we hardly plural of I we instead of I ye has given way to you +Pronouns (Relative)+ agreement of compound declension definition discriminated in use omitted when same with same antecedent that in restrictive clauses that instead of who and which what misused for that who and which restrictive and unrestrictive with omitted antecedents +Pun+, a +Punctuation Marks+ exercises in summary of rules for +Qualities of Style+ +Question+, direct and indirect +Quotation Marks+, use of +Quotations+ capitalization of definition of direct indirect punctuation of Quoth +Regular Verbs+ definition increasing inflections of +Relative Clauses+, position +Result+, clauses of +Review Questions+ +Review+ of +Sentence+, scheme for +Satire+ +Semicolon+, rules for +Sentence+ (the) balanced contracted defined expanded loose period +Sentences+ (classed) +form+ complex compound simple +meaning+ declarative exclamatory imperative interrogative Set and sit Shall and will Should and would +Simile+, definition and exercises in +Simple Sentences+ definition of treatment of Since, various uses of +Singular Number+ So ... as, construction of Some body (or one) else's +Sounds+ and +Letters+ +Speech+ figures of mechanism of +Spelling+, rules for +Style+ argumentative definition of descriptive illustrations narrative qualities of +Subject+ assumed, what assumed, changed to prevent ambiguity compound defined determined how +Subject+ (cont.), modified, or logical +Subjunctive Mode+ definition of disappearing uses of +Subordinate Conjunctions+ +Subordinate Connectives+ +Synecdoche+ +Synopsis+ is what +Syntax+, rules for +Tense+ defined future, how used future perfect, how used past, how used past perfect, how used present, how used present perfect, how used +Tenses+ defined emphatic form of errors in use of conjunctive adverb Than errors in use of followed by adjective replaced by but, etc. use after comparatives with me after it Than whom That and this, adjectives, plurals That and this (Adj. Pro.) declension reference That (Conj.) with cause clause with noun clause with purpose clause That, Conj. Adv., degree clause That (Rel. Pr.) distinguished from who and which for who and which generally restrictive preposition follows The, uses of The ... the construction of explanation of +Themes+ framework of how to write them subjects for The one, the other This +Thought+, how expressed Three times four is twelve To with infinitive construction of expressing relation extension of no part of not expressed position of without relation +Transitive Verbs+ definition of conjugated passively +Unity+ of paragraphs Unless (= if not) +Usage+ +Variety+ how secured illustrations of want of +Verb+ a, defined +Verb+ Be an auxiliary conjugation of derivation of +Verb-Phrases+ +Verbs+ (classes) +form+ irregular regular +meaning+ intransitive transitive +Verbs+ a modern passive progressive form analysis of compound tense forms as nouns auxiliary changing their voice conjugated in progressive form conjugated interrogatively conjugated negatively conjugation of +Verbs+ (cont.) defective forms not asserting improper forms used indicative and potential with subjunctive meaning inflections of +intransitive+ definition of made transitive +irregular+ definition of list of persistence of principal parts of mode, defined model for written parsing number forms number of defined passive form compound periphrastic forms resolved, person forms person of potential auxiliaries principal parts redundant +regular+ definition of increasing scheme for gen. review Strong (or Old), Weak (or New) subjunctive form fading tense the e and the d of past tense, the e and the d of past participle +transitive+, definition of conjugated passively voice +Verbs+ (agreement of) attracted errors in with and in what with collective noun with subjects connected by and with subjects connected by or or nor with subjects emphatically distinguished with subjects naming same thing with subjects one affirmative and one negative with subjects following with subjects preceded by each, every, etc. with subjects varying in person +Vocal Consonants+ +Voice+, the voices defined +Voices+ changed +Vowels+ What equal to that or whom in origin misuse for that various uses of without antecedent

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