Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg


Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg
The Project Gutenberg EBook of Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Copyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloading or redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook. This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do not change or edit the header without written permission. Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can also find out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved. **Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts** **eBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971** *****These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers!***** Title: Higher Lessons in English Author: Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg


Release Date: December, 2004 [EBook #7188] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first posted on March 25, 2003] Edition: 10 Language: English Character set encoding: ASCII *** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH *** Produced by Karl Hagen and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team. ** Transcriber's Notes ** Underscores mark italics; words enclosed in +pluses+ represent boldface; Vowels followed by a colon represent a long vowel (printed with a macron in the original text). To represent the sentence diagrams in ASCII, the following conventions are used: - The heavy horizontal line (for the main clause) is formed with equals signs (==). - Other solid vertical lines are formed with minus signs (--). - Diagonal lines are formed with backslashes (\). - Words printed on a diagonal line are preceded by a backslash, with no horizontal line under them. - Dotted horizontal lines are formed with periods (..) - Dotted vertical lines are formed with straight apostrophes (') - Dotted diagonal lines are formed with slanted apostrophes (`) - Words printed over a horizontally broken line are shown like this: ----, helping '--------- Words printed bending around a diagonal-horizontal line are broken like this: \wai \ ting --------- ** End Transcriber's Notes ** HIGHER LESSONS IN ENGLISH. A WORK ON ENGLISH GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION, IN WHICH THE SCIENCE OF THE LANGUAGE IS MADE TRIBUTARY TO THE ART OF EXPRESSION. A COURSE OF PRACTICAL LESSONS CAREFULLY GRADED, AND ADAPTED TO EVERY-DAY USE IN THE SCHOOL-ROOM. BY ALONZO REED, A.M., FORMERLY INSTRUCTOR IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN, AND BRAINERD KELLOGG, LL.D., PROFESSOR OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE IN THE POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, BROOKLYN.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Revised Edition, 1896. PREFACE. The plan of "Higher Lessons" will perhaps be better understood if we first speak of two classes of text-books with which this work is brought into competition.


+Method of One Class of Text-books+.--In one class are those that aim chiefly to present a course of technical grammar in the order of Orthography, Etymology, Syntax, and Prosody. These books give large space to grammatical Etymology, and demand much memorizing of definitions, rules, declensions, and conjugations, and much formal word parsing,--work of which a considerable portion is merely the invention of grammarians, and has little value in determining the pupil's use of language or in developing his reasoning faculties. This is a revival of the long-endured, unfruitful, old-time method. +Method of Another Class of Text-books.+--In another class are those that present a miscellaneous collection of lessons in Composition, Spelling, Pronunciation, Sentence-analysis, Technical Grammar, and General Information, without unity or continuity. The pupil who completes these books will have gained something by practice and will have picked up some scraps of knowledge; but his information will be vague and disconnected, and he will have missed that mental training which it is the aim of a good text-book to afford. A text-book is of value just so far as it presents a clear, logical development of its subject. It must present its science or its art as a natural growth, otherwise there is no apology for its being. +The Study of the Sentence for the Proper Use of Words.+--It is the plan of this book to trace with easy steps the natural development of the sentence, to consider the leading facts first and then to descend to the details. To begin with the parts of speech is to begin with details and to disregard the higher unities, without which the details are scarcely intelligible. The part of speech to which a word belongs is determined only by its function in the sentence, and inflections simply mark the offices and relations of words. Unless the pupil has been systematically trained to discover the functions and relations of words as elements of an organic whole, his knowledge of the parts of speech is of little value. It is not because he cannot conjugate the verb or decline the pronoun that he falls into such errors as "How many sounds have each of the vowels?" "Five years' interest are due." "She is older than me." He probably would not say "each have," "interest are," "me am." One thoroughly familiar with the structure of the sentence will find little trouble in using correctly the few inflectional forms in English. +The Study of the Sentence for the Laws of Discourse.+--Through the study of the sentence we not only arrive at an intelligent knowledge of the parts of speech and a correct use of grammatical forms, but we discover the laws of discourse in general. In the sentence the student should find the law of unity, of continuity, of proportion, of order. All good writing consists of good sentences properly joined. Since the sentence is the foundation or unit of discourse, it is all-important that the pupil should know the sentence. He should be able to put the principal and the subordinate parts in their proper relation; he should know the exact function of every element, its relation to other elements and its relation to the whole. He should know the sentence as the skillful engineer knows his engine, that, when there is a disorganization of parts, he may at once find the difficulty and the remedy for it. +The Study of the Sentence for the Sake of Translation.+--The laws of thought being the same for all nations, the logical analysis of the sentence is the same for all languages. When a student who has acquired a knowledge of the English sentence comes to the translation of a foreign language, he finds his work greatly simplified. If in a sentence of his own language he sees only a mass of unorganized words, how much greater must be his confusion when this mass of words is in a foreign tongue! A study of the parts of speech is a far less important preparation for translation, since the declensions and conjugations in English do not conform to those of other languages. Teachers of the classics and of modern languages are beginning to appreciate these facts.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg


+The Study of the Sentence for Discipline+.--As a means of discipline nothing can compare with a training in the logical analysis of the sentence. To study thought through its outward form, the sentence, and to discover the fitness of the different parts of the expression to the parts of the thought, is to learn to think. It has been noticed that pupils thoroughly trained in the analysis and the construction of sentences come to their other studies with a decided advantage in mental power. These results can be obtained only by systematic and persistent work. Experienced teachers understand that a few weak lessons on the sentence at the beginning of a course and a few at the end can afford little discipline and little knowledge that will endure, nor can a knowledge of the sentence be gained by memorizing complicated rules and labored forms of analysis. To compel a pupil to wade through a page or two of such bewildering terms as "complex adverbial element of the second class" and "compound prepositional adjective phrase," in order to comprehend a few simple functions, is grossly unjust; it is a substitution of form for content, of words for ideas. +Subdivisions and Modifications after the Sentence.+--Teachers familiar with text-books that group all grammatical instruction around the eight parts of speech, making eight independent units, will not, in the following lessons, find everything in its accustomed place. But, when it is remembered that the thread of connection unifying this work is the sentence, it will be seen that the lessons fall into their natural order of sequence. When, through the development of the sentence, all the offices of the different parts of speech are mastered, the most natural thing is to continue the work of classification and subdivide the parts of speech. The inflection of words, being distinct from their classification, makes a separate division of the work. If the chief end of grammar were to enable one to parse, we should not here depart from long-established precedent. +Sentences in Groups--Paragraphs+.--In tracing the growth of the sentence from the simplest to the most complex form, each element, as it is introduced, is illustrated by a large number of detached sentences, chosen with the utmost care as to thought and expression. These compel the pupil to confine his attention to one thing till he gets it well in hand. Paragraphs from literature are then selected to be used at intervals, with questions and suggestions to enforce principles already presented, and to prepare the way informally for the regular lessons that follow. The lessons on these selections are, however, made to take a much wider scope. They lead the pupil to discover how and why sentences are grouped into paragraphs, and how paragraphs are related to each other; they also lead him on to discover whatever is most worthy of imitation in the style of the several models presented. +The Use of the Diagram+.--In written analysis, the simple map, or diagram, found in the following lessons, will enable the pupil to present directly and vividly to the eye the exact function of every clause in the sentence, of every phrase in the clause, and of every word in the phrase--to picture the complete analysis of the sentence, with principal and subordinate parts in their proper relations. It is only by the aid of such a map, or picture, that the pupil can, at a single view, see the sentence as an organic whole made up of many parts performing various functions and standing in various relations. Without such map he must labor under the disadvantage of seeing all these things by piecemeal or in succession. But if for any reason the teacher prefers not to use these diagrams, they may be omitted without causing the slightest break in the work. The plan of this book is in no way dependent on the use of the diagrams. +The Objections to the Diagram+.--The fact that the pictorial diagram groups the parts of a sentence according to their offices and relations, and not in the order of speech, has been spoken of as a fault. It is, on the contrary, a merit, for it teaches the pupil to look through the literary order and discover the logical order. He thus learns what the literary order really is, and sees that this may be varied indefinitely, so long as the logical relations are kept clear. The assertion that correct diagrams can be made mechanically is not borne out by the facts. It is easier to avoid precision in oral analysis than in written. The diagram drives the pupil to a most searching examination of the sentence, brings him face to face with every difficulty, and compels a decision on every point.

A TALK ON LANGUAGE. Prof. and Hawthorne. Austin Phelps. etc. We have gone to the original source of all valid authority in our language-. Analysis for the sake of subsequent Synthesis. like other good things. Hamerton. and have led him on from the composition of single sentences of all kinds to the composition of these great groups of sentences. it should be dropped. We have minutely noted and recorded what these men by habitual use declare to be good English. the structure and the function of paragraphs. we take pleasure in acknowledging our great indebtedness to our critic. That we might ascertain what present linguistic usage is. Of the teachers who have given us invaluable assistance in this Revision. We have considered hundreds of suggestive letters written us by intelligent teachers using the book. we chose fifty authors. . and have carefully read three hundred pages of each. When the ordinary constructions have been made clear. Francis A. now alive or living till recently. J. Cardinal Newman. We confess to some surprise that so little of what was thought good in matter and method years ago has been seriously affected by criticism since. and more thoroughly. have tried to work into the pupil's style the felicities of expression found in the lesson sentences. diagrams should be used only for the more difficult sentences. or. Thackeray. have quoted the verdicts of usage on many locutions condemned by purists. Henry M. have explained more fully what some teachers have thought obscure. Edward Everett. George P. In both oral and written analysis there is danger of repeating what needs no repetition. the distinguished Prof. we wish specially to name Prof. and in this edition of the work. of Lafayette College. During the years in which "Higher Lessons" has been in existence. only for the more difficult parts of them. John Morley.--Analysis by diagram often becomes so interesting and so helpful that. it is to the authority of such men that we appeal. Easy Gradation. Prof. Whitney. as in the preceding. Among the fifty are such men as Ruskin.. D. The additions made to "Higher Lessons"--additions that bring the work up to the latest requirements--are generally in foot-notes to pages. De Quincey. and Lecky in England. if the sentences are long. Matthew Arnold. and sometimes are incorporated into the body of the Lessons. have taught the pupil earlier in the work. James Martineau. March. etc. of the Polytechnic Institute. Emerson. The books of former editions and those of this revised edition can. And we have done more. When the diagram has served its purpose.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 5 +The Abuse of the Diagram+. and have advanced to some new positions. Marsh. it is liable to be overdone. have given the history of constructions where this would deepen interest or aid in composition. There is danger of requiring too much written analysis. and Lowell in America. When in the pages following we anywhere quote usage. Prescott. But the distinctive features of "Higher Lessons" that have made the work so useful and so popular stand as they have stood--the Study of Words from their Offices in the Sentence. Froude. ***** LESSON 1. Bagehot. Holmes. We have examined the best works on grammar that have been published recently here and in England. Worrell. which in number and numbering remain as they were. W. be used in the same class without any inconvenience. therefore. In this revised work we have given additional reasons for the opinions we hold. R. AUTHORS' NOTE TO REVISED EDITION. Irving. Macaulay. Curtis. Motley. Upon these four sources of help we have drawn in the Revision of "Higher Lessons" that we now offer to the public.the best writers and speakers of it. we have ourselves had an instructive experience with it in the classroom. the Subdivisions and Modifications of the Parts of Speech after the treatment of these in the Sentence. have qualified what we think was put too positively in former editions. Green.

of delight. and relations of the words of the English language. People of all lands and of all degrees of culture use it. The child's cry tells of its wants. its scream. +DEFINITION. your thoughts. leans forward in expectation. and always should be used. so natural to him in childhood and in animated conversation. your playmates and companions.+ ***** . the mouth. Natural language. the whole face. and so Word language is your mother-tongue. In earnest conversation we enforce what we say in words. of pain. the language of the eyes. The look or the gesture may even dart ahead of the word. Suppose.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Let us talk to-day about a language that we never learn from a grammar or from a book of any kind--a language that we come by naturally. a look. or it may contradict it. It is a universal language. precedes this Word language. as you know. you find it wholly impossible to do this by means of Natural language. 6 +DEFINITION. The teacher of elocution is ever trying to recall the pupil to the tones. could you express this by a tone. or that the days are shorter in winter than in summer. to assist and strengthen Word language. call +Language Proper+. by the varying expression of the face. and use without thinking of it. you have formed an idea of a day. for words. Early in life we begin to acquire knowledge and learn to think. uses. But feelings and desires are not the only things we wish to communicate.--Language Proper consists of the spoken and the written words used to communicate ideas and thoughts+. To communicate. may be written as well as spoken. and then we feel the need of a better language. or a gesture? If you wish to tell me the fact that yesterday was cloudy. or even the mental pictures we have called ideas. by the tone in which we utter them. and tones. You learn them. even the brute animals in some measure understand it. and consequently needs no interpreter. and by the movements of the different parts of the body.--English Grammar is the science which teaches the forms. laughter. and you learn them by reading. from its superiority. and calls or drives away his dog simply by the tone in which he speaks. and the action. the language of gestures and postures. for instance. The boy raises his eyebrows in surprise and his nose in disgust. but gives way as Word language comes in and takes its place. and thus convict the speaker of ignorance or deception. the nose. The happy union of the two kinds of language is the charm of all good reading and speaking. This language is made up of words. These words you learn from your mothers. as was said. the facial expression. draws back in fear. then. of grief. you need a language more nearly perfect. makes a fist in anger. This Word language we may. also. yet Natural language may be used. its sob. its laugh. This Natural language is the language of cries. from your friends and teachers.

or. We have spoken of thoughts and sentences. We have already told you that in expressing our ideas and thoughts we use two kinds of words. A TALK ON SOUNDS AND LETTERS. Spiders spin. we compressed our thought into a single word. or asserted. meaning. It is something that can be seen or heard. the second. and for similar reasons. are the something of which we think. The sentence. Feathers are soft. book. though it contains the asserting word shines. and that which is said of it. In the sentence expressing this thought. Let us see whether. then. and what a sentence is. the word spiders names that of which we think. because it may not be the expression of a thought.e. A sentence is a group of words expressing a thought. A TALK ON THOUGHTS AND SENTENCES. in studying a sentence. we may not learn what a thought is. and something is said of something else. through lack of words. Not every group of words is necessarily a sentence. Now. Here it is said. that they spin.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 2. The shining sun are not sentences. These first words always deal with the things that can be learned by the senses. composed of two parts. they express the child's ideas of these things. meaning. and that which we think of it. while a thought cannot be. and their spinning is what we think of them. And there are two: viz. there must be in the thought two parts to be expressed. for. consists of two parts. . something is said. and the word spin tells what we think of spiders. about something. i. the animals. ***** LESSON 3. This thing in my hand is a book.. spoken words and written words. The sun shines are sentences. the arrangement is such that no assertion is made. of the animals. if the sentence. and the words arranged to express a thought we call a sentence. In any such sentence as this. In the thought expressed by Spiders spin. up. it is a body of which a thought is the soul. something of which we think. There is nothing in this expression to show that we have formed a judgment. the +Predicate+. To express a thought we use more than a single word. Soft feathers.. spiders. The shines sun is not a sentence. expresses the thought. Take me up into your lap. The spinning is not asserted of the spiders. Here the asserting word is supplied. or asserted. that we have really made up our minds that spiders do spin. Spiders spinning is not a sentence. and no thought is expressed. let us see now whether we can find out what a thought is. spiders.--the name of that of which something is said. 7 But there was a time when. The first of these parts we call the +Subject+ of the sentence. The child says to his father.

the other kind of consonant sounds is formed. as in expel. provoking imitation. u for four. Spoken words are made up of sounds. The shorter the string. and the organs of the throat and mouth were at hand. the farther will the string vibrate.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg We learned the spoken words first. If the breath is driven out without voice. and Xenophon. full. as in pine and pin. and is held back by these same parts of the mouth. gz. tub. The air. as in city and can. 8 In talking. the air driven out from your lungs beats against two flat muscles. or letters. the faster will it vibrate. stretched. and the louder will be the sound. Just so with these vocal bands or cords. W is a vowel when it unites with a preceding vowel to represent a vowel sound. or lips. one kind of the sounds called consonant sounds is made. Our alphabet is imperfect in at least these three ways:-1. th in thin. put one end between your teeth. Combinations of letters sometimes represent single sounds. tongue. fall. The different combinations of these give us all the words of our spoken tongue. The alphabet of a language is a complete list of its letters. and only one. exist. and that +consonants+ are the +letters+ that stand for the sounds made by the +obstructed voice+ and the +obstructed breath+. 2. Sounds and noises were heard on every side. o for three. far. not. did they need to write. and move. This vibration makes sound. hold the other with thumb and finger. You are now prepared to understand us when we say that +vowels+ are the +letters+ that stand for the +open sounds+ of the +voice+. as in mete and met. and causes them to vibrate up and down. If the voice thus produced comes out through the mouth held well open. q has the sound of k. or had thought out something worth handing down to aftertimes. like bands. ng in sing. and y is a vowel when it has . or the tighter it is drawn. and x that of ks. a for six. teeth. There are over forty sounds in the English language. Twenty-three letters represent over forty sounds. or z. Every vowel does more than single duty. e stands for two sounds. and fur. the lungs. and sh in shut. Not until people wished to communicate with those at a distance. c stands for the sound of s or of k. a class of sounds is formed which we call vowel sounds. fat. The varying force with which the breath strikes them and their different tensions and lengths at different times. But if the voice is held back or obstructed by the palate. as in quit. Take a thread. and the need of speech for the purposes of communication was imperative. we will tell you something about the human voice. That you may clearly understand these sounds. as in tube. which represent to the eye these sounds that address the ear. th in thine. The written word is made up of characters. i for two. 3. explain the different degrees of loudness and the varying pitch of the voice. across the top of the windpipe. The first cry was a suggestion. and you will understand how voice is made. Some of the letters are superfluous. as in fate. A perfect alphabet would have one letter for each sound. as. Mankind spoke long before they wrote. fast. as in note. The more violent the blow. and fare. But speaking was easy. and the higher will be the pitch of the sound. draw it tight and strike it. Some letters stand each for many sounds.

Give the sound of any letter in column 1.. Why is this a sentence? Ans.ch l-----------------. we wish to emphasize one point brought before you.. TO THE TEACHER..... W and y are consonants at the beginning of a word or syllable. [Footnote: The word spiders.th (in thine) (in thin) v.--In reviewing these three Lessons. ANALYSIS AND THE DIAGRAM.... and the last or vanishing part of it is the sound of the other letter of the pair. The letters are mostly in pairs.p d. ew.......] 1.. put particular emphasis on Lesson 2. The various sounds of the several vowels and even of the same vowel are caused by the different shapes which the mouth assumes.. lips. teeth..--Spiders.s z (in azure).. 8..--Spiders spin. +DEFINITION.. as b. Which word tells what is thought? Ans. Powder explodes.. Carbon burns.. which we call an idea..y-----------------. +DEFINITION. 9......--Because it expresses a thought. represent those made by the obstructed breath.--Spin. +Direction+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg the sound of i. the spoken and the written.. In each of these sentences there are.. Learn to distinguish clearly these four things. the two sounds that unite in each of the compounds... as you have learned..--A Sentence is the expression of a thought in words+.... Worms crawl.. and there are the two words naming this idea....m-----------------...... 2.. some of the following Lessons may be passed over rapidly.. Iron melts.. Of what is something thought? Ans.--Write these letters on the board..r-----------------...... Vocal Consonants. Now note that the tongue..z (in zone).....+ . b. spin... TO THE TEACHER... 3.. Drill them on the vowels also.. Hares leap..th. also. Steam expands. v. names our idea of the real thing.f w-----------------. 2. boy.. as in now. TO THE TEACHER.. we carry in memory a picture of the pencil. is in Italics... except h (which represents a mere forcible breathing)..... Here is a pencil.k -------------------h j. a real thing..--The Subject of a sentence names that of which something is thought. 9 1. and drill the pupils on the sounds till they can see and make these distinctions.. and palate are placed in the same relative position to make the sounds of both letters in any pair. 4. standing in Roman. used merely as a word.... oi. ***** LESSON 4... 6.. Aspirates.. newly.. by.... and only whisper in those of column 2.. Leaves tremble...... The difference in the sounds of the letters of any pair is simply this: there is voice in the sounds of the letters in column 1.t g. In closing this talk with you..... 5. as above...n-----------------. These changes in its cavity produce. 7...sh The consonants in column 1 represent the sounds made by the obstructed voice. two parts--the +Subject+ and the +Predicate+.....--If the pupils have been through "Graded Lessons" or its equivalent.. ou. those in column 2. Liquids flow. Tides ebb... and in the alphabetic i and o.--Analyze the following sentences:-+Model+. This use of Italics the teacher and the pupil will please note here and elsewhere.. g.

you will understand that this word is the subject of a sentence.--The Predicate of a sentence tells what is thought.--Draw a heavy line and divide it into two parts. ***** LESSON 5. 15. +Explanation+. you will understand that this word is the predicate of a sentence. the predicate. and conquers the predicate. [Footnote: When pupils are familiar with the definitions. Blood circulates. Flies buzz. ----. Hens sit. or commands. by looking at this figure. build is the predicate because it tells what is thought. 5. 10.glisten. 3. ----refines.--Construct sentences by supplying a subject to each of the following predicates:-Ask yourselves the questions. 6. Muscles tire. ----.surrendered. Love | conquers ========|============ | You see. 3. the second. ----. made up of straight lines. Beavers is the subject because it names that of which something is thought. Squirrels climb. 5. ----.conquered. If you write a word over the first part. Here and elsewhere avoid mechanical repetition. What tarnishes? Who sailed.capsize. 11. conquered. 14. Noise disturbs. 5. 12. 7. that Love conquers is a sentence.corrode. denies.--Analyze these sentences:-1. ----. Hope strengthens. etc.+ +Direction+.absorb. 2. 13. ----. 2. +DEFINITION. 4. 2. If you write a word over the second part. 3. ----. 8. Cows low. Corn ripens. 8.sentence.? 1. 6.--A Diagram is a picture of the offices and the relations of the different parts of a sentence.+ +Direction+. Let the first part represent the subject of a sentence. Study pays. that love is the subject.+ +Direction+. This is a sentence because it expresses a thought. 11. Cocks crow. let the form of analysis be varied.careen.--The Analysis of a sentence is the separation of it into its parts. 10. 4. Sheep bleat.tarnishes. ----. we call Diagrams. 6. 8. Apes chatter.--Beavers build. The reasons may be made more specific. Frogs croak. 9. Hearts throb. 7. Sap ascends. ----. 4. COMPOSITION--SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. Heralds proclaim. ----descends. +PERIOD--RULE.murmur.sailed. ----. 12.gurgle. 9.+ +DEFINITION. +CAPITAL LETTER--RULE. ----.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +DEFINITION. ----. 7.--The first word of every sentence must begin with a capital letter+. Books aid.--Analyze these sentences:-- 10 +Model+. ----.radiates.--A period must be placed after every sentence that simply affirms. Birds twitter. Buds swell. Branches wave. . Such figures.] 1. 9.

***** LESSON 6. Tempests have been raging. 12. 17. 1. 9. TO THE TEACHER. Conclusions are drawn. by putting who or what before this predicate. Seeds -----. 15. Music -----. When this can be done promptly. Theories will prolonged. Industry will enrich. 14. 6. 5. ***** LESSON 7. and several predicates to each subject. Essex might have been saved. Yankees -----. Light can be reflected. 19. 5. Palaces shall crumble. 13. Vapors -----. Meteors -----. 10. Caesar could have been crowned. and then. 3. Labor -----.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. 20. Philosophers -----. Look first for the word that asserts.--Let this exercise be continued till the pupils can readily point out the subject and the predicate in ordinary simple sentences. Caesar -----. 7. Wax -----. Inventors may be encouraged. 14. Raleigh have been prevail.--Make at least ten good sentences out of the words in the three columns following:-The helping words in column 2 must be prefixed to words in column 3 in order to make complete predicates. Pitch -----. +Direction+. 12. 13. Stars have disappeared. Chalk -----. Nuisances should be abated. Pendulums -----. Truth were falling. +Direction+. 10. Nature -----.--This exercise may profitably be extended by supplying several subjects to each predicate. the subject may easily be found. Conscience -----. 21. Allen was tested. Rain must have fallen. Life -----. 17. 2. Electricity has been harnessed. 22. Darkness -----. COMPOSITION--SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 19. 16. Bubbles -----. 16. 8. Moscow has been measured. The predicate sometimes contains more than one word. . Congress -----.--Construct sentences by supplying a predicate to each of the following subjects:-Ask yourselves the question. 18. the first and most important step in analysis will have been taken. 15. 11. Glycerine does what? 11 1. Jerusalem was destroyed. Life are command. Analyze your sentences. Leaves are turning. Shadows may be burned. 1 2 3 Arts is progressing. 20. Moisture is exhaled. 4. 4. Constantinople had been captured. 23. +Direction+. 6. 7.--Analyze as in Lesson 4. Science would released. Sirius has appeared. 8. Tyrants -----. Reptiles -----. Twilight is falling. Storms may be gathering. Merchants -----. 2. Tempests -----. Heat -----. TO THE TEACHER. Planets have been discovered. 11. 3. Glycerine -----. ANALYSIS. 18.--Point out the subject and the predicate of each sentence in Lessons 12 and 17. 24. 9.

the elm. them. it would be difficult for one stranger to ask another. TO THE TEACHER. NOUNS. and both would be puzzled to find a substitute for who. him. Sorting them thus. Studying each class.--Introduce the class to the Parts of Speech before the close of this recitation. Without the little words which we shall italicize. though not in form. The myriad objects of nature fall into comparatively few classes. But may we not deal with words as we do with plants? If we had to study and name each leaf and stem and flower. we should never master the botany even of our garden-plants. See "Introductory Hints" below.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Quantity should have been lost. etc. it. and nomen. taken singly. But God has made things to resemble one another and to differ from one another. We group them according to their similarities in use. which we call Parts of Speech. But we are appalled by their number. pro. we shall die ignorant of English grammar. what. PRONOUNS. she. . and other words are used in place of nouns. Just so we classify trees and get the oak. These we place in one class and call them +Nouns+ (Latin nomen. you. Review Questions. called +Pronouns+ (Lat.--We have now reached the point where we must classify the words of our language. as he has given us the power to detect resemblances and differences. "Can you tell me who is the postmaster at B?" The one would not know what name to use instead of you. we get another class called lilies. me. therefore. and. or office. a name. violets. we. my. I. We find that many words name things--are the names of things of which we can think and speak. we are able to group things that have like qualities. +Introductory Hints+. a noun). who. If we must learn all about the forms and the uses of a hundred thousand words by studying these words one by one. from others still. he. CLASSES OF WORDS. in the sentence. From certain likenesses in form and in structure. we classify words. ***** LESSON 8. a noun). From their likenesses. from other likenesses. for. we learn all we need to know of every object in it. and are. the other would not recognize the name in the place of me. we find that they all fall into eight classes. we put certain flowers together and call them roses. the maple. 12 What is language proper? What is English grammar? What is a sentence? What are its two parts? What is the subject of a sentence? The predicate of a sentence? The analysis of a sentence? What is a diagram? What rule has been given for the use of capital letters? For the period? May the predicate contain more than one word? Illustrate.

+--Write the names of the days of the week and the months of the year.+ +PERIOD and CAPITAL LETTER--RULE. girl. CAPITAL LETTERS. or assert. Coal | Leaves | Matches | Clothes | 13 +Remark. britain. names and words derived from them begin with capital letters. europe. and write the names of the seasons without capital letters. state. city. jehovah. country.Nouns. scriptures. milton. and in another column those words that are derived from individual names:-Observe Rule 1. america.+--From the following words select and write in one column those names that distinguish individual things from others of the same class. according to the model.--A Pronoun is a word used for a noun. miltonic. or revolve. american. Lesson 8. river.+ +DEFINITION. bible. when a class name and a distinguishing word combine to make one individual name. easter.+ ***** LESSON 9. We could hardly speak or write without them now. +Direction+. hudson. book. platonic. But not every noun in a sentence is a subject. beginning each with a capital letter. Wood | Paper | Oil | Houses + burn or burns. love. Note how it would sound if both should add s. the predicate does not take s. when the subject adds s or es to denote more than one. or individual. in the sentences given in Lesson 18. god. +Every subject+ of a sentence is a +noun+. something in the sentence.+ The principal office of nouns is to name the things of which we say. In writing them observe the following rules:-+CAPITAL LETTER--RULE. the names of things that can burn.+-. mary. deity.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg By means of these handy little words we can represent any or every object in existence. william. +Direction. +Direction. +Model. ohio. christian. +Direction. whether subjects or not. chicago. plato.--Proper. man.+--Notice that. england. melt.+--Select and write all the nouns and pronouns. france. englishman.--Abbreviations generally begin with capital letters and are always followed by the period. british. roar. they so frequently shorten the expression and prevent confusion and repetition. broadway. each . or some word or words used as a noun. grow.---Write.--A Noun is the name of anything. messiah. +DEFINITION. bostonian. boston. +Remember+ that.

Brown. etc. when the distinguishing word can by itself be regarded as a complete name. city. & Co. as. The principle we suggest may be in advance of common usage. New York city. About a century ago every noun began with a capital letter. +Remember+ that. Suspension Bridge. as.. president adams.--Write these words. Pacific Ocean. The American Cyclopedia takes a position still further in advance. +Remember+ that. and county. Pacific ocean. cape cod.. Henry Clay. Kings county. river Thames. Harper's Ferry. the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. +Examples+. New York city. John Stuart Mill.] 14 But. Usage certainly favors small initials for the following italicized words: river Rhine. in Hudson river. Mediterranean Sea. empire of china. such words as street. Catskill village. which distinguishes one sea from all others. gulf of Mexico. sea of galilee. Atlantic ocean.) we find Connecticut river. etc. and it tends to uniformity of practice and to an improved appearance of the page. as. Grand Street. without adding the explanatory class name. In the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Little. be treated differently? We often say the Hudson. Mount Vernon.. using capital letters when needed:-city of atlanta. isle of man. the word of. Lake Erie. and a distinguishing word. state of Vermont. General Jackson. the class name begins with a small letter. are not essential parts of the individual names. North Pole. white sea. White Mountains. New York State. Good Friday. city of New York. using capital letters when needed:-ohio river. united states. Gulf of Mexico. steamer Drew. +Direction+. professor huxley. 9th ed. when the distinguishing word can by itself be regarded as a complete name. ocean. in the preceding examples. Red River. [Footnote: The need of some definite instruction to save the young writer from hesitation and confusion in the use of capitals is evident from the following variety of forms now in use: City of New York. [Footnote: Dead Sea is composed of the class name sea. Cape May. each word begins with a capital letter. the class name and the distinguishing word should each begin with a capital letter. delaware bay. rhode island. but it is in the line of progress. colonel burr.--Long Island. In the superscription of letters. as. Bunker Hill. straits of dover. Astor House. quite uniformly. If river and village. queen of england. city of London. but we find Gulf of Mexico. when a compound name is made up of two or more distinguishing words. etc. Madison county. green mountains. doctor brown. but we find in the most carefully printed books and periodicals a tendency to favor small letters in such cases.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg word begins with a capital letter. Rocky mountains. and the word Dead. atlantic ocean. Black sea. and county begin with capitals. secretary stanton. when an individual name is made up of a class name. as.--Write these words. New York state. New York City. lake george. Fourth Avenue. Grand st. Fourth avenue. Grand street. Jersey City. the class name should begin with a small letter. westchester county. Queens county. as illustrated in the following: Bed river. river Rhine. . Atlantic Ocean. clinton county. which applies to all seas.] +Direction+. The usage of newspapers and of text-books on geography would probably favor the writing of the class names in the examples above with initial capitals. Mediterranean sea. why should river. bay of naples. Kings County. Queens. But. isthmus of darien. the Pacific.

governor. Michigan. +Direction+. goldsmith's she stoops to conquer. napoleon bonaparte. son of man. massachusetts bay. flatbush village. indian ocean. Minnesota. long island sound. dombey and son. new england. north. bancroft's history of the united states. essays. and west. ABBREVIATIONS. secretary. Saturday. plymouth rock. and the names of the months except May. Paradise Lost. Mississippi. and idem (the same). the most high. etc. clarendon's history of the great rebellion. tent on the beach. colonel. webster's reply to hayne. and Tuesday. esquire. mount washington. county. president. anderson's history of the united states. reverend. Nevada. These by writing the first four letters:-Connecticut. major. british america. continent of america. June. using capital letters when needed:-great britain. new testament. north america. the Holy One of Israel.--Write these miscellaneous names. Illinois.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. Observing Rule 2. cape of good hope. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Kansas. and for convenience may he abbreviated in writing. George. +Direction+. honorable.--Some words occur frequently. ***** LESSON 10.--Write these words. and the names of the Deity. as. These by writing the first three letters:-Alabama. oliver wendell holmes. city of boston. only the chief words begin with capital letters. new orleans. Nebraska. Lesson 8. professor. Massachusetts. they should begin . 15 +Remember+ that. poems. California. Colorado. Delaware. Texas. credit. Indiana. in writing the titles of books. abbreviate these words by writing the first five letters:-Thursday and lieutenant. milton's hymn on the nativity. Wednesday. Oregon. England. james russell lowell. Supreme Being. Friday. english channel. [Footnote: When these words refer to sections of the country. old world.--Write these words. plays. Wisconsin. using capital letters when needed:-erie canal. answer. +Direction+. Tennessee. Sunday.. pope's essay on criticism. general. Monday. pilgrim's progress. Arkansas. new york central railroad. cape cod bay. south. using capital letters when needed:-declaration of independence. example. johnson's lives of the poets. lower california. south carolina. governor tilden. These by writing the first letter:-East. These by writing the first two letters:-Company. daniel webster. the holy spirit. captain. and July.

. we have had to use another class of words. debtor. member (of) Congress.. Mme. Official Postal Guide. Rhode Island. handkerchief. when hurriedly written. it simply asserts existence.. do. madame. frequently abbreviated thus: Iowa. hdkf. lines. yard.--We told you in Lesson 8 how. Pennsylvania. line.. These by writing the first letter of each word of the compound with a period after each letter:-- 16 Artium baccalaureus (bachelor of arts). oz.. has led to much confusion. We began to classify words according to their use. South Carolina. superintendent.. Louisiana... you notice. divinitatis doctor (doctor of divinity).+--The following abbreviations and those you have made should be committed to memory:-Acct.. however. Ia. Thos.] These by writing the first and the last letter:-Doctor.. D. before Christ. lb. vs. with no period between the letters. Missouri.. 0. tick is not the name of anything. or exist.. hogshead. The similarity. Maryland..Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg with capitals. versus (against).. Fla... Georgia.. LL.. +Remark.. Mrs. Charles. artium magister (master of arts). Mister.. (pronounced missis) mistress. quart. philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy).. These words. Maine. in the sentence.[Footnote: The doubling of the l to ll and in LL. foot. id est (that is).. by noticing the essential likenesses in things and grouping the things thus alike..] Messrs.. ante meridiem (before noon). or acct. ditto (the same) doz. ounce. post meridiem (afternoon). libra (pound). legum doctor (doctor of laws).. lean. When we say Clocks are.. pages. we found one class of words that name things. District (of) Columbia. They are.. Penn. i. Recd. Kentucky. Neb. and United States.. or There are clocks. ***** LESSON 11. When we say Clocks tick. postmaster. page.. bushel. VERBS.D. Thomas. New Jersey. Robt. tell what the things do.. it tells what clocks do: it asserts action. anything. +Direction. post-office. bu. S. or Io. barrel. North Carolina. qt. saint. et caetera (and others). collect on delivery." In the "Guide" Iowa and Ohio are not abbreviated. Mo.. dozen. Florida. Bbl. Vermont.+--In this Lesson we have given the abbreviations of the states as now regulated by the "U. viz. junior. New Hampshire. or being. or bbl..... member (of) Parliament. Ohio. we could throw the countless objects around us into comparatively few classes. anno Domini (in the year of our Lord). or assert that they are. and we called them nouns. Robert.. and of p in pp. Col. and Virginia. ft. or office. Ia. Mts. account. comes from pluralizing the nouns line. Ph.. Io. messieurs (gentlemen).. nor does it tell what clocks do. mountains. medicinae doctor (doctor of medicine). . Tenn. D. yd. received. are is not the name of.. p. and page.. Chas. feet. But in all the sentences given you.. l.. of the abbreviations Cal.g. street.. e.. videlicet (namely). North America. Supt. Master. New York. exempli gratia (for example) etc. ll. etc. pp. numero (number).. +Introductory Hints+.. Nev.e. hhd.

| rages. being. horses. | scorches. Speeches were weighed. Sugar are refined.--Poland was dismembered. and it.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 17 When we say Clocks hang. it. +Naming the class+ to which a word belongs is the +first step in parsing. For definition of phrase. Fires | glow. last. . Fire | keep. as. Give some that assert being. | heat. or exist. | burns. last. were. that express action.+--Notice that is. birds. +Direction. they have been transferred. was. ***** LESSON 12. as. 1 2 3 Words am confused. burn. or remain. books. or state of being. +Parsing+. however. mills. or state of being. was. nor do they tell that clocks act or simply exist. she.+--Notice that the simple form of the verb. could have been learned. stand. and that are. without asserting it. education. may be learned. and have. mind. +Remark. | exists.. and with the pronouns we. is learning. +Model+. three. +every predicate+ must be a verb. she. I. (or) + spreads. The name was given to this class because it was thought that they were the most important words in the sentence.+--Write after each of the following nouns as many appropriate verbs as you can think of:-Let some express being and some express state of being. you.+ +Direction+. or state of being+. we call +Verbs+ (+Lat+.--Parse five of the sentences you have written. see Lesson 17. There are. or state.] +Direction. Lawyers. do not name anything. and with the pronouns he. or must contain a verb. in which clocks are. As verbs are the only words that assert. melt. Cotton is exported. and append the verbs thus formed to the nouns and pronouns in column 1 so as to make good sentences:-+Remark. A verb may consist of two. Teas was delivered. was dismembered is a verb because it asserts action. these words hang.--Noun. they tell the condition. you has been imported. | melt.--Poland is a noun because ----. +DEFINITION+. [Footnote: Such groups of words are sometimes called verb-phrases. and they. adds s or es when its subject noun names but one thing. the participle and the infinitive (see Lessons 37 and 40). stand. verbum. or even four words. they assert state of being. I may be used with am. He. we. +Model. a word). being. that is. All words that assert action.--+A Verb is a word that asserts action. and some that assert state of being. and has are used with nouns naming one thing. being-. Give several verbs that assert action. two forms of the verb. scorch. and have are used with nouns naming more than one thing. Air coined. lie. etc.+--Unite the words in columns 2 and 3 below.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg MODIFIED SUBJECT. +DEFINITION.--A Modifier is a word or a group of words joined to some part of the sentence to qualify or limit the meaning+. Here wooden modifies house. then. The lighter lines. +modify+ it. +DEFINITION. ripe apples or unripe apples applies to fewer things than apples alone applies to. this. many. [Footnote: TO THE TEACHER. the modifiers. no apple. some. or an. or Logical Subject. to throw). or that points out a particular apple. marking opposite qualities in the apples. Things are alike whose qualities are the same.--An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun+. That old wooden house was burned. or some. thus:-- . and odor. This may be illustrated in the diagram by numbering the modifiers in the order of their rank. no. Analysis and Parsing. ad. that we know things and group them. The +Subject+ with its +Modifiers+ is called the +Modified Subject+. and show what is modified. and are called +Modifiers+. separate the apples into two kinds--the ripe ones and the unripe ones. rain | is falling =========================|============== \The \cold \November | +Explanation. and jacere. though they are the underlying timbers that support the rest of the verbal bridge. apples is the +Simple Subject+ and ripe apples is the +Modified Subject+. ADJECTIVES. In the sentence above. we do not mark any quality of the fruit. eight apples. to. Words that modify nouns and pronouns are called +Adjectives+ (Lat. In these two sentences we have the same word apples to name the same general class of things.--When several adjectives are joined to one noun. 1. placed under and joined to the subject line. Other words may be built upon them.--The subject noun and the predicate verb are not always or often the whole of the structure that we call the sentence. The cold November rain is falling. Things are unlike. then.+--The two lines shaded alike and placed uppermost stand for the subject and the predicate. taste. many. It is by their qualities. Ripe apples are healthful. stand for the less important parts. and show that these are of the same rank. limit the word apples in its scope. or by specifying number or quantity limit the scope or add to the meaning of the noun. +Introductory Hints+. and are the principal parts of the sentence. that apple. as an orange and an apple. and limits the word apple to the one pointed out. Unripe apples are hurtful. and that modifies house limited by old and wooden. If we say the. but the prefixed words ripe and unripe. These and all such words as by marking quality. They resemble and they differ in what we call their qualities. or eight limits the word in respect to the number of apples that it denotes. whose qualities are different. but the. These prefixed words ripe and unripe. each adjective does not always modify the unlimited noun. by pointing out. this. two oranges having the same color. as. and an. old modifies house limited by wooden. 18 We learned in Lesson 8 that things resemble one another and differ from one another.

I alone should suffer. A wooden rickety large building. and November are adjectives modifying rain--cold and November expressing quality. . mellow apples were picked. The oppressed Russian serfs have been freed. 9. The great Spanish Armada was destroyed. and how soon the pupil may dispense with their aid altogether. 3. and may be supplied. or no form. All nature rejoices. in the first sentence and cannot be supplied. Immense suspension bridges have been built. Every intelligent American citizen should vote. place them where they will sound best--generally in the order of length.+--Two honest young men were chosen. 15. hence these adjectives are not of the same rank. 4. the shortest first. +Oral Analysis. Five large. and November are modifiers of the subject. Tall. +Explanation. See Lessons 13 and 21. 12. See Lesson 21.+--When two or more adjectives are used with a noun. When diagrams are used. The melancholy autumn days have come. TO THE TEACHER. +Caution. we wish to say that the work required in this book can all be done without resorting to these figures.) The. hence these adjectives are of the same rank. If some other form. The long Hoosac Tunnel is completed. dignified person entered. COMPOSITION--ADJECTIVES. from experience. as they often determine the punctuation and the arrangement. we should require of the pupils full forms of oral analysis for at least some of the sentences in every Lesson. If of the same rank. care must be taken in their arrangement.+--Arrange the adjectives below. Notice the comma after tall and straight. A tall. A poor old wounded soldier returned. A Newfoundland pet handsome large dog. 6. The famous Alexandrian library was burned. straight.+--(Here and hereafter we shall omit from the oral analysis and parsing whatever has been provided for in previous Lessons. ripe. honest tells the kind of young men. The odious Stamp Act was repealed. +Parsing. If they differ in rank. straight. and two tells the number of honest young men.+--The. 5. only the teacher can determine how many shall be required in any one Lesson. luscious.] 19 +TO THE TEACHER.--While in these "models" we wish to avoid repetition. 13. 2. and both phrase and clause modifiers often differ in rank in the same way. Young tells the kind of men. and give your reasons:-1. A free people should be educated. place nearest the noun the one most closely modifying it. cold. and dignified modify person independently--the person is tall and straight and dignified. 2. it will be well to have them made in the analysis.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg | ==================|======= \3 \2 \1 | Adverbs. and the pointing out. 7. 14. The cold November rain is the modified subject. of written analysis is preferred. ***** LESSON 13. 8. +Direction.+--While we. our diagrams can be omitted without break or confusion. 11. cold. Level low five the fields. If the pupils are able to see these distinctions. The old Liberty Bell was rung. are clear in the belief that diagrams are very helpful in the analysis of sentences. 10. 3.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg


4. Blind white beautiful three mice. 5. An energetic restless brave people. 6. An enlightened civilized nation. +Direction.+--Form sentences by prefixing modified subjects to these predicates:-1. ------ have been invented. 2. ------ were destroyed. 3. ------ are cultivated. 4. ------ may be abused. 5. -----was mutilated. 6. ------ were carved. 7. ------ have been discovered. 8. ------ have fallen. 9. ------ will be respected. 10. ------ have been built. +Direction.+--Construct ten sentences, each of which shall contain a subject modified by three adjectives--one from each of these columns:-Let the adjectives be appropriate. For punctuation, see Lesson 21. The dark sunny That bright wearisome This dingy commercial Those short blue These soft adventurous Five brave fleecy Some tiny parallel Several important cheerless Many long golden A warm turbid +Direction+.--Prefix to each of these nouns several appropriate adjectives:-River, frost, grain, ships, air, men. +Direction+.--Couple those adjectives and nouns below that most appropriately go together:-Modest, lovely, flaunting, meek, patient, faithful, saucy, spirited, violet, dahlia, sheep, pansy, ox, dog, horse, rose, gentle, duck, sly, waddling, cooing, chattering, homely, chirping, puss, robin, dove, sparrow, blackbird, cow, hen, cackling. ***** LESSON 14. MODIFIED PREDICATE. ADVERBS. +Introductory Hints+.--You have learned that the subject may be modified; let us see whether the predicate may be. If we say, The leaves fall, we express a fact in a general way. But, if we wish to speak of the time of their falling, we can add a word and say, The leaves fall early; of the place of their falling, The leaves fall here; of the manner, The leaves fall quietly; of the cause, Why do the leaves fall? We may join a word to one of these modifiers and say, The leaves fall very quietly. Here very modifies quietly by telling the degree. Very quietly is a group of words modifying the predicate. The predicate with its modifiers is called the +Modified Predicate+. Such words as very, here, and quietly form another part of speech, and are called +Adverbs+ (Lat. ad, to, and verbum, a word, or verb). Adverbs may modify adjectives; as, Very ripe apples are healthful. Adverbs modify verbs just as adjectives modify nouns--by limiting them. The horse has a proud step = The horse steps proudly. The +Predicate+ with its +Modifiers+ is called the +Modified +Predicate, or Logical Predicate.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +DEFINITION.--An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.+ [Footnote: See Lesson 92 and foot-note.] Analysis and Parsing. 1. The leaves fall very quietly. leaves | fall ========|====== \The | \quietly \very


+Oral Analysis+.--Very quietly is a modifier of the predicate; quietly is the principal word of the group; very modifies quietly; the leaves is the modified subject; fall very quietly is the modified predicate. +Parsing+.--Quietly is an adverb modifying fall, telling the manner; very is an adverb modifying quietly, telling the degree. 2. The old, historic Charter Oak was blown down. 3. The stern, rigid Puritans often worshiped there. 4. Bright-eyed daisies peep up everywhere. 5. The precious morning hours should not be wasted. 6. The timely suggestion was very kindly received. 7. We turned rather abruptly. 8. A highly enjoyable entertainment was provided. 9. The entertainment was highly enjoyed. 10. Why will people exaggerate so! 11. A somewhat dangerous pass had been reached quite unexpectedly. 12. We now travel still more rapidly. 13. Therefore he spoke excitedly. 14. You will undoubtedly be very cordially welcomed. 15. A furious equinoctial gale has just swept by. 16. The Hell Gate reef was slowly drilled away. ***** LESSON 15. COMPOSITION--ADVERBS. +Caution+.--So place adverbs that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. Have regard to the sound also. +Direction+.--Place the, italicized words below in different positions, and note the effect on the sound and the sense:-1. I immediately ran out. 2. Only one was left there. 3. She looked down proudly. 4. Unfortunately, this assistance came too late. +Direction+.--Construct on each of these subjects three sentences having modified subjects and modified predicates:--For punctuation, see Lesson 21. +Model+. ---- clouds ----. 1. Dark, heavy, threatening clouds are slowly gathering above. 2. Those, brilliant, crimson clouds will very soon dissolve. 3. Thin, fleecy clouds are scudding over. l. ---- ocean ----. 2. ---- breeze ----. 3. ---- shadows ----. 4. ---- rock ----. 5. ---- leaves ----. +Direction+.--Compose sentences in which these adverbs shall modify verbs:-Heretofore, hereafter, annually, tenderly, inaudibly, legibly, evasively, everywhere, aloof, forth.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg


+Direction+.--Compose sentences in which five of these adverbs shall modify adjectives, and five shall modify adverbs:-Far, unusually, quite, altogether, slightly, somewhat, much, almost, too, rather. ***** LESSON 16. REVIEW. TO THE TEACHER.--In all school work, but especially here, where the philosophy of the sentence and the principles of construction are developed in progressive steps, success depends largely on the character of the reviews. Let reviews be, so far as possible, topical. Require frequent outlines of the work passed over, especially of what is taught in the "Introductory Hints." The language, except that of Rules and Definitions, should be the pupil's own, and the illustrative sentences should be original. +Direction+.--Review from Lesson 8 to Lesson 15, inclusive. Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (tell, for example, what three things such words as tick, are, and remain do in the sentence, what office they have in common, what such words are called, and why; what common office such words as ripe, the, and eight have, in what three ways they perform it, what such words are called, and why, etc.). Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules; illustrate what is taught of the capitalization and the abbreviation of names, and of the position of adjectives and adverbs. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. (SEE PAGES 150-153.) TO THE TEACHER.--After the pupil has learned a few principles of analysis and construction through the aid of short detached sentences that exclude everything unfamiliar, he may be led to recognize these same principles in longer related sentences grouped into paragraphs. The study of paragraphs selected for this purpose may well be extended as an informal preparation for what is afterwards formally presented in the regular lessons of the text-book. These "Exercises" are offered only as suggestions. The teacher must, of course, determine where and how often this composition should be introduced. We invite special attention to the study of the paragraph. ***** LESSON 17. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES AND PREPOSITIONS. +Introductory Hints+.--To express our thoughts with greater exactness we may need to expand a word modifier into several words; as, A long ride brought us there = A ride of one hundred miles brought us to Chicago. These groups of words, of one hundred miles and to Chicago--the one substituted for the adjective long, the other for the adverb there--we call +Phrases+. A phrase that does the work of an adjective is called

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg an +Adjective Phrase+. A phrase that does the work of an adverb is called an +Adverb Phrase+.


As adverbs modify adjectives and adverbs, they may modify their equivalent phrases; as, The train stops only at the station. They sometimes modify only the introductory word of the phrase--this introductory word being adverbial in its nature; as, He sailed nearly around the globe. That we may learn the office of such words as of, to, and at, used to introduce these phrases, let us see how the relation of one idea to another may be expressed. Wealthy men. These two words express two ideas as related. We have learned to know this relation by the form and position of the words. Change these, and the relation is lost--men wealth. But by using of before wealth the relation is restored---men of wealth. The word of, then, shows the relation between the ideas expressed by the words men and wealth. All such relation words are called +Prepositions+ (Lat. prae, before, and positus, placed--their usual position being before the noun with which they form a phrase). A phrase introduced by a preposition is called a +Prepositional Phrase+. This, however, is not the only kind of phrase. +DEFINITION.--A Phrase is a group of words denoting related ideas, and having a distinct office, but not expressing a thought+. +DEFINITION.--A Preposition is a word that introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified.+ Analysis and Parsing. 1. The pitch of the musical note depends upon the rapidity of vibration. TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions in Lesson 12, concerning the use of diagrams. pitch depends ==========|================= \The \of \upon \ \ \ note \ rapidity \-------- \------------ \the \musical \the \of \ \vibration \--------+Explanation+.--The diagram of the phrase is made up of a slanting line standing for the introductory word, and a horizontal line representing the principal word. Under the latter are drawn the lines which represent the modifiers of the principal word. +Oral Analysis+.---The and the adjective phrase of the musical note are modifiers of the subject; the adverb phrase upon the rapidity of vibration is a modifier of the predicate. Of introduces the first phrase, and note is the principal word; the and musical are modifiers of note; upon introduces the second phrase, and rapidity is the principal word; the and the adjective phrase of vibration are modifiers of rapidity; of introduces this phrase, and vibration is the principal word. TO THE TEACHER.--See suggestions in Lesson 12, concerning oral analysis. +Parsing+.--Of is a preposition showing the relation, in sense, of note to pitch; etc., etc. TO THE TEACHER.--Insist that, in parsing, the pupils shall give specific reasons instead of general definitions. 2. The Gulf Stream can be traced along the shores of the United States by the blueness of the water. 3. The North Pole has been approached in three principal directions. 4. In 1607, Hudson penetrated within six

] and made emphatic. ***** LESSON 18. and use the comma when needed:-1. 3. +Direction+.--Phrases that are placed out of their usual order [Footnote: For the usual order of words and phrases. by one comma. should be set off by the comma. \in \ \ ____\below \atmosphere \just \ \_________ \Falls \ \____ \only \ \the +Explanation+.000 miles. Unless it is desired to make the phrase emphatic.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 24 hundred miles of the North Pole. or is not. New York on the contrary abounds in men of wealth. 4.--Punctuate such of these sentences as need punctuation:-1.--So place phrase modifiers that there can be no doubt as to what yon intend them to modify. Genius can breathe freely only in the atmosphere of freedom. with a chosen band. +Direction. 5. 10. The breezy morning died into silent noon. 12. 6. see Lesson 51. Have regard to the sound also. [Footnote: "1607" may be treated as a noun.----Only modifies the whole phrase. 3. 11. He went. and just modifies the preposition. In the Pickwick Papers the conversation of Sam Weller is spiced with wit. many travelers speak with enthusiasm. 9. COMPOSITION-PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. Helena to France. For the sake of emphasis a word or a phrase may be placed out of its natural order. The first standing army was formed in the middle of the fifteenth century. In the dead of night.+ [Footnote: An expression in the body of a sentence is set off by two commas. +COMMA-RULE. the growing usage among writers is not to set it off. 4. 13. 6.--See in how many places the phrases in the sentences above may stand without obscuring the thought. 8. under the cover of a truce. 2. The Suspension Bridge is stretched across the Niagara river just below the Falls. Coal of all kinds has originated from the decay of plants. +Direction+.+--This rule must be applied with caution. That small man is speaking .] 5. England in the eleventh century was conquered by the Normans. or that are loosely connected with the rest of the sentence. Amid the angry yells of the spectators he died. and "six hundred" as one adjective. at the beginning or at the end. The first astronomical observatory in Europe was erected at Seville by the Saracens.] +Remark. +Direction+. Of the scenery along the Rhine. The honorable member was reproved for being intoxicated by the president.--Correct these errors in position. It has come down by uninterrupted tradition from the earliest times to the present day. +Caution+. Between the two mountains lies a fertile valley. used in these sentences:-1. 2. 5. He went from New York to Philadelphia on Monday. 7. The body of the great Napoleon was carried back from St. or to break the continuity of the thought. In Mother Goose the cow jumps clear over the moon. he approached. Louis. The tails of some comets stretch to the distance of 100. 2. 14. at the urgent request of the stranger.+--Tell why the comma is. The Delta of the Mississippi was once at St.000. for the doctor.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 25 with red whiskers. Gough a lecture at the old brick church was delivered. A message was read from the President in the Senate. lengthy 13. hence 7. 5.--Rewrite these sentences. With his gun toward the woods he started in the morning. 5. here 11. between the tropics. using these phrases as modifiers:-Of copper. An aerial trip to Europe was rashly planned. from the West Indies. 2. toward the Pacific. ***** LESSON 20. national 9.--Form a sentence out of each of these groups of words:-(Look sharply to the arrangement and the punctuation. 3. Of mind of splendor under the garb often is concealed poverty. COMPOUND SUBJECT AND COMPOUND PREDICATE. Much has been said about the Swiss scenery. Of affectation of the young fop in the face impertinent an was seen smile. ***** LESSON 19. 4. use these phrases in sentences of your own:-1. northerly 8. 3. He went over the mountains on a certain day in early boyhood. lucidly 15. 4.--Compose sentences. At the distance a flood of flame from the line from thirty iron mouths of twelve hundred yards of the enemy poured forth. The sentence was written with care. why 3. 2. 3.--See into how many good. before the application of steam to machinery.--The sentence was carefully written. The American Continent was probably discovered by Cabot. +Direction+. Arabian 12. Ticonderoga was taken from the British by Ethan Allen on the tenth of May in 1775. changing the italicized words into equivalent phrases:-+Model+. 4. historical 14. COMPOSITION--PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. Bostonian 2. Those homeless children were kindly treated. at the Centennial Exposition of 1876. 1. on the 22d of February. earthward +Direction+. in Pennsylvania. Has been scattered Bible English the of millions by hundreds of the earth over the face. and then. On Monday evening on temperance by Mr. around the world. during the reign of Elizabeth. +Direction+.) 1. there 6. To the end with no small difficulty of the journey at last through deep roads we after much fatigue came.--Change these adjectives and adverbs into equivalent phrases. clear sentences you can convert these by transposing the phrases:-1. whence 10. 5. incautiously 4. nowhere 5. A brazen image was then set up. +Direction+. attending carefully to the punctuation. 2. CONJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS. +Direction+. .

as.wives ========\ '\ ' \ | wait sisters 'x \=====|=========== ========' \ \anxious \for 'and/ \ ' / \news mothers ' / ----. The line standing for the word modifier is joined to that part of the subject line which represents the entire . and Elizabeth are connected by and. and Elizabeth reigned in England. Mary. The words connecting the parts of a compound subject or of a compound predicate are called +Conjunctions+ (Lat. to throw) are the eighth and last part of speech. would be sentences. Oh! ah! pooh! pshaw! etc. inter. Edward. The leaves of the pine fall in spring. and was beheaded. to join). and mothers wait for the news. Mary. behold! shame! what! Professor Sweet calls interjections sentence-words. Connected predicates having the same subject form a +Compound Predicate. They are connected by dotted lines. A conjunction may connect other parts of the sentence. The x shows that a conjunction is understood. Any part of speech may be wrenched from its construction with other words. Two or more connected predicates having the same subject form a +Compound Predicate+. It may connect two clauses.+--Edward. Ah! anxious wives. was tried. or clauses.+ +DEFINITION.. Connected subjects having the same predicate form a +Compound Subject+. between. expressions that. It may connect two phrases. +Interjections+ (Lat. or cum. as. sisters.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 26 +Introductory Hints. and jungere. as two word modifiers--A dark and rainy night follows. as.+ Analysis and Parsing.--The three short horizontal lines represent each a part of the compound subject. Mary and Elizabeth lived and reigned in England. Charles I.========'/ \the +Explanation+.The three words Edward. and jacere. and being understood between Edward and Mary. but the leaves of the maple drop in autumn. and was beheaded have the same subject--the three acts being asserted of the same king. The equinox occurs in March and in September.+ A sentence may have both a compound subject and a compound predicate. phrases. Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously. Hail! fudge! indeed! amen! etc. as. 1. +DEFINITION.. Ah ---. together. Two or more connected subjects having the same predicate form a +Compound Subject+. The three predicates was seized. was seized. and Elizabeth have the same predicate--the same act being asserted of the king and the two queens. express bursts of feeling too sudden and violent for deliberate sentences. that is.--An Interjection is a word used to express strong or sudden feeling. which stand for the connecting word. standing alone. Mary. and may lapse into an interjection. was tried. express condensed thought as well as feeling. con.--A Conjunction is a word used to connect words.

\ \moral \from \mental \ land \--------4... powers came ================= ========= \The \ X \ and \ \ and \of \. Turn this diagram about.. ahis an interjection. and muscular powers are improved by use. The optic nerve passes from the brain to the back of the eyeball. 7.. The mental..\ parentage \ \ \muscular \ \----------. COMPOSITION---CONNECTED TERMS AND INTERJECTIONS. When one of two terms has a modifier that without the comma might be referred to both.. 14. and discuss.. and the connected horizontal lines will stand for the parts of a compound predicate.+--Pick out the simple. In a letter we may advise.) 3. +Oral Analysis+. +Remark. (For diagram see the last sentence of the "Explanation" above.\ \. +COMMA--RULE. exhort. Some men sin deliberately and presumptuously. is seen.+ +Remark+. 6. and connects sisters and mothers. and the compound phrases in the sentences above. comfort. when the parts of compound predicates and of other phrases are long or differently modified. Tush! tush! 't will not again appear.--And is a conjunction connecting sisters and mothers. Ugh! I look forward with dread to to-morrow.--When words and phrases stand in pairs. 12.. From the Mount of Olives.--Words or phrases connected by conjunctions are separated from each other by the comma unless all the conjunctions are expressed. The opinions of the New York press are quoted in every port and in every capital. 11. expressing a sudden burst of feeling. Feudalism did not and could not exist before the tenth century. and there spreads out. the Dead Sea. 5. A sort of gunpowder was used at an early period in China and in other parts of Asia. The hero of the Book of Job came from a strange land and of a strange parentage..+--A phrase that contains another phrase as a modifier is called a +Complex Phrase+. 13. anxious is a modifier of the compound subject. 10. 2. moral. +Direction.--The conjunction both is used to strengthen the real connective and. dark and misty and solemn... friend -------------------\ ' \ ' \ | applauded 'and. or. sisters.... Either and neither do the same for or and nor in either--or. neither--nor. Both >===|=========== ' / foe ' / --------'----------/ +Explanation+. 8. but the words of each pair are not. request. All forms of the lever and all the principal kinds of hinges are found in the body. and mothers form the compound subject. Two or more phrases connected by a conjunction form a +Compound Phrase+. 15.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg subject. 9. ***** LESSON 21. 27 +Parsing+. Both friend and foe applauded. By perfection is meant the full and harmonious development of all the faculties. 16. these terms or parts are separated . the complex. Between the mind of man and the outer world are interposed the nerves of the human body..\.---Wives. the pairs are separated according to the Rule.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg by the comma though no conjunction is omitted.


When two terms connected by or have the same meaning, the second is logically explanatory of the first, and is set off by the comma, i. e., when it occurs in the body of a sentence, a comma is placed after the explanatory word, as well as before the or. +Direction.+--Justify the punctuation of these sentences:-1. Long, pious pilgrimages are made to Mecca. 2. Empires rise, flourish, and decay. 3. Cotton is raised in Egypt, in India, and in the United States. 4. The brain is protected by the skull, or cranium. 5. Nature and art and science were laid under tribute. 6. The room was furnished with a table, and a chair without legs. 7. The old oaken bucket hangs in the well. +Explanation.+--No comma here, for no conjunction is omitted. Oakenlimits bucket, old limits bucket modified by oaken, and thelimits bucket modified by old and oaken. See Lesson 13. 8. A Christian spirit should be shown to Jew or Greek, male or female, friend or foe. 9. We climbed up a mountain for a view. +Explanation+.--No comma. Up a mountain tells where we climbed, and for a view tells why we climbed up a mountain. 10. The boy hurries away from home, and enters upon a career of business or of pleasure. 11. The long procession was closed by the great dignitaries of the realm, and the brothers and sons of the king. +Direction+.--Punctuate such of these sentences as need punctuation, and give your reasons:-1. Men and women and children stare cry out and run. 2. Bright healthful and vigorous poetry was written by Milton. 3. Few honest industrious men fail of success in life. (Where is the conjunction omitted?) 4. Ireland or the Emerald Isle lies to the west of England. 5. That relates to the names of animals or of things without sex. 6. The Hebrew is closely allied to the Arabic the Phoenician the Syriac and the Chaldee. 7. We sailed down the river and along the coast and into a little inlet. 8. The horses and the cattle were fastened in the same stables and were fed with abundance of hay and grain. 9. Spring and summer autumn and winter rush by in quick succession. 10. A few dilapidated old buildings still stand in the deserted village. +EXCLAMATION POINT--RULE.--All Exclamatory Expressions must be followed by the exclamation point.+ +Remark+.--Sometimes an interjection alone and sometimes an interjection and the words following it form the exclamatory expression; as, Oh! it hurts. Oh, the beautiful snow! O is used in direct address; as, O father, listen to me. Oh is used as a cry of pain, surprise, delight, fear, or appeal. This distinction, however desirable, is not strictly observed, O being frequently used in place of Oh. +CAPITAL LETTERS--RULE.--The words I and O should be written in capital letters.+ +Direction.+--Correct these violations of the two rules given above:-1. o noble judge o excellent young man. 2. Out of the depths have i cried unto thee. 3. Hurrah the field is won.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 4. Pshaw how foolish. 5. Oh oh oh i shall be killed. 6. o life how uncertain o death how inevitable. ***** LESSON 22. ANALYSIS AND PARSING.


+Direction+.--Beginning with the 8th sentence of the first group of exercises in Lesson 21, analyze thirteen sentences, omitting the 4th of the second group. +Model+.--A Christian spirit should be shown to Jew or Greek, male or female, friend or foe. spirit |should be shown / Jew ===============|================ /'-------- \A \Christian | \ /' \' Greek \ / ' \-------- \ / ' \to / x ' / male \--/ '/'-------- \ ' \' female \ x ' \-------- \ ' \ ' / friend \_/'--------- \' foe \--------***** LESSON 23. COMPOSITION--CONNECTED TERMS. Direction.+--Using the nouns below, compose sentences with compound subjects; compose others in which the verbs shall form compound predicates; and others in which the adjectives, the adverbs, and the phrases shall form compound modifiers:-In some let there be three or more connected terms. Observe Rule, Lesson 21, for punctuation. Let your sentences mean something. NOUNS. Washington, beauty, grace, Jefferson, symmetry, lightning, Lincoln, electricity, copper, silver, flowers, gold, rose, lily. VERBS. Examine, sing, pull, push, report, shout, love, hate, like, scream, loathe, approve, fear, obey, refine, hop, elevate, skip, disapprove. ADJECTIVES. +Direction.+--See Caution, Lesson 13. Bright, acute, patient, careful, apt, forcible, simple, homely, happy, short, pithy, deep, jolly, mercurial, precipitous. ADVERBS. +Direction.+--See Caution, Lesson 15. Neatly, slowly, carefully, sadly, now, here, never, hereafter. PHRASES.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg On sea; in the city; by day; on land; by night; in the country; by hook; across the ocean; by crook; over the lands; along the level road; up the mountains. ***** LESSON 24. REVIEW. CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION. Direction.+--Give the reason for every capital letter and for every mark of punctuation used below:--


1. The sensitive parts of the body are covered by the cuticle, or skin. 2. The degrees of A.B., A.M., D.D., and LL.D. are conferred by the colleges and the universities of the country. 3. Oh, I am so happy! 4. Fathers and mothers, sons and daughters rejoice at the news. 5. Plants are nourished by the earth, and the carbon of the air. 6. A tide of American travelers is constantly flooding Europe. 7. The tireless, sleepless sun rises above the horizon, and climbs slowly and steadily to the zenith. 8. He retired to private life on half pay, and on the income of a large estate in the South. +Direction.+--Write these expressions, using capital letters and marks of punctuation where they belong:-1. a fresh ruddy and beardless french youth replied 2. maj, cal, bu, p m, rev, no, hon, ft, w, e, oz, mr, n y, a b, mon, bbl, st 3. o father o father i cannot breathe here 4. ha ha that sounds well 5. the edict of nantes was established by henry the great of france 6. mrs, vs, co, esq, yd, pres, u s, prof, o, do, dr 7. hurrah good news good news 8. the largest fortunes grow by the saving of cents and dimes and dollars 9. the baltic sea lies between sweden and russia 10. the mississippi river pours into the gulf of mexico 11. supt, capt, qt, ph d, p, cr, i e, doz 12. benjamin franklin was born in boston in 1706 and died in 1790 +Direction.+--Correct all these errors in capitalization and punctuation, and give your reasons:-1 Oliver cromwell ruled, over the english People, 2. halloo. I must speak to You! 3. john Milton, went abroad in Early Life, and, stayed, for some time, with the Scholars of Italy, 4. Most Fuel consists of Coal and Wood from the Forests 5. books are read for Pleasure and the Instruction and improvement of the Intellect, 6. In rainy weather the feet should be protected by overshoes or galoches 7. hark they are coming! 8. A, neat, simple and manly style is pleasing to Us. 9. alas poor thing alas, 10. i fished on a, dark, and cool, and mossy, trout stream. ***** LESSON 25. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW. ANALYSIS. 1. By the streets of By-and-by, one arrives at the house of Never.--Spanish Proverb [Footnote: By-and-by has no real streets, the London journals do not actually thunder, nor were the cheeks of William the Testy literally scorched by his fiery gray eyes. Streets, house, colored, thunder, and scorched are not, then, used here in their first and ordinary meaning, but in a secondary and figurative sense. These words we call +Metaphors+. By what they denote and by what they only suggest they lend clearness, vividness, and force to the thought they help to convey, and add beauty to the expression.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg


For further treatment of metaphors and other figures of speech, see pages 87, 136, 155, 156, 165, and Lesson 150.] 2. The winds and waves are always on the side of the ablest navigators.--Gibbon. 3. The axis of the earth sticks out visibly through the center of each and every town or city.--Holmes. 4. The arrogant Spartan, with a French-like glorification, boasted forever of little Thermopylae.--De Quincey. 5. The purest act of knowledge is always colored by some feeling of pleasure or pain.--Hamilton. 6. The thunder of the great London journals reverberates through every clime.--Marsh. 7. The cheeks of William the Testy were scorched into a dusky red by two fiery little gray eyes.--Irving. 8. The study of natural science goes hand in hand with the culture of the imagination.--Tyndall. [Footnote: Hand in hand may be treated as one adverb, or with may be supplied.] 9. The whole substance of the winds is drenched and bathed and washed and winnowed and sifted through and through by this baptism in the sea.--Swain. 10. The Arabian Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the Chinese Wall, and from the shores of the Caspian Sea to those of the Indian Ocean.--Draper. 11. One half of all known materials consists of oxygen.--Cooke. 12. The range of thirty pyramids, even in the time of Abraham, looked down on the plain of Memphis.--Stanley. ***** LESSON 26. WRITTEN PARSING. +Direction+.--Parse the sentences of Lesson 25 according to this +Model for Written Parsing. | Nouns. | Pron. | Verbs.| Adj. | Adv. | Prep. | Conj.| Int.| |--------|-------|-------|--------|------|-------|------|-----| 1st |streets,| | |the,the.| |By,of, | | | sentence|By-and- | one. |arives.| | |at,of | | | | by, | | | | | | | | |house, | | | | | | | | |Never. | | | | | | | | --------|--------|-------|-------|--------|------|-------|------|-----| | | | | | | | | | 2d | | | | | | | | | sentence| | | | | | | | | TO THE TEACHER.--Until the +Subdivisions+ and +Modifications+ of parts of speech are reached, +Oral and Written Parsing+ can be only a classification of the words in the sentence. You must judge how frequently a lesson like this is needed, and how much parsing should be done orally day by day. In their +Oral Analysis+ let the pupils give at first the reasons for every statement, but guard against their doing this mechanically and in set terms; and, when you think it can safely be done, let them drop it. But ask now and then, whenever you think they have grown careless or are guessing, for the reason of this, that, or the other step taken. Here it may be well to emphasize the fact that the part of speech to which any word belongs is determined by the use of the word, and not from its form. Such exercises as the following are suggested:-Use right words. Act right. Right the wrong. You are in the right. Pupils will be interested in finding sentences that illustrate the different uses of the same word. It is hardly necessary for us to make lists of words that have different uses. Any dictionary will furnish abundant examples. It is an excellent practice to point out such words in the regular exercises for analysis. ***** LESSON 27. REVIEW.

is a +Complement+. 8. and of the punctuation of phrases. Benjamin Franklin invented the lightning-rod. 3. illustrate fully what is taught of the position of phrases. we do not fully express the act performed by Washington. 5. connected terms. 6. (SEE PAGES 153-156. If we add a noun and say. Clear thinking makes clear writing.+ +Analysis.--The Object Complement of a Sentence completes the predicate. Austerlitz killed Pitt. Whatever fills out. NOUNS AS OBJECT COMPLEMENTS. as. ***** LESSON 28. God tempers the wind to the shorn lamb.+ 1. how these expanded forms may be modified. Washington captured Cornwallis and his army. +DEFINITION.+--In saying Washington captured. 7.+ The complement with all its modifiers is called the +Modified Complement. and exclamatory expressions. we complete the predicate by naming that which receives the act.--Review from Lesson 17 to Lesson 21. for example. clear writing is the modified complement. took /---------\ Oxford | / ' \ | rank ========|=and' ========== | \ ' / \ ' held / \-------/ revolves /-----------. We find the first surnames in the tenth century. The invention of gunpowder destroyed feudalism. what the introductory words are called.--See suggestions.) TO THE TEACHER. thinking | makes | writing ============|===================== \ clear | \clear +Oral Analysis+. Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules. How many parts of speech are there? Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg TO THE TEACHER.). Lesson 16. Introductory Hints.--See notes to the teacher. 2. and names that which receives the act. At the opening of the thirteenth century. Liars should have good memories. Oxford took and held rank with the greatest schools of Europe. Washington captured Cornwallis.moon | / ' ======|== and' | \ ' \ ' keeps | side \--------------- . and makes clear writing is the entire predicate. 4. As Cornwalliscompletes the expression of the act by naming the thing acted upon--the object--we call it the +Object Complement+. 150. etc. pages 30. how introduced. and why. +Direction+. 32 Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (tell. inclusive.---Writing is the object complement. what such words as long and there may be expanded into. or completes. Connected objects completing the same verb form a +Compound Object Complement+.

[Footnote: We may call the verb the predicate. when so used. and the idea of the act. but. flower. Most grammarians call the adjective and the noun.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 33 9. denoting the quality we wish to assert of leaves. or attribute to them--The maple leaves become red. Corn is growing presents the idea of the thing. and call both that which asserts and that which expresses the idea asserted. a proportion. and Cornis lacks the word denoting the idea to be asserted. Corn growing lacks the asserting word. and orders up coals in the shape of bread and butter. 1. 12. a harmony. by one name--the predicate. and seed displays a figure. and forms the subject of the noblest poem of antiquity. beef and bacon. James study grammar =========\ /===========\ /=============== ' \ | / ' \ | / ' 'and ==|== and' ===== and' John ' / | \ ' recite / \ ' arithmetic =========/ \===========/ \=============== ***** LESSON 29. Slang is vulgar. +Introductory Hints+.--The Attribute Complement of a Sentence completes the predicate and belongs to the subject. naming the class of the animals called lizards. and keeps the same side toward us. But. Every stalk. 11. +DEFINITION. the asserting word is called the copula--it shows that the two ideas are coupled into a thought--and the word expressing the idea asserted is called the predicate. e. Hunger rings the bell. Lizards are reptiles. if preferred. oppressed the wife. bud.+ Analysis. pies and puddings. NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES AS ATTRIBUTE COMPLEMENTS. The natives of Ceylon build houses of the trunk. and banished the confessor. When the completing word expressing the idea to be attributed does not unite with the asserting word to make a single verb. and thatch roofs with the leaves. as it is disputed whether any word can assert without expressing something of the idea asserted. growing. 14. 13. 10. corn.] The maple leaves become. Pocahontas completes the predicate by presenting a second idea. the +Predicate Adjective+ and the +Predicate Noun+. be used instead of Attribute Complement. of the king. . and. as one word often performs both offices. when it is followed by a complement. The noun reptiles. it does not fully express the idea to be asserted.+ [Footnote: Subjective Complement may. The verb become does not make a complete predicate. performs a like office for the asserting word are. In logic. it is an incomplete predicate. beyond the reach of art. Rolfe's wife was Pocahontas. and asserts the act of the thing.] Connected attribute complements of the same verb form a +Compound Attribute Complement+. degraded the brother. of the cocoa-nut palm. the predicate presents another. Richelieu exiled the mother. g.. we pass this distinction by as not essential in grammar. The history of the Trojan war rests on the authority of Homer.--The subject presents one idea. James and John study and recite grammar and arithmetic. and asserts it of the first. The moon revolves. which was asserts to be identical with that of the subject. Corn grows. 15. The idea may be completely expressed by adding the adjective red. we distinguish it as the +Attribute Complement.

and lovable. A dainty plant is the ivy green. The east wind is peevishness and mental rheumatism and grumbling. 8. 4. 5.--The line standing for the attribute complement is. The south wind is full of longing and unrest and effeminate suggestions of luxurious ease.--The office of an adverb sometimes seems to fade into that of an adjective attribute and is not easily distinguished from it. and substantial. Analysis. Some would say that the conjunction as connects mate to he. of course. This is indicated in the diagram. and looks rich and glossy. and has promise and adventure in it. 4.--Vulgar is the attribute complement.' went \ ' mate /======================= He | / ' \out ====|=and ' | \ ' came \ captain \======================= \back +Explanation+. here. The Saxon words in English are simple. like the object line. The terms in which he says it. dignified. Velvet feels smooth.--The subject names that of which the speaker says something. 12. which--plant or ivy--Dickens supposed the reader to know least about. and which. as --. and you settle which word--plant or ivy--is the subject. 6. 14.--the predicate. The west wind is hopeful. Settle. 8. 9. The north wind is full of courage. and beautiful. The ear is the ever-open gateway of the soul. The sea is fascinating and treacherous. 7. 3. 2. (Is it not the writer's poetical conception of "the green ivy" that the reader is supposed not to possess?) 10. like captain. The verb is the life of the sentence. 5. ***** LESSON 30. should be called an adverb. 3. and puts the stamina of endurance into a man. every son was regarded as a slave. 2. is an attribute complement. Plato and Aristotle are called the two head-springs of all philosophy. and curls one up in the chimney-corner. and artificial. like an adverb to modify it. therefore. and. The highest outcome of culture is simplicity. is vulgar is the entire predicate. but notice that the line which separates the incomplete predicate from the complement slants toward the subject to show that the complement is an attribute of it. queenly. +Explanation+. Stillness of person and steadiness of features are signal marks of good-breeding.--Mate. seems to complete am. ATTRIBUTE COMPLEMENTS--CONTINUED. He came a foe and returned a friend. I am here. assumes that the hearer already understands. tranquil.--he. Here. 11.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Slang | is \ vulgar ==========|================= | 34 +Explanation+. The sun shines bright and hot at midday. like an adjective. The mountains are grand. in this example. From their form and usual function. The French and the Latin words in English are elegant. 15. homely. He went out as mate and came back captain. Under the Roman law. +Explanation+. Dickens was telling him about. then. a continuation of the predicate line. [Footnote: The assertion in this sentence is true only in the main. 13.] 6. but we think this connection is made through the verb went. and present an . +Oral Analysis+. and that as is simply introductory. She grew tall. Good-breeding is surface-Christianity. completing the predicate and expressing a quality of slang. 1. 7. I am present.

to make).] Some of the other verbs which are thus completed are call. +Introductory Hints+. He made-white (whitened) the wall. The warrior fell back upon the bed a lifeless corpse. and at the same time denotes the office to which the act raised Victoria. 15. 5. OBJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS. but. 10. Lord Darnley turned out a dissolute and insolent husband. They made Victoria queen. They | made / queen | Victoria ======|========================= | +Explanation+. and so is called an +Objective Complement+. Queen helps made to express the act. [Footnote: See Lesson 37. the weights hung speechless. differs from an attribute complement by belonging not to the subject but to the object complement.--He made the wall white. it is sometimes called the factitive complement or the factitive object (Lat. 12. Evarts Secretary of State. Wm. . in fact or in thought. 13. 2. Here made does not fully express the act performed upon the wall. This book is presented to you as a token of esteem and gratitude. made Victoria queen is the complete predicate. choose. Some one has called the eye the window of the soul.--The line that separates made from queen slants toward the object complement to show that queen belongs to the object. but made-queen(crowned) Victoria. created the worthless Villiers Duke of Buckingham. facere. White helps made to express the act. Here made does not fully express the act performed upon Victoria.--Queen is an objective complement completing made and belonging to Victoria. The brightness and freedom of the New Learning seemed incarnate in the young and scholarly Sir Thomas More. 6. ***** LESSON 31. and at the same time it denotes the quality attributed to the wall as the result of the act. We should consider time as a sacred trust. He madethe white wall. and name. 14. 3. President Hayes chose the Hon. James I. 11. 1. think. As the objective complement generally denotes what the receiver of the act is made to be.--The Objective Complement completes the predicate and belongs to the object complement. 4. Sir Philip Sidney lived and died the darling of the Court. They made Victoria queen. In the fable of the Discontented Pendulum. like the adjective white or the noun queen. After a break of sixty years in the ducal line of the English nobility. Destiny had made Mr. helps to complete the predicate and at the same time belongs to the object complement. We do not mean to say. 35 9. +DEFINITION. Churchill a schoolmaster. M. +Oral Analysis+.+ Analysis. last foot-note.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg adjective. The apple tastes and smells delicious. and the gentleman and idol of the time. They did not make Victoria. A word that.

follows.+--Justify the use of these adjectives and adverbs:-1. Richmond. they.--Compose sentences containing these nouns as attribute complements:-Emperor. The sun shines bright. +Direction.+--Mary arrived safe. +Direction+. He felt around awkwardly for his chair. as perceived by its shining). might have been. The President and the Senate appoint certain men ministers to foreign courts. 3. brittle. 5. and then make complete sentences by asserting these qualities:-+Model. ***** LESSON 32. +Caution. Socrates styled beauty a short-lived tyranny. She looks beautifully. The boy is running wildly about. . 9. +Direction+.--Compose sentences. he. +Explanation. Niagara Falls.+--Be careful to distinguish an adjective complement from an adverb modifier. I feel tolerable well. Don't speak harsh. 11. flowers. we. 10. 8. I. using these verbs as predicates. 3. and not the adverb. and these pronouns as attribute complements:-Is. +Direction+. 9. He appeared promptly and willingly. as in the examples above. 5. Madame de Stael calls beautiful architecture frozen music. 8. 36 7. Shylock would have struck Jessica dead beside him. transparent | Glass is hard. 4. The boy is running wild.--Join to each of the nouns below three appropriate adjectives expressing the qualities as assumed.+ Hard | brittle + glass. The day opened bright. They all arrived safe and sound.--Correct these errors and give your reasons:-1. He appeared prompt and willing. 13. and transparent. 4. 14. We here wish to tell the condition of Mary on her arrival.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Explanation+. It can be bought very cheaply. He felt awkward in the presence of ladies. she. Coal. 2. 12. Henry the Great consecrated the Edict of Nantes as the very ark of the constitution. 10.--As may be used simply to introduce an objective complement. and not the manner of her arriving. Ophelia and Polonius thought Hamlet really insane. 6. My head feels bad (is in a bad condition. COMPOSITION--COMPLEMENTS. ships. The sun shines bright (is bright. My friend has acted very strange in the matter. mathematician. +Direction+. They named the state New York from the Duke of York. 7. 6. was. The sun shines brightly on the tree-tops. My head pains me very bad. war. Longfellow. Custom renders the feelings blunt and callous. When the idea of being is prominent in the verb. iron. 2. as perceived by the sense of feeling). you see that the adjective.

us. and let some objective complements be introduced by as. Solomon's temple = the temple of Solomon. boys' hats.--Notice that these forms of the pronouns--I. and that me. An idle brain is the devil's workshop. becomes a frog. favorite (Raleigh) | was beheaded ====================|============== \Elizabeth's | \by \ James I \----------+Oral Analysts+. The Explanatory Modifier is often called an +Appositive+. the wise Solomon's temple. or polliwog. call. and is therefore a modifier of temple. her. the second what favorite. NOUNS AS ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS. the emperor. was born in the year .--Solomon's temple was destroyed. the apostle. 6. The tadpole. like adjectives. When s has been added to the noun to denote more than one. These are conclusive reasons for calling such words nouns.--Compose sentences in which each of the following verbs shall have two complements--the one an object complement. them. ye. +Model+. they. Analysis. This same relation of possession may be expressed by the preposition of. Solomon's limits temple by telling what or whose temple is spoken of. They represent two kinds of +Noun Modifiers+--the +Possessive+ and the +Explanatory+. choose. A fool's bolt is soon shot. but they are names of things. 1. The relation of Solomon to the temple is expressed by the apostrophe and s ('s) added to the noun Solomon. We regard composition as very important. as. 5. The noun emperormodifies Dom Pedro by telling what Dom Pedro is meant. and whom are never used as subjects or as attribute complements of sentences. ***** LESSON 33. Make. The best features of King James's translation of the Bible are derived from Tyndale's version. Mahomet. and who--are never used as object complements or as principal words in prepositional phrases. he. appoint.--They call me chief. was welcomed by the Americans. we. this relation of possession is expressed by the apostrophe alone ('). Raleigh is the modified subject. the Brazilian emperor. St. Raleigh. 7. modify nouns. Elizabeth's favorite. +Introductory Hints+. Both words name the same person. him. was beheaded by James I. Paul. Elizabeth's favorite.--Elizabeth's and Raleigh are modifiers of the subject. It identifies or explains by adding another name of the same thing.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 37 +Remark+. the other an objective complement:-Let some object complements be pronouns. as. 4. thee. the first word telling whose favorite is meant. 2. Solomon's and emperor. Dom Pedro. consider. thou. 3. was beheaded in the reign of Nero. and are modified by adjectives and not by adverbs. she. or Mohammed. +Direction+. Dom Pedro.

John . [Footnote: For uses of each other and one another.+ [Footnote: See foot-note..e. The author of Pilgrim's Progress. The phrase I and O restricts words. In the latter half of the eighteenth century. by a rapid interlacing of the antennae. the beloved disciple.--Give the reasons for the insertion or the omission of commas in these sentences:-1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 569 and died in 632. ***** LESSON 34. and therefore should be set off by the comma. 8. Lesson 18] +Explanation+. but they do not seem to connect them to the words modified.. three powerful nations. They scaled Mount Blanc--a daring feat. and Prussia.--As. were Rachel's children. +Explanation. 10. My brother Henry and my brother George belong to a boat-club. The phrase Joseph and Benjamin explains sons without restricting. on a short line placed after the sentence line. and in the diagram it stands. +COMMA--RULE. and no comma is needed. limits its application. Cromwell's rule as Protector began in the year 1653 and ended in 1658. The turtle's back-bone and breast-bone--its shell and coat of armor--are on the outside of its body. They | scaled | Mount Blanc ( feat ) ======|===================== ======= | \a \daring 38 +Explanation+.--Each other may be treated as one term. Protector is explanatory of Cromwell's. to wit. William the Conqueror. 14.+--Several words may together be explanatory of one. that is. see Lesson 124.] +Explanation+. +Explanation+.--The words I and O should be written in capital letters. Jacob's favorite sons. The petals of the daisy. 9. 13. and breath. Bees communicate to each other the death of the queen. united for the dismemberment of Poland. i. 11. Russia. They scaled Mount Blanc. or each may be made explanatory of bees. The lamp of a man's life has three wicks--brain. John. enclosed in curves.. we boys. +Direction+. back-bone shell =============\ ========\ '\ /' \ | are and' \==========(======/ 'and \=)=|======= ' / \turtle's \its \ ' / | breast-bone '/ \The \' coat / =============/ ========/ 12. namely. and that is may introduce explanatory modifiers. blood. when it does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it. In each of these expressions. is set off by the comma. lay on his Master's breast. I myself. viz. 15. e.--An Explanatory Modifier. COMPOSITION--NOUNS AS ADJECTIVE MODIFIERS. Austria. Joseph and Benjamin. and no comma is needed. 2. namely. In the diagram they stand like as in Lesson 30.g. close at night and in rainy weather. the explanatory term combines closely with the word explained.--Feat is explanatory of the sentence. day's-eye.

3. Elizabeth Queen of England ruled from 1558 to 1603. and ('s) in other cases. NOUNS AS ADVERB MODIFIERS. 1. men's clothing. +Direction+. women. form a compound object complement. buffaloes. baby. Cortez. babies. a distinguished American statesman. in Washington captured Cornwallis and his army. the great dramatist. they call the direct object. fairies. +Introductory Hints. was a Spaniard. Lesson 21. Palestine or the Holy Land ----. He himself could not go. 7. hers. naming the person toward whom the act is directed. Shakespeare. fairy. for they do not stand in the same relation to the verb gave. The meaning is not. Burns's poems. his. He gave me and the book.+--Make possessive modifiers of the following words. and employ each of them in a sentence:-See Remark. 4. Mecca a city in Arabia is sacred in the eyes of Mohammedans. You see that me and book do not. and join them to appropriate nouns:-Woman. calf. yours.+--Compose sentences containing these expressions as explanatory modifiers:-The most useful metal. and give your reasons:-1. The Franks a warlike people of Germany gave their name to France. the conqueror of Peru. 3. or dative. +Direction.+--Punctuate these expressions. 6.+--He gave me a book.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 39 Bunyan. the Imperial City. +Direction. the capital of Turkey. 4. Omit or. Book. 3. and me.'s business. theirs. Here we have what many grammarians call a double object.+--Do not use ('s) or (') with the pronouns its. three years' interest. those girls' dresses. naming the thing acted upon. the hermit. 5. they call the +indirect+. they cannot be connected by a conjunction. ladies' calls. ours. mouse. The conqueror of Mexico. +Remember+ that ('s) and (') are the possessive signs--(') being used when s has been added to denote more than one. buffalo. 6. The Emperors Napoleon and Alexander met and became fast friends on a raft at Tilsit. ***** LESSON 35. five dollars' worth. children's toys. like Cornwallis and army. was cruel in his treatment of Montezuma. where they are needed. heroes. New Orleans or the Crescent City ----. the great English poets.--Insert commas below. +Direction. a day's work. My son Joseph has entered college. the girl's bonnet. mice. and note the use of the possessive sign:-The lady's fan. +object+. 2. hero. Pizarro. 2. was the son of a tinker. You blocks! You stones! 0 you hard hearts! 4. +Direction. 5. +Caution. . calves. and note the effect. was careless of his literary reputation. The poet Spenser lived in the reign of Elizabeth.+--Copy the following. a dollar's worth. The five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch ----. New York or the Empire State ----. Brown & Co.

illustrate what is taught of the forms I. Serpents cast their skin once a year. show clearly what two things are essential to a complete predicate. +Analysis. class.+--Caesar and times are nouns used adverbially. Give the substance of the "Introductory Hints" (for example. or direction are often used adverbially. value. Good land should yield its owner seventy-five bushels of corn an acre. I gave him a dollar a bushel for his wheat. 8. 5. his attendants brought the wounded Sir Philip Sidney a cup of cold water. we. promise. He sent his daughter home that way. etc. quality. 1586. a preposition must be supplied. tell. 4. +nouns denoting measure+. They offered Caesar the crown three times. He asked mea question. Puff-balls have grown six inches in diameter in a single night. weight. being equivalent to phrase modifiers. 7. no preposition is expressed or understood. etc. me. time. 14. permit. TO THE TEACHER. REVIEW. 22. 13. +Direction. direction. fell Aug. Queen Esther asked King Ahasuerus a favor. etc. 12. It is worth a dollar a yard. The pure attar of roses is worth twenty or thirty dollars an ounce.\ \three \ \ Caesar ----------+Oral Analysis. He magnanimously gave a dying soldier the water. The frog lives several weeks as a fish. explain and illustrate fully the distinction between an adjective complement and an adverb modifier. etc.). The famous Charter Oak of Hartford. explain and illustrate the use of the possessive sign. . He bought a book for me. He asked a question of me. which generally denote the person to or for whom something is done. 10. being equivalent to adverb phrases modifying the predicate offered. 9. 40 Besides these indirect objects. Teach. inclusive. and breathes by means of gills.+--Review from Lesson 28 to Lesson 35. distance. Lesson 16.+ 1.. We pay the President of the United States $50.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg We treat these indirect objects. explain what is meant by a complement.. I went home that way.--See suggestions. 15. quantity. Sept.000 a year. 2. Repeat and illustrate definitions and rules. 11. We walked four miles an hour. 6. us. 1856. Aristotle taught Alexander the Great philosophy. If we change the order of the words. On the fatal field of Zutphen. They | offered | crown ========|========================== | \ \ times \the \ ------. The wall is ten feet six inches high. and lend are other examples of verbs that take indirect objects. show what parts of speech may be employed for each. In your analysis you need not supply one. He bought me a book. and ten cents a pound for his sugar. and tell what general idea--action.. Shakespeare was fifty-two years old the very day of his death. 21. When the indirect object precedes the direct. as equivalent to phrase modifiers. or identity--is expressed by each attribute complement or objective complement in your illustrations. 3. Conn. It weighs one pound. He gave a book to me. as. distinguish clearly the three kinds of complements. ***** LESSON 36. The idiom of the language does not often admit a preposition before nouns denoting measure. send.

Corn may be called the assumed subject of growing. Others call these words Gerunds. ***** LESSON 37. writing. make a complete predicate because it only assumes or implies that the corn does the act." "is the having been shown over a place. Here singing is simply a noun. and having said in these expressions: "for the purpose of being accepted. A gerund in Latin is a simple form of the verb in the active voice. "An infinitive in -ing. set down by some as a modification of the simple infinitive in -an or -en. -ing.+--Corn grows.--and consequently is a mere adjective. and that always to. pages 30. (SEE PAGES 156-159. used in both voices. and expresses a permanent quality of birds--telling what kind of birds. Here singing does duty (1) as an adjective. like grows. are compound. They would also call by the same name such compound forms as being accepted. as incredible as that they are from infinitives in -an. Some would call the simple forms doing. pars.) Singing birds delight us. songs.) TO THE TEACHER.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. and (7). There are two kinds of participles. as we have seen." Others call these words modernized forms of the Anglo-Saxon Verbal Nounsin -ung. and as a noun it names an act and takes a possessive modifier. or those of a verb and a noun. could have developed into many compound forms. Their singing so sweetly delights us. and stands as the principal word in a prepositional phrase. a part. 41 +Introductory Hints. in sentences (1). describing birds by assuming or implying an act. VERBS AS ADJECTIVES AND AS NOUNS--PARTICIPLES. Here growing differs from grows in lacking the power to assert. Here singing has lost its verbal nature. and capere. only one form of which followed a preposition. As a verb it has an adverb modifier. and almost for the same reasons. 150.--See suggestions to the teacher. singing. delight us. Infinitives." "I recollect his having said that. Corn growing." But does it not tax even credulity to believe that a simple Anglo-Saxon infinitive in -an. [Footnote: Grammarians are not agreed as to what these words that have the nature of the verb and that of the noun should be called. on the contrary. (For definition see Lesson 131. Lesson 38. and modified by the and by nouns and pronouns in the possessive? No wonder the grammarian Mason says. Growing is a form of the verb that cannot. and as a noun it names the act. sweetly. This form of the verb is called the +Participle+ (Lat. having been shown. singing has the nature of a verb and that of a noun. following almost any preposition. naming the act and taking adjective modifiers. These words. is a perfectly unwarranted invention. and (2) as a verb by expressing the act of singing as going on at the time birds delight us. and have objects. never . also. As a verb it has an object complement. But this derivation of them encounters the stubborn fact that those verbal nouns never were compound. (6). to take) because it partakes of two natures and performs two offices--those of a verb and an adjective. The singing of the birds delights us. By singing their songs birds delight us. Here singing has the nature of a verb and that of a noun. That they are from nouns in -ung is otherwise. Birds. and never were or could be followed by objects. Here. and injuring.

The name participle neither confounds terms nor misleads the student. and it shares the nature of an adjective and that of a verb. The spinal marrow. though some of them may be traced back to the Saxon verbal noun or to the infinitive. sometimes (8) are modified by a noun or pronoun in the possessive. sometimes (4) do not follow any preposition. and having been seeing. 3. extends down-ward through the back-bone. and some of them Gerunds. sometimes (2) are used in the passive voice. as good grammarians long ago called them and still call them. one part slants to represent the adjective nature of the participle. We submit that the extension of a class term so as to include words having these relations that the Anglo-Saxon gerund never had. For convenience of classification we call these disputed forms participles.--The line standing for the participle is broken. To call these words in question gerunds is to stretch the term gerund immensely beyond its meaning in Anglo-Saxon.--Hearing is a form of the verb called participle because the act expressed by it is merely assumed. like other forms of the verb. sometimes (7) are modified by the. A gerund in Anglo-Saxon is a simple form of the verb in the active voice--the dative case of the infinitive merely--used mainly to indicate purpose. the other. 4. Analysis and Parsing. and make it cover words which sometimes (1) are highly compounded. The +participle+ may be used as an +adjective modifier+. Hearing a step. the nature of the verb and that of the noun. I | turned ===|========= \ | \ hea \ ring | step --------|-----. having been seen. or en.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 42 found in the nominative. +Oral Analysis+. and never in the accusative (objective) after a verb. proceeding from the brain. why may we not carry over the name? The name participle is as true to its etymology when applied to the nounal use of the verb as when applied to the adjectival use.\a +Explanation+. for instance--are now made from the verb in precisely the same way when partaking the nature of the noun as when partaking the nature of the adjective. The nounal and the adjectival uses of participial forms we distinguish very sharply. +Parsing+. I turned when or because I heard a step. What can they possibly be but the forms that all grammarians call participles extended to new uses? If the uses of the original participles have been extended. . and though the Saxon participle was adjectival. ed. The forms in question--seeing. +Explanation+. some of them Verbal Nouns. [Footnote: Logically. is not warranted by any precedent except that furnished above in the extension of the term infinitive or of the term verbal noun! Still others call some of these words Infinitives. hearing a step modifies the predicate also. sometimes (5) are objects of verbs. being seen. hewn in the celebrated forest of the Hague.] one sharing the nature of the verb and that of the adjective. stepis modified by a. The participle. 1. and generally (9) do not indicate purpose. or in sense.--The complement is here modified by a participle phrase. I turned. 2. may be followed by an object complement or an attribute complement. Van Twiller sat in a huge chair of solid oak. The fat of the body is fuel laid away for use. See Lesson 79. Participles commonly end in ing.--The phrase hearing a step is a modifier of the subject. having seen. sometimes (6) are subjects of verbs. which is completed by the noun step.] the principal word is hearing. and always preceded by the preposition to. and the other is horizontal to represent its verbal nature. sometimes (3) follow other prepositions than to.

The assertive force of the predicate came seems to extend over both verbs. 11.| miser | kept \ / \ ======|====================== | 10. The natives are represented as performing the act of coming and the accompanying act of crowding. returning with victorious legions. "I caught him asleep" does not mean. Lentulus.\ \ ing \gru \---------. in the construction discussed above. and therefore is not a mere modifier of man.--Crowding here completes the predicate came.\..\ \ \ \star \ \ \ ving \ \sav \------. The +participle+ may be used as an +attribute complement+." it will be seen that dead is more than a mere modifier. If we put the sentence in the passive form. See Lesson 31.. it is made to belong to man through the asserting force of the verb. quiet.. The natives came crowding around." If. But is crowding any more adverbial here than are pale and trembling in "The natives came pale and trembling"?] 7. dead is an objective complement. Not found. While dead does not belong to man as expressing the result of the act. See Lesson 31 and page 78. +Explanation+. In "I found the man dead. I saw the leaves stir. "and he was dead"). stirring. The relation of waiting to me may be seen by changing the form of the verb. and (to) stir in the following sentences are objective complements:-I saw the leaves quiet. I was kept waiting. Kept-waiting expresses the complete act performed upon me.. and belongs to the subject natives.. 9. They stood terrified. [Footnote: It will be seen by this and following examples that we extend the application of the term objective complement beyond its primary. I found my book growing dull. as. but found-dead tells what was done to the man." the condition is not the result of the act. He kept-waiting me=He detained me.--Waiting completes kept and relates to the object complement me. The adjective. the participle. it belongs to manthrough the assertive force of was found.\ bbing \------------. 8. "I caught him." the condition expressed by dead is the result of the act expressed by struck. [Footnote: Some grammarians prefer to treat the participle in such constructions as adverbial. \and \and \ \. If dead is here merely an "appositive" adjective. who was dead" (or. or factitive. The +participle+ may be used as an +objective complement+. and the infinitive do not here seem to differ essentially in office.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Explanation+. sense. had amused the populace with the sports of the amphitheater. 12. 43 5. The philosopher sat buried in thought. and so grammarians say that in this second example dead should be treated simply as an "appositive" adjective modifying man. The two sentences obviously are not equal. The city lies sleeping. +Explanation+.. He kept me waiting. I saw the leaves stirring. The old miser kept grubbing and saving and starving. and he was asleep. In "I struck the man dead. Dead helps foundto express the act. "I found the man dead" must equal "I found the man. "The man was found dead.--The principal word of a prepositional phrase is here modified by a participle phrase. 6.] .

and. We receive good by doing good. You cannot fully sympathize with suffering without having suffered.doing | good -------------+Explanation+.--The phrase by doing good is a modifier of the predicate. 14. and. writing | letter '-----------------------. +Passing+. ***** LESSON 38. +Oral Analysis+. 13. PARTICIPLES--CONTINUED. like a verb.\Your | \neatly \that | \so | / \ | secured | position =========|========='=========== | \the +Explanation+.--The line representing the participle here is broken.--The diagram representing the phrase complement is drawn above the complement line. by introduces the phrase. steadily. Your writing that letter so neatly secured the position. 16. seeking his father's asses. He owned himself defeated. the assumed subject of growing. The +participle+ may be used as +principal word+ in a +prepositional phrase+. the principal word of it is writing. The Coliseum was once capable of seating ninety thousand persons. Success generally depends on acting prudently. The adjective dull completes growing and belongs to book. as a noun. 1. on which it is made to rest by means of a support. 4. as a verb. You may imagine me sitting there. found himself suddenly turned into a king. by the adverb .) The +participle+ may be the +principal word+ in a phrase used as a +subject+ or as an +object complement+. which is completed by the noun good. is modified by your.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg \grow \ wing \ dull \--------------. No one ever saw fat men heading a riot or herding together in turbulent mobs. 15. +Oral Analysis+. 17. 3. it follows the preposition by. the first part represents the participle as a noun. 6. 2. it takes an object complement. Portions of the brain may be cut off without producing any pain. Analysis and Parsing.--The phrase your writing that letter so neatly is the subject. All that rests on the subject line is regarded as the subject. and the other as a verb. I felt my heart beating faster. Notice that the little mark before the phrase points toward the object complement. 5. All that stands on the complement line is regarded as the complement. (Suffering is here a noun.--The diagram of the subject phrase is drawn above the subject line. Saul. writing. We | receive | good =====|==================== | \by \-----.--Doing is a participle. which is completed by letter. like a noun. the principal word is doing. ---. and vigorously.| I | found / / \ | book =====|============================== | \my 44 +Explanation+.

[Footnote: "Manig man in Anglo-Saxon was used like German mancher mann. sitting restricts--limits the application of bird to a particular bird. stands by itself. 9. 8. of Dickens's "constitutionals. 4. 15. The cackling of geese saved Rome. +Direction+. My going there will depend upon my father's giving his consent.] +by the comma unless restrictive+. you have heard. Seated on the topmost branch of a tall tree busily engaged in gnawing an acorn we espied a . greeted me with a song. The town contains fifty houses and one hundred inhabitants built of brick. when the article was inserted to emphasize the distribution before indicated by the singular number. Suits ready made of material cut by an experienced tailor handsomely trimmed and bought at a bargain are offered cheap. until the thirteenth century. He was a squeezing. Lighting describes without restricting.--In using a participle. A gentleman will let his house going abroad for the summer to a small family containing all the improvements. 12. hardened old sinner. Good reading aloud is a rare accomplishment. The bird sitting on the wall is a wren. +Caution+. COMPOSITION--PARTICIPLES. See lesson 44. A."--Prof. the train fell into the river. F. +Explanation+. giving your reasons:-1. 10. with the words belonging to it. March. +Direction+.--The diagram of the absolute phrase.] +Explanation+. 14. Such was the exciting campaign. 11.--Correct these errors in arrangement. The +participle+ may be used in +independent+ or +absolute phrases+. of course. which consists of a noun used independently with a participle. We should avoid injuring the feelings of others. grasping. 13. is set off+ [Footnote: An expression in the body of a sentence is set off by two commas. 3. The +participial form+ may be used as a +mere noun+ or a +mere adjective+. at the beginning or at the end. lighting near my window.--The Participle used as an adjective modifier. be careful to leave no doubt as to what you intend it to modify. Latin multus vir. by one comma. celebrated in many a long-forgotten song. 45 7.--Justify the punctuation of the participle phrases in Lesson37. 2. +COMMA--RULE.--Many modifies song after song has been limited by aand long-forgotten. All silencing of discussion is an assumption of infallibility. +Explanation+. and the like. Talking of exercise.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg phrase so neatly. The bridge at Ashtabula giving way. and punctuate.--A bird." ***** LESSON 39.

--Recast these sentences. By giving him a few hints he was prepared to do the work well. +Direction+. Climbing to the top of the hill. without limit). without limiting it to a subject. the to expresses no relation. [Footnote: For the discussion of to with the infinitive. The infinitive. The assumed subject denotes that to which the action or being expressed by the participle or the infinitive belongs. when the infinitive phrase is used as subject or as object complement. as in the first example given above.Incorrect because it appears that the ocean did the climbing. In office it is like the second kind of participles. see Lesson 131. as the principal word in a phrase used as a subject or as an object complement. A poor child was found in the streets by a wealthy and benevolent gentleman suffering from cold and hunger. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as an +adjective modifier+ or an +adverb modifier+. like the participle. and so does duty as a noun and as a verb. See. making the reference of the participle clear. and from many grammarians has received the same name--some calling both gerunds. and others calling both infinitives.--I came to see you. waving. and in such cases to expresses relation. +Direction+. see Lesson 134. and punctuating correctly:-+Model+. Here also the form with to is equivalent to the participle form reading. and in an absolute phrase:-Buzzing. following the preposition to. as the principal word in a prepositional phrase. like the participle. This form of the verb is frequently the principal word of a phrase used as a subject or as an object.--Climbing to the top of the hill the Atlantic ocean was seen. infinitus. lacks asserting power--I to see asserts nothing. VERBS AS NOUNS--INFINITIVES. described in Lesson 37. +Introductory Hints+.--Compose sentences in which each of these three participles shall be used as an adjective modifier. 1. may be followed by the different complements. complement. we call it the +Infinitive+ (Lat. may have what is called an assumed subject.] names the act and is completed by you. Here the verb see. we saw the Atlantic ocean. but. Reading good books is profitable. as a mere noun. As this form of the verb names the action in an indefinite way. For definition. Analysis and Parsing. as a mere adjective. The infinitive. . 3. I like to read good books. as. 5. It serves only to introduce the phrase.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 46 squirrel. ***** LESSON 40. It differs from this participle in form. Came to see=came for seeing. and in no way affects the meaning of the verb. Desiring an early start the horse was saddled by five o'clock. leaping. To read good books is profitable. Frequently the infinitive phrase expresses purpose. Entering the next room was seen a marble statue of Apollo. and performs its full function as a preposition. like other forms of the verb. 2. and in following only the preposition to.

catch is the principal word. 2.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the adjective hard. to build another shingle palace. These apples are not ripe enough to eat. 3. 17. The blind men's dogs appeared to know him. 14. and. Richelieu's title to command rested on sublime force of will and decision of character. 5. +Explanation+. The hot-house is a trap to catch sunbeams. shows no relation--it serves merely to introduce. like a noun. ***** . in sense. and again to sell off and wander. +Explanation+. Many of the attempts to assassinate William the Silent were defeated. These harmless delusions tend to make us happy. \To \to \ be \good \ be \ great \----------------------. +Explanation+. 47 +Parsing+.| | / \ | is \ / \ ========|================== | Explanation. We will strive to please you. 8. 16.--To. To heal = to be healed. 7. having no noun to relate to. We should learn to govern ourselves.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. 4. and sunbeams completes it. +Explanation+. of the principal word to trap. To be entirely just in our estimate of others is impossible. in each of these phrases. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as +subject+ or +complement. it is completed by sunbeams. 11. to clear new cornfields.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the adverb enough. 15. selling his farm. 6.--The infinitive phrase here performs the office of an adjective. The complements good and great are adjectives used abstractly. Each hill attempts to ape her voice.+ 10. 12.--The infinitive phrase is here used as an object complement. Wounds made by words are hard to heal. +Explanation+. The representative Yankee. The noblest vengeance is to forgive.--The infinitive phrase is here used adverbially to modify the predicate. To be innocent = innocent. Ingenious Art steps forth to fashion and refine the race.--To is a preposition. He seemed to be innocent. +Explanation+. hot-house | is \ trap ============|================ \The | \a \to \ catch | sunbeams \-------'---------+Oral Analysis+. To eat = to be eaten.--To introduces the phrase. To be good is to be great. 9. wanders away to seek new lands. like a verb.--Happy completes make and relates to us. To bear our fate is to conquer it. catch is a form of the verb called infinitive. 13. it follows the preposition to and names the action. introducing the phrase and showing the relation.

10. \to \ find | fault \-----'-----. It is not the way to argue down a vice to tell lies about it. but man to mend.\ about | \ / \ \----------------. may become delightful.+ . and thus gives the sentence balance of parts.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 41. 11. 5. 1. Paul was now about to open his mouth. My friend is about to leave me. \to \ leave | me \-------'---.--The preposition about introduces the phrase used as attribute complement.+ 7. 6. It is easy to find fault. Analysis. 3.--For introduces the subject phrase. 8. This use of it as a substitute for the real subject is a very common idiom of our language.| friend | is \ / \ ========|===================== \My | +Explanation+. Read the sentence without it. and you will see the real nature of the phrase. the principal part of the entire phrase is us to know our faults.\ / \ \our \------. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used +after a preposition+ as the +principal term+ of another phrase. This task. 4.--But is here a preposition.--The infinitive phrase to find fault explains the subject it. us ------. +Explanation+. +Explanation+. to teach the young. The +infinitive+ and its +assumed subject+ may form the +principal term+ in a phrase introduced by the preposition +for+. For us to know our faults is profitable. For a man to be proud of his learning is the greatest ignorance. It is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. the principal part is the infinitive phrase to leave me. 2.| \to \ | \ know | faults \For | \------'-------. It allows the real subject to follow the verb. God never made his work for man to mend. INFINITIVES--CONTINUED. which is modified by the phrase to know our faults. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as +objective complement.| / \ | is \ profitable =============|====================== | 48 +Explanation+. 9. the principal word is us.| It (/ \) | is \ easy =========|=========== | +Explanation+.---The principal term of the phrase for man to mend is not man. It is not all of life to live. No way remains but to go on. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used as an +explanatory modifier.

Him represents the one to whom the command is given. and to be promoted the predicate. than. Agrippina.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 12." Lesson 31. [Footnote: These infinitive phrases can be expanded into dependent clauses. 16. and stick may be more clearly seen by changing the form of the verb. He made-wait me = He detained me. as.| We | found / / \ | report ===|========================== | 14. equivalent to a clause. Compare also He made the stick bend--equaling He made-bend (= bent) the stick--with He made the stick straight--equaling He made-straight (= straightened) the stick. of a clause would certainly be confusing. The stick was made straight. He was seen doing it. INFINITIVES--CONTINUED. Analysis. He made me wait. to teach that him is the subject. [Footnote: Notice the difference in construction between this sentence and the sentence He commanded him to lower the bridge.--The infinitive wait (here used without to) completes made and relates to me. shall walk. 49 +Explanation+. Participles and infinitives unite with other verbs to make compound forms. Besides. In such sentences as (13) and (14) it may not always be expedient to demand that the pupil shall trace the exact relations of the infinitive phrase to the preceding noun and to the predicate verb. to be assassinated. The +infinitive phrase+ may be used +independently+. I saw the leaves stir.--In the diagram the independent element must stand by itself. See "Introductory Hints.] +Explanation+. See Lesson 79."] 15. This last sentence = He commanded him that he should lower the bridge. [Footnote: Some prefer to treat the report to be true as an object clause because it is equivalent to the clause that the report is true. the infinitive and its assumed subject may be treated as a kind of phrase object.] +Explanation+. For the infinitive after as. Compare He told me to go with He told (to) me a story. The stick was made to bend. him. also He taught me to read with He taught (to) me reading.] \to \ be \ true \-------------. ***** LESSON 42. I desire that he should be promoted. I desire him to be promoted. This construction is similar to the Latin "accusative with the infinitive. Lesson 37. He was seen to do it. The relation of these objective complements to me. 13. Compare I saw him do it with I saw him doing it. I desire his promotion. But many expressions logically equivalent are entirely different in grammatical construction. thus: I was made to wait. Being persuaded by Poppaesa. have walked. If preferred.We found the report to be true.--Stir is an infinitive without the to.. etc. [Footnote: See pages 68 and 69. in such cases. He commanded the bridge to be lowered. and participles used as objective complements. Hero caused his mother. see Lesson 63. as. and to lower the bridge is the object complement. foot-note. .

I supposed him to be a gentleman. at. 2. Itis healthful to rise early. He did not recollect to have paid it. She threatened to go beyond the sea.+--Write nine sentences. and in three as a noun. 2. This sentence is not too difficult for me to analyze. 6. +Direction+. +Direction. 3. or not to be.000. the council would sit for hours smoking and watching the smoke curl from their pipes to the ceiling. Conscience. and the infinitives into participles:-1. 2. 14. 1. Indorsing another's paper is dangerous. 8. or on. I will teach you the trick to prevent your being cheated another time.000. to put it in round numbers. 3. It is a good thing to give thanks unto the Lord. 9. Busied with public affairs. There is a time to laugh. wounded lies. To be. keeping the body in health by making it warm and repairing its waste. 9. I rejoice to hear it. so to speak. +Direction+. COMPOSITION--THE INFINITIVE. Equivocating is disgraceful. to throw herself out of the window. 3. (Notice that the explanatory phrase after it is not set off by the comma. Swearing is sinful. 3. in.--that is the question. It is inconvenient being poor.--Improve these sentences by changing the participles into infinitives. when the infinitive is changed to a participle. 5. and Marie Antoinette were executed. 5. to drown herself. 10. 8. 4. 6. for. 5. in three of which the infinitive phrase shall be used as an adjective. of. ***** LESSON 43. 15. Slandering is base. It is not wise complaining. 50 4.) 1. She will be grieved to hear it. I am surprised at seeing you. I commenced to write a letter.--Rising early is healthful. 5. Food. MISCELLANEOUS. Infinitives and Participles. Rip Van Winkle could not account for everything's having changed so. The fog came pouring in at every chink and keyhole. Louis XVI. is $4. +Direction. 10. For one to rise early is healthful. in three as an adverb. is a necessity.--Change the infinitives in these sentences into participles.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. You are prompt to obey. England's debt. Reading good books is profitable. 2. 4. 11. is changed to toward. the only preposition used with the infinitive. They delight to do it. I am ashamed to be seen there. 4.000. +Direction+. To rise early is healthful. Stones are used in ballasting vessels. and the participles into infinitives:-Notice that to. Every object has several faces. 13. 7. 7.+--Write eight sentences in which these verbs shall be followed by an infinitive without the to:-- . It will serve for amusing the children. To make a long story short. We began ascending the mountain. I am inclined to believe it.--Vary these sentences as in the model:-+Model+. her first law broken. 12. 11. We require clothing in the summer to protect the body from the heat of the sun. They trembled to hear such words.

+Introductory Hints. two-story intellects. merely to throw the subject after the verb. An absolute phrase consists of a noun or a pronoun used independently with a modifying participle. the business was neglected. Whatever is enclosed within marks of parenthesis is also independent of the rest of the sentence. This is called the absolute phrase. let. make. . now. To confess the truth. life is an enigma. dare. was honorable. His conduct. Interjections are without grammatical connection. but the phrase has no connective expressed or understood. +Analysis+. and with the adverb generally forms an independent phrase. Speaking is a participle without connection. To express place. and is therefore grammatically independent. Rod and staff simply call attention to the objects before anything is said of them. Now. Poor man! he never came back again. Dear Brutus serves only to arrest attention. Why. as. Bid. hear. my heart. The loveliest things in life. and three-story intellects with skylights. The adverbs well. But is an adjective modifying shadows.+--In this Lesson we wish to notice words and phrases that in certain uses have no grammatical connection with the rest of the sentence. another there may follow the predicate. generally speaking. His master being absent. The infinitive phrase is independent. the idea of place having faded out of the word. as in this sentence. that is strange. 51 Thy rod and thy staff. but out of place in ordinary speech. my soul. I stake my fame (and I had fame). dear Brutus. I was wrong. 1. +Explanation+. they comfort me. Poor man is independent by exclamation.+--Tom is independent by address. His master being absent logically modifies the verb was neglected by assigning the cause. as. 2. need. and are independent by pleonasm--a construction used sometimes for rhetorical effect.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Model. and hence are independent. WORDS AND PHRASES USED INDEPENDENTLY. my hope. as. Tom. feel. There are pitch-pine Yankees and white-pine Yankees. and see. ***** LESSON 44. there is used idiomatically. as you have learned. is not in our stars. There are one-story intellects. The fault.--Often. +Explanation.+--We saw the sun sink behind the mountain. and is independent by address. Well. it is already noon. There is gold there. why. upon this cast. there are sometimes independent. are but shadows.

13. at least. as. by the bye. A day later (Oct. are usually followed by the exclamation point. 12. this is the forest of Arden.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 52 3. and accordingly. of course. To speak plainly. 9. Lee did not. as in (5). there was no school Friday. in fine. as in (14). Hope lost.+--Write short sentences in which these words and phrases. 19. this is not revenge. President. She (oh. now and then. why. follow Washington's orders.+--Write short sentences in which these words shall modify same particular word or phrase so closely as not to be set off by the comma:-Indeed. the comma is used. there can be no chance in our affairs. +Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. by the way. See Lesson 35. too. if it is more abrupt. we shall arrive to-morrow. then. +COMMA--RULE. When the break after pleonastic expressions is slight. a mighty man is he.--Words and phrases independent or nearly so are set off by the comma. 5.+ +Remark+. moreover. indeed. further. 10. 15.+--Write sentences illustrating the several kinds of independent expressions. 14.--Interjections. from Moscow. is never set off by the comma. 1812) began the fatal retreat of the Grand Army.\A 16. no doubt. the dash is required. for instance. of course. I shall enter on no encomium upon Massachusetts. and punctuate them properly:-In short. in general. accordingly. Now. and there. Ah! then and there was hurrying to and fro. do not modify a word or a phrase alone. +Direction. too. Lesson 44. now. 7. namely. however.150. But the enemies of tyranny--their path leads to the scaffold. the artfulness of the woman!) managed the matter extremely well. but. like however.) TO THE TEACHER. Properly speaking. however. by the bye. again. and punctuate according to the Rule as explained. Well. by the sheep-market. it may be enclosed within marks of parenthesis. above all. COMPOSITION--INDEPENDENT WORDS AND PHRASES. ***** LESSON 45. No accident occurring. Why. used in a manner nearly independent. 4. as in (15) and (16). in short.--See suggestions to the teacher. (For the uses of the dash and the marks of parenthesis. surely. there is at Jerusalem.) Words and phrases nearly independent are those which. a pool.+ (SEE PAGES 160-162. see Lesson 148. indeed. shall occur. then. but rather the sentence as a whole. used merely to introduce. your habits are your worst enemies. 11. pages 30. The teacher being sick. for instance. The smith. Mr. +Direction. still. If the independent expression can be omitted without affecting the sense. +Direction. 8. 6. therefore. all is lost. . retreat | began =========|======= \later \---\ \ day \------. as you have seen.

(The subject is you understood.] +INTERROGATION POINT--RULE. as. He asked. as.+ +DEFINITION. 8. He asked what the trouble was. an interrogative. Let us now look at it as a whole. How . SENTENCES CLASSIFIED WITH RESPECT TO MEANING.+ Do the mountains lift up their heads? This sentence expresses a question. and is called an +Interrogative Sentence. and is called an +Imperative Sentence+. it may be direct. This sentence is used simply to affirm.) Analysis. classify them. as.) 4.--In the previous Lessons we have considered the sentence with respect to the words and phrases composing it. 7.+--Before analyzing these sentences. though they have not the imperative form. and justify the terminal marks of punctuation:-1. There are no accidents in the providence of God. "What is the trouble?" or indirect. Oh! a dainty plant is the ivy green! 6. Six days shalt thou labor and do all thy work.+ +DEFINITION. 2.+ [Footnote: For punctuation. +Direction.--Every direct interrogative sentence should be followed by an interrogation point.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 46. Such expressions as You must go. 53 The mountains lift up their heads. Alexander the Great died at Babylon in the thirty-third year of his age. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. Why does the very murderer. or an imperative sentence may become exclamatory when the speaker uses it mainly to give vent to his feelings.--A Declarative Sentence is one that is used to affirm or to deny. You shall goare equivalent to imperative sentences. It is impossible! How can I endure it! Talk of hypocrisy after this! +DEFINITION.+--When an interrogative sentence is made a part of another sentence. and his glaring eye taking the measure of the blow.--An Interrogative Sentence is one that expresses a question.--An Exclamatory Sentence is one that expresses sudden thought or strong feeling. +Introductory Hints+.+ Lift up your heads. (See Lesson 74. strike wide of the mortal part? 3. How wonderful is the advent of spring! 5.+ +DEFINITION. How the mountains lift up their heads! In this sentence the thought is expressed with strong emotion.+ +Remark. How and what usually introduce such sentences. see page 42. and is called a +Declarative Sentence. It is called an +Exclamatory Sentence+. This sentence expresses a command. but a declarative.--An Imperative Sentence is one that expresses a command or an entreaty. or to declare a fact. his victim sleeping before him.

a pensive Ruth.-. Richelieu would permit no eminent author to stand bareheaded in his presence. [Footnote: Weighty thoughts tersely expressed. in the darkest days of our Revolution. How beautiful was the snow.--Phillips. drew into strong eddies about themselves all the glory and the pomp of Greek literature. 2. The prominent nose of the New Englander is evidence of the constant linguistic exercise of that organ.--Wordsworth. 1. I called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old. 5. and (10) in this Lesson. 6. and gives the key into the hands of the Angel of Resurrection. and competence. taken up toward or to that of persons.--Emerson. In that calm Syrian afternoon. and found the scattered grain still golden. carried your flag into the very chops of the British Channel. Extreme admiration puts out the critic's eye. Refusing to bare his head to any earthly potentate. the Broom of the Plantagenets. Greek art. Pericles and Alexander the Great.--Tyler. soothes . Cheerfulness banishes all anxious care and discontent. 14.--Curtis.health.--Lowell. Greek eloquence. 10. The Queen of England is simply a piece of historic heraldry. [Footnote: In Ruth of this sentence. moreover. went gleaning the silent fields of childhood. Lend me your ears. falling all day long. and woke the echoes of old Albion's hills by the thunders of his cannon and the shouts of his triumph? ***** LESSON 47. What brilliant rings the planet Saturn has! 12. 3. piled in cold and still sublimity.--Holmes. Prayer is the key of the morning and the bolt of the night. What quality do you think they impart to one's style?] 8. we have a type of the metaphor called +Personification+--a figure in which things are raised above their proper plane. 6. become noble by association. 4. 9. the Leek.--Lamb. The Alps. W. Two mighty vortices. Who. are an image of despotism. that in this instance of the figure we have an +Allusion+.-. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.Beecher. peace. 7. (8). all the joys of sense. The vulgar intellectual palate hankers after the titillation of foaming phrase. By means of steam man realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag.--Conway. Poetry is only the eloquence and enthusiasm of religion. lie in three words-. a flag.--Earle. The setting of a great hope is like the setting of the sun. I want my husband to be submissive without looking so.--Warner. on the graves of the dead! 15. 5. All the interest that the Ruth of the Bible awakens in us this allusion gathers about so common a thing as memory. the Thistle.] ***** LESSON 48. like (7). then closes the case. 3. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW. 7. 8. Reason's whole pleasure. The Angel of Life winds our brains up once for all. Greek wisdom. 11.--Pope. Note. 11. floating grandly over a Liberal ministry yesterday. I love to lose myself in other men's minds. memory.--De Quincey.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 54 sickness enlarges the dimensions of a man's self to himself! 9. and the morning sunlight fresh and fair. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW Analysis. 10. 4. bearded the lion in his den.--Gail Hamilton. Robertson. on the roofs of the living. are called Epigrams.--F. --Stephen. Things mean.--Canning. The laws of nature are the thoughts of God. 1. Things take on dignity and importance as they rise in the scale of being. and carries the two-and-thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. over a Tory ministry to-day. all night long. Every Latin word has its function as noun or verb or adverb ticketed upon it. 9. 2. Analysis. What power shall blanch the sullied snow of character? 13.Longfellow.

. illustrate the different ways in which words and phrases may be grammatically independent. Authors must not. +Direction+. inclusive.--Review from Lesson 37 to Lesson 46. making the required changes orally. Lesson 16. The preposition beyond shows the relation. from lack of time or from the necessity of conforming to a prescribed course of study. 11. ARRANGEMENT--USUAL ORDER. 47. TO THE TEACHER. illustrate the different uses of the participle and the infinitive. and then to read the examples given. Let us recall the +Usual Order+ of words and phrases in a simple declarative sentence. the exercises to be written may be omitted.--Longfellow. ***** LESSON 50. and is therefore an attribute complement.--See suggestions. expect to win victories by turning somersets in the air. REVIEW. ***** LESSON 49. REVIEW OF PUNCTUATION. and illustrate the Caution regarding the use of the participle. +Direction+. in both the Usual and the Transposed order. and the pupil may be required to illustrate the positions of the different parts. for the marks of punctuation used in Lessons 44. and keeps the soul in a perpetual calm. like Chinese soldiers. The eight following Lessons may thus be reduced to two or three. +Example+. and 48. +Explanation+. TO THE TEACHER. it is found desirable to abridge these Lessons on Arrangement and Contraction. and the object complement follows the verb.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 55 and composes the passions. in some such way as we have outlined in preceding Review Lessons. To discover the true nature of comets has hitherto proved beyond the power of science. of power to the subject phrase. the substance of the "Introductory Hints.--Beyond the power of science = impossible. and the punctuation of these independent elements. in sense. so far as you have been taught.--Give the reasons." repeat and illustrate definitions and rules. 46. ***** LESSON 51. The verb follows the subject. 10.--Drake circumnavigated the globe.--Addison.--If. Give.

If adjectives are of unequal rank. and follows one or more words of the verb if the verb is compound. +Direction+. +Direction+. I soon found him. spoken of in the preceding Lesson. +Direction+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. on the contrary. stood in our path.--Facts once established are facts forever. the objective complement follows the object complement. write sentences illustrating the positions of participle and prepositional phrases. He sailed for Liverpool on Monday. Phrases follow the words they modify. +Direction+. 56 The attribute complement. They made Bonaparte consul.--Observing this order. Moses.--Observing this order. +Examples+. They offered Caesar a crown. two with possessive modifiers and two with explanatory. A rock.--The light far in the distance is so very bright. the lawgiver.--Observing this order. each sentence containing an adjective. if a word has two or more phrases. +Examples+. whether noun or adjective. write sentences illustrating these several positions of the adverb.--Observing this order. write three sentences each with an object complement. the adverb. ARRANGEMENT--TRANSPOSED ORDER. if of the same rank. they stand in the order of their length--the shortest first. and the indirect object precedes the direct. He had often been there. An adjective or a possessive modifier precedes its noun. the one most closely modifying the noun stands nearest to it.--Observing this order. great freedom in the placing of words and phrases is . and an explanatory modifier follows it.--The usual order of words. write four sentences. +Direction+. write three sentences illustrating the relative position of adjectives before and after the noun. follows the verb.--Observing this order. precedes or follows (more frequently follows) the simple verb or the verb with its complement. write four sentences illustrating the positions of the noun and of the adjective when they perform these offices. or the phrase which it modifies. ***** LESSON 52. Eastern life is dreamy.--Egypt is the valley of the Nile. Cassino has a lean and hungry look. those most closely modifying it stand nearest to it. +Introductory Hints+.--Man's life is a brief span. huge and precipitous. +Examples+. +Examples+. came down from the Mount.--Two honest young men enlisted. I hurt him badly. is not the only order admissible in an English sentence. +Examples+. An adverb precedes the adjective.

or restore. 12. The great Queen died in the year 1603. The moon shone bright. one may deviate widely from this order. 2. 3. No woman was ever in this wild humor wooed and won. and. +Direction+. serene. 4. happy. He ended his tale here. Flashed all their sabers bare.--Change these sentences from the usual to the transposed order by moving words or phrases to the front. When any word or phrase in the predicate stands out of its usual place. the thought clear. You shall die--Die you shall. my son!" 8. 9. before the subject. give them additional importance to the reader or hearer. then. character. more of it lies in some words than in others. Of noble race the lady came. He would not escape. Churlish he often seemed. Him they hanged. each with one of the following nouns or adjectives as a complement. 5. 2. 3. 5. Let the relation of the words be kept obvious and. 4. "My son. 10. 2. as. He could not avoid it. 9. 3. That gale I well remember. 10. long and deeply. they were. Slowly and sadly we laid him down. 4. 6. TO THE TEACHER. 6. The whole of a verb is not placed at the beginning of a declarative sentence except in poetry. consequently. then transpose the ten with these same words moved to the front. 8. appearing either at the front of the sentence or at the end. 2. 13. Let a shroud. I dare not venture to go down into the cabin--Venture to go down into the cabin I dare not. He cried. +Direction+. A writer's meaning is never distributed evenly among his words. 12. in impassioned oratory. He was a contentious man. and five.--Change these to the usual order:-1. Him.--Transpose these sentences by placing the italicized words last.----Where. 11. 7. Monmouth had never been accused of cowardice. stripped from some privileged . and explain the effect:-1. Once again we'll sleep secure. we have what we may call the +Transposed Order+. A yeoman had he. in our directions in these Lessons on Arrangement and Contraction. Freely ye have received. Volatile he was. the Almighty Power hurled headlong. one may move words out of their accustomed place. A frozen continent lies beyond the sea. Require them to show what the sentence has lost or gained in the change. They were pretty lads. him. 7. and note the effect:-1. I must go. Under the influence of strong feeling. under foot. It was quoted so. in excited speech of any kind. on the lips of the people. The clouds lowering upon our house are buried in the deep bosom of the ocean.--Change these sentences from the transposed order to the usual. forever live. indeed. by thus attracting attention to them. Aeneas did bear from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder the old Anchises. They should study them and be able to read them. She seemed young and sad. 14.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 57 sometimes allowable. in the market. we have the extreme example of the transposed order. +Direction+. the pupils need not write the sentences. One strong thing I find here below. and explain the effect:-Giant. we say change. Overhead I heard a murmur. 11. Their names will forever live on the lips of the people--Their names will. 13. Strange is the magic of a turban. and in poetry. each with one of the adverbs or phrases as predicate modifier. Such a heart beats in the breast of my people. as. The great fire roared up the deep and wide chimney. +Direction+. +Direction+. Victories. When the word or phrase moved to the front carries the verb. This double office the participle performs. transpose. or the principal word of it. often.--Write five sentences. and explain the effect:-1. To their will we must succumb.

Washington is styled the "Father of his Country. early one summer's morning. Feet was I to the lame. 2. +Direction+. glad. 3. ARRANGEMENT--TRANSPOSED ORDER. 4. +Direction+. As a mark of respect was the present given. suddenly stopped.--Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the object complement and the verb to their customary places. A mighty man is he. A dainty plant is the ivy green.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 58 corpse. +Direction+. and then transpose.--Write three sentences. 3. fortress. 2. of all the acquisitions made in school. before the stirring of the family. I will make one effort more to save you.--Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the attribute complement and the verb to their usual places. 3. +Direction+. +Direction+. +Direction+. the most difficult and valuable. The king does possess great power." 3. A changed France have we. 4. cry.--Write six transposed sentences with these nouns as object complements. Henry VIII. each with the following noun or adjective or phrase in its usual place in the predicate.--Using these nouns as attribute complements. +Direction+. 5. and tell what is gained by the change:-1. 5. 6. Me restored he to mine office. The maiden has such charms. These evils hath sin wrought. Treasures of gold and of silver are. by and by. "Exactly so. and then restore them to their usual order:-Pause. and tell what is lost by the change:-1.--Restore these sentences to their usual order by moving the adjective complement and the verb to their customary places:-- . had become a despot." replied the pendulum. 5. +Direction+. 3. The English character has faults and plenty of them. displayed.--Transpose these sentences by moving the object complement and the verb. concealed.--Transpose these sentences by moving the attribute complement and the verb. "Lazy wire!" 2. in the deep bosom of the earth. gift. 5. The dial-plate exclaimed. A giant towered he among men. for its proper price. 4. and tell what is gained by the change:-1. He was a stark mosstrooping Scot. We are merry brides. Thorns and thistles shall the earth bring forth. You have learned much in this short journey. desert. and tell what is lost by the change:-1. Ease and grace in writing are. horse. write three sentences in the usual order. An old clock. 4. 5. peace. 4. be. words. 2. The man seemed an incarnate demon. placing these words wherever they can properly go:-Mountains. ***** LESSON 53. and then transpose them:-Rock.

So died the great Columbus of the skies. 5. . and note the loss:-1. The air seemed deep and dark. Pale looks your Grace. Three times were the Romans driven back. Hotter grew the air. Near the surface are found the implements of bronze. Away went Gilpin. and note the loss:-1. I came into the world helpless. glorious. here. fierce. Louder waxed the applause. Thus waned the afternoon. 4. and then restore the sentences to the usual order:-Tempestuous. 2. 7. 6. 12. each with one of these adjectives as attribute complement. Venus was yet the morning star. now. The great event occurred soon after. Tictac! tictac! go the wheels of thought. There dozed the donkeys. Seven years after the Restoration appeared Paradise Lost. 14. The anger of the righteous is weighty. She had grown tall and queenly. never. 11. Happy are we to-night. seldom. 8. huge. My regrets were bitter and unavailing. 3. 3. 7. was fought the battle of Bunker Hill. 9. 5. 3.--Write ten sentences in the transposed order. Down came the masts. Then burst his mighty heart. 8. 2. 7. 7. Weary had he grown. Wide open stood the doors. +Direction+.--Restore these sentences to the usual order by moving the adverb and the verb to their customary places. Dark rolled the waves. 6. Crack! went the ropes. lively. Blood-red became the sun. Thy proud waves shall be stayed here. using these adverbs:-Still. 8. ARRANGEMENT--TRANSPOSED ORDER. Micawber. I will never desert Mr. Here stands the man. +Direction+. 12. 6. Well have ye judged. 10. 9. There thunders the cataract age after age. +Direction+. 10. The boy stood there with dizzy brain. You must speak thus. yet. On the 17th of June. In those days came John the Baptist. The Spaniard's shot went whing! whing! 5. 9. The fall of that house was great.--Transpose these sentences by moving the adverb and the verb:-1. On swept the lines. Wise are all his ways. 8. The secretary stood alone. 6. 11. Upon such a grating hinge opened the door of his daily life. 3. Behind her rode Lalla Rookh. It stands written so. In purple was she robed. 9. +Direction+. The uproar became intolerable. 2. 4.--Write five transposed sentences. +Direction+. Good and upright is the Lord. The peacemakers are blessed. Boom! boom! went the guns. 13. Off went his bonnet. 8. A sincere word was never utterly lost.--Transpose these sentences by moving the adjective complement and the verb:-- 59 1. 5. 4. +Direction+. Catiline shall no longer plot her ruin. Lady Impudence goes up to the maid. 2. boys.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. 11. 5. Faithful proved he to the last. 7. there. 2. 4. Doubtful seemed the battle. 10. Between them lay a mountain ridge. 4. The untrodden snow lay bloodless. 1775. 12. To such straits is a kaiser driven. Through the narrow bazaar pressed the demure donkeys. ***** LESSON 54. out. 10. so. Into the valley of death rode the six hundred. 3. 6. thus. 10.--Restore these sentences to the usual order by moving the phrase and the verb to their customary places. 9. 11.

the order is transposed. the order is usual. 2. toward. Pepin eventually succeeded to Charles Martel. If the interrogative word is subject or a modifier of it. and then transpose the sentences. The house stands somewhat back from the street.--Who came last evening? What star shines brightest? +Direction+. neither. in. of. the order is transposed.--Write an interrogative sentence with the first word below as object complement. Touch proper lies in the finger-tips and in the lips. ARRANGEMENT--INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES. +Examples+. beginning them with these words:-There (independent).--Write five interrogative sentences. and another with the second word as attribute complement. and compare the two orders:-Beyond. the subject stands after the verb when this is simple. to. into.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. who.--Write six sentences in the transposed order. 6. between.--Write ten sentences in the usual order. +Direction+. at. using the first word below as a subject. Write four with the third and the fourth as complements. ***** LESSON 55. +Examples+. upon. If the interrogative word is an adverb. using these adverbs:-How. why. the third as a subject and then as a modifier of the subject:-Who. 3. what. 10. If there is no interrogative word.--Whom did you see? What are personal consequences? Which course will you choose? +Direction+. what. The disciples came at the same time.--Write five interrogative sentences.--Transpose these sentences by moving the phrase and the verb:-- 60 1. which. An ancient and stately hall stood near the village. +Examples+. when. and four with the third and the fourth as modifiers of the complement:-Whom. His trusty sword lay by his side. Our sphere turns on its axis. I have served in twenty campaigns.--Why is the forum crowded? Where are the flowers. 5. using these prepositions to introduce phrases. nor. 9. The dreamy murmur of insects was heard over our heads. where. The bridle is red with the sign of despair. 4. 8. whither. If the interrogative word is object complement or attribute complement or a modifier of either. after the first word of it . the second as a subject and then as a modifier of the subject. by. the fair young flowers? +Direction+. 7. +Direction+. which.

in five of which the subject shall be omitted. using these words:-Is. the subject. must see. they became powerful.--Change the sentences you have written in this Lesson into declarative sentences. and in three precede. and (3) an adverb--in three sentences let the verb follow.--Have you your lesson? Has the gentleman finished? +Direction+. love.--Using these verbs. obey. has.--How quietly the child sleeps! How excellent is thy loving-kindness! What visions have I seen! What a life his was! +Direction+.--Contract these sentences by omitting the repeated modifiers and prepositions. ARRANGEMENT--IMPERATIVE AND EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES. +Direction+. strive. yet exclamatory sentences ordinarily begin with how or what. a great statesman. use.--Write six exclamatory sentences with the word how modifying (1) an adjective. so delicate. and all the conjunctions except the last:-1. and are usually in the transposed order. The means used were persuasions and petitions and remonstrances and resolutions and defiance.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg when it is compound. They are truly prosperous and truly happy. by their policy. listen. Webster was a great lawyer. a great debater. Write four sentences with the word what modifying (1) an object complement and (2) an attribute complement--in two sentences let the verb follow. could have been found. By their valor.--Praise ye the Lord. +Examples+. Give (thou) me three grains of corn. Carthage was the mistress of oceans. 6. the sentence is in the transposed order. 7. Although any sentence may without change of order become exclamatory (Lesson 46). The subject is usually omitted in the imperative sentence. 61 +Examples+.--Write six interrogative sentences. and so ornamental! 5. of kingdoms. (2) a verb. when it is expressed. and in two precede. live. and by their matrimonial alliances. 3. the subject. 2. and of nations. lend. and a great writer. ***** LESSON 57. 4. . ***** LESSON 56. devote. CONTRACTION OF SENTENCES. Samuel Adams's habits were simple and frugal and unostentatious. and in five. choose. expressed:-Remember. Flowers are so fragile. +Examples+. write ten sentences. might have gone. +Direction+. can learn. but. +Direction+.

Death to the tyrant. All hands to the pumps! 5. 3. strange! 14. to arms. hence. 3.--Expand these by supplying both subject and verb. On with the dance. room. 7.--Construct ten full sentences. Art thou gone? 2. 2. . 15. 3.--Expand these sentences by supplying subjects:-1. I offer a world for sale. 6. 10. I offer a penny for your thoughts. Hence. Canst thou wonder? 8. the light brigade! 5. through. 7. shame. 13. and chivalrous. ***** LESSON 58. then. soothless insulter. you idle creatures! 9. 2. sir. 9. go you to breakfast. At your service. 5. or. 12. Where hast been these six months? 6. What to me fame? 6. Bless me! 7. and then contract the sentences by omitting both subject and verb:-Why. May long life be to the republic. each with one of these words used four times. 3. Coffee for two. Half-past nine. Now. He was a good son. Hear me for my cause. 4. 2.--Expand these by repeating the adjective. REVIEW. Away. 5. truthful. Forward. Bayard was very brave.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. 6. Thou shalt back to France. Those are my sentiments. Shine. All aboard! 4. and note the gain in force and animation:-1. Thank you. the preposition. My kingdom for a horse! 8. sir. Greece. brother. Back to thy punishment. and note the loss in vivacity:-1. 9.--Contract these by omitting both subject and verb. sir. his career. 10. +Direction+. with. Nobody there. 10. Why so unkind? 4. Will you take your chance? 3. Save us. We will drink a health to Preciosa. using in each. Are you a captain? 5. 2. Are you here? +Direction+. The tourist traveled in Spain. Whose footsteps these? +Direction+. Honor. peaches. for the guns. 8. Give us this day our daily bread. indeed. 9. 8. Strange. friend. Whither are you going so early? +Direction+. Why dost stare so? 3. 4. how. water. I want a word with you. Egypt. silence. 6. and the conjunction:-- 62 1. Bring ye lights there. 2. the adverb. and. one of these adverbs or phrases or nouns. Off with you. When Adam thus to Eve. May a prosperous voyage be to you.--Expand these by supplying the verb or some part of it:-1. I must after him. Once more unto the breach. sir? 11. How great is the mystery! 7. +Direction+. 4.--Contract these by omitting the subject or the verb:-1. father. to your tents. 4. false fugitive. and contempt inflamed his heart. and Palestine. It is true. and then contract them as above. Sit you down. Short. Impossible! +Direction+. Upon them with the lance.--Write six sentences. madam. +Direction+. and note the effect of the repetition and of the omission:-Poor. revenge. 7. out. away! 16. wife. His career was ably run.

--Review from Lesson 51 to Lesson 57. ***** LESSON 59.--See suggestions. The pronoun that is written on the subject line of the dependent clause. They are called +Simple Sentences+. illustrate the different ways of contracting sentences. we call an +Independent Clause+. . not performing such office. inclusive. They that touch pitch will be defiled. you learn from this diagram that that touch pitch is a modifier of they. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. we call a +Complex Sentence+. composed of an independent and a dependent clause. containing each a subject and a predicate. The whole sentence. performing the office of a single word. 150. we call a +Dependent Clause+. we call +Clauses+. COMPLEX SENTENCE--ADJECTIVE CLAUSE. (SEE PAGES 162-165.--The sentences given for analysis in the preceding Lessons contain each but one subject and one predicate. by their connection. and say.--The relative importance of the two clauses is shown by their position. You are now to learn that you can expand it into an expression that asserts. and that touch pitch is the dependent. of an imperative. Lesson 16. A youth that is discreet makes friends. illustrate the different positions of the parts of an interrogative. 63 Illustrate the different positions--Usual and Transposed--that the words and phrases of a declarative sentence may take.| +Explanation+. +Direction+. That performs the office of a conjunction also. They will be defiled is the independent clause. That touch pitch is a modifier of they because it limits the meaning of they. the dependent clause is connected by its subject that to they. A dependent clause that does the work of an adjective is called an +Adjective Clause+. This office is shown by the dotted line.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg TO THE TEACHER.--This is a complex sentence because it consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause. This part of the sentence and the other part. and by the difference in the shading of the lines.) TO THE TEACHER. +Introductory Hints+. 1. A discreet youth makes friends. pages 30. and say. and of an exclamatory sentence. +Oral Analysis+. A youth makes friends. A youth makes friends. Analysis. They | will be defiled =======|===================== ` | ` ` that ` | touch | pitch --------|--------'------. As modifiers are joined by slanting lines to the words they modify. A youth of discretion makes friends.--See notes to the teacher. In Lesson 17 you learned that you could expand the adjective discreet into a phrase. The adjective clause that is discreet.

14. 6. 3. .` ` base | is ` ------|----.--Illustrate the connecting force of who.. 15.` \ `. 5.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg TO THE TEACHER.--The adjective clause does not always modify the subject. Unhappy is the man whose mother does not make all mothers interesting.) 16. 7. 4. Grouchy did not arrive at the time that Napoleon most needed him. rests with John Hawkins. In analysis restore the preposition to its usual place--It is you that I speak to. 8. Islands are the tops of mountains whose base is in the bed of the ocean..` | \to ` \ which ` \------9. [Footnote: See Lesson 61. mountains ----------. The spirit in which we act is the highest matter.--The pronoun connecting an adjective clause is not always a subject. I | found | place ====|================== | \the ` ` you | referred ` ------|---------.--The phrase to that modifies referred. +Explanation+. Wine makes the face of him who drinks it to excess blush for his habits.--A preposition is wanting. Photography is the art which enables commonplace mediocrity to look like genius. ***** LESSON 60. That = in which. Attention is the stuff that memory is made of. signed the ordinance that revoked the Edict of Nantes. When the pronoun that connects an adjective clause. It is to you that I speak. She that I spoke to was blind. That I speak to modifies the subject. The lever which moves the world of mind is the printing-press.. It was the same book that I referred to.--Here the preposition. +Explanation+. 10. The thirteen colonies were welded together by the measures which Samuel Adams framed. 17. The diagram is similar to that of (8). which. which usually would stand last in the sentence. +Explanation+. foot-note.\whose +Explanation+. (Me must be changed to I when from is restored to its usual position. 64 2. I found the place to which you referred.--The connecting pronoun is here a possessive modifier of base. 12. +Explanation+. the preposition never precedes. 11.. The guilt of the slave-trade. is found before the complement of the independent clause.] which sprang out of the traffic with Guinea. (Can you find a word that would here sound better than that?) 13. and that by substituting for them the words for which they stand. It was from me that he received the information. That connects the adjective clause. In 1685 Louis XIV. and noting the loss of connection. +Explanation+.

4. or permitted to be expressed. I told him to bring whichever was the lightest. "What was originally an interrogative and introduced substantive clauses.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted word thing. Its use as a compound relative is an extension of its use as an indirect interrogative. 9. 11. What is false in this world below betrays itself in a love of show. A depot is a place where stores are deposited. 7. Whoever does a good deed is instantly ennobled. the object of did.) 14. 65 +Explanation+. or some word whose meaning is general or indefinite. 10. 2. What men he had were true. By changing where to the equivalent phrase in which. A. Supply him. [Footnote: Many grammarians prefer to treat what was right as a noun clause (see Lesson 71). Socrates was one of the greatest sages the world ever saw. it may be called a conjunctive adverb. +Explanation+. if used. 8. Whatever crushes individuality is despotism. Its possessive whose has. whichever. and the lower part represents it as an adverb modifying are deposited. Analyze as if arranged thus: The men what (= that or whom) he hadwere true. (Supply the place before where. The swan achieved what the goose conceived. Analysis. Youth is the time when the . whatever. F. He did what was right. 12. and before which no antecedent is needed.] 6.] is omitted. Lesson 59. 3.| +Explanation+. The upper part represents where as a conjunction connecting the adjective clause to place. +Explanation+. The smith takes his name from his smoothing the metals he works on. Whom the Lord loveth he chasteneth. which.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ADJECTIVE CLAUSES--CONTINUED. and using a diagram similar to (8). He raised the maid from where she knelt. They would treat in the same way clauses introduced by whoever. 13. they are often omitted. March. it is confined to clauses which may be parsed as substantives.--The connecting pronoun that [Footnote: When whom.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted subject (man or he) of the independent clause. 1. The relative pronoun what here precedes its noun like an adjective. attained the full construction of a relative.--The adjective clause modifies the omitted antecedent of whom. the double nature of the conjunctive adverb will be seen. 5. be object complements. Trillions of waves of ether enter the eye and hit the retina in the time you take to breathe. As where performs these two offices."--Prof.--The line representing where is made up of two parts. however. Macaulay is the only writer we have found who seldom or never omits them. and that would. depot | is \ place =======|============== \A | \a ` \where stores | ` are deposited -------|--------------------. He | did | x ====|====================== | ` ` what ` | was \ right ---------|------------+Explanation+.

121. (See pages 119. Solomon was the son of David who built the Temple. 2. who can be trusted. My brother caught the fish on a small hook baited with a worm which we had for breakfast. who did not know the law. I gave the letter to my friend. governs his classification of phrases and clauses strictly by their logical relations. which was ripe. 16. The Constitution framed by our fathers is the sheet-anchor of our liberties. In the first sentence the adjective clause restricts or limits apple. Such classification will often require very careful discrimination.--I picked the apple that was ripe. +COMMA--RULE. 5.--Correct the following errors of position. 2. +Direction+. and insert the comma when needed:-1. I am thy father's spirit. The Knights of the Round Table flourished in the reign of King Arthur who vied with their chief in chivalrous exploits. 142. I have no right to decide who am interested. ***** LESSON 61. and it was ripe. between the preceding sentence and the following: I gave the letter to my friend. the sentence being nearly equivalent to. Those fighting custom with grammar are foolish.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 66 seeds of character are sown. +Direction+. John is innocent because he did not know the law. 3. No grammarian. as. when not restrictive. Shylock would give the duke no reason why he followed a losing suit against Antonio. would class each of these three italicized clauses as an adverb clause of cause. But we know of no author who. having lived abroad. 3.Ambitious. Mark the majestic simplicity of those laws whereby the operations of the universe are conducted. 15. lovable. for instance. 139. Let us examine the following sentences:-John. in the second the adjective clause is added merely to describe the apple picked. or co-ordinate with its antecedent clause. I picked the apple. doomed for a certain term to walk the night. John is innocent. This difference in meaning is shown by the punctuation. telling which one was picked.--The adjective clause should be placed as near as possible to the word it modifies. making the relative clause independent. he did not know the law. respectful. COMPOSITION--ADJECTIVE CLAUSE. 4. 4. quick-witted. in every case. 143.+ +Explanation+. is innocent. each containing an adjective clause equivalent to one of the following adjectives:-. Some people. we think.[Footnote: There are other constructions in which the relative is more nearly equivalent to and he or and it. as.--Construct five complex sentences. 138.--Change the following simple sentences to complex sentences by expanding the participle phrases into adjective clauses:-1. talkative. A wife and children.)] +Caution+. who will return it to you. +Direction+. . I picked the apple. undervalue the advantages of their native land. Do they differ in logical force? The student should carefully note all those constructions in which the grammatical form and the logical force differ. Those who prefer to let their classification be governed by the logical relation rather than by the grammatical construction call such a sentence compound.--The Adjective Clause. is set off by the comma.

--Change these simple sentences to complex sentences by expanding the infinitive phrases into adjective clauses:-1. COMPLEX SENTENCE--ADVERB CLAUSE. striving to put their hands on the very spot where brave men died. +Direction+. and whatever. 2. and why. whoever.--Change "that which". 67 +Direction+. 3. in the following sentences to "what". The year when Chaucer was born is uncertain. It was a sight to gladden the heart. "wherein" to "in which". and "whatever" to "anything" or "everything which". 2. +Direction+.--He arrived late. one whose connective is a complement. 5. and say. and say. 4. one modifying some word omitted. one whose connective is an adverb. Whoever lives a pious life blesses his race. what. 4. +Direction+. I have many things to tell you. and "what" to "that which". 2. When. "on". +Introductory Hints+. one modifying a complement. ***** LESSON 63. . A man's heart deviseth his way. one whose connective is omitted. He arrived at midnight. You have learned that you can expand the adverb late into a phrase. and competence. "where" and "when" to "at". You take my life in taking the means whereby I live. peace. where. one modifying the principal word of a phrase. 8. He arrived when the clock struck twelve. You are now to learn that you can expand it into a clause of +Time+.--Form complex sentences in which these pronouns and conjunctive adverbs shall be used to connect adjective clauses:-Who. 7. What God hath joined together let not man put asunder. It was a din to fright a monster's ear. one whose connective is the principal word of a phrase. 6. and "whereby" to "by which":-1. Reason's whole pleasure. all the joys of sense. Scholars have grown old and blind. There were none to deliver. or "in which". which. and write illustrative sentences as here directed:-Give an example of an adjective clause modifying a subject. "whoever" to "he who". one whose connective is a possessive modifier. Lie in three words--health. That which is seen is temporal. Whatever we do has an influence.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg threatened with widowhood and orphanage. 3. have knelt at your feet on the very threshold of the Senate Chamber.--Expand these possessive and explanatory modifiers into adjective clauses:-1. The play's the thing wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king. 5.--Analyze the first nine sentences in the preceding Lesson. one whose connective is a subject. that. +Direction+. He had an ax to grind. ***** LESSON 62.

ere.| +Explanation+. When pleasure calls.--By changing then into at the time. we | listen ===|========= | \ `When ` pleasure | \ calls ---------|---\------.' / | ' / mother ' / ------------'/ \my +Explanation+. Blucher arrived on the field of Waterloo just as Wellington was meeting the last onslaught of Napoleon.\ then ` \ ` `When father \ ------------'\ \ \my ' \ \ ' \ \ ' \ | \ forsake | me 'and \----|--------------------. then ths Lord will take me up. spent the night in reading Plato's "Immortality. as an adverb modifier. till. however would make it a modifier of as. The clause introduced by where expresses +Place+. and when into at which. 2. Many a year is in its grave since I crossed this restless wave.] 5. It also connects pleasure calls. The clause introduced by as . see Lesson 14 and (1) above. 6. rather. until. we listen. The part representing when as a modifier of calls is. after. and is equivalent to the adverb here or to the phrase in this place. The +adverb clause+ may express +time+. The line representing when is made up of three parts to picture these three offices. Where the snow falls. placed above its principal line instead of below it. or.] +Explanation+. For explanation of the line representing when. there is freedom. before he durst give himself the fatal stroke.| +Explanation+. in constructions like this. The offices of the conjunctive adverb when may be better understood by expanding it into two phrases thus: We listen at the time at which pleasure calls. 3. and foot-note. A clause that does the work of an adverb is an +Adverb Clause+.--Many here modifies year. year as modified by a. and which connects. denoting that the two acts take place at the same time. Just here modifies at the time. Lord | will take | me ======|===================== \The | \up \ . Analysis." [Footnote: Some prefer. [Footnote: See (11).. Europe was at war. as modifies profitable.--Just may be treated as a modifier of the dependent clause. While Louis XIV. The +adverb clause+ may express +place+. and since as prepositions followed by noun clauses. 68 This exercise is as profitable as it is pleasant. 1. telling the +Degree+ of the quality expressed by it. reigned. for convenience. to listen.--When modifies both listen and calls.. Lesson 38. 8. 4. to treat before. the offices of these two words will be clearly seen. At the time is represented in the diagram by the first element of the asline. at which modifies calls. 7. Blucher | arrived ===========|=========== | \ \------\ \ `as \ just ` \ ` \ Wellington | \ was meeting | onslaught --------------|-----\-----------------------. At the timemodifies listen. When my father and my mother forsake me. Just as=just at the time at which. Pope skimmed the cream of good sense and expression wherever ..Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg He stood where I am. A closer analysis. Cato.

Dying for a principle is a higher degree of virtue than scolding for it. 11. To be right is better than to be president. That.. +Explanation+. 14. and expanding as . it is therefore a conjunctive adverb. answers the question.--The adverb clause as he was great modifies the first as. The first as. 13.--The words the . which is an adverb modifying good. Washington was as good as he was great. Gold | is \ heavier =======|============== | \ ` than ` iron | x \ \ x -------|--------------+Explanation+. Is and heavy are omitted. we have.--The degree of the cold is here shown by the effect it produced.` \ `The \ `.] 20. [Footnote: In this sentence.\oftener \ . is not the ordinary adjective the. 69 +Explanation+. It is the Anglo-Saxon demonstrative pronoun used in an instrumental sense.--To be right is better (good in a greater degree) than to be president (would be good). and cannot always be classed under Degree. One's breeding shows itself nowhere more than in his religion. It was so cold that the mercury froze. It is here an adverb. see Lesson 124. +Explanation+... and modifies wiser.--It was so cold as to freeze the mercury (would indicate or require). The wind bloweth where it listeth. The sentence = Gold is heavy beyond the degree in which iron is heavy. the are similar in office to as . as you see. the better I like it. I | like | it =====|=========== | \ \----\ better \the \ . the second the = by so much. as--He became humbler in that degree in which he became wiser. The +adverb clause+ may express +degree+.. and modifies humbler.. The first the = by how much. 16.] +Explanation+. To preach is easier than to practice. modified by the adverb clause that the mercury froze. Than modifies heavy (understood) and connects the clause expressing degree to heavier.. 10.] +Explanation+. 15. Gold is heavier than iron. Clauses of Result express different logical relations. asinto two phrases. Good to what extent or degree? The second as modifies great and performs the office of a conjunction.. 18. The oftener I see it.. 9. also in (15) and (17). Transposing. the dependent clause is sometimes termed a clause of Result or Consequence. modified by the adverb clause. Frequently words are omitted after than and as. 12. The adverb so. here. modifies froze and connects the clauses. answers the question. and is therefore a conjunctive adverb. the humbler he became. and than = in which. and is therefore a conjunctive adverb.. Washington was good in the degree in which he was great.. He called so loud that all the hollow deep of hell resounded. It was so cold as to freeze the mercury.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg he could find it. [Footnote: The.--Heavier = heavy beyond the degree. 19. [Footnote: For the use of he instead of the indefinite pronoun one repeated.. Cold to what degree? The sentence = It was cold to that degree in which the mercury froze.. The wiser he grew.\ ` \ ` I | ` see | it ----|--`-------------. 17. See diagram of (3) and of (20).

5. 10. Wheat is the most valuable of grains because bread is made from its flour.. but the cause of our believing that it has rained. 2. Slang is always vulgar. As the upright man thinks so he speaks. Sea-bathing is the most healthful kind of washing. for through them the blood throws off its impurities.--Because. being a mere conjunction. ADVERB CLAUSE-CONTINUED. The ground is wet because it has rained. as it combines fresh air and vigorous exercise with its other benefits. The +adverb clause+ may express +real cause+. 12. The +adverb clause+ may express +manner+.. It has rained. since Raleigh found them here. for the ground is wet. 7. Evidence produces knowledge of an effect. 14. introduced by for. The upright man speaks as he thinks. Tobacco and the potato are American products. Lesson 63. because the ground is . 9. 3.. stands on a line wholly dotted. Clauses of Evidence are sometimes treated as independent. For diagram. The adverb clause. see when . God was angry with the children of Israel. We keep the pores of the skin open. 8. introduced by as.] Analysis. 13. Lesson 63. The waves of conversation roll and shape our thoughts as the surf rolls and shapes the pebbles on the shore. 70 The ground is wet because it has rained. [Footnote: Evidence should be carefully distinguished from Cause.--He lived as the fool lives. then (3). assigns the +Real Cause+ of the ground's being wet. it gives the +Evidence+ of what is asserted. It rained last night. He died as he lived. introduced by because. is a clause of +Manner+. +Explanation+. Since the breath contains poisonous carbonic acid.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 64. Cause produces an effect. does not assign the cause of the raining. wise people ventilate their sleeping rooms. ground | is \ wet ==========|============= \The | ` ` ` because ` it | ` has rained ----|--------------+Explanation+. The +adverb clause+ may express +evidence+. 1. As is the boy so will be the man. 6. and is equivalent to the adverb foolishly or to the phrase in a foolish manner. as it is an affected way of talking. The adverb clause. for he overthrew them in the wilderness. +Introductory Hints+. see (1).--He died in the manner in which he lived. 11.) 4.. The adverb clause. so. (For diagram of as .

--If it rains. you have an image of a dull speaker and a lively listener. 5. but. expresses a +Concession+. The adverb clause. The +adverb clause+ may express +condition+.) 3. is a mere conjunction. If ever you saw a crow with a king-bird after him. as here expressed. The ship-canal across the Isthmus of Suez was dug so that European vessels need not sail around the Cape of Good Hope to reach the Orient. ***** LESSON 65. the ground will be wet. as you see.--That. 6. enough heat is evolved to produce combustion. 2. Spiders have many eyes in order that they may see in many directions at one time. for we build our homes in the nests of other birds. It is conceded that a cause for the ground's not being dry exists. assigns what. if it occurs. The air draws up vapors from the sea and the land. The +adverb clause+ may express +purpose+. the fat of the body is thrown into the grate to keep the furnace in play. This omission of if is a common idiom. 1. evidence. ADVERB CLAUSE-CONTINUED.--The relative position of the subject and the verb renders the if unnecessary. always use prose. condition. He takes exercise that he may get well. and retains them dissolved in itself or suspended in cisterns of clouds. The ground is dry. +Explanation+. The adverb clause. is only a +Condition+ ready to become a cause. but. 9. Analysis. introduced by that. will be the cause of the ground's being wet. 7. it is asserted that the ground is dry.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg wet this morning. the harbors and the rivers of Britain would be blocked up with ice for a great part of the year. The adverb clause. 15.--The phrases in order that. introduced by although. under the general head of +Cause+. If the air is quickly compressed. 71 +Introductory Hints+. and concession come. Should the calls of hunger be neglected. +Explanation+. introducing a clause of purpose. although only the first kind assigns the cause proper. in spite of this opposing cause. 4. We Americans must all be cuckoos. All these dependent clauses of real cause. introduced by if. Were it not for the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. assigns the cause or the motive or the +Purpose+ of his exercising. . that it may drop them as rain or dew upon the thirsty earth. 8. although it has rained. (Unless = if not. so that = that. Unless your thought packs easily and neatly in verse. +Explanation+. purpose. Language was given us that we might say pleasant things to each other.

11. 7. after these independent clauses. We dream in our sleep--evidence. +Direction+. still we do not feel its weight. Glass bends easily when it is red-hot. Dew does not form in a cloudy night--cause. Iron bends and molds easily--condition. 72 10. Millions of soldiers sleep--place.---Write. COMPOSITION-ADVERB CLAUSES. see Lesson 100). Our eyes cannot bear the light--time. because it would be unparliamentary. adverb clauses of time. 3. Peter the Great worked in Holland in disguise--purpose. 11.--An Adverb Clause is set off by the comma unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies+. when I was last abroad. 18. I will not call him villain. 8. +Direction+. ***** LESSON 66. Apples would not fall to the ground--condition. Europe conquered Napoleon at last--concession. 14.--If here = even if = though. Though many rivers flow into the Mediterranean. Punishment follows every violation of nature's laws--concession.--I met him in Paris. if the Chinese tell the truth. 6. etc. The tree is inclined--manner. 16. degree. Every spire of grass was so edged and tipped with dew--degree. When the adverb clause precedes. and are added almost as afterthoughts. yet will not his foolishness depart from him. 2. it arrested its progress for a hundred years. place.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg The +adverb clause+ may express +concession+. Though the atmosphere presses on us with a load of fifteen pounds on every square inch of surface. and punctuate according to the Rule:-1. The lion springs upon his prey--manner. 17. The Bunker Hill Monument stands--place. 14. Though thou shouldst bray a fool in a mortar. 5. 15. Many persons died in the Black Hole of Calcutta--cause. but are supplementary. We put salt into butter and upon meat--purpose. +Explanation+. 12. 4. It will break if you touch it. 12. +COMPOSITION-ADVERB CLASSES+. 9. +Explanation+. Although the brain is only one-fortieth of the body. If the War of the Roses did not utterly destroy English freedom. 13. Here the adverb clauses are restrictive. . +COMMA--RULE. they are not sufficient to make up the loss caused by evaporation.---Tell why the adverb clauses are or are not set off in Lessons 63 and 64. Vesuvius threw its lava so far--degree. 10. each is very closely related in thought to the independent clause. 13. about one-sixth of the blood is sent to it. (for connectives. ***** LESSON 67. That thunderbolt fell a mile away--evidence. it is set off. Leaves do not turn red because the frost colors them. Paper was invented in China. The leaves of the water-maple turn red--time. In these sentences the adverb clauses are not restrictive. and may almost be said to be the essential part of the sentence.

and dies among his worshipers. they did not exterminate them. and by means of a caret (^) indicate where this adverb clause may properly stand in the sentence. we shall be better understood. +Direction+.--She stoops that she may conquer = She stoops to conquer. or after it. 3. 2. 73 +Direction+. and attend to the punctuation.--Contract these complex sentences to simple ones:-1. will rise again. Washington retreated from Long Island because his army was outnumbered. The water will freeze. +Direction+. 2. An adverb clause may be contracted into a participle or a participle phrase. ***** LESSON 68. he stopped = Seeing me. writhes with pain. If we use household words. between the parts of it. 1. Coral animals. An adverb clause may be contracted to a prepositional phrase having for its principal word (1) a participle. 2.--They will call before they leave the city = They will call before leaving the city. 4. When oxygen and carbon unite in the minute blood-vessels. when they die. 4. 3. Some of these adverb clauses can stand only at the end. because they absorb heat. 5. 4.--When he saw me.---Think. +Direction+. He grew rich because he attended to his business. if you can. of another adverb clause to follow each independent clause in the preceding Lesson.--Contract these complex sentences to simple ones:-1. if he is wounded. form vast islands with their bodies. The Gulf Stream reaches Newfoundland before it crosses the Atlantic.--Contract each of these adverb clauses to a prepositional phrase having a participle for its principal word:-+Model+. Truth. If Chaucer is called the father of our later English poetry. he stopped.--Contract each of these adverb clauses to an infinitive phrase:-+Model+. +Example+. Black clothes are too warm in summer. for it has cooled to 32 deg. we gave up the chase = Night coming on. heat is produced. Wycliffe should be called the father of our later English prose. we gave up the chase. or (3) a noun. Note its force in its several positions. An adverb clause may be contracted to an absolute phrase. Though they persecuted the Christians.--When night came on. for "Probabilities" predicts it. though she may be crushed to earth. The adverb clause may stand before the independent clause. It will rain to-morrow. . COMPOSITION--ADVERB CLAUSES. 3.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ARRANGEMENT. +Example+. Error. +Direction+. (2) an infinitive.

you may expect a happy old age.--He fought that he might obtain glory = He fought for glory. 4. is to be pitied = This man. because he has no friends = This man. however strongly it may be defended. if it is not disease. .--Contract each of these adverb clauses to a prepositional phrase having a noun for its principal word:-+Model+. 3. ANALYSIS. +Direction+. The pine tree is so tall that it overlooks all its neighbors. An adverb clause may be contracted by simply omitting such words as may easily be supplied. go ahead. He is foolish. If you are free from vices. (Sentences like this never appear in the full form. 1. An adverb clause may sometimes be changed to an adjective clause or phrase. This is a prose era rather than it is a poetic era. Criminals are punished that society may be safe. without friends. A man is to be pitied if he does not care for music. (Frequently. 4. and friends. he lacks three good things. who has no friends. The sun is many times larger than the earth is large. What would I not give if I could see you happy! 5. 2. clauses introduced by as and than are contracted.--Change each of the following adverb clauses first to an adjective clause and then to an adjective phrase:-1. though it has no lungs. No other English author has uttered so many pithy sayings as Shakespeare has uttered. go ahead = When right. 2. +Explanation+. 3. +Direction+.--Contract these adverb clauses:-1. +Example+. Much wealth is corpulence.) 5. is to be pitied = This man. having no friends.--When you are right.--This man is to be pitied. Error must yield. Luther died where he was born. +Direction+. because he leaves school so early in life. We are pained when we hear God's name used irreverently. built the Armada that he might conquer England. 5. 3. Philip II. Chevalier Bayard was killed while he was fighting for Francis I.) 6.--However modifies strongly. 2. is to be pitied. A fish breathes. 2. 4. When a man lacks health. The general marched as he was ordered. and connects a concessive clause. ***** LESSON 69.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 74 1. +Example+. wealth.

mildew. two. one. condition. a place clause. concession.) TO THE TEACHER. and yeast are plants is wonderful. one. and is the +Object Complement+ of believe. 150.+ (SEE PAGES 165-168. and analyze them. Obedience is better than sacrifice = To obey is better than sacrifice = That men should obey is better than sacrifice. The clause introduced by that is equivalent to a noun.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction. Tell why the adverb clauses in Lesson 68 are or are not set off by the comma.+--Tell the kind of adverb clause in each of the sentences in Lesson 68. +Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. 64. The clause who your companions are is equivalent to a noun.+--Compose sentences illustrating the different kinds of adverb clauses named in Lessons 63. The dependent clause. degree. is equivalent to a noun. Many people believe that the beech tree is never struck by lightning. +Introductory Hints. You are now to learn that a clause may do the same.--See suggestions to the teacher. ***** LESSON 70. and explain fully the office of each. and is the +Principal Term+ of a +Phrase+ introduced by the preposition on.+--In Lessons 40 and 41 you learned that an infinitive phrase may perform many of the offices of a noun. A clause that does the work of a noun is a +Noun Clause+. Compose sentences illustrating the different ways of contracting adverb clauses. and is the +Subject+ of is. The dependent clause that men should obey is equivalent to a noun. two. real cause. evidence. manner. The +noun clause+ may be used as +subject+. For connectives. THE COMPLEX SENTENCE-NOUN CLAUSE. that it has so many borrowed words. and is +Explanatory+ of fact. and two. . REVIEW. 75 Select two sentences containing time clauses. 65. two. +Direction. and is an +Attribute Complement+ relating to peculiarity. two. introduced by that. A peculiarity of English is. two. Your future depends very much on who your companions are. pages 30. see Lesson 100. purpose. ***** LESSON 71. The clause introduced by that is equivalent to a noun. Analysis. The fact that mold. and note the different positions in which these clauses stand.

Philosophers are still debating whether the will has any control over the current of thought in our dreams. 2. a part of a sentence.e. P. That the same word is used for the soul of man and for a glass of gin is singular. or When they ought to quit business. 8. Strictly speaking.--The clause that the earth is round is used like a noun as the subject of has been proved. NOUN CLAUSE--CONTINUED. used to point to the fact stated in an independent sentence. "What can you do?" 12.) 14. He saw that (namely) it was good. and so passed into the form He saw that it was good.\the | | | / \ | has been proved =============|================= | 76 +Explanation+. and has become a mere sign of grammatical subordination.] introduces the noun clause. That the earth is round has been proved. +Explanation+. When to quit business and enjoy their wealth is a problem never solved by some. ***** LESSON 72. "What have I done?" is asked by the knave and the thief. 15. The conjunction that [Footnote: "Thatwas originally the neuter demonstrative pronoun.--The subject clause is here an indirect question. By an inversion of the order this became. He does not know which to choose. 3. 6.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. that ------. 11.\the | | Galileo | taught | / \ =========|============== | +Explanation+. saying. as. When to quit business = When they are to quit business. 9. where that has been transferred to the accessory clause. Such constructions may be expanded into clauses.--When to quit business and enjoy their wealth is an indirect question. The peacock struts about. there is here no principal clause. or they may be treated as phrases equivalent to clauses. .' earth | ' moves ------|------.' earth | is ' \ round -------|-------------. "What a fine tail I have!" 13.. No one can tell how or when or where he will die. Mason. Galileo taught that the earth moves. above. We may say that it is a complex sentence in which the whole sentence takes the place of a principal clause.--Here the clause introduced by that is used like a noun as the object complement of taught."--C. The +noun clause+ may be used as +object complement+. When letters were first used is not certainly known. (See explanation of (7). he saw that. thy brother?" smote the ears of the guilty Cain. for the whole sentence cannot be called a clause. +Explanation+. That -------. It was good. The Esquimau feels intuitively that bear's grease and blubber are the dishes for his table. 7. i. 4. "Where is Abel. Who was the discoverer of America is not yet fully determined by historians. It will ask of you. The world will not anxiously inquire who you are. 5. See Lesson 74. 10. This is a peculiar kind of complex sentence.

The advice that St.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Analysis. that ------. There has been some dispute about who wrote "Shakespeare's Plays. +Explanation+.--The grammatical subject it has no meaning till explained by the noun clause. the noun clause will become explanatory. 7. "Night's candles are burnt out. By supplying of the fact." 15. We are not certain that an open sea surrounds the Pole. Tweed's defiant question was. Hamlet's exclamation was. "What are you going to do about it?" 3. ***** . Napoleon turned his Simplon road aside in order that he might save a tree mentioned by Caesar. mildew. the clause introduced by that is a noun clause explanatory of order. 13. The +noun clause+ may be used as +attribute complement+. 6. Have birds any sense of why they sing? birds | Have | sense =======|================ they | sing | \any \ -----|-----. that he was invulnerable in every part except the heel. This we know. "What a piece of work is man!" 5. A peculiarity of English is. that it has so many borrowed words. [Footnote: A similar explanation may be made of on condition that. Ambrose gave St. 8. Augustine in regard to conformity to local custom was in substance this: "When in Rome.\the | | It (/ \) | has been proved ==========|================== | +Explanation+. +Explanation+. introducing adverb clauses expressing condition." is one of the finest in literature. that our future depends on our present. 16. The question ever asked and never answered is. 11. The fact that mold. Lesson 65).] 10.' earth | is ' \ round ------|-------------. here used as the principal term of a prepositional phrase. Shakespeare's metaphor. the noun clause may be treated as the principal term of a prepositional phrase modifying the adjective certain. 9. 14. The +noun clause+ may be used as +principal term+ of a +prepositional phrase+.--Why they sing is an indirect question. 2. It is believed that sleep is caused by a diminution in the supply of blood to the brain. 17. We are all anxious that the future shall bring us success and triumph. The myth concerning Achilles is.--By supposing of to stand before that." 12. 77 1. "Where and how am I to exist in the Hereafter?" 4. The Sandwich Islander is confident that the strength and valor of his slain enemy pass into himself. in case that. do as the Romans do.--Unless in order that is taken as a conjunction connecting an adverb clause of purpose (see (7). The +noun clause+ may be used as +explanatory modifier+.\ of | \why \ / \ \------------+Explanation+. It has been proved that the earth is round. and yeast are plants is wonderful.

--That he was brave cannot be doubted = His being bravecannot be doubted. 2. By using it as a substitute for the subject clause.--Give the reasons for the use or the omission of the comma with the noun clauses in the preceding Lesson.--That the story of William Tell is a myth is now believed = It is now believed that the story of William Tell is a myth. The belief that stars are suns is held by astronomers. that different forms of government suit different stages of civilization. is a myth. and the subject to a possessive. The noun clause may be made prominent by separating it and inserting the independent clause between its parts. in the preceding Lessons. (Notice that the principal clause. But the real subject made explanatory of it is seldom set off. COMPOSITION--NOUN CLAUSE. See next Lesson for the punctuation of noun clauses that are questions or quotations. is set off by the comma. See Lesson 34. 2. 3. +Direction+. +Direction+.--Present usage seems to favor the omission of the comma with the clause used as subject or as object complement. 5.--The Noun Clause used as attribute complement is generally set off by the comma. The punctuation of the explanatory clause is like that of other explanatory modifiers. That stars are suns is the belief of astronomers. Astronomers believe that stars are suns. used parenthetically. The noun clause may be contracted by changing the predicate to a participle. Astronomers are confident that stars are suns. as admit transposition. using the independent clauses parenthetically:-1. I am aware that refinement of mind and clearness of thinking usually result from grammatical studies. +Example+.--Write the following sentences. Our conclusion is. The belief of astronomers is. 3.--Transpose such of the clauses used as object complements.+ 78 +Remarks+. Often the clause used as object complement may be placed first. it is now believed. transpose five subject clauses in Lesson 71.--Vary the following sentence so as to illustrate five different kinds of noun clauses:-+Model+. .--The story of William Tell. this clause may be placed last. that stars are suns. except where the comma would contribute to clearness. +Direction+. We believe that the first printing-press in America was set up in Mexico in 1536. +Example+.) +Direction+. It is true that the glorious sun pours down his golden flood as cheerily on the poor man's cottage as on the rich man's palace.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 73. +Example+.1.-.--By the aid of the expletive it. Punctuate them if they need punctuation. +COMMA--RULE. 4. +Direction+. 1.

6. They hold that taxation without representation is unjust.--Single marks (' ') inclose a quotation within a quotation. That the caterpillar changes to a butterfly is a curious fact.--Make the following complex sentences simple by changing the noun clauses to phrases:-- 79 1. When a quotation is divided by a parenthetical expression.--Contract these noun clauses to infinitive phrases:-1. +Direction+. and the subject the object complement. as. 5. Caesar Augustus issued a decree that all the world should be taxed. "than be president.--Expand into complex sentences such of the sentences in Lesson 41 as contain an objective complement and an object complement that together are equivalent to a clause. That we guard our liberty with vigilance is a sacred duty. If. 2. 3. 3. 1. We are all anxious that we may make a good impression. A noun clause may be contracted to an infinitive phrase. "I would rather be right. that the eye is blinded. +Direction+. I believe that he is a foreigner. 4. that she has no respect for the newspaper. "He lies like the telegraph. 2. He cannot find out how he is to go there. when changed to an infinitive phrase. and the subjects to object complements:-+Model+." .--King Ahasuerus commanded that Haman should be hanged = King Ahasuerus commanded Haman to be hanged. 4. A man's chief objection to a woman is. COMPOSITION--NOUN CLAUSE--CONTINUED.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. He does not know whom he should send. The effect of looking upon the sun is. as." said Clay. especially where the three marks come at the end. the double marks are again used."'" This introduction of a third quotation should generally be avoided. She was aware that I appreciated her situation. ***** LESSON 74. 'It will soon come to be said. The noun clause may be contracted by making the predicate. +QUOTATION MARKS--RULE. within the quotation having single marks. How wide do you think that the Atlantic ocean is? 5. "The incorrectness of the dispatches led Bismarck to declare. each part of the quotation is inclosed. Many people believe that Webster was the greatest of American statesmen. Everybody admits that Cromwell was a great leader. The thought that we are spinning around the sun at the rate of twenty miles a second makes us dizzy. +Direction+. 2. The Governor ordered that the prisoner should be set free. +Remarks+. Every one desires that he may live long and happily.--Quotation marks ("") inclose a copied word or passage+. 5. +Example+. 7.--Make the following complex sentences simple by changing the predicates of the noun clauses to objective complements. still another quotation is made. as above. 3. the objective complement. 4.--That he should vote is the duty of every American citizen = To vote is the duty of every American citizen.

and is not inclosed within quotation marks.--Analyze the sentences given for arrangement and contraction in Lesson 73. +Remarks+. but not whose exact words. when a question contains a quotation. The reference here of the pronoun he is somewhat ambiguous. An indirect question is not generally set off by a comma. whether a question or not. and is inclosed within quotation marks--though these may be omitted. as. . does not necessarily begin with a capital letter.--The first word of a direct quotation making complete sense or of a direct question introduced into a sentence should begin with a capital letter+. but not directly asked or quoted as such. The indirect quotation is not generally set off by the comma. some of which shall be formally introduced. and which is followed by an interrogation point. "What are you living for?" but. and look carefully to the punctuation and the capitalization. +CAPITAL LETTER--RULE. this order is reversed. and the indirect to direct. +Direction+. tell why they do or do not begin with capital letters. The direct question introduced into a sentence is set off by the comma (but no comma is used after the interrogation point). Change these to the indirect form. are copied. ***** LESSON 75. especially in indirect quotations. as. does not necessarily begin with a capital letter.--Write sentences illustrating the last paragraph of the Remarks under the Rule for Quotation Marks. and which is not followed by an interrogation point. as well as thought. the interrogation point. is formally introduced (see Lesson 147). "Thou art the man." He put the question thus: "Can you do it?" +Direction+. and some of which shall be questions occurring at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence. and the quotation marks. and is not inclosed within quotation marks. Nathan's words to David were these: "Thou art the man. Cain asked whether he was his brother's keeper. as. as. Nathan told David that he was the man. He asked. as. it is preceded by the colon. Cain asked.--Rewrite these same sentences. is copied. ANALYSIS. If the direct quotation. +Direction+. as. Guard against this.--Point out the direct and the indirect quotations and questions in the sentences of Lesson 71. Nathan said to David. changing the direct quotations and questions to indirect.--A +direct quotation+ is one whose exact words. May we not find "sermons in stones"? So also with the exclamation point." An +indirect quotation+ is one whose thought.--Write five sentences containing direct quotations. and is inclosed within quotation marks--though these may be omitted. +Direction+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 80 In quoting a question. A +direct question+ introduced into a sentence is one in which the exact words and their order in an interrogative sentence (see Lesson 55) are preserved. the interrogation point must stand within the quotation marks. "Am I my brother's keeper?" An +indirect question+ is one which is referred to as a question. begins with a capital letter. +Direction+. as. The direct quotation is set off by the comma. and justify the use or the omission of the comma. begins with a capital letter.

+ Analysis. excludes the other. Temperance promotes health. +DEFINITION.--A Simple Sentence is a sentence that contains but one subject and one predicate. ' ' bayonets | ' think . the wetness of the ground. +Independent Clauses+ in the +same line+ of thought. But this the real.+ +DEFINITION.. and Monk made another.+ +DEFINITION. intemperance destroys it. either or both of which may be compound. as effect to cause--the ground is made wet by the raining. or history belies them. Light | has spread =======|============= | ' ' ' and .. This kind of connection is common. really stands to the other fact. as cause to effect--the raining made the ground wet. therefore it has rained. hence the ground is wet. Sentences made up of independent clauses we call +Compound Sentences. Unless the connecting word expresses the dependence of one of the clauses. present thoughts between which you may choose. The Tudors were despotic. THE COMPOUND SENTENCE.. Man has his will. or logical relation between the facts in either sentence is expressed in a sentence of the compound form--an and may be placed before therefore and hence. Here the inferred fact. the wetness of the ground. +DEFINITION. Here the independent clauses are joined to each other by their very position in the sentence--connected without any conjunction.--An Independent Clause is one not dependent on another clause.--A Complex Sentence is a sentence composed of an independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. the grammarian regards them both as independent. Here the conjunction connects independent clauses whose thoughts stand in contrast with each other.--A Compound Sentence is a sentence composed of two or more independent clauses.. 81 +Introductory Hints+.--A Clause is a part of a sentence containing' a subject and its predicate. accepted. but either. the raining.+ SENTENCES CLASSIFIED WITH RESPECT TO FORM. The ground is wet.+ +DEFINITION. but woman has her way. 1.--A Dependent Clause is one used as an adjective. an adverb. Here the inferred fact. continues the line of thought begun by the first. the raining. The independent clauses.--Cromwell made one revolution. The second clause. and bayonets think.. connected by or.+ +DEFINITION.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 76. or a noun. The two clauses are independent of each other. It has rained. Light has spread. added by the conjunction and to the first. really stands to the other fact..

7. The ship leaps. or the adverb may be regarded as the connective. Of thy unspoken word thou art master.) +Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts one of which is an +inference+ from the other. People in the streets are carrying umbrellas. +Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts in +contrast.--As it were is an independent clause used parenthetically. 12. some achieve greatness. and some have greatness thrust upon them. therefore I believe. but put your money in trust. 3. Ready writing makes not good writing. speaking of the two Pitts) contains such a father and such a son! ***** LESSON 77. and abundant streams of revenue gushed forth.+ 4.) 9. thy spoken word is master of thee. or you will have to be abstinent in old age. +Independent Clauses+ joined in the sentence +without a conjunction+. Lesson 20. The man dies. I | have seen ===|=========== | ' ' I | ' believe ===|='========= |\' \therefore +Explanation+. nor are they extremely warm in summer. Hamilton smote the rock of the national resources. +Independent Clauses+ expressing thoughts in +alternation+. Put not your trust in money. 10. and the line connecting them is not slanting. 13. as it were. Be temperate in youth. COMPOSITION--COMPOUND SENTENCE. 2. 14.--The clauses are of equal rank. the reindeer is the camel of the desert of snow. The camel is the ship of the ocean of sand.--In such constructions and may be supplied. (See (16).Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ===========|========== | 82 +Explanation+. and so the lines on which they stand are shaded alike. 16. Religion--who can doubt it?--is the noblest of themes for the exercise of intellect. . What grave (these are the words of Wellesley. hence it must be raining. Places near the sea are not extremely cold in winter. +Oral Analysis+. 15. As one entire clause is connected with the other. I have seen. (Here a choice is denied.--This is a compound sentence because it is made up of independent clauses. The diagram illustrates therefore as connective. As simply introduces it. Some are born great. Either Hamlet was mad. from billow to billow. or he feigned madness admirably. 11. +Explanation+. 8. the connecting line is drawn between the predicates merely for convenience. 6. but good writing brings on ready writing. 5. but his memory lives.

and compounding the remaining parts. +Examples+. or it may be inclosed within marks of parenthesis--the marks of parenthesis showing the least degree of connection in sense. and give the reasons for your choice of connectives:-Read not that you may find material for argument and conversation.] 6. 3. and tide waits for no man = Timeand tide wait for no man. The spirit of the Almighty is within us.1. the semi-colon is used+. +Direction+.--Time waits for no man. Can the leopard change his spots? The winds blew and beat upon that house. or our passions will conquer us. Language is not the dress of thought. Antithesis gives great force to the thought expressed by it. 83 +Remark+.--Contract these compound sentences. The floods came. [Footnote: In this sentence we have a figure of speech called +Antithesis+. The rain descended. and Baron Steuben fought for American independence. and the sweet but fading graces of inspiring autumn dispose the mind for contemplation. Occidental manhood springs from self-respect Oriental manhood finds its greatest satisfaction in self-abasement. It is not simply its vehicle. 5.) +Direction+. The sweet but fading graces of inspiring autumn open the mind to benevolence. and the alternative or or nor. but good is in the ascendant. 2.--Assign reasons for the punctuation of the independent clauses in the preceding Lesson. Wealth may seek us but wisdom must be sought. Read that you may weigh and consider the thoughts of others. when short and closely connected. and the spirit of the Almighty is above us. 3. Sentences containing it furnish us our best examples of +Balanced Sentences+. +Direction+. the adversative but. +Example+.--Punctuate the following sentences. See the last three sentences in the preceding Lesson.--Using the copulative and. (The rule above is another example. We must conquer our passions. and give your reasons:-1.--Independent Clauses. Lafayette fought for American independence. You will find other antitheses in this Lesson and in the preceding. A compound sentence may be contracted by simply omitting from one clause such words as may readily be . Can the Ethiopian change his skin? Righteousness exalteth a nation. attending carefully to the punctuation:-1. but. Sin is a reproach to any people. The race is not to the swift nor the battle to the strong. The epic poem recites the exploits of a hero tragedy represents a disastrous event comedy ridicules the vices and follies of mankind pastoral poetry describes rural life and elegy displays the tender emotions of the heart. Compound sentences may be contracted by using but once the parts common to all the clauses. 4. 2. form compound sentences out of the following simple sentences. when the clauses are slightly connected. It fell. Great was the fall of it. the miser robs himself. or when they are themselves divided into parts by the comma. +Direction+. The wind and the rain are over the clouds are divided in heaven over the green hill flies the inconstant sun.--A parenthetical clause may be set oil by the comma or by the dash. and must triumph at last. The prodigal robs his heirs. 3.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +COMMA and SEMICOLON--RULE. are separated by the+ +comma. the spirit of the Almighty is around us.-. in which things unlike in some particular are set over against each other. There is a fierce conflict between good and evil. The more discussion the better if passion and personality be avoided and discussion even if stormy often winnows truth from error. 2. Each part shines with its own light and with the light reflected from the other part.

--Change one of the independent clauses in each of these sentences to a dependent clause. +Direction+. 5. 5. and was by the adverb clause before captivity had unstrung his sinews. Mirth should be the embroidery of conversation.--He is witty. I heard that you wished to see me. Here just as the word modifier quietly is itself modified by very. and the principal word of that by another: so man. I saw. and clauses of equal rank. or order. and he has justly been likened to him.--Change these compound sentences to complex sentences:-1. +Introductory Hints+. Here we have co-ordinate words. and the hours will take care of themselves = If you take care of the minutes. but it should not be the web.--Take care of the minutes. and I lost no time in coming.--Contract these sentences:-- 84 1. 3.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg supplied from the other. and just as fruit. 3. like the three words and the three phrases in the complex word modifier and the complex phrase . +Direction+. but it is improperly called so. It was his address that pleased me. and to France. and it was not his dress that pleased me. the principal word in a modifying phrase. +Direction+. that is. because it was built upon a rock = The house. William the Silent has been likened to Washington.--Sun and moon and stars obey. Leaves fall so very quietly. COMPLEX AND COMPOUND CLAUSES. Our friends heard of our coming. Govern your passions. and or as connectives. 1. I came.) +Direction+. +Example+. Was Cabot the discoverer of America. co-ordinate phrases. ***** LESSON 78. and therefore it did not fall = The house did not fall. (Notice that the imperative form adds force. the hours will take care of themselves. words.--The house was built upon a rock. but. Peter the Great went to Holland. 4. A compound sentence may sometimes be changed to a complex sentence without materially changing the sense. He converses. and he will flee from you. and so he surrendered. 2. to England. did not fall. and at the same time he plays a difficult piece of music. I conquered. 2. in the adverb clause which modifies would have paused. compose three compound sentences. These three dependent clauses in the complex clause modifier. but he is vulgar = He is witty but vulgar. He found that he could not escape. and they hastened to meet us. is itself modified by the adjective clause that he was. 2. Example. He was faithful. or was he not the discoverer of America? 4. and he was rewarded. and very by so.--Using and. and co-ordinate clauses. They ate of the fruit from the tree in the garden. phrases. or they will govern you. Resist the devil. It is called so. being built upon a rock. is modified by another phrase. and then change the dependent clause to a participle phrase:-+Model+. Regulus would have paused if he had been the man that he was before captivity had unstrung his sinews. each containing three independent clauses.

although Parliament frequently urged it. and holds supremely with sentences in the paragraph. which are decorated with the most brilliant colors. of expression. The +clauses+ of +complex+ and +compound+ sentences may themselves be +complex+ or +compound+. This principle of +Parallel Construction+.] 7. Glaciers.--The first diagram illustrates the analysis of the compound adjective clause in (3) below.. and the whole body is bathed and cooled. 10... 9. 5. Each adjective clause is connected to insects by which. when Winchester had been defeated. the upper surface flows faster than the lower. In Holland the stork is protected by law. and the peace of England demanded it. ' ' it | ' revolves ' ===|='============'= | He | proved | / \ ====|============= | +Explanation+. but Elizabeth would not marry.. and consequently to the force. as here used.. ` ` ' ` `which | are decorated ` ======|=============== ` | ' ` 'and ` . ` ' ` which | soar ' `======|======= | hour | had passed =========|============= \The |` ' ` ' and ` . the six or seven millions of perspiration tubes pour out their fluid. form an element. have passed the greater portion of their lives in the bowels of the earth.. And connects the co-ordinate clauses. which is destructive to fire. [Footnote: In tongue.] ***** . as the which clauses in (3).. have their words in the same order. "Shall we gather at the river?" 3. Lesson 46. is used in place of that other.. and in (14) and (15). flowing down mountain gorges.. that one small head could carry all he knew. but differing in meaning from it. Milton said that he did not educate his daughters in the languages. and which soar on the most ethereal wings. requiring like ideas to be expressed alike. and oxygen is a supporter of combustion. both... one co-ordinate with the other. ` ' opportunity | ` had escaped ============|==`============ \the | ` \ ` ' ` ' `' ` `while ` he | ` tarried ----|------------. when your arms on shore were covered by disaster.. Some one has said that the milkman's favorite song should be. combined... as in (10) and (14). and when the gloom of despondency hung. we have a +Pun+--a witty expression in which a word agreeing in sound with another word. or of equal rank. 2. 4. This is a compound sentence. Lesson 28. are formed on the same plan. over the land.... like a cloud. running.| that ----' earth | ' is \ round =========|======'======== | ' that ' and ----. The third diagram illustrates the analysis of a complex sentence containing a compound noun clause. rowing. or making furious speeches.. though hydrogen is highly inflammable. as is explained on page 168. Analysis. Some of the insects which are most admired. which is as little disputed as any verse in the catechism. and made the welkin ring with the shouts of victory? [Footnote: The when clauses in (11). Not to wear one's best things every day is a maxim of New England thrift. insects ---------.` ` ` ` ` `which | are admired ` ` `=====|============= ` ` | ' ` ` ' x ` ` . The second diagram shows that the clause while he tarried modifies both predicates of the independent clauses. and tarried. are not co-ordinate. obey the law of rivers. who first relit the fires of national glory.. While modifies had passed. as illustrated by the short lines under the first two verbs and the line over tarried. 6. 1. The office of while as connective is shown by the dotted lines.. composed of the simple clause which precedes but and the complex clause which follows it--the complex clause being composed of an independent clause and two dependent clauses. Parallel construction contributes to the clearness. It is one of the most marvelous facts in the natural world that. 85 Mary married Philip. because one tongue was enough for a woman. Sin has a great many tools. when the Army of the Northwest had surrendered...Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg modifier. and the two connected by and. 11. and the center faster than the adjacent sides. When a man becomes overheated by working. In your war of 1812. but a lie is a handle which fits them all. water. because it eats the frogs and worms that would injure the dikes. Still the wonder grew. had escaped.. holds also in phrases. 8.

drew it. (Adjective clause.) 2. White garments. virtue could sustain itself.) 7. 2. Sitting there. (Noun clause.) 6. What if he is poor? 5. She regrets not having read it. And so shall Regulus. 10.) +Absolute phrases+ may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+. The icebergs floated down.) 5. Analysis. +Direction+. suing for pardon.) 3. (Degree.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 79. Aeneas came into Italy.) 4. (Condition.) 8. Writing carefully. He handles it as if it were glass. he steps on board. he must have a genial disposition. reflecting the rays of the sun. the cavalry remaining in the rear. (Noun clause. Herod will seek the young child to destroy it. The bridges having been swept away. (Adjective clause. The infantry advanced. (Time.) 5. 2.) 7.--Expand the participles in these sentences into the clauses indicated:-- 86 1. 8.) 6. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW.--Expand these absolute phrases into the clauses indicated:-1. however awful.) 4. I regard him more as a historian than as a poet.--Expand these infinitive phrases into the clauses indicated:-1. we returned. so to speak. he loved his children better. 9. no effect is produced. No examples. (Condition. EXPANSION.) 4. cooling the air for miles around. (Purpose. 11. They have nothing to wear. no one would be old. you will learn to write well. Desiring to live long. 4. He is not an Englishman. (Evidence.) 3. (Cause. He does not know where to go. It happens with books as with mere acquaintances. half way about on but. fight as he never fought before. sink into the heart. (Purpose. (Independent clause. that I might have one more day! 3. (Cause. takes the helm.) 9. (Condition. ***** LESSON 80.) 3. but a Frenchman. He is braver than wise. A cause not preceding. Simon Peter. having a sword. +Direction+. +Participles+ may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+. Much as he loved his wealth.) 5. They went to the temple. There being no dew this morning. I will go whether you go or not.) 2. Loved by all. I shall be happy to hear of your safe arrival. (Concession. (Concession. 1. it must have been cloudy or windy last night. (Independent clause.) +Direction+. I heard the cry of "Fire!" (Time. (Cause. Oh. He is a fool to waste his time so. (Evidence. though dead. 7. The weather is so warm as to dissolve the snow.) +Infinitive+ phrases may be expanded into different kinds of +clauses+. +Direction+.--Complete these elliptical expressions:-1. are cool in summer.) 6. The energy which drives our locomotives and forces our . (Time. 6. Troy being taken by the Greeks.--Holmes. All things else being destroyed.) 2. The adversative sentence faces. and steers straight for the Maelstrom. Whenever the wandering demon of Drunkenness finds a ship adrift.

He prayeth best who loveth best all things both [Footnote: See Lesson 20.--Lowell.--Whately.--Irving. Of all sad words of tongue or pen the saddest are these: "It might have been. There is a class among us so conservative that they are afraid the roof will come down if you sweep off the cobwebs. 5. which.--Longfellow. I fear three newspapers more than a hundred thousand bayonets. What is bolder than a miller's neck-cloth. 2.--Coleridge. 3. The men whom men respect. when we lack fit words. its huge flanks purr very pleasantly for you. Office confers no honor upon a man who is worthy of it.--Higginson. that it is robbing the human race.--Holland. whichever. 10. than Norman blood. for the dear God. 1. but I don't do as well as I can.--Gladstone. if his pistol misses fire. .--Phillips. and they became as blood. fair in garden. when.--Parton. A breath of New England's air is better than a sup of Old England's ale. There is no getting along with Johnson. in any one place. The evil of silencing the expression of an opinion is.--Koran.--Kant. that. There is a good deal of oratory in me. 12. 3. Gilbert. MISCELLANEOUS EXERCISES IN REVIEW. and smote the rivers and the brooks and the ponds. 5. 13. and it will disgrace every man who is not. Give examples of adjective clauses connected by who. It is better to write one word upon the rock than a thousand on the water or the sand. 6. build.--Sir T.--Nasby. like a spitzenburg apple. are the men and women who bless their species.--Sallust. we lack fit thoughts. 13. Show that an adjective clause may be equivalent to an Infinitive phrase or a participle phrase. were curiously mottled and streaked with dusky red. or sail obey virtue. No scene is continually loved but one rich by joyful human labor. Were the happiness of the next world as closely apprehended as the felicities of this. smooth in field. We wondered whether the saltness of the Dead Sea was not Lot's wife in solution. 6. whose. which seemed to have taken toll of everything that went into his mouth.--Curtis.--Mill. Analysis. Commend me to the preacher who has learned by experience what are human ills and what is human wrong. full in orchard. REVIEW. and show that each connective performs also the office of a pronoun or that of an adverb. and the Caution regarding the position of the adjective clause. where. 7. All those things for which men plow. Show that an adjective may be expanded into an equivalent phrase or clause. 12. 8. out of respect to the memory of Patrick Henry. --Napoleon. he made and loveth all. who loveth us. why. 7. which takes a thief by the throat every morning?--German Proverb. 14. ***** LESSON 81.--Tennyson.] great and small. 9. 4. 15. Van Twiller's full-fed cheeks.--Goldsmith. he knocks you down with the butt of it."--Whittier. He that allows himself to be a worm must not complain if he is trodden on.--Cooke.--Holmes.--Sir H.--Boyd. The setting sun stretched his celestial rods of light across the level landscape.--Ruskin. Kind hearts are more than coronets. We are as near to heaven by sea as by land. 4.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 87 steamships through the waves comes from the sun. 8.--White. A ruler who appoints any man to an office when there is in his dominions another man better qualified for it sins against God and against the state. and simple faith. it were a martyrdom to live. Browne. We think in words. and. the women whom women approve. 11. ***** LESSON 82. 9. what. 14. The sea licks your feet. To speak perfectly well one must feel that he has got to the bottom of his subject. 11. No language that cannot suck up the feeding juices secreted for it in the rich mother-earth of common folk can bring forth a sound and lusty book. but it will crack your bones and eat you for all that. 10. Give and illustrate fully the Rule for punctuating the adjective clause.

+ Verb (11). absolute phrases. +Complements. Illustrate the different ways of contracting noun clauses. Give the Rule for the punctuation of independent clauses. Give and illustrate fully the Rule for quotation marks. Phrase (37. Scheme for the Sentence. Illustrate five different offices of a noun clause.+ Adjective (29. Illustrate and explain the different ways in which independent clauses connected by and. 40). Give participle phrases. What three parts of speech may connect clauses? GENERAL REVIEW. 41). Phrase (37. ***** LESSON 84. Illustrate the different positions of a noun clause used as object complement. 40).+ Adjective (31). but.) +PARTS. and illustrate fully. Explain the office of the expletive it. and infinitive phrases. Define the different classes of sentences with regard to form. Illustrate the different ways of contracting independent clauses. Illustrate the different ways of contracting adverb clauses. Clause (72). Illustrate and explain the distinction between a dependent and an independent clause. Explain the two different ways of treating clauses introduced by in order that. REVIEW. Clause (71). Define the different kinds of clauses. ***** LESSON 83.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 88 Show that an adverb may be expanded into an equivalent phrase or clause. +Predicate.+ Noun or Pronoun (28). 30). REVIEW.+ +Subject. The pupils should be able to reproduce it except the Lesson numbers. Noun or Pronoun (29. and explain the office of each and the fitness of the name. Show how the noun clause may be made prominent. 40). Show how independent clauses may be joined in sense without a connecting word. TO THE TEACHER. and the distinction between direct and indirect questions introduced into a sentence. Participle (37). +Objective. and hence are related in sense.+ +Object. Clause (71). +Attribute.+ Noun or Pronoun (8).--This scheme will be found very helpful in a general review. Phrase (38. Give and explain fully the Rule for the punctuation of adverb clauses. 30). Noun (or Pronoun) (31). Tell all about their capitalization and punctuation. between compound and complex phrases. Illustrate the different positions of adverb clauses. Phrase (38. Participle (37). and expand them into different kinds of clauses. Illustrate and explain fully the distinction between direct and indirect quotations. Illustrate the different kinds of adverb clauses. . Illustrate and explain the difference between compound and complex word modifiers. Define a clause. between compound and complex clauses. etc. (The numbers refer to Lessons. or.

forego The godlike power to do. 63. Here. Then it is the brave man chooses. Andirons. 65. find it convenient to prepare extra or miscellaneous work better suited to their own needs. Clauses (59. 71. +Form. Knowing who hears the ravens cry. in the lap of sensual ease. TO THE TEACHER. 9. but. Compound (76). 64. piping loud. The sparrows chirped as if they still were proud Their race in Holy Writ should mentioned be. Doubting in his abject spirit. In this parlor claw-footed chairs and dark mahogany tables shone like mirrors. From this piazza the wondering Ichabod entered the hall.--Lowell. 4. the godlike aim to know. as well as the logical construction of these passages.+ Declarative. 76). The robin and the blue-bird. 10.+ Adjectives (12). this day. 37. but. In another corner stood a quantity of linsey-woolsey just from the loom. 2. 60). Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. 63. Better with naked nerve to bear The needles of this goading air Than. assembled in a crowd.--We believe that you will find the preceding pages unusually full and rich in illustrative selections. if you speak at all. Pronouns (59.--These and similar "Exercises" are entirely outside of the regular lessons. with their accompanying shovel and tongs. . 6. to prepare the way for what is afterwards presented more formally and scientifically. In one corner stood a huge bag of wool ready to be spun. 64). "Give us. +Classes. O Lord. 8. 38. ADAPTED FROM IRVING'S "SKETCH BOOK. and said. This hall formed the center of the mansion and the place of usual residence. Complex. glistened from their covert of asparagus tops. 65). ranged on a long dresser. Let the pupils discuss the thought and the poetic form. The questions appended to the following sentences are made easy of answer.+ Simple. And hungry crows. TO THE TEACHER. 41). rows of resplendent pewter. Ere her cause bring fame and profit. from lack of time or of material. Clamored their piteous prayer incessantly. 35)." 1.+ +Meaning.--Holmes. the following selections will afford profitable study. Then to side with Truth is noble when we share her wretched crust. Nouns and Pronouns (33. but in continuing such exercises the teacher will. Speak clearly. 60. 40.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 89 +Modifiers. Exclamatory (46). 64. Interrogative. +Independent Parts+ (44). It will be evident that this work aims not only to enforce instruction given before Lesson 17. 3. +Connectives. on its flowery strand. Of God's occasions drifting by. Adverbs (60. so frame the questions as more and more to throw responsibility on the pupil. Better to stem with heart and hand The roaring tide of life than lie. Phrases (17. Participles (37). by an easy and familiar examination of words and groups of words. We do not advise putting them in diagram. A door left ajar gave him a peep into the best parlor. Unmindful. Filled all the blossoming orchards with their glee. Additional Selections.+ Conjunctions (20. 7. should additional work be needed for reviews or for maturer classes. Adverbs (14). Carve every word before you let it fall. till his Lord is crucified. Imperative. our daily bread!" --Longfellow. Ears of Indian corn and strings of dried apples and peaches hung in gay festoons along the walls. 5. and 't is prosperous to be just. These were mingled with the gaud of red peppers. of course. They are offered to those teachers who may not. dazzled his eyes. while the coward stands aside. --Whittier.

Mock-oranges and conch-shells decorated the mantelpiece. We recommend that this work be varied and continued through the selection above and through others that may easily be made. What group of words tells the position of the rows? In the fourth sentence what group of words shows where the bag stood? Of wool ready to be spun describes what? A and huge are attached to what? TO THE TEACHER. 13. by representing the door as "ajar" instead of wide open? Why? Can you see any similar effect from introducing their covert in the tenth sentence? What does the expression knowingly left open suggest to you? This selection from Irving illustrates the +Descriptive+ style of writing. you may join the sentences neatly together. formed. 90 +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. How is a similar effect produced in the ninth and the tenth sentence? You see that this great artist in words does not here need to repeat his language. industry. Find several compound nouns the parts of which are joined with the hyphen. something about both ears and strings? In the ninth sentence put what before the predicate shone and find two nouns that answer the question. Change the order of words and read these sentences. Find more common expressions for center of the mansion and place of usual residence. . together with the more formal and searching work of the regular lessons.] 11. Strings of various-colored birds' eggs were suspended above it. knowingly left open.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg [Footnote: Asparagus tops were commonly used to ornament the old-fashioned fireplace in summer. They will not only afford the best mental discipline but will aid greatly in getting thought and in expressing thought. Such exercises. and find the names that answer these questions. What does of the mansion go with? What does of usual residence describe? In the third sentence what word tells where the dazzling occurred? Find a group of three words telling what the rows were composed of. or asserts. Notice in the third sentence the effect of resplendent and dazzled.--We have here suggested some of the devices by which pupils may be led to see the functions of words and phrases. does each belong? Notice that in the fourth and the fifth sentence the subject is put after the predicate. or what is only suggested? What is gained by this expression and by just from the loom in the next sentence? Do you think an unskillful artist would have used in gay festoons? Read the seventh and make it more common but less quaint. In the sixth sentence what word says. In the fourth sentence does the expression ready to be spun tell what is actually seen.--+ Can you find any reason why we are invited to see this picture through the eyes of the interested and wondering Ichabod? Do you think the word wondering well chosen and suggestive? Look through this picture carefully and tell what there is that indicates thrift. Read in their regular order the two chief words of each. As a part of the sentence what is each of these words called? To what class of words. +The Force and the Beauty of the Description above. found in the preceding sentence? Find the subject and the predicate of each sentence from the sixth to the thirteenth inclusive. The and wondering in the first sentence go with what noun? The group of words from this piazza goes with what word? In the second sentence put what before. In the description above we have taken some liberties with the original. We can easily imagine that he could produce the same effect in a great variety of ways. or loses. will be found of incalculable value to the pupil. or names. The parts of this picture as made by Irving were smoothly and delicately blended together. You may rewrite this description. Perhaps some of these sentences may be changed to become parts of other sentences. and then after. 12. displayed immense treasures of old silver and well-mended china. To what class of words does each of these chief parts belong? Find in these sentences nouns that are not subjects. where it can be done to advantage.--Find the two chief words in each of the first three sentences. and prosperity. for we have broken it up into single sentences. A corner-cupboard. SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITION WORK. Do you think the picture gains. In the eleventh sentence what two things does decorated tell something about? In the seventh sentence thesestands for what two nouns. or part of speech. and.

convoying whole fleets of ducks. all such compositions should he short. but seemed bursting does. ADAPTED FROM IRVING'S "SKETCH BOOK. the structure. 4. the rules for punctuation. The flail was busily resounding within from morning till night. Some sat with their heads under their wings or buried in their bosoms. Sleek. employments. would make a complete sentence. Some sat with one eye turned up as if watching the weather. How many predicate . Seemed does not make sense. What does forth modify? What does with the treasures of the farm modify? In the third sentence what two nouns form the subject of skimmed? What connects these two nouns? In the fourth what word tells what the rows were enjoying? In the fifth turned up as if watching the weather describes what? As if watching the weathergoes with what? The expression introduced by as if is a shortened form. with their attitudes. 6. and crowing in the pride and gladness of his heart--sometimes tearing up the earth with his feet. and the style of the great masters in language must lead to a discriminating taste for literature. A written reproduction of the selection may then be made from memory. 3. In these descriptions different persons might be introduced. and the effect upon the pupil's own habits of thought and expression will necessarily be to lift him above the insipid. descriptions of home scenes. They were watching the weather. Others were swelling and cooing and bowing about their dames. troops of sucking pigs. like ill-tempered housewives. From these pens sallied forth. then. the start. Before the barn-door strutted the gallant cock. Putting in some of the words omitted. Swallows and martins skimmed twittering about the eaves. clapping his burnished wings. may easily be anticipated informally. In the study of these selections. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. they might make descriptions of their own. Rows of pigeons were enjoying the sunshine on the roof." 1. 5. see pages 157-162. For exercises in narration pupils might write about trips to these homes. This study of the thought.--It will be found profitable for pupils to break up for themselves into short sentences model selections from classic English. discontented cry.) To insure thoroughness. 9. (For studies on narrative style. 11. 8. Regiments of turkeys were gobbling through the farmyard. the journey.--In the first sentence seemedasserts something about what two things? Every goes with what word or words? What word or words does the phrase of the vast barn make more definite in meaning? The two words window and crevice are joined together by what word? The group of words bursting forth with the treasures of the farm describes what? Notice that bursting also helps seemed to say something about window and crevice. and other rules. so far as possible. Guinea fowls fretted about. 10. especially in the work of copying. as if to snuff the air. drawing from imagination or experience. explain how these were blended together in the original. if standing by itself. telling about the preparation. 7. 12. after examining the structure and style as suggested above. now and then. with their peevish. and then generously calling his ever-hungry family of wives and children to enjoy the rich morsel which he had discovered. and. A stately squadron of snowy geese was riding in an adjoining pond. You see that one sentence may be made a part of another sentence. 2. +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. What does each of the two phrases under their wings and buried in their bosoms describe? What connects these two phrases? In the seventh sentence were is understood before cooing and before bowing. unwieldy porkers were grunting in the repose and abundance of their pens. and acts of hospitality. and the reception. Every window and crevice of the vast barn seemed bursting forth with the treasures of the farm. 13.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 91 TO THE TEACHER. commonplace matter and language that characterize much of the so-called "original" composition work. to note and. we have as if they were watching the weather. For composition work more nearly original the class might read together or discuss. formally stated further on.

rich morsel. adjectives. in the thirteenth." In the thirteenth sentence notice how well chosen and forceful are the words strutted. generously. when read together. Clapping. Except in this one fancied resemblance the two are wholly unlike. ever-hungry. What phrase tells the cause of crowing? The phrase to enjoy the rich morsel which he had discovered tells the purpose of what? Which he had discovered limits the meaning of what? The pronoun which here stands for morsel. It will be noticed that in the questions above we especially anticipate the regular lessons that follow Lesson 27. crowing.--Why may we say that this farmyard scene is surrounded by an atmosphere of plenty. tearing. Here you will see a sentence has again been made a part of another sentence. Which he had discovered = He had discovered morsel. In the repose and abundance of their pens is much better than the words substituted above. burnished." +The Beauty and the Force of the Description above+. See whether you can find substitutes for these italicized words. gallant. each asserting something about the pigeons represented by others? Why are these verbs not separated by commas? What two nouns form the principal part of the phrase in the eighth sentence? What connects these two nouns? Read the ninth sentence and put the subject before the predicate. all describe what? Notice that all the other words following the subject go with these four. tearing.--It may be well to let the pupils complete the examination of the structure of the sentences above and point out nouns. pounding. sound. Find the three words that answer the questions made by putting what after clapping. calling. TO THE TEACHER. and content? Which do you prefer. Young writers find it difficult to make very long sentences perfectly clear in meaning. or this substitute for it: "The large barn was entirely full of the products of the farm"? Give every reason that you can find for your preference. and perhaps other things? A good description mentions such things and uses such words as will help us to see in imagination many things not mentioned. This figure is used above when flocks are called "squadrons" and "fleets. It is shorter and stronger. In the tenth sentence convoying whole fleets of ducksdescribes what? Does convoying assert anything about the squadron? Change it into a predicate verb.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 92 verbs do you find. There is danger of making your sentences too long. verbs. We often speak of a barn or storehouse as "bursting with plenty. "Guinea fowls are fretting housewives. Arrange the ninth sentence in as many ways as possible and tell which way you prefer. Such expressions are called +Figures of Speech+. happiness. It uses instead of the verb reposing and the adjective abundant the nouns repose and abundance. remembering that a similar expression in the fifth sentence was explained. Repose and abundance are thus made the striking features of the pen." Do the words busily resoundingjoined to flail bring into our imagination men. The sentences in the description above. The fourth. unwieldy porkers would be too high-sounding an expression for you to use ordinarily. This we do in all such "Exercises. sixth." Sleek. Were the wings actually burnished? What can you say of this use of burnished? SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITION WORK. In the twelfth sentence find one word and two phrases joined to fretted. the first sentence above. ." we have a figure of speech called +Metaphor+. fifth. and seventh can all be put into one. have a somewhat broken or jerky effect. If we leave out like and say. You may unite smoothly such as should be joined. Examine the second sentence and compare it with the following: "The men were busy all day pounding out the grain with flails." or of a table as "groaning with a load of good things. You may now explain as if to snuff the air. and makes these the principal words in the phrase. What can you say of regimentsin the eleventh? In the twelfth Guinea fowls are compared to housewives. Such comparisons frequently made by as and like are called +Similes+. Notice that without which there would be no connection. grain." when there is really no bursting nor groaning. pronouns. and adverbs. In the third sentence would you prefer skimmed to flew? Why? Compare the eighth sentence with this: "Large fat hogs were grunting in their pens and reposing quietly with an abundant supply of food. Is a real squadron referred to in the tenth sentence? and were the geese actually convoying fleets? These are figurative uses of words. and calling. but it is in tone with the rest of the description.

4. and eating the other. intending such as we had in Boston. but they. 6. Find a phrase belonging to I and representing Franklin as doing something. The latter I gave the people of the boat for my passage. What phrase belongs to went. paragraph 1. The second of these three sentences just made contains several sentences which are not so easily separated. Do the same for 2. Find in it a subject. by telling why? In 1. So not considering or knowing the difference of money. I was dirty from my journey. three great puffy rolls. a predicate. one a noun and the other a group of five words. it will be almost impossible to secure good work. as some are used like single words to make up the main. 1. paragraph 2. the parts of 2. or principal.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 93 TO THE TEACHER. inquiring. In this second part of 2 find the leading subject and its two predicates. He gave me. Then I asked for a three-penny loaf. were not made in Philadelphia. Find the object complement of gave. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. 3." 1. intending. Notice the punctuation. What modifies refused by telling when? What. and was told they had none such. If the compositions contain more than two or three short paragraphs each. I had made many a meal on bread. 2. Find two object complements of knew. 2. and my whole stock of cash consisted of a Dutch dollar and about a shilling in copper. and asked for biscuit. What have you learned about the commas used with these nouns? In making separate sentences of 3 what words do you change or drop? Are these the words that bind the parts of 3 together? What noun is used adverbially after gave? Supply a preposition and then tell what phrases modify gave. accordingly. having no room in my pockets. knowing. and having are all modifiers of I found in the . gazing about. in Second Street. I went immediately to the baker's he directed me to. but I insisted on their taking it. 5. their observation. sentence. Drop till and see whether the parts of 1 make separate sentences. I bade him give me three-penny worth of any sort. and tell what changes this will make in capitals and punctuation. I was surprised at the quantity. What word. then. Then I walked up the street. or of 1? How is this shown to the eye? Analyze the first two sentences you made from 1. who is described as gazing about? What does gazing about modify? Read the group of words that tells how far or how long Franklin walked up the street. or their imagination. it seems. and.--Break up sentence 1. Notice that this whole group is used like an adverb. and are more closely connected. FROM FRANKLIN'S "AUTOBIOGRAPHY. binds these two sentences into one? Read 2 and make of it three distinct sentences by omitting the first and and the word but. I was fatigued with traveling. inquiring where he got it. it may he well to let them write similar descriptions drawn from their reading.--While the pupils' thoughts and style are somewhat toned up by the preceding exercises. Put what after inquiring and find the object complement. telling where? He directed me to (whom) belongs to what? Who is represented as intending? Intending such as we had in Boston belongs to what? As we had in Boston goes with what? Notice that it seems is a sentence thrown in loosely between the parts of another sentence. into three distinct sentences. ***** +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. and. who at first refused it on account of my rowing. and want of rest. till near the markethouse I met a boy with bread. rowing. considering. and I knew no soul nor where to look for lodging. Such expressions are said to be parenthetical. but took it. or the greater cheapness and the names of his bread. Which read more closely together. Find in 2 a phrase whose principal part is made up of three nouns. Notice that gazing. my pockets were stuffed out with shirts and stockings. 3. I was very hungry. walked off with a roll under each arm. and an object complement.

To fit the expression to the thought on every occasion is the perfection of style. Examine the phrase with a roll under each arm. to use large words for small ideas. spoken of in Lesson 11 as not asserting." Compare this sentence with Franklin's and point out the faults you see in the substitute.--This selection is mainly +Narrative+. You see that even a short composition like this has a general topic with topics under it. to the writer to know that he must write in paragraphs? +The Style of the Author+. he fitted the language to the thought. or asserting form. we will call these under topics sub-topics. simple. and they stand in their usual place. as you see. and then read the sentences in which these predicates are found. Now examine the first group of sentences and see whether its topic might not be put thus: My Condition on Reaching Philadelphia. Change each of these participles to a predicate. paragraph 1. Benjamin Franklin trudging along the street. my pockets. foolish writer. How is the paragraph indicated to the eye? What help is it to the reader to have a composition paragraphed? What. direct. that is. Yet the piece has a charm. and see if you do not find an illustration of the fact that even great men sometimes make slips. There are two groups of sentences in this selection because there are two distinct sub-topics developed. A group of sentences related and held together by a common thought we call a +Paragraph+. The closing sentence is slightly humorous.--The sentences above. in praise of Dryden. were protruding conspicuously with extra underclothing. If Franklin had been a weak. Figures of speech are not used. Participles are very useful in slurring over the less important actions that the more important may have prominence. Does other properly mean one of three things? Try to improve this expression. Do you see how? In studying this short selection you may find the general topic. and look in 1. his sentence might have taken this form:-"Not having been previously provided with a satchel or other receptacle for my personal effects. "His phrase is always a short cut to his sense"? TO THE TEACHER. which were employed as a substitute. and the expression is commonplace. You will notice that giving these words the asserting form makes them more prominent and forcible--brings them up to a level with the other predicate verbs. or heading. "My pockets were stuffed out with shirts and stockings. hugging a great roll of bread under each arm. These words illustrate one form of the verb (the participle). The words are ordinary. Those of each group are more closely related to one another than they are to the sentences of the other group. or reporters in writing for the newspapers. and long." he said a homely thing in a homely way. As submeans under. The sentences of each group stand together because they jointly develop one sub-topic. the expression is in perfect keeping. must have been a laughable sight. high-sounding phrases and sentences for plain. and eating the other. Put I before any one of these words. and natural. illustrates the other form (the infinitive). he said. Have you ever known boys and girls in writing school compositions. The matter is somewhat tame. to be something like this: My First Experiences in Philadelphia.--What is here taught of the paragraph and of style will probably not be mastered at one . Can you find anything in the meaning of provided that makes previously unnecessary? Do you now understand what Lowell meant when. Then examine the sentences of the second group and see whether all will not come under this heading: How I Found Something to Eat. Show that they are so used in Franklin's narrative. simple thoughts? Have you ever seen what could be neatly said in three or four lines "padded out" to fill a page of composition paper or a column in a newspaper? When Franklin said.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 94 different sentences of paragraph 2. The thoughts are homely. the style is clear. and eating a third roll. stand in two groups. and you will see that no assertion is made. +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+.

that they had forgotten some indispensable tool. Explain the use of there in 3. To their credit be it said that I never observed anything of it in them. 3. then. The plumbers had occasion to make me several visits. 11. Find in this group a subject and a predicate. Some of their guesses and remarks were exceedingly ingenious. 5. Sometimes they would find. a mile and a half. When 5 is divided into two sentences. when I went near them. 2. FROM C. 1. They should. They may also note the amount of description it contains. 7. If they had been made by the job is joined like an adverb to what verb? What is the predicate of this modifying group? . and that other selections of narrative be found in the Readers or elsewhere and studied as above. Nor had they any of that impetuous hurry that is said to be the bane of our American civilization. They seemed to me very good workmen. Find in 2 an adverb phrase that expresses purpose. must be the word that connected the two sentences. 9. The work dragged a little--as it is apt to do by the hour.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg reading. It is a great pleasure to meet such men. TO THE TEACHER. and talk about the job or anything else. They are patient and philosophical. Two of them will sometimes wait nearly half a day. thus making an outline for a composition to be completed from reproduction. came out to view the situation. I do not know but it is a habit to have something wanted at the shop. and sit down and talk--always by the hour. I found the plumbers perfectly willing to sit down and talk about it--talk by the hour. and one would go back to the shop. with the implements of their craft. +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. A couple of plumbers. and could hardly have been better if they had been made by the job. and to refer pupils to it for aid in their composition work. What adjective may be used in place of good in a good deal? What long complex phrase modifies deal? Put what after the preposition about and find a group of words that takes the place of a noun. Find in 4 an objective complement. Find a compound infinitive phrase and tell what it modifies.--We suggest that the pupils reproduce from memory the extract above. D. One only wishes there was some work he could do for them by the hour. 8. The pupils may be able to note to what extent the narrative follows the order of time and to what extent it is topical. upon arrival. find the topic for each paragraph. my fountain became disabled. Notice that the two main parts of 5 are separated by a semicolon. so far as possible. 3. 5. 2. 6. or would you use a comma? Give a reason for the comma after days. There was a good deal of difference of opinion about where the stoppage was." 95 1. Give the three leading predicate verbs in 5 and their complements. WARNER'S "MY SUMMER IN A GARDEN. after it. In the driest days. 4. and their general observations on other subjects were excellent in their way. 4. Use an equivalent adjective in place of a couple of. SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITION WORK. what word is dropped? This. while a comrade goes for a tool. They can afford to wait.--How can you make the last part of 1 express more directly the cause of becoming disabled? Would you use a semicolon to separate the sentences thus joined. It will be found necessary to return to it occasionally. and his comrade would await his return with the most exemplary patience. 10. Notice that the dash helps to show the break made by repeating talk. the pipe was stopped up. It will now require little effort to write simple original narratives of real or imagined experiences. This enables the writer to show that the two main divisions of 5 are more widely separated in meaning than are the parts of the second division where the comma is used. and always willing to stop. ***** Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. 6.

and those of the second under the sub-topic Subsequent Visits. then. if he begs and gets. must have made an adjective of this sentence and joined it to hurry? What is the object complement of can afford in 7? Supply a preposition after will wait in 8. the object complement of make? Put what after would find in 2 and get the object complement. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. pages 159.--See suggestions. or other figures of speech? Are the sentences generally long. his neglect is somebody's downfall. and then find two groups of words that tell the time of waiting.--There are two distinct sets of sentences in this selection--distinct because developing two distinct sub-topics. Accordingly. 2. Indolence promises without redeeming the pledge. What is the object complement of could do? What connects this group to work? +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. His carelessness is somebody's loss. Can you make a sentence of this group? What are its principal parts? Does the writer make an unexpected turn after talk? How is this shown to the eye? Put what after do know in 3 and find the object complement. Would you call Mr. or does it abound with metaphors. . What is the subject of was? The office of there? After work supply the pronoun that and tell the office of the group it introduces. FROM BEECHER'S "LECTURES TO YOUNG MEN. What explains it in 10? Find the object complement of wishes in 11. They should stand in their proper order. next occasional falsehood. to eat their bread and not his own. Find a subject and a predicate in the second group. 4. and does he hold up their foibles to scorn and derision? Does he make us laugh with. The negligence of laziness breeds more falsehoods than the cunning of the sharper. a mist of forgetfulness rises up and obscures the memory of vows and oaths. The sentences of each paragraph should be closely related to one another and to the sub-topic. What word. As poverty waits upon the steps of indolence. and hangs a dead weight upon all your plans. it is as the letting out of waters--no one knows where it will stop. and the very best thing an honest man can do with a lazy man is to get rid of him. Can you make a sentence of this object complement? What phrase can you put in place of the pronoun it without changing the sense? By using the word it. exhausts your patience. 3. Let us see whether all the sentences of the first paragraph will not come under the sub-topic First Visit. subterfuges. Negligence of truth. or generally short? What are the faults or foibles of these real or fancied plumbers? Does the author speak of them in a genial and lenient way? or is he hostile. Do the paragraphs above stand such tests? If they do. 5. TO THE TEACHER. Let us take for the general topic The Visits of the Plumbers. the plumbers? If the former. similes. Warner here giving us a bit of his own experience? Or do you think he is drawing upon his imagination? Would you call the style plain. Falsehood becomes the instrument of every plan. so upon such poverty brood equivocations. paragraph 2. What group of words in 5 is used like an adjective to modify hurry? Change the pronoun that to hurry and make a separate sentence of this group. lying denials.--This selection we may call +Narrative+. It is a story of what? Is the story clearly told throughout? If not.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 96 The infinitive phrase in 1. 3. 4. disappoints your expectations. 1." 1. +The Author's Style+. if the latter. Indolence inclines a man to rely upon others and not upon himself. modifies what? Is me. where is it obscure? Is it made interesting and entertaining? Is Mr. or visits. 160. a better arrangement can be made. 2. or does he make us laugh at. they possess the prime quality of +Unity+. there are two paragraphs. or not? Can you name any writers whose humor or satire is coarse? SUGGESTIONS FOB COMPOSITION WORK. eats up your substance. If he borrows. the style is satirical or sarcastic. the style is humorous. abuses your confidence. though there are descriptive touches in it. He spoils your work. the article remains borrowed. Warner's quality of style +Humor+? or that +form of wit+ known as +Satire+? Is our author's use of it delicate and refined? or is it gross and coarse? Does it stop short of making its object grotesque.

In what sentence is the style made +energetic+ by the aid of short predicates? How does the alternation of short sentences with long throughout the extract affect you? The alternation of plain with figurative . and in the three paragraphs is giving three reasons.--This selection is neither descriptive nor narrative. but rather let him labor. When stores are broken open. in 5. the thought is repeated by means of the infinitive phrases. 6. Are the quotation marks now needed? In 3 and 4 find clauses introduced by that. Are negligence. What shows that the parts of 2 are not closely connected? Would a conjunction bring them more closely together? If a conjunction is used. Paul says. Find the office of that by placing it after do. The needless repetition of the same thought in different words is one of the worst faults in writing. and mendacity. ***** +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. Examine the other sentences of this paragraph and see whether they enforce the leading thought by illustration. Beecher is trying to establish a certain proposition. or thought." 4. figures of speech abound. Beecher's heart is in his work. What distinction can you make between the use of the semicolon and the use of the comma in 3? The clause if he borrows is joined like an adverb to what verb? If he begs and gets? What pronoun more indefinite than your might take its place in 4? What noun? Explain the use of the semicolon and the comma in 4. to prove its truth.--Find in 1 two compound infinitive phrases and tell their use. and not far apart. 97 1. or arguments. But the argument is not all thought. Notice that in 1. Read the first part of 2 and change somebody's first to a phrase and then to a clause used like an adjective. Mr. +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. By every repetition here. it is +Argumentative+. Change the phrase in 1. Beecher's repetition is not needless. Mr. This feeling warms and colors his style. It is first expressed in a general way. working with his hands the thing which is good. Read the words Indolence inclines a man with each of the four infinitive phrases that follow. by the aid of the second phrase we see the same thought from the negative side. Industry was the road back to honesty. example. how are the words borrowed from Paul marked? Change the quotation from Paul so as to give his thought but not his exact words. used as subjects? Explain their use and punctuation. which. But Mr. "Let him that stole steal no more. (See Remark. Indeed.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg then wanton mendacity--these three strides traverse the whole road of lies.--You can easily learn the sub-topic. You will see that the thought is repeated. Find in 2 the omitted predicate of the clause introduced by than. Supply the words omitted from the last part of each compound. they are but different parts of the same road. Put together the three thoughts established in these paragraphs and tell what they prove. each of these paragraphs develops. Indolence as surely runs to dishonesty as to lying. As a consequence. paragraph 1. and used like adjectives. Lesson 45. paragraph 2. the third phrase makes the statement more specific. Mr. 5. to a clause.) In 3. What merits of the paragraph. the fourth puts the specific statement negatively. What they prove is that for which Mr. already treated. Find a compound subject in 3. it may be written at the head of the extract as the general topic. 2. is impassioned. Supply that after thing and tell what clause is here used like an adjective. In directing the conduct of the Ephesian converts. It is suffused with feeling. See whether you can find it in the first sentence of each. The men who were thieves were those who had ceased to work. or consequence. and stimulates his fancy. is not purely intellectual. Find in 4 an infinitive phrase used as attribute complement. paragraph 3. Give the three sub-topics. are admirably illustrated in this extract? +The Style of the Author+. and who. Beecher is contending. Beecher makes his thought clearer and stronger. would you change the punctuation? A sentence that unites with another to make one greater sentence we call a clause. falsehood. the idle are first suspected. 3.

The assassin enters. 2. . no ear has heard him. Compositions should be short. and in 1 and 2. a quality. The fatal blow is given! and the victim passes. 8. 7. Exercises on the Composition of the Sentence and the Paragraph. is made to represent the men themselves. TO THE TEACHER. 2. SUGGESTIONS FOB COMPOSITION WORK. Such a figure is called +Metonymy+. The face of the innocent sleeper is turned from the murderer. or are they transposed? In what different places may they stand? Does either phrase need to be transposed for emphasis or for clearness? Explain the punctuation.--Do the phrases in 1. though it is obvious that life has been destroyed by the blow of the bludgeon. 3. referring to the door. If you think these do. He retreats. 4. from the repose of sleep to the repose of death. No eye has seen him. retraces his steps to the window. paragraph 1. 1. through the window already prepared. till it turns on its hinges without noise. With noiseless foot he paces the lonely hall. Something belonging to the men. 2. 2. stand in their usual order. paragraph 2. and ascertains that it beats no longer. 1. generally speaking. Such a secret can be safe nowhere. 3. passes out through it as he came in. and places it again over the wounds of the poniard. 1. It is the assassin's purpose to make sure work. He even raises the aged arm that he may not fail in his aim at the heart. that "Murder will out. and 5. and escapes. For original work we suggest debates on current topics. 3. and say it is safe. paragraph 3. 6. that was a dreadful mistake. and he enters. introduce us to another figure. 3. that those who break the great law of heaven by shedding man's blood seldom succeed in avoiding discovery. resting on the gray locks of his aged temple. into an unoccupied apartment. Pick out the comparisons. Not to speak of that eye which pierces through all disguises and beholds everything as in the splendor of noon. and notice that the sentence is thrown out of harmony with the other sentences. He has done the murder. 4. To finish the picture. and the beams of the moon. The secret is his own. and that the assassin is for the moment lost sight of. or similes. True it is. half lighted by the moon. 5. without a struggle or a motion. Can you tell why? Notice that in the latter part of 2 the door is mentioned. The whole creation of God has neither nook nor corner where the guilty can bestow it. and that 3 begins with of this. The deed is done. Begin 2 with the lonely hall.--Exercises in argumentative writing may be continued by making selections from the discussion of easy topics. he explores the wrist for the pulse. 5. and laziness in 2. True it is that Providence hath so ordained. and beholds his victim before him. He feels for it. tell how. and he plies the dagger. Can you find any other arrangement by which 3 will follow 2 so naturally? Can you change 3 so as to make the reference of it clearer? What is the office of the till clause? Does the clause following the semicolon modify anything? Would you call such a clause dependent. Of this he moves the lock. show him where to strike. EXTRACT FROM DANIEL WEBSTER. such secrets of guilt are never safe from detection even by men. Figures of speech should add clearness and force. Indolence in 1 and 3." 6. 1. paragraph 2. by soft and continued pressure. ***** +The Uses of Words and Groups of Words+. paragraph 2. in 3. and it is safe.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 98 sentences? Can you show that the author's style has +Variety+? Pick out the metaphors in 1. he winds up the ascent of the stairs and reaches the door of the chamber. and in 3. Ah! gentlemen. or would you call it independent? Explain the punctuation of 3. 2. paragraph 1. 3. and doth so govern things. It is accomplished.

and lastly. proof of (3). (5) because of the +prevalence of short sentences+. and of that and secret in paragraph 4 demonstrates both unities. We add that the obvious reference of the repeated he to the same person. paragraph 4. words understood even by children. throughout. It is noticeable also that very little imagery is used. Neither order could be changed without making the stream of events run up hill. But it is impossible to read these paragraphs without being most profoundly impressed with their energy. the principle that sentences similar in thought should be similar in form. What is the office of the though clause? Find in this a clause doing the work of a noun and tell its office. because (3) these +words+ are +specific+ and +individual+. to the assertive form. is here allowed free play. Give the modifiers of passesin 2. Tell the office of the that clauses in 5 and 6.+--This selection is largely +Narrative. their force. Read the first part of 3 and put the explanatory phrase in place of it. Find in 1 a pronoun used adverbially and a phrase used as object complement. and (2) at the order of the paragraphs themselves. TO THE TEACHER. Hence no novelty in the words or in their arrangement is allowed to distract our attention from the dominant thought. It will. The sentences are made to look and sound alike and to be alike that their effect may be cumulative. though the murder took place some time before.--Do not be discouraged should your pupils fail to grasp at first all that is here taught. The principle of +Parallel Construction+. why? Find in this paragraph an infinitive phrase used independently. What does that in 1. Find in 4 and 5 an infinitive phrase and a participle phrase used independently. Webster speaks as if it were +now taking place+ in our very sight. because (6) of the +repetition of the thought+ in successive sentences. for each order is the order in which the events happened. and. in the first three paragraphs. The meaning will grow upon them. In paragraph 3. Find proof of what we have just said--proof of (2). paragraph 2. +The Grouping of Sentences into Paragraphs+. Webster. the more startling in the next paragraph will be the revelation of his mistake. at the fact that the sub-topic of each paragraph is found in the first line of each paragraph. They probably will not fully comprehend it till they have returned to it several times. in paragraphs 1 and 3. its perspicuity. Explain the as clause. . even when they are not. proof of (4). of (5) and (6). touched with description. The style is forcible because (1) the +subject-matter+ is +easily grasped+. One quality of it is its clearness. (2) because +simple words+ are +used+. often the words are the same. and that of the four paragraphs determined by their relation to the general topic of the extract. The more real the murderer's fancied security is made in this paragraph to appear. those in one clause or sentence seem to suggest those in the next. and (4) at the larger unity of the four paragraphs--that of each paragraph determined by the relation of each sentence to the sub-topic of the paragraph. be impossible for them to study it without profit. and of (7). They are mostly of the same length. and should try to verify in it all that is taught concerning it. and 5. because (7). The sentences here are framed largely on one plan. This sameness is not accidental. In 4 would his in place of the before aged and before heart be ambiguous? If so. Are 7 and 8 identical in meaning? Give the modifiers of passes in paragraph 3. a remarkable sameness prevails. but much of the matter must have come from the imagination of Mr. because (4) of the grateful +variety of sentences+. Everything is so skillfully and vividly put that the story. 4. that the language is plain language. however. In studying our questions and suggestions the pupils should have the "Extract" before them. Look (5).--Look (1) at the order of the sentences in each paragraph.+ Its leading facts were doubtless supplied by the testimony given in the case. and of the who clause in 6. Find the object complement of ascertains in 6. The order of the words in them is the same. stand for? What kind of clause is introduced by where in 3? By which in 4? Expand the as clause in 4 and tell its office. has all the effect of an argument.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 99 Give the effect of changing resting in 1. Look (3) at the unity of each paragraph. in paragraphs 3 and 4. Expand the phrase into a clause. in sentences 3. Could Webster have done more to make his thought seen and felt? +The Style of the Author. paragraph 2. not generic.

By adding ever and soever to who. Any one speaking of himself may use I. what. used in asking questions. and hence does not distinguish one girl from another. her. instead of that person's name. or what. we call a +Proper Noun+. her. which. instead of that one's name. and scum that name these objects. Lesson 8. The "proper. [Footnote: Most common nouns are derived from roots that denote qualities. Xerxes himself was the last to cross the Hellespont. whichever. instead of his own name. etc. or architecture does not distinguish one thing from others of its class. as. etc. girl. and any particular name of an individual. they hide. it. she. distinguishing this individual from others of its class.. The latter will do. which. By adding self to my. is to be modified by a clause. The name Sarah is not thus held in common. a shower. as. are called +Relative Pronouns+. In Lesson 8 you learned that pronouns are not names. they are a cover. we form what are called +Compound Personal Pronouns+. The sky. Any name which belongs in common to all things of a class we call a +Common Noun+. shower(Saxon scu:r). This the root +sku+ signifies. and sku is the main element in the words sky. and them. and scum. my. only its most obtrusive quality. These little words that by their form denote the speaker. each thing forms a class by itself. If a noun. which. or the one spoken of are called +Personal Pronouns+. CLASSES OF NOUNS AND PRONOUNS. have this most noticeable feature. conceal. . The name girl is held in common by all girls. your. or some word or words used like a noun. we form what are called the +Compound Relative Pronouns+ whoever. and it. thou. used either for emphasis or to reflect the action of the verb back upon the actor. as. and binding the clauses together. used in a general way. The root does not necessarily denote the most essential quality of the thing. as. etc. music. he uses who. I know the man that did that. whatever. speaking of one. or quantity. relating to words in another clause. for instance. and selves to our. he may use he. and what. Instead of naming things a speaker may indicate them by words pointing them out as near or remote. your. the clause is introduced by who. If the speaker is ignorant of the name of a person or a thing and asks for it. These words. your. it does distinguish one girl from other girls.. you were told to begin with capital letters are proper nouns. Such a word as wheat. as. Such words we call +Adjective Pronouns+.. thy. order. whosoever. thy. or that. he may use you.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** PARTS OF SPEECH SUBDIVIDED LESSON 85. there is but one thing in the class denoted by each. and so we call these words common nouns. DEFINITIONS. him. him. Much has been done. as. You have learned that nouns are the names of things. Is that a man? What is this? or by words telling something of their number. The mind cannot see itself. Sarah. and in the adjective obscure. but words used instead of names.--You have now reached a point where it becomes necessary to divide the eight great classes of words into subclasses. Who did that? These pronouns. None are perfect. 100 +Introductory Hints+. and without any word expressed to which they relate. etc. names" which in Rule 1. speaking to one. +A Noun is the name of anything+. or individual.. the one spoken to. are called +Interrogative Pronouns+.

They do not. In. in the last. by the association of this quality with the rest. I. may use I when referring to himself. Herein proper nouns differ from common. that stands for a phrase. (the) singing. It and which in the second and third sentences stand for clauses. Who did it? Which of them did you see? the questioner is trying to find out the one for whom Whostands. jury. and they when referring to the person or persons. it. and he. you. (the) sleep. whiteness. Which. flock. . This and thatdenote their objects by the relative distance of these from the speaker. as.--It may be well to note two classes of common nouns--collectiveand abstract. the name soon ceases to denote quality. Pronouns are not the names of things. beauty. except the speaker and the one spoken to. It follows that pronouns are more general than nouns. a clause. [Footnote: In our definition and general treatment of the pronoun. or the one spoken of+. +A Pronoun is a word used for a noun+. existence. and that their primary function is not to prevent the repetition of nouns. as Smith is from the man's office of smoothing. for a sentence. the one spoken to. retaining its office as connective. The sails turned. may as an adjective accompany its noun. Gestures could express all that many pronouns express. or a sentence. the corn was ground. I craved his forbearance a little longer. However derived. An +Abstract Noun+ is the name of a quality. 2. it rains. wisdom. as. to denote them all. you when referring to the one addressed. and becomes really meaningless. +A Proper Noun is the particular name of an individual+. army. It is doubtful whether the North Pole will ever be reached. A +Collective Noun+ is the name of a number of things taken together. and hence so vague. To be or not to be--that is the question.] +A Common Noun is a name which belongs to all things of a class+. Any person. mob. spoken of--and all creatures and things. 1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 101 A noun denoting at first only a single quality of its object comes gradually. you. and he or she or it. I denotes the speaker.] +A Personal Pronoun is a pronoun that by its form denotes the speaker. Ought you to go? I cannot answer that. she. the one spoken to. after which the wind ceased. the thing or things. like nouns. or even an animal or a thing personified. +An Interrogative Pronoun is one with which a question is asked+. going before or coming after. lay hold of qualities and name things by them. and he denote their objects by the relations these objects sustain to the act of speaking. some and few and others indicate parts separated from the rest. and the person or thing that Which denotes. +Remark+. fall into the last list. an action. +An Adjective Pronoun is one that performs the offices of both an adjective and a noun+. Some pronouns stand for a phrase. as. +A Relative Pronoun is one that relates to some preceding word or words and connects clauses+. in their denotement that they show the speaker's complete ignorance of the objects they denote. a being. 4. or White from his color. How is it with you? 3. but it may be well for the student to note that pronouns are something more than mere substitutes for nouns. Some pronouns are so general. To what does itrefer in. the one spoken of. In the first of these sentences. we have conformed to the traditional views of grammarians. They seize upon relations that objects sustain to each other and denote the objects by these relations. or a state. which forbearance he allowed me.

+Direction+. or as adjectives modifying nouns to be supplied. whichever or whichsoever. same. in the phrases the brave. and what. yourself. To lie is to be a coward. each. Each. But for the fact that such words as brave. either. those. Some of the more common adjective pronouns are:-All. All. you. and those are called +Demonstrative+ pronouns. other. I saw what was done = I saw the thing that was done. other. and parse all the pronouns:-- . phrase. and what. many. When the sentence is expanded. etc. as. she. these. in such sentences as this: Give such things as you can spare. thyself. To sleep soundly. either. For example--I found who called and what he wanted. [Footnote: The adjective pronouns this. the sublime. etc. To lie is cowardly. and itself. But used after a negative is sometimes called a "negative relative" = that not. They may be treated as nouns. and it. the good. several. Daniel and his companions were fed on pulse. these. which. one. which was to their advantage.--Point out the pronouns and their antecedents in these sentences:-Jack was rude to Tom. as. the grand. good. The interrogative pronouns are:-Who. Which side won? What news have you? +Direction+. that. himself. none. either. this. both. etc. neither. 102 The simple relative pronouns are:--Who. few. +Remark+. any. are called +Indefinite+ pronouns because they do not point out and particularize like the demonstratives. Some adjectives preceded by the are abstract nouns. may be treated as a relative pronoun.--When the interrogatives who. and always knocked off his hat when he met him. The compound personal pronouns are:--Myself.--Analyze these sentences. which is a blessing. But by expanding the sentence as is seen to be a conjunctive adverb--Give such things as those are which you can spare. that. is to repair and renew the body. I saw what was done. and every boy should know it. There is not a man here but would die for such a cause. each. another. both. such. etc. one. etc. which. former. it is not always easy to distinguish them from relatives whose antecedents are omitted. [Footnote: As. I found the person who called and the thing that he wanted. little. whole. describe--which pronouns never do--we might call them adjective pronouns. thou. much.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg The simple personal pronouns are:--I. whatever or whatsoever. that. The first sentence does not mean. any.] The word. herself.] The compound relative pronouns are:-Whoever or whosoever. or clause in the place of which a pronoun is used is called an +Antecedent+. the beautiful. as. No question is suggested. and neither are also called +Distributives+. "Who called" and "what he wanted" here suggest questions--questions referred to but not directly asked. It should be remembered that which and what may also be interrogative adjectives. latter. which. which one should scorn to be. he. enough. many. but is found to be a preposition--There is not a man here but (= except) the one who would die. and what introduce indirect questions.

4. and the dogs they barked. and that it was but fair that he should pay him for his loss. it. ***** LESSON 86. She saw one of them. 5. 10. You cannot always have thy way." 1. To insure care in preparation. but a declarative noun clause is introduced by the conjunction that. They knew whose house was robbed. Who steals my purse steals trash. +Caution+.--The lad cannot leave his father. using what you may suppose were the speaker's words. the mother she followed. Thou art sad.--Study the Caution. 3. +Caution+.--Do not use pronouns needlessly. and others will love you. Waterloo having been lost.) 3. for. What was said. they. Prideaux says that. the pupils' books should be closed. (This sentence may have four meanings. Dr. Require specific reasons.--The pronoun them should not be used for the adjective those. and close attention in the class. in the same sentence. nor the pronoun what for the conjunction that. omitting needless pronouns:-1. 3. +Direction+. 2. 3. his father would die. +Caution+. The cat it mewed.--Study the Caution. 6. he thought he had better go home. and the examples should be read by you. if he should leave him. and correct these errors:-1. He said to his friend that. and relieve these sentences of their ambiguity:-+Model+. or recast the sentence. 4. which he intercepted.--Write. 2. Let every one turn from his or her evil ways. Repeat the noun instead. Charles's duplicity was fully made known to Cromwell by a letter of his to his wife. he would die = The lad cannot leave his father. do not. +Direction+. It isn't true what he said. He heard what was said. 4. quote the speaker's exact words. for. TO THE TEACHER.--Avoid he. use the two styles of the pronoun. 5. I myself know who stole my purse. read some of the examples in their correct form. Give them all. Whom the gods would destroy they first make mad. Napoleon. or any other pronoun when its reference to an antecedent would not be clear. but could not because he was so short. The farmer told the lawyer that his bull had gored his ox. 2. A tried to see B in the crowd. You have guessed which belongs to me.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 103 1. he told him it was a dry subject. But may be placed before this . Bestow thou upon us your blessing. have you heard bad news? 2. and who said it? 8. CONSTRUCTION OF PRONOUNS. these sentences.--In the recitation of all Lessons containing errors for correction. Whatever is done must be done quickly. It is not known to whom the honor belongs. 9. 5.--In addressing a person. he gave himself up to the English. [Footnote: What properly introduces a noun clause expressing a direct or an indirect question. Love thyself last. if he did not feel better soon. The father he died. when he took his commentary to the bookseller. +Direction+. 7. and the man he shouted. and the children they were taken sick. Lysias promised his father never to abandon his friends = Lysias gave his father this promise: "I will never abandon your (or my) friends. 4. but she cannot positively tell which. if he should leave his father. +Caution+.

and correct these errors:-1. and correct these errors:-1. that is a compound of oxygen. I cannot believe but what I shall see them men again. +Caution+. 3. 4. doubts. and not that. 4. "I have no fear but that he will do it. that is born of woman. and the latter certainty that he will do it. The intended meaning is. [Footnote: See Lesson 61. should not be wasted. Longfellow.--Study the Caution. CONSTRUCTION OF PRONOUNS--CONTINUED. and which saved his father and brothers from famine. is of few days and full of trouble." The former indicates certainty that he will not do it." For this office of but or but that in an adverb clause. 3." or "No one believes but that he will do it. For example--"I have no fear that he will do it". and who has his being in God should not forget him. who became governor of the land. 4.--Study the Caution. Man. which. The horse whom Alexander rode was named Bucephalus. is also incorrectly used to connect an adverb clause. LESSON 87. that. 104 This use of but requires careful discrimination." or "Every one believes that he will do it.] who or which.--Study the Caution. +Direction+. fourth "Example" of the uses of but. Hand me them things. and what. has written beautiful prose.--Several connected relative clauses relating to the same antecedent require the same relative pronoun. He has some friends which I know. Two negatives may be used to affirm. that moves. +Caution+. and nitrogen. 7." But what. animals. Who knows but what we may fail? 3. 2. All what he saw he described. It was Joseph that was sold into Egypt.--Water. see Lesson 109. and that reached the stand last. "No one doubts but that he will do it" is incorrect. The dog who was called Fido went mad. 5. brute animals and inanimate things. The earth is enveloped by an ocean of air. 6. 2. for it contains three negatives--no. Those which say so are mistaken. +Example+. that is a precious gift. Time.] +Direction+. as. and things. but not three. We ought to have a great regard for them that are wise and good.--When the relative clause is not restrictive. +Direction+. 2. 4.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these five Cautions. He who lives. "No one doubts that he will do it.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg conjunction to give a negative force to the noun clause. "He is not so bad but what he might be worse. is generally used. He told that what he knew. and but.--The relative who should always represent persons. for but that or but. 3. The antecedent of what should not be expressed. covers three-fourths of the earth's surface. things. persons. and correct these errors:-1. This is the horse which started first. that is the most popular American poet.--Study the Caution. and correct these errors:-1. The man that fell overboard. The lion whom they were exhibiting broke loose. +Direction+. which is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. and who was drowned was the first mate. +Caution+. 2. +Direction+. .

the work. The wisest men who ever lived made mistakes. which was dark and glossy. these and those. this. +Direction+. and so its use here would be ambiguous. that. in speaking of what does not grow--a mountain. or the whole clause He lived near a pond. It was not I who did it.--Study the Caution. after that. 7. than with. these are shunned. The selfish and the benevolent are found in every community. +Example+. or that preceding them. Which might have. 3. Especially may this be said of which.] should be used instead of who or which (1) when the antecedent names both persons and things. 3. 2. those. 2. who scarcely deserved the name of man.--He lived near a pond that was a nuisance. these. 3. 4. and adjectives expressing quality in the highest degree. A purse was picked up by a boy that was made of leather. He should not keep a horse that cannot ride. while those are sought after. the indefinite it. Claudius was canonized among the gods. ***** LESSON 88. and (3) when it would sound better than who or which. the interrogative who. 5.--High and tall are synonyms: this may be used in speaking of what grows--a tree. and that and those to the first mentioned. e. 6.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 105 +Caution+. He sent his boy to a school which did him good. This may frequently be the reason for employing who and which in restrictive clauses. the one refers to the first mentioned. . very. those.--When this and that. same. However desirable it may seem to confine who and which to unrestrictive clauses. +Caution+. Who who saw him did not pity him? 4. in the other. +Direction+.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these five Cautions. that gets the fees. and (2) that they so stand oftener than thatitself does. g. tact. repeat the nouns. 9. That man that you just met is my friend. +Direction+. (2) when that would prevent ambiguity. When there is danger of obscurity.--Study the Caution. Virgil. an artist: in the one we most admire the man. 8. they are not confined to them in actual practice. A dog was found in the street that wore a brass collar. He is the very man whom we want. Homer was a genius. Charles XII. 5. this and these refer to the last mentioned. The chief material which is used now in building is brick. pond. the one and the other refer to things previously mentioned. Talent speaks learnedly at the bar. 2.--The relative that [Footnote: That is almost always restrictive.--The relative clause should be placed as near as possible to the word which it modifies. All who knew him respected him. and hence are used to avoid disagreeable repetitions of sounds. He is the same who he has ever been. +Examples+. and that. (That relates to pond--the pond was a nuisance.) +Direction+. The wide use of who and which in restrictive clauses is not accounted for by saying that they occur after this. triumphantly: this is complimented by the bench. Her hair hung in ringlets. and correct these errors:-1. +Caution+. for its antecedent. 6. and correct these errors:-1. these. The pupil will receive a reward from his teacher who is diligent. the other was hated.--Correct these errors:-1. but usage authorizes us to affirm (1) that who and which stand in such clauses oftener without. and Peter the Great were sovereigns: the one was loved by his people. all.. and the other to the last mentioned.

There are miners that live below ground. Reputation and character do not mean the same thing: the one denotes what we are. had been a British officer. 24. There is no book which. 2. 7. 10. the good God. he struggled on or.--Give the Cautions which these sentences violate. The ground was dry and hard. +DEFINITIONS+. and those have not. these have scales. 15. is woven into cloth. 22. 16. Adjectives that complete the predicate belong as freely to pronouns as to nouns. 19. some. 8. ***** LESSON 89. Adjectives modifying a noun do not limit.[Footnote: Pronouns. Miscellaneous Errors. or narrow. and who seldom see the light. 21. and many limit. or by expressing certain qualities of the fruit. Kosciusko having come to this country. CLASSES OF ADJECTIVES. is a brilliant gem. yellow gold. struggled on. You learned also that the. and Heaven will help you. I don't know but what I may. Do you know that gentleman that is speaking? 13. Whales are the largest animals which swim. the blue sky. an adjective joined loosely without restricting: thus--Faint and weary. that served under Washington. like nouns. Cotton. 18. There are many boys whose fathers and mothers died when they were infants. or denoting quantity are called +Definitive Adjectives+. He. faint and weary. the other. from barley. or narrow. but he refused to go. this. Boys who study hard. The reporter which said that was deceived. . 25. 26. He did that what was right. no. +An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun+.--You learned in Lesson 12 that. the application of apples by describing. +Introductory Hints+. John's father died before he was born. 20. what we are thought to be. 17. as. The fields were green. and correct the errors:-- 106 1. A man should sit down and count the cost who is about to build a house. and that study wisely make progress. that is.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg CONSTRUCTION OF PRONOUNS--CONTINUED. that is pure carbon. an. Help thyself. or by denoting the quantity of it. the other. as apple or apples. and which was spoken of by others. and those which limit by pointing out. Adjectives which limit by expressing quality are called +Descriptive Adjectives+. or (2) when they are attribute complements. 3. the adjectives ripe and unripe limit. There is one marked difference between shiners and trout. that is a plant. as. 5. He who does all which he can does enough. by pointing out the particular fruit.] +A Descriptive Adjective is one that modifies by expressing quality+. They know little of men. or narrow. The diamond. when we look through it sharply. Beer and wine are favorite drinks abroad: the one is made from grapes. What pleased me much. we cannot find mistakes in it. denoting qualities asserted by the verb. Witness said that his wife's father came to his house. 27. The brakemen and the cattle which were on the train were killed. and he ordered him out. They buy no books who are not able to read. General Lee. Unripe apples are hurtful. 14. in the sentences Ripe apples are healthful. They need no spectacles that are blind. who reason thus. 9. 11. numbering. 12. are often modified by an "appositive" adjective. he aided us in our Revolutionary struggle. was the general appearance of the class. the application of any noun which they modify. 4. 6. Shall you be able to sell them boots? 23. its application (1) when they denote qualities that always belong to the thing named. +Direction+. by numbering it.

What name was given? Which book is wanted? +Direction+. A gold is heavy. an hard apple.+--An or a is used to limit a noun to one thing of a class--to any one. An or a is called the Indefinite Article. an hour (h is silent). a account. a bag. and correct these errors:-A heir. third--etc. slender cord. three.[Footnote: The definitive adjectives one. from others of the same class. gold bracelet. Here the distinguishes this class of animals from other classes. shape. position. three. but we cannot say. happy children. and name such as do not limit:-Able statesmen. An is used before vowel sounds. moving spectacle. some feeling. crushing argument. few people. an hero. first. brass kettle. three cats. tin pans. etc. etc. gas. are called +Cardinal+ numerals. two. ***** LESSON 90.--Point out the descriptive and the definitive adjectives below. +Explanation.--Study the Caution.--London journals. this toy. as. This is a poor kind of a gas. an ewer. CONSTRUCTION OF ADJECTIVES. all men. the New York press. and tell whether they denote color. numbering. that libel. because .] +Examples+. For the sake of euphony.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 107 +A Definitive Adjective is one that modifies by pointing out. silver spoons. and thebefore lot distinguishes the field from the yard or the stable--things in other classes. A noun may take the place of an adjective. an drops n and becomes abefore consonant sounds. an usurper. ten mice. an hook.[Footnote: Some writers still use an before words beginning with unaccented h. are called +Ordinal+ numerals] The definitive adjectives an or a and the are commonly called +Articles+. The poetry and the painting are fine arts. the patient Hannibal. The truthis eternal. The horse or the horses must be turned into the lot. a inheritance. Here thebefore horse distinguishes a certain animal. hundredth anniversary. and the before horses distinguishes certain animals. less trouble. are called +Numeral+ adjectives. But we cannot say. a humble petition. The horse is a noble animal. third. +Caution+. William Pitt received the title of an earl because gold. the broad Atlantic. a historian. two. motion. meaning any one horse. and earl are here meant to denote each the whole of a class. Washington market. Eyes are bright. the Pitt diamond. The huge clouds were dark and threatening. much rain.--An inkstand. and (2) one class of things from other classes. or denoting quantity+. +Examples+. size. +Direction+.--An and a are different forms of one. small grains.. and the is called the Definite Article. +Direction+. or whether they modify in some other way. an uniform. a umpire. any book. and a limits its noun to one thing of a class. The man(meaning the race) is mortal. state papers. The is used to distinguish (1) one thing or several things from others. The anger is a short madness. diamond pin. moral qualities. second. Mansard roof. an historian.+--We can say a horse. +Caution. a unit (unit begins with the consonant sound of y). little thread. an hundred. such a one (one begins with the consonant sound of w).--Point out the descriptive and the definitive adjectives in Lessons 80 and 81. the martyr president. brave Washington. One. second. and first. etc.

Oak is harder than the maple. the article should not be repeated. +Direction+. 8. +Direction. This is another kind of a sentence. Few shall part where many meet. +Examples+.+--Use an. A noun and pronoun are alike in office. when they modify the same noun. The woman is the equal of man. 4. A Pullman and Wagner sleeping-coach. or the before each of two or more connected adjectives.--Study the Caution as explained. and little means not much. but not many. The Northern and Southern Hemisphere. or the before each of two or more connected nouns denoting things that are to be distinguished from each other or emphasized. 2. Few men live to be & hundred years old. and correct these errors:-1.--Study the Caution. 6. 7. He saved a little from the fire.--Use an. 4. 5.--Study the Caution. +Caution. as it broke out in the night. Distinguish carefully between an adjective and adverb. +Direction+. 2. a. I expected some such an offer. 5. 3. (The secretary and treasurer was absent--referring to one person--is correct. A hill is from the same root as column. 3. 3. the word umbrella is understood after cotton. cotton and silk modify the same noun--umbrella. Dog is a quadruped. and name things that are sufficiently distinguished without the.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these Cautions.--He saved a few things and a little money from the wreck. A cotton and silk umbrella means one umbrella partly cotton and partly silk. 2. +Caution+. and correct these errors:-1. 3. 4. 2. 7.) +Caution+. The Northern and the Southern Hemispheres. a. anger. because it is a stormy month. Unicorn is kind of a rhinoceros. 7. There are a few pleasant days in March. Neither the North Pole nor South Pole has yet been reached. Little was said or done about it. Little can be done. The secretary and treasurer were both absent. +Direction+. belongs to the cat tribe. +Explanation+. +Direction+. when these adjectives modify different nouns. but not much.+--Study the Caution as explained. Churchill received the title of a duke. truth. and painting are used in their widest sense. ***** .--A few and a little mean some as opposed to none. The wise and the good means two classes.--A cotton and a silk umbrella means two umbrellas--one cotton and the other silk. 9. and correct these errors:-1. 6. poetry. There is a difference between the sin and sinner. expressed or understood. 6. but.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 108 man. The fourth and the fifth verses. as well as tiger. fewmeans not many. 5. A Webster's and Worcester's dictionary. the wise and good means one class. We criticise not the dress but address of the speaker. The sculpture is a fine art. The lion. and correct these errors:-1. 4. The right and left hand. The fourth and fifth verse.

A new bottle of wine. painful toothache. 2. 109 +Remark+. place them where they will sound best--generally in the order of length. we complete the predicate by naming the one that receives the act that passes over from the doer. She has less friends than I. 4. If they are of the same rank. but not cold of winter.--So place adjectives that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify.--Give the Cautions which these expressions violate. 7. but do not use them needlessly. unexpected. and extraordinary success surprised him. The truth is mighty and will prevail. +Direction+. 11. The day was delightful and warm.--Study the Caution carefully. A few can swim across the Straits of Dover. The belief in immortality is common and universal. The fat. LESSON 92. verdant green. an hard apple. 6. frugal. A pupil. An old and young man. 13. but I paid a frightful price for it. +Caution+. and correct the errors:-1. A prodigious snowball hit my cheek. It was a lovely bun. 12. CONSTRUCTION OF ADJECTIVES--CONTINUED. +Direction+. docile and mild. for the width is great and the current strong. but the object.--The following adjectives are obviously needless: Good virtues. The scepter. Such an use! 16. towering mountain. 23. 8. The arm-chair was roomy and capacious. +Introductory Hints+. 4. 17. 10. 7. 14. umbrageous shade. The victory was complete. 7. Adding Cornwallis.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 91. two lazy men. 21. 8. 3. If we say Cornwallis was captured by Washington. which names the receiver. Samuel Adams's habits were unostentatious. He used less words than the other speaker. The lad was neither docile nor teachable. 3. barren.--Study the Caution. CLASSES OF VERBS AND ADVERBS. 3. 9. Two gray fiery little eyes. He had deceived me. place nearest the noun the one most closely modifying it. I have a contemptible opinion of you. The evil is intolerable and not to be borne. 20. Transitive means passing over. avoid such as repeat the idea or exaggerate it. His unusual. The eldest son of a duke is called a marquis. A fried dish of bacon. and so all verbs that represent an act as passing over from a doer to a receiver are called +Transitive Verbs+. His penmanship is fearful.--You learned in Lesson 28 that in saying Washington captured we do not fully express the act performed. the verb is still transitive.--Choose apt adjectives. A salt barrel of pork. A docile and mild pupil. +Caution+. and coronet seem to me poor things for great men to contend for. If those forming a series are of different rank. 9. We saw in the distance a precipitous. It was a tremendous dew. A dried box of herrings. 18. A white and red flag were flying. +Direction+. It was splendid fun. The house was comfortable and large. 8. the miter. 2. 5. the shortest first. It was a gorgeous apple. It was a blue soft beautiful sky. 19. is here the . Cornwallis. 6. 5. though a few of the enemy were killed or captured. I can bear the heat of summer. +Direction+. and simple. 5. Miscellaneous Errors. He wanted a apple.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these two Cautions. and correct these errors:-1. 6. He received a honor. 4. and so I had a little faith in him. 22. 2. The North and South Pole. 15. and correct these errors:-1.

are called +Irregular Verbs+. the war speedily closed. may be the subject. He writes good English. back. fell. fallen. All verbs that do not form the past tense and the past participle by adding ed to the present. very. which. You see that the object. used to modify any verb--as. none. All verbs that form the past tense and the past participle by adding ed to the present are called +Regular Verbs+. Some adverbs fall into more than one class. go. as. In Saxon it existed as a word +ne+. etc. do not represent the act as passing over to a receiver. adjectives. soon. The force of yes may be illustrated by substituting certainly--Will you go? Certainly. it is largely through the adverb that what the predicate expresses is declared not to be true of the thing named by the subject. as you have learned. the word that names the receiver of the act. are called +Adverbs of Manner+. enters into many words. hence. nought. used to modify a word--as. show how the thought presented is regarded. Away. a participle. too. quite. negation is more frequently expressed in English by the adverb than by any other part of speech--than by all other parts of speech. as. it is a past participle. He writes well--meaning simply He is a good writer. thus. Plainly. hardly. They are sometimes called independent adverbs. Why is it dark?--are called +Adverbs of Cause+. Here captured represents the act as having taken place in past time. etc. . Hence. so and as. Tense means time.. not."--Earle. 110 A verb transitive in one sentence. are called +Adverbs of Degree+. and all that express mere being or state of being are called +Intransitive Verbs+. the sun is down. presently. representing the act as past at the time indicated by closed. [Footnote: It may be worth remarking that while there are many negative nouns. Certainly I will go. The tea is very hot--by expressing degree. not. They seem to modify words omitted in the answer but contained in the question. elsewhere. the object complement. and not. are called +Adverbs of Time+. Exceedingly. within. pronouns. All verbs that. etc. and. used to modify a word--as the adjective hot in. Notice that ed is added to capture (final e is always dropped when ed is added) to form its past tense and its past participle. never. are called +Adverbs of Place+. as before. verbs.. It is very suggestive that much of what is said consists of denial--is taken up in telling not what is true of things but what is not true of them. but we have lost that word. As noand yes represent or suggest complete answers. now.. may be intransitive in another. as. sufficiently. hereafter. and hence this verb is in the past tense. well. I will go away--by expressing direction or place. spoke in. Here captured is. and conjunctions in oar language. used to modify any verb--as. or I will certainly go. or it may be the object complement. used in making an inference or in expressing cause--as. often. will go in. He spoke plainly--by expressing manner. hence. out. etc. they may be called +sentence-words+. Washington captured Cornwallis. will go in. as. A very large per cent of these adverbs modify the verb. It is dark.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg subject of the sentence. Did you see him? No = I did no (not) see him. A verb is transitive only when an object is expressed or obviously understood. therefore. Early. as. "The negative particle in our language is simply the consonant +n+. nor. I will go soon--by expressing time. That is to say. or therefore.. like fall in Leaves fall. when used to answer Questions. went. why. as into no. Cornwallis captured. and it is now a letter only. fall. No and yes (nay and yea). Will you go? Yes. neither. so. and may therefore be classed with adverbs of manner.] etc.. gone.

He let go simplybecause he was exhausted. or it may be the +subject+. and classify the adverbs. connect clauses. as. +A Regular Verb is one that forms its past tense and past participle by adding ed to the present+.] CLASSES OF ADVERBS. Where? +Adverbs of Degree are those that generally answer the question+. In what way? +Adverbs of Cause are those that generally answer the question+. there must be an error here. I go where I am sent.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Some adverbs. when. They may modify a clause or a sentence. or state of being+.--Choose apt adverbs. CLASSES OF VERBS WITH RESPECT TO MEANING. Brutus stabbed Caesar. as. as. being. Now. [Footnote: Adverbs have several exceptional uses. To what extent? +Adverbs of Manner are those that generally answer the question+. They may modify a phrase or a preposition. as. an adjective. Certainly you may go. the name of the receiver of the action. +An Irregular Verb is one that does not form its past tense and past participle by adding ed to the present+. that is. See page 187. DEFINITIONS. How. and where is this to be done? and that they may add to the office of the adverb that of the conjunction. as. . When? +Adverbs of Place are those that generally answer the question+. the regular and the irregular verbs in Lesson 14. or an adverb.] +An Intransitive Verb is one that does not require an object+. Caesar was stabbed by Brutus. as you have learned. and are therefore called +Conjunctive Adverbs+.--Point out the transitive and the intransitive. ***** LESSON 93. +Adverbs of Time are those that generally answer the question+. avoid such as repeat the idea or exaggerate it. +Caution+. CLASSES OF VERBS WITH RESPECT TO FORM. 111 +A Transitive Verb is one that requires an object+. but do not use them needlessly or instead of other forms of expression. They may be used independently. It went far beyond the mark. He came just in time. CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS. +A Verb is a word that asserts action. Why? +Direction+. [Footnote: The +object+ of a transitive verb. as. It may also be noted here that adverbs are used interrogatively. may be the +object complement+. +An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb.

13. and these few. The belief in immortality is universally held (not universally held everywhere). He wrote that (not how that) he had been sick.-1. Have regard to the sound also. 8. where it would leave the meaning ambiguous or in any way obscure. Do as (not like) I do.--Do not use adverbs for adjectives or adjectives for adverbs. [Footnote: Not infrequently we use two negatives to make an affirmation. +but+ did not swim or wade. All is not gold that glitters. or = I only rowed etc. He hopes to rapidly recruit. Charlie Ross can't nowhere be found.--I only rowed across the river = I only (= alone. peaceably. +Direction+. They seldom stand between to and the infinitive. and no one else.--No one has (not hasn't) yet reached the North Pole.] +Examples+. . It should never stand. It was awfully amusing. This (not this here or this 'ere) sentence is correct. No unpleasant circumstance happened (proper. We only eat three meals a day. I am dreadfully glad to hear that. He had not hardly a minute to spare. as. This 'ere knife is dull. 2. +Direction+. Merely to see (not to merely see) her was sufficient. 5. 4. 6. I rowed across the river only = the river only. I have thought of marrying often. [Footnote: Instances of the "cleft. not up or down etc. I rowed only across the river = across. and correct these errors:-1. 6. and that adverb only occasionally. He tries distinctly to speak. He isn't improving much. Fitzedward Hall and others have shown this. sometimes to be determined by the ear alone. 3. A diphthong is the union of two vowels (not where or when two vowels unite) in the same syllable..--Study the Caution and the Examples. an adjective). He isn't no sneak.. not the bay etc. +Direction+. because it is intended to affirm). and correct these errors:-1.--Study the Caution and the Examples. Not every collegian is a scholar (not Every collegian is not a scholar). 3. 4. No man can do nothing. and peacefully. +Caution+. +Caution+.--I could ill (not illy) afford the time. 2.--Unless you wish to affirm.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 112 +Examples+. 7. 2. The affair was settled amicably. 7. He doesn't do nothing. rowed etc. only an occasional adverb. There must be something wrong when children do not love neither father nor mother. But there can be no question that usage is overwhelmingly against an adverb's standing between to and the infinitive. or split. A direct quotation is when the exact words of another are copied. 5.--Study the Caution and the Examples. I returned back here yesterday. That 'ere horse has the heaves. The belief in immortality is universally held by all. All that glitters is not gold. 11. 4. 10. Few writers ever place an adverb there at all. His nose was very (not terribly or frightfully) red. No other reason can never be given.] +Examples+. and correct these errors. 8. I don't think. Whether the adverb should be placed before the to or after the infinitive is often a nice question. This is a fearfully long lesson. He is not unjust. 9. +Caution+. 6. I do not like too much sugar in my tea. He said how that he would go. however. He seldom or ever went home sober. His sagacity almost appears miraculous. 5. He tries to distinctly speak. 3. do not use two negative words so that they shall contradict each other.--So place adverbs that there can be no doubt as to what you intend them to modify. infinitive"--the infinitive separated from its to by an intervening adverb--are found in Early English and in English all the way down. 12.

up. 7.+ Composition. of. They were nearly dressed alike. to. amid. 5. My head feels badly. This is a mighty cold day. I don't believe. It is a wonderful fine day. LESSON 95. at. He tried to not only injure but to also ruin the man. You must read more distinct. 17. from. He spoke up prompt.--Write correct sentences illustrating every point in these four Cautions. 4. He behaved very bad. 9. 20. Miscellaneous Errors. This is a remarkable cold winter. against. into. and correct these errors:-1. The discussion waxed warmly. athwart. Use two or three of them in a single sentence if you wish:-Aboard.--Give the Cautions which these sentences violate. down. 7. on. The cars will not stop at this station only when the bell rings. 29. upon. I have a pencil that long. A circle can't in no way be squared. between. 31. betwixt. and shows the relation.--We give below a list of the prepositions in common use. +Direction+. The moon looks down calmly and peacefully on the battlefield (not calm and peaceful. and carelessly. He can do it as good as any one can. I don't believe. Most everybody talks so. PREPOSITIONS. +Direction+. through. Verbosity is when too many words are used. He is some better just now. 19. 22. 13. 26. 3. The one is as equally deserving as the other. It was a softly blue sky. 16. with. 4. 10. past. across. He went most there. until. since. 24. She is most sixteen. 2. 8. 10. 11. It is pretty near finished. toward. The tortured man begged that they would kill him again and again. below. in. The river runs rapid. about. behind. for. The fortune was lavishly. Most every one goes there. I will not go but once.--Study the Caution and the Examples. 13. and prodigally spent. besides. 25. of its principal word to the word modified. 28. throughout. 14. ere. I wish to simply state this point. This can be done easier. amongst. 9. among. profusely. 23. beneath. recklessly. He hasn't yet gone. 5. over. The lesson was prodigiously long. Generally every morning we went to the spring. along. amidst. within. CONSTRUCTION OF ADVERBS-CONTINUED. That 'ere book is readable.--The moon looks calm and peaceful (not calmly and peacefully. without. +Direction+. above. 6. I can't find out neither where the lesson begins nor where it ends. official and otherwise. ***** LESSON 94. 18. by. +Direction+. round. Feathers feel softly. He hasn't his lesson. in sense. and correct the errors:-1. after. He behaved thoughtlessly. 8. before. 11. It was an uncommon good harvest. as the words are intended to describe the moon). under. beyond. towards. We publish all the information. . The house is extra warm. +DEFINITION. I slept soundly (not good or sound). I am real glad to see you. 21. 15. The prima donna sings sweet. till. 2. Make short sentences in which each of these shall be aptly used.--A Preposition is a word that introduces a phrase modifier. She is miserable poor. 3. 27. 12. unto.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 113 +Examples+. beside. Begin it over again. but. 6. underneath. as the words are intended to tell how she performs the act). 12. around. 30.

"-. but are they always. and Webster's. the principal term of which is the phrase that follows from. and while clinging to their derivation." are used "only when two things or sets of things are referred to. Egypt.--Bating. in general. and Ethiopia.--We give below a few words with the prepositions which usually accompany them. All but or exceptor save him were lost. But. according to. and so delicate in their shades of distinction that a definition of them based upon etymology would mislead.--Most prepositions express relations so diverse. concerning. and Sweden.' or 'to insert a needle among the closed petals of a flower. from under. from its earliest appearance. [Footnote: Take a single illustration. Nowhere in grammar is dogmatism more dangerous than here. With what clumsy circumlocutions would our speech be filled if prepositions could never slip the leash of their etymology! What simple and graceful substitute could be found for the last phrase in this sentence. out of. "Between such dictionaries as Worcester's."--Bryant. A happy and discriminating use of prepositions can be acquired only by an extended study of good authors. and they express mere relations. The phrases aboard of. and must they be? "There was a hunting match agreed upon betwixt a lion. regarding. an ass. and round about may be called compound prepositions. Holland. But in most cases the participial meaning has faded out of them. pending. He crawled from under the ruins."-B. as to. The Imperial. "Betwixt the slender boughs came glimpses of her ivory neck. It is still the only word available to express the relation of a thing to many surrounding things severally and individually--among expressing a relation to them collectively and vaguely: we should not say. He rode past. Syria. 'The choice lies among the three candidates. and save. from among. Whitney. from between. and such only. Grammarians. are usually classed with prepositions.'"--The New English Dictionary. because of (by cause of). +To the Teacher+. should be used with certain words. "In all senses between has been. excepting. "The identity of form between the nominative. D. "A Triple Alliance between England. He stands above." --G. really introduces a phrase. CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS. instead of(in stead of). Max Mueller." Ordinarily."--W. ***** LESSON 96.] +Direction+. as. B. saving. and vocative cases in the neuter. except."--Gibbon."--Addison. He should he a man of wide and careful reading who assumes to teach pupils that such prepositions. White. G. notwithstanding."-J. We have collected hundreds of instances of between used by good writers with three or more. extended to more than two. they are so used. along with. and a fox. for instance: There were forty desks in the room with ample space between them? "We observe that between is not restricted to two. But from in these compounds. P. Guard against such expressions as between each page. during. Many prepositions become adverbs when the noun which ordinarily follows them is omitted.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 114 +Remarks+. as.L'Estrange. "The distinction between these three orders has been well expressed by Prof. and touching are still participles in form and sometimes are such in use. Green. respecting. Marsh. We do below all that we think it prudent or profitable to do with them. in such a sentence as. That grammarian exceeds his commission who marks out for the pupils' feet a path narrower than the highway which the usage of the best writers and speakers has cast up. Form short . over against. accusative. a choice between one of several. teach that between and betwixt "refer to two. "His flight between the several worlds."--Imperial Dictionary. "In the vacant space between Persia.

need of. to. to. 31. He arrived to Toronto. on. intrude into. with. [See previous footnote] 8. on. he may be able to get into it. 2. 35. agree to. He fell from the bridge in the water. +Caution+. with. "When one is outside of a place. 30. He stays to home. They two quarreled among each other. 11. He lives at London. 37. many besides. Can you accommodate me in one of those? 39. compare to. The year of the Restoration plunged Milton in bitter poverty. 4. in. 42. [Footnote: Beside = by the side of.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg sentences containing these words combined with each of the prepositions which follow them. attend on or upon. familiar to. What is the matter of him? 23. 10. with. 38. These plants differ with each other. weary of. 19. die by. I saw him over to the house. to. impatient for. upon. 34. yearn for. ***** LESSON 98.) 115 Abide at. of. into. look after. advantage of. +Direction+. 21. 43. He threw himself onto the bed. +Direction+. taste for. 13. CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS--CONTINUED."] 7. 24. angry at. He did not take a walk. with. with. He was accused with felony. with. He bears a close resemblance of his father. School keeps upon Monday. into. live at. 18. from. 20. 3. He stays to school late. consists in. over. for. with. He went in the park. for. What a change a century has produced upon our country! 40. of. The Colonies declared themselves independent from England. from. regard for. on. by. 6. argue against. 5. careless about. Place a mark between each leaf. liberal of. on or upon. 33. towards. 25. of. with. remonstrate against. 32. He lives in the turn of the road. with. on. he was disappointed in it. besides = in addition to. with. The child died with the croup. influence on. . with. anxious about. of. change from one condition or place into another. ***** LESSON 97. I board in the hotel. He is angry at his father. with. CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS--CONTINUED. 27. distinguish by. for. 41. for. of.] 29. insensible of. You make no use with your talents. with. communicate to. He boards to the hotel. reconcile to. He distributed the apples between his four brothers. but was disappointed of it. I have other reasons beside these. sat beside. I agree with that plan. with. She stays at the North. joined to. indulge in. of. touch at. of. but he cannot do anything in it until he has got into it. arrive at. He is in want for money. smile at. in. He entered in the plot. different from. with. solicitous about. She is angry with your conduct. to. of. I spent my Saturdays by going in the country. 17. share in. into. 36. defend against. He placed a letter into my hands. The boys are hard to work. He fought into the Revolution. against. sank beneath. [Footnote: In denotes motion or rest in a condition or place. on or upon. sit in. in. with. for. in. 22. He took a walk. The evening was spent by reading. part from. strive for. over. disappointed in. to. I was followed with a crowd. This book is different to that.--Great care must be used in the choice of prepositions. 14. obliged for. 12. and note carefully the different relations expressed by the different prepositions:-(Consult the dictionary for both the preposition and the accompanying word. I have need for a vacation. 28. useful for. accommodate to.--Do with the following words as with those above:-Inquire after. to. You can confide on him. and enjoying myself by fishing. in. 16. 9. with. 26. placed in. in.--Correct these errors:-1. 15.

" and he quotes a burst of feeling from Rufus Choate which ends thus: "Never. They offered to him a chair. 28. the times. He came in for to have a talk. 1834. I have a brother of five years old.--Point out the prepositions in Lessons 80 and 81.--Do not use prepositions needlessly. 13. He is worthy our help. He was born on the 15th August. or to be affected by. 10. His efforts were not for the great. 6. 23. 3. By what states is Kentucky bounded by? 10. You can tell by trying of it. so long as there is left of Plymouth Rock a piece large enough to make a gunflint of!" "This. 9. 8. He received dispatches from England and Russia. 27. 20. +Caution+. 17. Lesson 60."] CAUTION. His servants ye are to whom ye obey. 11. 8. Egypt is the west side of the Red Sea. in 1834. and name the words between which. The boy is like to his father. Sentences (10) and (13). 29. 116 CONSTRUCTION OF PREPOSITIONS--CONTINUED. and many in succeeding Lessons violate the rule so carelessly expressed. There is no use going there. 15. DIRECTION.[Footnote: "A preposition is a feeble word to end a sentence with. but the worst that can be urged against them is. they show the relation. but the lowly. 5. 14. ***** LESSON 100. 11. But smoothness is not always desirable. In what latitude is Boston in? 3. He was banished the country. in sense. They admitted of the fact. 7. 4. Give to me a knife. He went to home. +Direction+. +Direction+. Jack's favorite sport was in robbing orchards. It was the size of a pea. Where have you been to? 18. I was prevented going. the thoughts. This is the subject of which I intend to write about. or essentially a part of. Where are you going to? 12. He lives near to the river." Such sentences have been condemned. Of this rule. He was born August 15. I started a week ago from last Saturday. A good place to see a play is at Wallack's. In about April the farmer puts in his seed.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 99. I must think. that they lack smoothness. To what may Italy be likened to? 25. Lesson 59. 2. Raise your book off of the table." we are told. I went there at about noon. (2). Butter brings twenty cents for a pound. I was leading of a horse about.--Do not omit prepositions when they are needed. laid down without regard to usage and thoughtlessly repeated. "The old Scotch interrogative." He adds. He took the poker from out of the fire. Keep off of the grass. What use is this to him? 7. Before answering of you. 9.--Correct these errors:-1. Austin Phelps says. "A preposition as such is by no means a feeble word." Sentences containing two prepositions before a noun are exceedingly common in English--"The language itself is inseparable from.--Correct these errors:-1. 6. 12. "is purest idiomatic English. Of what is the air composed of? 16. He is unworthy our charity." Professor Phelps says. 21. 5. Sentences containing a transitive verb and a preposition before a noun are very common--"Powerless to affect. Adam and Eve were expelled the garden. 2. 24. 19. 'What for?' is as pure English in written as in colloquial speech. 26. 22. . 4. Prof.

+Adversative+ conjunctions join parts contrasted or opposed in meaning. whereby. besides. To THE TEACHER. consequently. +Co-ordinate Connectives. or subordinate. on the contrary.--Neither. wherein. He is as well as I am. and some of the most common connectives of each group. which. +Subordinate Connectives. clause to a clause of higher rank. phrases. whatever. hence. +Alternative+. we regard only the individual sentence and treat such connectives as introductory. and clauses of equal rank. See Lesson 76.. then. Here as.--The stars look down upon the roofs of the living and upon the graves of the dead.--And. but neither the living nor the dead are conscious of their gaze.--We do not advise the memorizing of these lists. or clauses of the same rank+. nevertheless. +Adversative+. on the other hand. Accordingly. now. +Alternative+ conjunctions join parts so as to offer a choice or a denial. or. and whoever are relative pronouns. [Footnote: Some of the co-ordinate conjunctions. as well as [Footnote: The as well as in.. neither. or. furthermore. +Subordinate Conjunctions are such as connect clauses of different rank+. sentences separated by the period. and that connect each a lower. and neither. some are relative pronouns. and not that in. whichever. However.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS AND OTHER CONNECTIVES. and.. Else and otherwise are conjunctive adverbs. who. or both dependent but of equal rank. nor. and so are called +Co-ordinate Conjunctions+. That.--Some of the connectives below are conjunctions proper.. notwithstanding. which. or order.] +Co-ordinate Conjunctions are such as connect words. still. and why are conjunctive adverbs. phrases. in addition to their office as modifiers.+ +A Conjunction is a word used to connect words. +Remark+. CONNECTIVES OF ADVERB CLAUSES. . 117 +Introductory Hints+. likewise. When.. and therefore are conjunctive adverbs. Both clauses may be independent. as and and but. if. but.] +Copulative+. He. or both dependent but of unequal rank. in the absence of the conjunction. either . also. where.+ CONNECTIVES OF ADJECTIVE CLAUSES. take its office upon themselves and connect the clauses. +DEFINITIONS. At the burning of Moscow. moreover. in thought.+ [Footnote: +Copulative+ conjunctions join parts in the same line of thought. or clauses+.. nor are conjunctions proper. and yet are conjunctive adverbs. connect.--But and whereas are conjunctions proper. it seemed as [it would seem] if the heavens were lighted up that the nations might behold the scene. and some are adverbs or adverb phrases. may. One clause may be independent and the other dependent. The pupils should he able to name the different groups. so. In analysis and parsing. and hence are called +Subordinate Conjunctions+. what. phrases.] are conjunctions proper. and norconnect words. as well as I. and even connect paragraphs. Here and. went. both .

since. whether is restricted to two. The repetition of whether.] are conjunctions proper. often.--As. until.--After.--As is a conjunctive adverb. The authors consider these exercises very profitable.--As. provided. and whereas are conjunctions proper. and how. and which are conjunctive adverbs. and why are conjunctive adverbs introducing questions. Manner. Place.--In order that.--Whence. that. and whoever are relative pronouns used indefinitely. because.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Time. ***** LESSON 101. What. where. than. has been condemned. notwithstanding. before.--Write twenty compound sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives named in the three subdivisions of co-ordinate connectives. +Direction+. 118 Condition. Whatever. and unless are conjunctions proper. and whilst are conjunctive adverbs. with an adjective or an adverb. Degree. Whether or no is also allowed. for. if. CONNECTIVES OF NOUN CLAUSES. Real Cause. Purpose. telling which are relative pronouns. +Direction+. if (= even if). till. correlative. whichever. and since are conjunctions proper. and who are pronouns introducing questions. whence. lest (= that not). and whether [Footnote: Etymologically. correlative with adjectives or adverbs.--Because.--Except. like the use of it with three or more things. in case that. COMPOSITION--CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. and wherever are conjunctive adverbs. since. lest. COMPOSITION--CONNECTIVES. and point out all the connectives in Lessons 80 and 81. for. the six following Lessons may be omitted. ***** LESSON 102. but their omission will occasion no break in the course. though. However is a conjunctive adverb. where. or if it is found necessary to abridge this work in order to conform to a prescribed course of study. when. that. which are conjunctions proper. Concession. when. +TO THE TEACHER+.--Although. and so thatare conjunctions proper. but usage allows us to repeat it.--Study the lists above. and the are conjunctive adverbs. Evidence. which.--If the pupils lack maturity. If. that. while. on condition that. as. provided that. ere. and whether are conjunctions proper. but it has burst the bonds of its etymology and is very freely used with three or more. . whenever.

and manner. If wishes were horses. Since the Puritans could not be convinced. 4. I found an altar with this inscription. they were persecuted. 12. It must be raining. +degree+. +cause+. place. and what are the usual connectives of such clauses. Watch and pray lest ye enter into temptation. If a slave's lungs breathe our air. CONNECTIVES. Half-learned lessons slip from the memory. and concession. England fears lest Russia may endanger British rule in India. that moment he is free. evidence. 2. as men are carrying umbrellas. COMPOSITION--CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. It must be raining. since men are carrying umbrellas. and by connectives of adverb clauses of time. ***** LESSON 105. purpose. +Direction+. 119 +Direction+. Many thousand years have gone by since the Pyramids were built. as an icicle from the hand. Mount Marcy is not so high as Mount Washington. and by connectives of noun clauses.--Write twenty complex sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives of adjective clauses. +Since+ may connect a clause expressing +time+. condition. or +evidence+. +time+. as water expands in freezing. all beggars might ride. 10. 6.] 9. If the flights of Dryden are higher. and then analyze the sentences:-+As+ may connect a clause expressing +manner+. +Lest+ may connect a clause expressing +purpose+. or +evidence+. Pope continues longer on the wing. 3. 7. 11. ***** LESSON 104. 14. degree. 5. or it may introduce a +noun+ clause. +cause+. or +concession+.--Write twenty complex sentences whose clauses shall be joined by connectives of adverb clauses of real cause. But this use of if is common with good authors in early and in modern English. . or it may introduce a +noun+ clause. ***** LESSON 103. 1. Ice floats.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. 13. +time+. +If+ may connect a clause expressing +condition+. As I passed by. Who knows if one of the Pleiads is really missing? [Footnote: Many grammarians say that if here is improperly used for whether. Analysis. 8.--Tell what kinds of clauses follow the connectives below.

While Charles I. 12. 16. therefore get wisdom. concession. +While+ may connect a clause expressing +time+ or +concession+. The dial instituted a formal inquiry. and change these compound sentences to complex without changing the meaning. 9. or +purpose+. 120 +Direction+. Napoleon was a genius. an +adjective+ clause. but he would fain have had it. Caesar put the proffered crown aside. No one has been where Moses was buried. 2. Socrates said that he who might be better employed was idle. when hands. let three express cause. We never tell our secrets to people that pump for them. +cause+. You must eat. CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. Analysis. 6. 15. Let but the commons hear this testament. and he must flee. had many excellent traits. 8. 5. Take away honor and imagination and poetry from war. 13. 6. it is . five. and weights protested their innocence. or it may connect +co-ordinate+ clauses. Where Moses was buried is still a question. 4. 1. 17. Wisdom is the principal thing. +Where+ may connect a clause expressing +place+. His crime has been discovered.) 1. 5. The Pharisee thanked God that he was not like other men. or +condition+. 7. or it may connect +co-ordinate+ clauses. +When+ may connect a clause expressing +time+. 4. Vesuvius threw its lava so far that Herculaneum and Pompeii were buried. The smith plunges his red-hot iron into water that he may harden the metal.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg CONNECTIVES--CONTINUED. and it becomes carnage. November is the month when the deer sheds its horns. When judges accept bribes. 10. an +adjective+ clause. 3. or a clause expressing +degree+. and then analyze the sentences:-+That+ may connect a +noun+ clause. wheels.--Use the appropriate connectives. and two. while Wellington was a man of talents. what may we expect from common people? 11.--Tell what kinds of clauses follow the connectives below. he was a bad king. condition. 3. and then analyze them:-(Let one dependent clause be an adjective clause. or a +noun+ clause. ***** LESSON 106. 14. When the five great European races left Asia is a question. No one knows the place where Moses was buried. and what are the usual connectives of such clauses. make the most of the present. and they would go and kiss dead Caesar's wounds. or you will die. Men are carrying umbrellas. 2. While we sleep. Analysis. 7. an +adjective+ clause or a +noun+ clause. +Direction+. +cause+. When the future is uncertain. the body is rebuilt. The Aztecs were astonished when they saw the Spanish horses.

and which he possesses beyond other poets. nor is needed to make the second clause negative). 11. He was neither (not neither was) rich nor poor. and stand where they belong. Had the Plantagenets succeeded in France. . by then. by not only. No one can eat nor drink while he is talking. when. nor (not or) was he sick (not is expended in the first clause. as. 7. and correct these errors:-1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 121 raining. by then. [Footnote: See foot-note. Were he my brother. I could do no more for him. is tenderness. I cannot find either my book or (not nor) my hat. by the. or by such. if (not or) ever. there would never have been an England. The Senate knows this. ***** LESSON 107. though. more frigates would be found written on my heart. but do not use them needlessly or instead of other parts of speech. but (but also and but likewise). 16. and it is pure carbon. 3. He has no love for his father or(not nor) for his mother (the negative no is felt throughout the sentence. The diamond is a sparkling gem. There was nothing either strange nor interesting. 2. The excellence of Virgil. 7. She not only dressed richly but tastefully.--Study the Caution and the Examples. and correct these errors:-1. it can be no worse for us. I could not gratify the reader. Be careful that the right words stand in correlation.--Some conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs may stand in correlation with other words. 15. He not only gave me advice but also money. and three express concession. 8. Should we fail. 6. Not only he is successful but he deserves to succeed. or. 9. by so. +Caution+. Were I so disposed.--Seldom. that. 10. by yet. I will try to (not and) do better next time. Were I [Admiral Nelson] to die this moment. nor. Thales was not only famous for his knowledge of nature but also for his moral wisdom.--Give me neither riches nor (not or) poverty. Take away the grandeur of his cause. by so.] A harrow is drawn over the ground. Who can doubt but that there is a God? 4. Dogs not only bark (not not only dogs bark) but also bite. Neither Massachusetts or Pennsylvania has the population of New York. 13. Have ye brave sons? look in the next fierce brawl to see them die. +Direction+. page 176. 14. and yet the traitor lives. Who doubts that (not but that or but what) Napoleon lived [Footnote: See foot-note. A theatrical part may either imply some peculiarity of gesture or a dissimulation of my real sentiments. by either or by whether. page 176. by neither. Place an appropriate conjunction before each.--Two of the dependent clauses below express condition. He was not well. And may be accompanied by both. which (not and which) covers the seed.--Study the Caution. +Direction+. by as. 6. and where. the. No one can deny that (not but) he has money. 2. and need not be repeated by nor). 5. +Examples+. +Direction+. and Washington is a rebel instead of the purest of patriots. and then analyze the sentences:-12. Try and recite the lesson perfectly to-morrow.--Choose apt connectives. He seldom or ever went to church. Not only dogs (not dogs not only) bark but wolves also. CONSTRUCTION OF CONNECTIVES.] The doctor had scarcely left when (not but) a patient called. the Consul sees it. should an adverb stand between to and the infinitive. 4. if. 5. +Examples+. 3. No one can deny but that the summer is the hottest season. by there. +Caution+.

He can converse on other topics besidespolitics. 11. 2. Americans would rather travel than stay at home. 19. Shakespeare was greater than any other poet that has (add lived) or is now alive. 22. I don't suppose. and correct these errors:-1. the one on the northern coast of the Mediterranean. but not different in kind. Them scissors are very dull. +Examples+. He was thrown forward onto his face. but not so cheap. I only laugh when I feel like it. being a rash man. Thimbles.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg I do not know as I shall like it. and more. he tried to capture Canada. 3. 27. than iron. 15. and that in Europe. 8. as his sister). 17. My friend has sailed for Europe. 28. died. but does not talk so well. 10. He hasn't. as B. 5. He is outrageously proud. The eye and ear have different offices. telling what Caution each violates:-1. is. The book cost a dollar. and adjectives and adverbs expressing a comparison are usually followed by than. 23. but not so tall (not The boy is stronger. Faithful boys have always and always will learn their lessons. The music sounded harshly. He has . A told B that he was his best friend. may be followed by but or besides. otherwise. +Examples+. rather. 2. that are worn on the finger. Ethan Allen. 25. The lady that was thrown from the carriage. 18. but not so useful. 7. than that. if not more so. He was an humble man. Cornwallis could not do otherwise but surrender.--A diamond is nothing else than carbon. and which is a great price. Gold is not so useful. The boy is stronger than his sister. Bread is more nutritious. or may be published.--I have always (add said) and still do say that labor is honorable. The moon is something else but green cheese. 21. Battles are fought with other weapons besides pop-guns. 4. +Caution+. There are some men which are always young. A knows more. 5. The cripple cannot walk otherwise than on crutches. 12. 5.--Study the Caution and the Examples.--Two or more connected words or phrases referring to another word or phrase should each make good sense with it. 16. This is as valuable. that he was more puzzled than before. Carthage and Rome were rival powers: this city in Africa. He would neither go himself or send anybody. He no sooner saw the enemy but he turned and ran. The butter is splendid. 4. The boy was graceful and tall. But else. 29. 24. are used in pushing the needle. Not only the boy skated but he enjoyed it. 14. the other on the southern. This dedication may serve for almost any book that has. I rose earlier than I intended. At what wharf does the boat stop at? 20. One would rather have few friends than a few friends. implying something additional. 9. 2. +Direction+. This is the same man who called yesterday. who was here yesterday. The right and left lung were diseased. The right and the left lungs were diseased. 3. 8. MISCELLANEOUS ERRORS.--Correct these errors. I cannot think but what God is good. 122 +Caution+.--Else. laid by much. but heavier.--Study the Caution and the Examples. as potatoes. 6. 4. as iron. +Direction+. 13. It isn't but a short distance. 26. ***** LESSON 108. and correct these errors:-1. 6. after he had asked the advice of all his friends. +Direction+. Gold is heavier. but not so tall. 3. other. Junius was no other than Sir Philip Francis. He said that. and who was picked up insensible. It was no other but the President. other.

We meet but(adverb = only) to part. it abbreviates expression. There is nobody here but me. The fine arts were all but proscribed. point out the exact use of what. 7. 10. VARIOUS USES OF WHAT. 8. 41. but for its quiet. 13. What love equals a mother's? 4. 30. I long ago found that out. That man is a hero. and but in these sentences. 32. an +adjective+ +pronoun+. The tears of love were hopeless but (preposition = except) for thee. that. The problem was difficult to exactly understand. and a +preposition+. There's not a white hair on your face but should have its effect of gravity. The longest life is but a day. That is heroism. regarding but as a negative relative = that not. There is no fireside but (preposition) has one vacant chair (except the one whichhas). It was so cold that the mercury froze. Some people never have and never will bathe in salt water. +But+ may be used as a +conjunction+. 6. THAT. +Examples+. an +adverb+. 16. It was the length of your finger.--He did what was right.--Study the examples given above. He was all but (conjunction or preposition) dead = He was all dead. and a +conjunctive adverb+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 123 gone way out West. Life is but (adjective = only) a dream. a +conjunction+. 33. +Examples+. It prevents repetition. +Direction+. but he was not dead. There's not a breeze but whispers of thy name. I cannot but remember = I cannot do anything but (preposition = except) remember. It was a look that. 5. [Footnote: The use of the verb do as a substitute for a preceding verb is one of the most remarkable idioms in the language. No man is so wicked but (conjunctive adverb) he loves virtue = No man is wicked to that degree in which he loves notvirtue (so = to that degree. AND BUT. and therefore is energetic.--The ostrich is a bird. transitive and intransitive. Whom should I obey but thee? 12 What by industry and what by economy. He came but to return. He did nothing but laugh. What! you a lion? +That+ may be used as a +relative pronoun+. 35. No sooner did I arrive when he called. That life is long which answers life's great end. or He was all (anything in that line) except (the climax) dead. Who doubts but what two and two are four? 31. a +definitive adjective+. 14. he had amassed a fortune. In its several forms it stands for the finite forms and for the infinitive and the participle of verbs.] 40. 36. 38. or. It was once supposed that crystal is ice frozen so hard that it cannot be thawed. +What+ may be used as a +relative pronoun+. +Examples+. ***** LESSON 109. 2. an +adverb+.--He that does a good deed is instantly ennobled. When shall we meet together? 39. She wore a peculiar kind of a dress. and an +interjection+. the sentence = There is no fireside that has not one vacant chair. 17. 37. and then analyze the sentences:-1. Not a sparrow falls but (= unless--subordinate conjunction) God wills it. 15. What did he say? What man is happy with the toothache? What with confinement and what with bad diet. would have seemed disdain. 34. 3. the prisoner found himself reduced to a skeleton (here what = partly. The fish breathes with other organs besides lungs. a +definitive adjective+. . and modifies the phrase following it). an +interrogative pronoun+. He bought a condensed can of milk. One should not always eat what he likes. What if the bee love not these barren boughs? 9. He talks like you do. This word has a different source than that. but = in which not). and hence is euphonic. but (adversative conjunction) it cannot fly. What! I the weaker vessel? 11. an +adjective+. All but (preposition = except) him had fled. We eat that we may live. The death is inevitable. regular and irregular.

What. 124 Lesson 85. is the difference between in and into? Lesson 99. the needless use of pronouns. REVIEW QUESTIONS. What are the several classes of adverbs? Define them. it. What adjectives do not limit? Illustrate. and of what for that.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting he.--Define a preposition. the one and the other.--Define a noun. and the.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting the choice and the position of adverbs. the position of the relative clause. What is an antecedent? Lesson 86. and the use of who. and the use of adverbs for adjectives and of adjectives for adverbs. What three kinds of clauses are connected by subordinate connectives? The . What are the two great classes of conjunctions.--Define a verb. and what is their difference? What other parts of speech besides conjunctions connect? What are adverbs that connect called? Into what three classes are co-ordinate connectives subdivided? Give some of the conjunctions and the conjunctive adverbs of each class. and save? Of certain compound prepositions? When do prepositions become adverbs? Lesson 98. What are the classes of pronouns? Define them. Lesson 90. the use of that instead of who or which. in general. the use of them for those. and the use of a few and few. and the use of this and that. and they. What are transitive verbs? Intransitive? Illustrate. What distinction is made between the object and the object complement? What are regular verbs? Irregular? Illustrate.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 110. the use of double negatives. that.--Define an adjective. the relative in clauses not restrictive. Name some of the common prepositions.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting the use of the adjectives an. Lesson 95. Lesson 87. which. ***** LESSON 111. What two classes are there? Define them.--Define a conjunction.--Give and illustrate the Caution as to the choice of prepositions. Lesson 91.--Give and illustrate the Cautious respecting the choice and the position of adjectives. What is a conjunctive adverb? Lesson 93. a little and little. What is said of some prepositions ending in ing? Of but. Lesson 89. What is the distinction between a common and a proper noun? Why is music a common noun? What is a collective noun? An abstract noun? Define a pronoun. Lesson 93. except. a. and what. Lesson 100.--Give and illustrate the Cautions respecting connected relative clauses.--Give and illustrate the two Cautions relating to the use of prepositions. the two styles of the pronoun. REVIEW QUESTIONS--CONTINUED.

They tell you that case is a form. [Footnote: Those grammarians that attempt to restrict number. to take Modifications with such breadth of signification that it will apply to meaning and to use. if. Lessons 104. and Interjection. Lesson 107. those that make what we call Modifications denote only relations or conditions of words cannot cling to these abstract terms. But we shall use Modifications to indicate changes in meaning and use when the . You are now to learn that the meaning or use of a word may be changed by simply changing its form. mode. 99). | THE CONJUNCTION. 105.--Illustrate the offices of what. and speak of the nominative and the objective case of the noun. the meaning. Schemes for the Conjunction." or "singular in form but plural in sense. that. + Subordinate + 106-107. lest. plural or singular in form but singular or plural form in sense.--what we here call Modifications--to form. so that many of the changes in the meaning and the use of words are not now marked by changes in form. Lesson 109. case. These changes in the form. and yet insist that nouns have three cases. of course. if you construe them rigorously.--Give and illustrate the four Cautions relating to the construction of connectives. though only two forms. ***** GENERAL REVIEW. and they speak of "a noun in the singular with a plural application. or forms.) | Co-Ordinate. etc. that. THE INTERJECTION. viz. that the "condition" of a noun will be sounded or written. (The numbers refer to Lessons. | | THE PREPOSITION. MODIFICATIONS OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH. as well as to form. The English language has lost most of its inflections. 98. No Classes (20.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg connectives of adverb clauses are subdivided into what classes? Give a leading connective of each class. ***** LESSON 112. and yet speak of nouns "plural in form but singular in sense. Primarily." in which expression singular must be taken to mean singular form to save it from sheer nonsense. +Classes+. for instance. Preposition. and while." that is.--You have learned that two words may express a thought. since. when. they ask the pupil to "pronounce and write the possessive of nouns. No Classes (95. and that the thought may be varied by adding modifying words. We know no way to steer clear of Scylla and keep out of Charybdis but to do what by the common use of the word we are allowed. and but. They define number. 125 +Introductory Hints+. or inflection. 21)." hardly expecting. "although in fact the two cases are always the same in form"--the two forms always the same in form! On the other hand. used to mark changes in the meaning and use of words. where. and the use of the parts of speech we call their +Modifications+. as a form. it meant inflections. find themselves within bounds which they continually overleap. we suppose.--Illustrate two or more offices of each of the connectives as.. For instance.

Boy denotes one lad. To this rule there are some exceptions. brush. tornado. NUMBER. boys. The form of the subject boy is changed by adding an s to it. portico (oes or os). recognizing that as a modification which is not somewhere marked by form. however. innuendo. face. and say two boys.] Modifications of Nouns and Pronouns.[Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon.--The plural of nouns is regularly formed by adding s to the singular+. The meaning has changed. gas. four boys. . This change in the form and the meaning of nouns is called +Number+. bird-es. and use+. The following nouns in o preceded by a consonant add s only. NUMBER FORMS. to express more precisely how many. is in the +Singular Number+. mosquito.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Buffalo. and cage drop the final ewhen es is added. The following nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant add es without increase of syllables. denoting more than one thing. niche. as was the plural termination for a certain class of nouns. cage. lash. esis added and forms another syllable. In later English. hedge. When the singular ends in a sound that cannot unite with that of s. which became the regular plural ending.] +Remark+. embargo.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns. +RULE. when the singular ends in an s-sound. the word boy. cargo. grotto. and s is joined to the singular without increase of syllables. and note what letters represent sounds that cannot unite with the sound of +s+:-Ax or axe. torpedo. as. calico. nowhere.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 126 form in the particular instance is wanting. echo. arch. many or several boys. Lesson 137. +The Plural Number denotes more than one thing+. But. and boys. prize. In modern English. cross. See Rule 1. lens. is in the +Plural Number+. hero. negro. ditch. veto. +DEFINITIONS+. meaning. adz or adze. the original syllable es is retained. Number expresses only the distinction of one from more than one.--Such words as horse. motto. glass. denoting one thing. The boy shouts. race. chaise. as two hissing sounds will not unite. volcano. box. two or more lads. The boys shout. mulatto. we use adjectives.+ +The Singular Number denotes one thing+. +Modifications of the Parts of Speech are changes in their form. +Direction+. e is dropped. as was changed to es. potato. topaz. cloud-es. +Direction+. niche. +Number is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes one thing or more than one. horse.

mouse.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Alley. shelf. kidney. ox. (For the plurals of pronouns. The following nouns in f and fe are regular. knife. kerchief. Some nouns adopted from foreign languages still retain their original plural forms. wharf. vanity. flagstaffs. salvo. attorney. wolf.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Canto. +Direction+. loaf. valley. zero (os or oes). tyro. staff. [Footnote: U after q is a consonant] daisy. (Nouns in ff. chief. Lesson 127. money. quarto.--Learn to form the following plurals:-Child. +Direction+. [Footnote: Staff (a stick or support). woman. tooth. reef. lasso.] wife. such words as lady and fancy were spelled ladie.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Belief. sheaf. gulf. children. The compounds of staff are regular. solo. Some of these take the English plural also. cameo. as. lily. embryo.) ***** LESSON 113. waif. The following nouns change f or fe into ves. fairy. strife. octavo. . ally. except staff. fife. half. mystery. calf. dwarf. trio. The modern plural simply retains the old spelling and adds s. leaf. foot. as. staff (a body of officers). essay. oxen. grief.. portfolio. +Direction+. goose. chimney.) The following plurals are still more irregular. scarf. duodecimo. monkey.] in y after a consonant change y into i and add es without increase of syllables. cuff. junto. colloquy. memento. women. are regular. fancy. lady. NUMBER FORMS--CONTINUED. proof. [Footnote: In England. turkey. roof. cuckoo. In old English. men. city. see Lesson 124. self. Messrs. Mr.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Beef. piano. elf. teeth. proviso. mice. feet. man.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+.] thief. cuffs. 127 Common nouns [Footnote: See Rule 2. folio. geese. safe.. staves or staffs. lice. hoof. Nouns in o preceded by a vowel add s. generally wharfs. +Direction+. brief. staffs. seraglio. fancie. life. Nouns in y after a vowel add s. halo. two. Bamboo. soliloquy. louse. domino (os or oes).

Clark and Maynard. magus. memorandum. parentheses. +Direction+. automata or automatons. +Direction+. messieurs. Jones. strata. vary the last word. forget-me-not. man-singer. monsieur. mesdames. cherub. woman-singer. dormouse. as. parenthesis. banditti or bandits. fisherman. as. bases. genera.] +Direction+. gentlemen. vertebra.--Learn to form the following plurals:-- 128 Analysis. and most compounds. we believe that the former is most used by the best authors.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. madame. father-in-law. stratum. the Misses Clarks and the two Mrs. erratum. in which the principal word stands first. focus. portemonnaie. man-trap. German. Frenchman. billet-doux. basis. ignis fatuus. automaton. Englishman. data. Ottoman. vertebrae. analyses. The forms. hypothesis. oasis. fungi or funguses. crises. Clarks. errata. The latter. crisis. datum. [Footnote: Pails full is not a compound. men-singers. terminus. nebulae. The following compound nouns. woman-servant. seraph. ignes fatui. oases. ellipses.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Courtyard. mouthful. Messrs. Grimes and Steele. the name is usually varied. as. the Miss Clarks or the Misses Clark. vary the first word. A title used with two or more different names is made plural. beaux or beaus. Dr. termini. Brown. as. have little authority. when the title Mrs. the Miss Clarks and the Misses Clark. hanger-on. The following. phenomena. Brahman. appendices orappendixes. nebula. cherubim or cherubs. attorney-at-law. seraphim or seraphs. as. billets-doux. axes. bandit. Clark.] +Direction+. man-of-war. . sons-in-law. handful. fellow-servant. spoonful. man-servant.--Form the plural of the following words:-Aid-de-camp. cousin-german. radii or radiuses. the two Miss Clarks. antithesis. axis. Drs. stepson. The following compounds vary both parts. Mr. beau. magi. [Footnote: Of the two forms. antitheses. as. phenomenon. talisman. foci: fungus. General Lee. pronounced bil'-la:-doo:z ] commander-in-chief. radius. synopsis. hypotheses. court-martial. each full. Compounds consisting of a proper name preceded by a title form the plural by varying either the title or the name. goose-quill. the name should always be varied. the Mrs. pianoforte. The following nouns (except Norman) are not compounds of man--add sto all. is used. is rather stiff if not pedantic. appendix. Some authorities say that. tooth-brush. [Footnote: Plural. but. vortex.--Form the plural of each of the following nouns:-Man-child. maid-servant. genus. Norman. synopses. pailfuls. ellipsis. Master Green. except in formal notes or when the title is to be emphasized. memoranda or memorandums.--Form the plural of the following compounds:-Miss Jones. when a numeral precedes the title. vortices or vortexes. This expression denotes a number of pails. Mussulman. as. tete-a-tete.

Genius. but they may be plural when kinds of the material or things made of it are referred to.--Put each of the following expressions in its proper form:-General Lee and Jackson. as. the plural ko:rz. 2's. means. who. trout. but the (') is here unnecessary. heads (parts of the body). sails (pieces of canvas). indexes (tables of reference). as. score. series. they add s in other cases. odds.+--Form the plural of each of the following characters:--S. [Yough]. shots (number of times fired). foot (foot-soldiers). etc. [Footnote: The names of several sorts of fish. and Anna Scott. 9. corps. brethren (of the same society).+--Study the following list:-Bellows. shot (number of balls).+--Learn these plurals and their meanings:-Brother. which. the if's and and's. as codfish. figures. +Direction. Apparatus. Mr. Miss Mary. four score. . [Cyrillic: E]. indices (signs in algebra). as. Sail.) Names of materials when taken in their full or strict sense can have no plural. gross. species. yoke. are used in the same way. horses (animals). Head. hose. grouse. and other characters add the apostrophe and s to form the plural. cannon (in a collective sense). The following nouns have no plural. 1/4. swine. ----'s. Shot. (The following nouns have the same form in both numbers when used with numerals. vermin. [Footnote: The singular is pronounced ko:r. tins. [Footnote: Some good writers form the plural of words named merely as words. feet (parts of the body). Cannon. brothers (by blood). none. Fish. The following nouns and pronouns have the same form in both numbers. hundred. Index. what. geniuses (men of genius). Stacy. Julia. +Direction. qualities. a's.] as. by scores. x. heathen. t. that (relative). (These are generally names of materials. herring. coppers. head (of cattle). fish (collection). dice (cubes for gaming). as. heathen or heathens.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. any. horse (horse-soldiers). NUMBER FORMS--CONTINUED. & Co. (The following have two forms in the plural). or sciences. Horse. Penny. The compounds of fish. in the same way. genii (spirits). [Dagger]. pence (quantity in value). pennies (distinct coins). Die. dies (stamps for coining). have the same form in both numbers. pains (care).] deer. 129 Letters. coffees. fishes (individuals). Some nouns have two plurals differing in meaning.] Foot. sheep. i. thousand. +Direction. +. Green. cottons. shad. 1. apparatus or apparatuses. sail (vessels).) Dozen. ***** LESSON 114. cannons (individuals).

pulley. assets. tin. S. The following have no singular corresponding in meaning. snuffers. and its report will soon be made. and the singular of those that are plural. goodness. sweets. A committee was appointed.--The committee were unable to agree. (Collective nouns have plural forms. copper. colony. Collective nouns are treated as plural when the individuals in the collection are thought of. annals. marble. loaf. bush. lead. REVIEW IN NUMBER. vitals. tongs. milk. kangaroo. cherubim. wharf. handkerchief. ashes. riches (Norman French richesse). matins (morning service). amends. physiology. etc.) ***** LESSON 115.--Study the following list:-Aborigines. bagnio. grounds (dregs). spectacles (glasses). ethics. efese). letters (literature). mumps. tidings. and they asked to be discharged.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction. Colors (flag). gold. genius. not a book). morals (character). oats. literati. and those that have no singular:-Hope. house. child. but they are now treated as plural. rickets. greens. Acoustics. politics (and other names of sciences in ics). honesty. iron. trousers. beaux.+--Study the following list of words:-- 130 Bread. meekness. (Such words are generally names of things double or multiform in their character. measles. vespers (evening service). peace. flagstaff. (The singular form is sometimes an adjective. give the Rule or the Remark that applies to each. Mr. fireworks. and as singular when the collection as a whole is thought of. loss. Alms (Anglo-Saxon aelmaesse). pincers. scissors. valuables.) +Direction+. clothes. hay. tax. +Examples+. mathematics. The following words are always plural.--Write the plural of the singular nouns and pronouns in the following list. potato. music. suds. age. genus. armies. water. flour. news. victuals. eaves (A. shoe. pride. The following were originally singular forms. nippers. fife. staff. hysterics. shears. narrows. manners (behavior).) Bitters. . mesdames. remains (dead body). +Direction+. goods (property). bench. stays (corsets).. and note those that have no plural. termini. piano. molasses. ox. The following plural forms are commonly used in the singular. grass. thanks. waltz. as. compasses (dividers). coffee. grammar (science. committees.

iron. she. and have been. riches. deer. deer. news. species.) (With the plural nouns use the verbs are. Lion. man-childs. The modification of the noun to denote the sex of the thing which it names is called +Gender+. his. vermin. man-of-war. ***** LESSON 116. five that have no singular. the pronouns they. heros. calicos. 2s. head (of cattle). swines. Messrs. foxs. this. and has been. means. teeth-brushes. maid-servant. pride. NUMBER FORMS IN CONSTRUCTION. +Direction+. Smith. him. gross. is. phenomenons. child. crowd. former. mosquitos. muff.+--These scissors are so dull that I cannot use them. family. either. brethren. was. those. and five that have the same form in both numbers.+--Give five words that have no plural.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 131 theory.--The lion was caged. is in the . +Direction. neither. heathen. her. geese-quills. the adjectives an. dice. series. 1/2. the fourth as a plural subject. In the first sentence something is said about a male lion. and by the pronoun used in connection with it:-(With the singular nouns use the verbs is. elfs. all. soloes. by the adjective. bellows. molasses. son-in-law. +Remark. mouthsful. it. molasses.+--Correct the following plurals. trout. series. goods. and them.) Bellows. sunfish. aldermans. irons. ***** LESSON 117. In the following sentence this. one. the adjective. meeting. genuses. x. and the remainder both as singular and as plural subjects:-Each. politics.--Construct sentences in which the number of each of the following nouns shall be indicated by the form of the verb. man-servant. storys. Mussulmen. babys. attorney-at-laws. grounds. Misses. clothes. German. pennies. Brown and Smith. The lioness was caged. +Introductory Hints+. The plurality of scissors is here made known in four ways. beefs. fish. galley. axises. oxes. greens. +Direction. mother-in-laws. The number of a noun may be determined not only by its form but also by the verb. parent. denoting a male animal. and give the Remark that applies to each:-Stagees. the adjectives these. mystery.--Compose sentences in which the first three of the following adjective pronouns shall be used as singular subjects. ms. alms. and two. were. and it are incorrectly used: This scissors is so dull that I cannot use it. NOUNS AND PRONOUNS--GENDER. news. and its. their. Frenchman. that. terminuses. and the pronoun used in connection with it. colloquy. oats. +Direction+. the pronouns he. Dr. eaves. who. scarves. chimnies. none. spoonful. and that. any. trioes. both. and in the second something is said about a female lion.

count. and add ess. By a difference in the ending of the words. friend. But in such modern languages as the French and the German. prophet.--Form the feminine of each of the following masculine nouns by adding e s s :-Author. as. poet. and lioness. Er(A. +Gender is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes sex+. patron. It displaced the feminine termination of the mother-tongue (A. The masculine is distinguished from the feminine in three ways:-1st. for in our language gender follows the sex.] +Direction+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 132 +Masculine Gender. +The Masculine Gender denotes the male sex+. No English nouns have distinctive neuter forms. as in the French and the German. tailor. to the noun that names the thing. idolater. is in the +Feminine Gender+. gender has followed sex. editor. prince (see Rule 1. [Footnote: The suffix ess came into the English language from the Norman-French. and gender. and in Latin and Greek. lion. 3d. heir. old English ster). Such words are sometimes said to be in the Common Gender. Sex belongs to the thing. 2d. Names of things that are without sex are said to be in the +Neuter Gender+. hunter. baron. Gender Forms. benefactor. +The Neuter Gender denotes want of sex+. estre. +The Feminine Gender denotes the female sex+. child. god (see Rule 3. giant. ambassador. of course. but it now generally denotes an agent without reference to sex. neighbor are either masculine or feminine. instructor. the gender of nouns naming things without reference to sex is determined by the likeness of their endings in sound to the endings of words denoting things with sex. and the English. (Drop the vowel e or o in the ending of the masculine. Lesson 127). you know the gender of the noun in English that names it. but. ere) was originally a masculine suffix. tutor. since the union of the Norman-French with the Anglo-Saxon to form the English. the French is feminine. denoting a female animal. waiter. speak-er. enchanter. conductor. read-er. . preceptor.) Actor. By different words in the compound names. shepherd. S. Ess is the most common ending for feminine nouns. but a lew have different forms to distinguish the masculine from the feminine. By using words wholly or radically different. Knowing the sex of the thing or its lack of sex. arbiter. Such nouns as cousin. gender was grammatical. [Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon. tiger. director. The German for table is a masculine noun. is neuter. host. the mother-tongue of our language. prior. Lesson 127).] ***** +DEFINITIONS+. deacon. S. The original meaning of ster is preserved in spinster. Jew.

lass. roe. merman. she-bear. peahen. duck. Jones. (This is a matter pertaining to the dictionary rather than to grammar. Louis.] +Direction+.) Adventurer. mistress. In some compounds distinguishing words are prefixed or affixed. and add the feminine ess. governor. although a neuter form. heifer. hen-sparrow. The pronoun has three gender forms:--Masculine he. [Footnote: It. It was John. beau. widower. master. Cornelius. sir. duke. belle. landlord. sorcerer. Englishwoman. hind.--Learn the following forms:-Billy-goat. mermaid. peacock. grandmother. hart. Georgiana. don. equestrian. sultana. +Direction+. maid-servant. drake. Francis. sultan. buck. Henry. equestrienne. Mrs. George. czarina. have various endings in the feminine. executor. lady. goose. he-bear. feminine she. donna. earl.--Learn the following forms:-Bachelor. niece. gentleman. landgravine. lord. friar or monk. youth. widow. mostly foreign. negro. Such words as editor and author are now frequently used to denote persons of either sex. abbess. Ess was formerly more common than now. murderer. duchess. cock-sparrow.--Learn the following forms:-Administrator. czar. Some words.--Learn these forms:-- 133 Abbot. Charlotte. Paul. +Direction+. Pauline. infanta. or Miss Jones. (The following are somewhat irregular. steer.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg (Drop the masculine er or or. hero. administratrix. Jesse. . signore or signor.--Give five examples of each of the three ways of distinguishing the masculine from the feminine. is used idiomatically to refer to a male or a female as. nephew. doe. Joseph. Englishman. testator. Frances. Julia or Juliet. Jessie. testatrix. grandfather. doe-rabbit. Charles. stag. nanny-goat. Mr. Words wholly or radically different are used to distinguish the masculine from the feminine. Henrietta. lad. Augustus. madam. executrix. Julius.--Give five nouns ending in e r or o r that may be applied to either sex. Josephine. damsel or maiden. heroine. landlady. It was Mary. and neuter it. maid. witch. buck-rabbit. ***** LESSON 118. negress. gander. Augusta. caterer. gentlewoman. Louisa or Louise. emperor.) +Direction+. marchioness. landgrave. siguora. infante.) +Direction+. +Direction+. Cornelia. empress. marquis. man-servant. nun. wizard. countess.

as.--Every person has his faults. The neuter pronoun it is often used with reference to animals and very young children.--Study what is said above. both the masculine and the feminine pronoun should be used.] +Example+. 17. 5.spotted hide. beauty. 10. +Remark+. in referring to an animal. it gives two or three graceful springs. A person's manners not unfrequently indicate ---.strength and sagacity.--Write sentences in which the things named below shall be personified by means of masculine pronouns:-- . and it. yet ---. The forest's leaping panther shall yield ---.who denies God. 6. +Remark+. and are referred to by the pronoun he or she. The elephant is distinguished for ---. Truth is fearless. The mocking-bird poured from ---little throat floods of delirious music. Everybody should think for ----. a feminine. 15. 2.grove. 13.--The writer employs he or she according as he fancies the animal to possess masculine or feminine characteristics. +Remark+. No one else is so much alone in the universe as ---. but in grammar it is chiefly important as involving the correct use of the pronouns he. or a neuter pronoun.raven wing.--It is quite generally used instead of he or she. He is more frequently employed than she. 4. the sex being disregarded.--The oak shall send his roots abroad and pierce thy mold.cunning. 14.--When the deer is alarmed. Despair extends ---. The fox is noted for ---. and the names of those distinguished for grace. Personification adds beauty and animation to style. [Footnote: When it is necessary to distinguish the sexes. The wild beast from ---. 3. that is. 8. +Examples+. The catamount lies in the boughs to watch ---. The dog is faithful to ---. The bat is nocturnal in ---. gentleness. Death.cavern sprang.work of gladness to contrive.beauty and ---chivalry. or productiveness are considered as feminine.master. The names of animals are often considered as masculine or feminine without regard to the real sex.is meek and modest. +Examples+. and then fill each of the blanks in the following sentences with a masculine. +Direction+. 7. Spring comes forth ---. power.--The grizzly bear is the most savage of his race.prey. When a singular noun is used so as to imply persons of both sexes. 16.--The names of objects distinguished for size. 11. The night-sparrow trills ---.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg GENDER FORMS IN CONSTRUCTION. Inanimate things are often represented as living beings.arch-enemy. The catsteals upon her prey. or sublimity are regarded as masculine. 18. +Example+. it is commonly represented by a masculine pronoun. Each person was required to name his or her favorite flower.song. unless some masculine or feminine quality seems to predominate. 9.morals. The child was unconscious of ---danger. the wild bird from ---. 134 Gender as a matter of orthography is of some importance. +Direction+. and in each case give the reason for your selection:-1.habits. Life mocks the idle hate of ---. 12. they are personified. The little child reached out its hand to catch the sunbeam. she. Belgium's capital had gathered then ---.

is in the +Second Person+. and he are personal pronouns. dative. and ablative. as possessing something. in the third. the English are nominative. in the second. used as object complement it is in the +Objective Case+. I. ANGLO-SAXON. Instead of I a writer or speaker may use the plural we. the Latin are nominative. A noun used as subject is in the +Nominative Case+. These uses and relations are not generally indicated by form. lord. vocative. winter. 2. hlaford. genitive.--Write sentences in which the things named below shall be personified by means of feminine pronouns:-Ship. These different uses of nouns and pronouns and the forms used to mark these uses constitute the modification called +Person+. vocative. 3. There are two modifications which do not refer to changes in the meaning of nouns and pronouns but to their different uses and relations. nature. time. spring. +Direction+. I. its form is not changed. I. thou. earth. and he. England. Dat.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Death. 4. are modifications affecting the meaning of nouns and pronouns--number being almost always indicated by form. The bear's grease was made into hair oil. Singular. distinguish person by their form. The cat. 135 +Direction+. as you have learned. when it comes to the light. hlaford-um. sun. hlaford. as you see. sometimes. as receiving an act. Hlaford. Plural. in the second. in the third. and objective. to use the plural you instead of thou. war. hlaford-as. though. is in the +Third Person+. hlaford-as. . Summer clothes herself in green. or in the language of prayer and poetry. and. He brought Paul before Agrippa. In the first it is used to name the speaker. to name the one spoken to.--Correct these errors:-1. In these three sentences the word Paul has three different uses. accusative. river. dative. +Caution+. War leaves his victim on the field. Acc.--Number and gender. and used to denote possession it is in the +Possessive Case+. +Introductory Hints+. We inflect below a noun from the Anglo-Saxon. virtue. The man killed the bear. have written. Paul. hlaford. Nom.--Avoid changing the gender of the pronoun when referring to the same antecedent. Gen. hlaford-as. wind. and homes desolated by it mourn over her cruelty. The polar bear is comparatively rare in menageries. is in the +First Person+. denoting the speaker. Voc. Some of the pronouns have a special form for each case. hlaford-es. contracts and elongates the pupil of her eye. thou art beside thyself. hlaford-e. and through courtesy it came to be customary. except among the Friends. possessive (genitive). hlaford-a. denoting the one spoken to. night. ***** LESSON 119. genitive. The bear killed the man. In the first sentence the bear is represented as performing an act. thou. or inflection. [Footnote: The Anglo-Saxon cases are nominative. and decks itself with flowers. NOUNS AND PRONOUNS--PERSON AND CASE. gender. to name the one spoken of. as it suffers so much from the heat that he is not easily preserved in confinement. as you see. Paul. or inflection. accusative. but of nouns the possessive case is the only one that is now marked by a peculiar form. moon. denoting the one spoken of. These different uses of nouns and pronouns and the forms used to mark these uses constitute the modification called +Case+.

+The Possessive Case of a noun or pronoun denotes its office as possessive modifier+. etc. [Footnote: It is doubtful whether a noun is ever of the first person. Dat. I. lord. in the sentence I. John. the expression meaning. He sees. or as principal word in a prepositional phrase+. It may be said that. domin-um. ENGLISH. John. A noun is said to be of the first person when joined as an explanatory modifier to a pronoun of the first person. I. domin-is. Nom. the parent of the Norman-French. Obj.--Compose sentences in which there shall be two examples of nouns and two of pronouns used in each of the three persons. lord-s'. +The Nominative Case of a noun or pronoun denotes its office as subject or as attribute complement+. all the third person forms. all the second person forms. Nom. +Direction+.] A noun is of the second person when used as explanatory of a pronoun of the second person. Person is regarded in grammar because the verb sometimes varies its form to agree with the person of its subject. Personal pronouns and verbs are the only classes of words that have distinctive person forms. In English. prepositions have largely taken the place of case forms. +DEFINITIONS+. Singular. in order that you may see how cases and the inflections to mark them have been dropped in English. domin-os. select and write in one list all the first person forms. domin-orum. domin-i. lord-s. Acc. +DEFINITIONS+. Pos. John. lord. +Direction+. . or when used independently as a term of address. domin-is. Dominus. domin-e.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 136 LATIN. domin-us. +Person Forms+. We Americans are always in a hurry. I see. Nom. Idle time. as. Lord. +The Second Person denotes the one spoken to+. +Case is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes its office in the sentence+. Ab. domin-o.--From the forms of the pronouns given in Lesson 124. domin-i. domin-i. as. lord.] and one from the Latin. and my name is John. John speaks of his own name. Singular. +The First Person denotes the one speaking+. saw these things. and it is thought that by them our language can express the many relations of nouns to other words in the sentence better than other languages can by their cumbrous machinery of inflection. Obj. Thou seest. +The Third Person denotes the one spoken of+. saw these things. is ruinous. Plural. domin-o. or the one spoken of+. Plural. as. Ye crags and peaks. Gen. +The Objective Case of a noun or pronoun denotes its office as object complement. in another list. the one spoken to. and in another. lord-s. Voc. +Person is that modification of a noun or pronoun which denotes the speaker. Pos. lord-'s.

2. For one to be him.+--Analyze the following sentences. to which our language is closely allied.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg A noun or pronoun used independently is said to be in the nominative case. He made it all it is. that of 1774. dear madam. Liberty. ANALYSIS AND PARSING. 3. George III. as. and give the case of each noun and pronoun:-1. The nominative and the objective forms of the pronoun occur so rarely in such constructions that it seems impossible to determine the usage. being in the same case as me. reasoning from the German." +Examples+. in the possessive in two ways. I am this day weak. A noun or pronoun used as objective complement is in the objective case. Not to know what happened before we were born is to be always a child. its attribute complement is also said to be in the nominative case. the dry-goods merchant. is the proper form. and then compose sentences in which a noun or a pronoun shall be put in the nominative case in four ways. the attribute complement is said to be in the nominative case. would put the attribute complement of the abstract infinitive in the objective. +Examples+. would put this complement in the nominative. Others. etc.--Study carefully the Definitions and the Remark above. I proved it to be him. A noun or pronoun used as attribute complement of a participle or an infinitive is in the same case (Nom.--The first colonial Congress.] should make no difference. poor Yorick! He being dead. ***** LESSON 120. it has fled! (See Lesson 44. him. though anointed king. we shall live.--When the assumed subject of the participle or the infinitive is a possessive. +Direction+. in the sentence I wish (me or myself) to be him. Alas. or Obj. your friend. addressed the King. When the participle or the infinitive is used abstractly. To be he [Footnote: See footnote above. Its being he [Footnote: The case of he in these examples is rather doubtful.--Being an artist. Being a scholar is not being an idler. +Remark+. He buys is goods at Stewart's.) A noun or pronoun used as explanatory modifier is in the same case as the word explained--"is put by apposition in the same case. +Direction. supposing for and some other word to be understood. His being a Roman saved him from being made a prisoner. reasoning from the analogy of the Latin. . as. as.--They made him speaker. Some. The assumed subject of the infinitive being omitted when it is the same in sense as the principal subject. without an assumed subject. in the objective in five ways. +Examples+.--I am.] is to be a scholar. 137 +Examples+. he appreciated it. It is therefore a matter of no great practical importance.) as the word to which it relates as attribute.

execrable shape. page 247. Our great forefathers had left him naught to conquer but his country. +Explanation. What art thou.] ***** LESSON 121. +Explanation+. Think'st thou this heart could feel a moment's joy.+--Teacher. and its syntax. its relation to other words. thou being absent? 13. 7.--Select and parse in full all the nouns and pronouns found in the first ten sentences of Lesson 120. and is immeasurably superior to it as intellectual gymnastics. Amos. . +Direction+.--Elizabeth's favorite. or even to analyze well. I will attend to it myself. Worship thy Creator." When a pupil has said that such a noun is in the nominative case. O you hard hearts! you cruel men of Rome! 11. in parsing. Bear ye one another's [Footnote: For the use of one another. (For the case of him see explanation of (3) above. +TO THE TEACHER+.--We do not believe that the chief end of the study of grammar Is to be able to parse well. +Explanation.] 16. i.) 4.+--Nouns used adverbially are in the objective case because equivalent to the principal word of a prepositional phrase. We would not do away with parsing altogether. This news of papa's puts me all in a flutter. was not a prophet's son. Raleigh. What made Cromwell a great man was his unshaken reliance on God. see Lesson 142. page 247.. 8. and obey his Son. or one another's may be treated as a compound. 5.e. the herdsman of Tekoa.+--The singular one is explanatory of the plural ye. Everybody acknowledges Shakespeare to be the greatest of dramatists. (See Lesson 35. was beheaded by James I. God. of "Rules of Syntax. though without question analysis reveals more clearly than parsing the structure of the sentence. that darest advance? 10. is explanatory of Arnold's. 12. but would give it a subordinate place. PARSING. introduced by as and used without a possessive sign. King. the Master. [Footnote: See second foot-note. +Model for Written Parsing+. 15.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 138 +Explanation. what is gained by a repetition of the definition in the Rule: "A noun or a pronoun which is the subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case"? Let the reasons for the disposition of words.] burdens. 9. Arnold's success as teacher was remarkable. be specific. For the agreement of pronouns. But we must be allowed an emphatic protest against the needless and mechanical quoting. see Lesson 124.) 14. its modifications. when given at all. and Saviour of men. subject of such a verb.--Myself may be treated as explanatory of I. 6. +Parsing+--a word is giving its classification. What means that hand upon that breast of thine? [Footnote: See second foot-note.

--Pronounce the ('s) as a separate syllable (= es) when the sound of s will not unite with the last sound of the nominative. 60. In old English.Num. es was a genitive (possessive) ending of the singular. Prop.| 3d Sing. In prose this omission of the s should seldom occur. If the plural does not end in s. 30. Nouns have two case forms. 73. men's. Raleigh Prop.--When the singular and the plural are alike in the nominative.--Boy's. Other exercises may be selected from examples previously given for analysis. in the plural by adding (') only. TO THE TEACHER. Professor Hadley has clearly shown that the Saxon termination has never dropped out of the language.] +Examples+. Without the s there would be no distinction. 80. Hemans'. [Footnote: In Anglo-Saxon. "Mars his sword. genitive sta:n-es.Gen.--Study the Rule and the Remarks given above. boys'. Mas.| 3d Sing. as. prince's. of was beheaded. Nom. James I. Case. see Lessons 28. Mas. the s in the possessive singular is sometimes omitted.|son. of favorite. 33. some place the apostrophe after the s in the plural to distinguish it from the possessive singular. witness's. but exists in the English possessive ending to-day.Elizabeth's Prop.| -----------------|-----------------------|-----------------------------. In modern English.--For exercises in parsing nouns and pronouns.--The Possessive Case of nouns is formed in the singular by adding to the nominative the apostrophe and the letter s ('s).Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 139 CLASSIFICATION. Mrs. and the possessive form. Fem. CASE FORMS--NOUNS. Mas. 35. 59. der. King James's. +RULE. 71. and 81. 78. 31. Hemans's. 34. But it has been proved that the his in such expressions is an error that gained its wide currency largely through the confusion of early English orthography. | Mod. favorite Com. | 3d Sing. | Sub. Archimedes' screw (the s in the words following the possessive here having its influence). +Remark+. word of Prep." "The Prince his Players. singular. conscience' sake. Nom. | MODIFICATIONS. 29. common to the nominative and the objective case. 46. | Prin. | Expl. ber. in spoken language.--To avoid an unpleasant succession of hissing sounds. Some have said that our possessive ending is a remnant of the pronoun his. the simple form. ***** LESSON 122. and (') stands in its place. and in Middle. Mrs. +Remark+. between Miss Round's and Miss Rounds'. as. ('s) are both added. -----------------|-----------------------|-----------------------------. Mod. Kind. The weight of usage inclines to the use of s in such names as Miss Rounds's. phrase. | SYNTAX. es and is were both used. of favorite. goodness' sake.|Per. and then write the possessive singular and the possessive plural of each of the following nouns:-- . plural. The use of the apostrophe has been extended to distinguish the possessive from other forms of the plural. as. Achilles' sword. the vowel is generally dropped. +Remark+. and parsing continued as long as you think it profitable. Obj.| Nouns. sta:n. +Direction+. sheep's. Phrases like." "King Lewis his satisfaction" are abundant in Early. Pos. 44. Heman's and Mrs.| 3d Sing. sheeps'. English.

king of Great Britain. 140 Compound names and groups of words that may be treated as compound names add the possessive sign to the last word. chair. it is only with this case that mistakes can occur in construction. as. . calf. two cents' worth. house.--William and Henry's boat. fortune's smile. tyro. woman. and then make each of the following terms indicate possession.[Footnote: In parsing the words queen and England separately. +Remark+.--To denote the source from which a thing proceeds. attorney. ox. ocean. volcano. (See Lesson lai.) The possessive sign should generally be placed immediately before the name of the thing possessed. By the use of of. William's and Henry'sboat. year. junto. enemy. expressed or understood. or which we wish to dignify. goose. +Explanation+. William the Conqueror. hero. and of animals and things personified. monkey. lion. In the first example. swine. princess. child. waif. wife. using either the possessive sign or the preposition of.--The possessive plural of such terms is not used. the earth's surface. mountain. +Remarks+. Socrates. hour. cuckoo. mosquito. the ('s) must be regarded as belonging to queen. ally. ***** LESSON 123. +Direction+. a dollar's worth. and to names of periods of time.[Footnote: In such expressions as everybody else's business. king. each is represented as owning a separate boat--boat is understood after William's. sheep. fairy. As the possessive is the only case of nouns that has a distinctive inflection. gunpowder. but the leaves of the tree. chief. torrent. in the second. Henry the Eighth. eternity's stillness. summer. If they modify different words. day. seraph. The preposition of with the objective is often used instead of the possessive case form--David's Psalms = Psalms of David. The possessive sign however is often added to names of things which we frequently hear personified. elf. but the whole phrase queen of England's may be treated as one noun in the possessive case. horse. genius.] Frederick the Great's verses. of is used more frequently than ('s). the possessive sign is added to the last only. beau. the sign is added to each. the queen of England's palace. the possessive sign is removed from the noun and attached to the adjective. as may seem most appropriate. mothers-in-law's faults may be avoided. lady. and to words denoting value. William and Henry are represented as jointly owning a boat. or the idea of belonging to. a day'swork. such expressions as witness's statement. CONSTRUCTION OF POSSESSIVE FORMS. attorney-at-law. negro. We do not say the tree's leaves. book.] Jefferson. a man-of-war's rigging. elephant. thief. a year's interest. wolf. and join an appropriate name denoting the thing possessed:-Father-in-law.--Study carefully the principles and Remarks given above. deer. The possessive sign ('s) is confined chiefly to the names of persons. +Caution+. fish. dwarf. farmer.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Actor. somebody else. sun. as. eagle. aid-de-camp. mouse. princess. buffalo.--When several possessive nouns modify the same word and imply common possession.

7. or held by my wife's father. 4. 3. +Caution+. The Bank of England was established in William's and Mary's reign. 6. queen of England's.--Correct these errors:-1. property of. if the explanatory word has several modifiers.'s business prospers. but the reception of . only the principal word takes the sign. or if there are more explanatory words than one.) +Caution+. the possessive sign is added to the explanatory word only.--Improve the following sentences:-1. Charles's. the jeweler's. (See the following Caution. the jeweler. as. my old friend and schoolmate's.--Correct these errors. But. books. Messrs. He was his father's. queen of England's. In constructing sentences be careful to secure smoothness and clearness and variety by taking advantage of these different forms. home. Green's. 2. This was James's. 2. We were comparing Caesar and Napoleon's victories. This province is Victoria's. the greatest poet of antiquity's.--The relation of possession may be expressed not only by ('s) and by of but by the use of such phrases as belonging to.--When the different possessors are thought of as separate or opposed. This is Tennyson's.--The president's reception means the reception given by the president. They are Thomas. and give your reasons:-1. +Direction+.---Tell which of the sentences above may be improved by using other forms to denote possession. 5. That language is Homer's. If the name of the thing possessed is given. Frederick the Great was the son of the daughter of George I. We stopped at Tiffany. not the people's. as well as the people's. choice. +Direction+. the noun immediately before it takes the sign. 4. 6. I took tea at Brown's. dominion. as well as James's. This was the sage and the poet's theme. the sign is repeated. & Co. etc. This is my wife's father's opinion. 7. 5.--If an article precedes the possessive. This belongs to Victoria's. mother's. America was discovered during Ferdinand's and Isabella's reign. +Explanation+. It was the king. +Correction+. and sister's favorite. +Explanation+. +Direction+. the distinguished philosopher's statesman's. Wolsey's. Stacy's. The drawings of the sister of the wife of my brother have been much admired. My brother's wife's sister's drawings have been much admired. of England. and Robert's estate. France's and England's interest differs widely. 8. Leggett's.--When a possessive noun is followed by an explanatory word. or We stopped at Tiffany's. the poet's. career ended in disgrace. 5. 4. 6.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 141 +Remark+. favorite. This is my wife's father's farm. the sign may be repeated although joint possession is implied. +Direction+. Of is not always equivalent to the ('s). 3. He was the King's. 3. the possessive sign may be added either to the modifying or to the principal word. the cardinal's. 2. This was Franklin's motto.--When a common noun is explanatory of a proper noun. +Remarks+. and the name of the thing possessed is omitted. as.--This is the opinion of my wife's father.

Singular. a father's care. I do not doubt him being sincere. 3. Singular.--Declension is the arrangement of the cases of nouns and pronouns in the two numbers+. that is of consequence. +Correction+. Poltroonery is the acknowledging an infirmity to be incurable. Grouchy being behind time decided the fate of Waterloo. BOY. as here.--Matthew Arnold. The writer being a scholar is not doubted. boy's. As seen in this last quotation. Brown being a politician prevented his election. +Direction+. a picture of my friend. No one ever heard of that man running for office. lady's. . +Caution+. Declension. 6. Plural. my friend's picture. PERSONAL PRONOUNS.--Correct these errors:-1. ladies. man. 5.--Emerson. the love of a mother. or that the writer's scholarship is not doubted. Singular. boys. men's. It should be. Pos. Not a making war on them.--Bagehot. lady. men. Plural. It is not the finding of a thing but the making something out of it. The writer's being [Footnote: The participle may be modified not only.] a scholar is not doubted. Nom. by a noun in the possessive but by the articles a and the---as said in Lesson 37.--Often ambiguity may be prevented by changing the assumed subject of a participle from a nominative or an objective to a possessive. NUMBER AND CASE FORMS. boy. boys'. ladies'. men. Plural. ladies. I have no doubt of the writer being a scholar. after it is found. Whether it be the imposing a tax or the issuing a paper currency. MAN. the taking them from under the old conventional point of view. man.--This is ambiguous.--Construct sentences illustrating the meaning of the following expressions:-- 142 A mother's love. 2. the care of a father.--Learn the following declensions:-Declension of Nouns.--Lowell. +DEFINITION. not a leaving them out of mind. but the putting a new construction upon them. 4. LADY. man's. the participle may be followed by a preposition and so become a pure noun (Lesson 38). ***** LESSON 124. Declension of Pronouns. or That the writer is a scholar is not doubted. boys. lady. Obj. as it may mean either that the writer is not doubted because he is a scholar.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg the president means the reception given to the president. +Direction+.--Burke. boy. +Direction+. The giving away a man's money.

he. yours. Singular. my or our or your or your or thy or ye(++) or you mine. them. or ourselves. the. your temper. or I and they.--Sheridan Knowles. Obj.* you. and theirs are consequently double possessives. They would make the expression = This temper.SECOND PERSON-. them. thine. and their. forms already possessive. thine enemy. The s in ours. and Nom. His.* their or theirs. This temper of yours (your possessing). and is both nominative and objective. thine. and theirs are used only when the name of the thing possessed is omitted. I and she. ye(++) or you Pos.+ ours. as does of in city of (=viz.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg FIRST PERSON. or yourselves. her. and Nom.--Byron. themselves. it. I. his. Plural. was there the possessive (genitive) of the neuter hit also--our it. Plural. as was its original ge in the Saxon. [Footnote *: The possessive its is our only personal pronoun form not found in Saxon. she. them. Obj. [Footnote *: The compound personal pronouns are used (1) for emphasis. thereof. we can hardly be the plural of I. Obj. us. for I does not admit of plurality. as. thee. Plural.] COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. it. Obj. your. THIRD PERSON--Neut. Plural. it. Singular. Pos.] [Footnote ++: Ye is used in Chaucer and in the King James version of the Bible exclusively in the nominative. they. myself* thyself himself. Singular. But it came to be thought improper to employ his to denote inanimate things as well as animate. the possessive of the masculine he. Obj. hers. you. her. You (the Saxon accusative eow) has now taken the place of ye. and Nom. etc. The literature of the 16th and 17th centuries shows a growing sense of this impropriety. yours. thou. you. theirs. I myself saw it: and (2) as . and theirs is the s of his and its extended by analogy to our. mine is new = Your book is old. as. It is said that this construction can be used only when more than one thing is possessed such expressions as This heart of mine. and Nom.---Carlyle. Mine and thine were formerly used before words beginning with a vowel sound. him. mine honor. that of is partitive. Plural. they. Singular. The first appearance of the new coinage its is placed in 1598. yourself. as. we. Nom. Long after its introduction many looked askance at its. and Nom. as. and abounds with of it. [Footnote *: Strictly speaking. This moral life of mine. Singular. theirs. itself. yours. her. We means I and you. and it own in place of his as the possessive of it.] [Footnote +: The forms mine. yours. Obj. ours. THIRD PERSON--Mas. Singular. Plural. andObj. But no one thinks now of shunning what was then regarded as a grammatical monstrosity. 143 Nom. herself. Nom. Singular. The explanation generally given is. Obj. hers. Plural. because of the grammatical blunder it contains--the t in its being a nominative neuter ending. SECOND PERSON-. etc. you. Yours is old. their or her or their or its. Dim are those heads of theirs. Singular.) New York (see Lesson 34). THIRD PERSON--Fem. Shakespeare uses you in the nominative. you.common form old form. Plural. yours. Ours. This naughty world of ours. hers. yours. ourself. and that the expression is equivalent to one friend of my friends. hers. I and he. Plural. says Professor Sweet. me. The expression a friend of mine presents a peculiar construction. Some suggest that the word possessing or owning is understood after these possessives. idiomatic English. Singular. That temper of yours are good. and the s a possessive ending. others say that of simply marks identity. they.

who. whom. Nom. Ourself and we are used by rulers. The interrogative pronouns who. farmery latter. and give authority to what they say. Sing.--Dickens. some. whoever. We may say. We may use +one another+ with only two. This and that with their plurals. which. these and those. On the warrant of usage we say that both expressions are correct." . [Footnote: On the pages immediately preceding Lesson 1. editors. and what are declined like the relatives who.--From the composition of which--hwa:-lic. +Adjective Pronouns+. declined like otherin the singular. either.--Bryant. Sing. Pos. The compound personal pronouns should not be used as subjects. have laid them down in their last sleep. +Remark+. whomever. We may say. Those who regard usage as the final arbiter in speech need not avoid this form of the pronoun. In the first twelve paragraphs below we give alternative expressions. And millions in those solitudes ." or "by each other. whosever. Whichever.] +Remark+. and lattersometimes take the apostrophe and s ('s) in the singular. Either. we may use the simple personal pronouns instead. they utterly condemn the first. My uncle stopped a minute to look about him. Much has been said against this whose. and Plu. as. the possessive of what transferred to which. any. Singular and Plural.. we may use each other in such a case. Pos. In treating of the adjective pronouns we now appeal to it again. and Plu. and such are either singular or plural. +Compound Relative Pronouns+. or hwaet-lic = who-like. and all." or "with one another. and another. whatever. "The two countries agreed to stand by one another. Each. ------. neither. whose. what. and are alike in the nominative and the objective. both is always plural. where no obscurity would arise. 1. "Several able men were in correspondence with each other. +Relative Pronouns+. It is. They are not the only words used in this last relation. whomsoever. Oneand other are declined like nouns. that. but it is in general use. that. and Plu. Sing. whosoever..--The possessive of these pronouns is wanting. ------. former. which. and Plu. Sing. has no plural. and whatsoever do not change their form. He found himself deserted by his friends. it is evident that whose is not formed from which. Only the second of these alternative locutions in each paragraph is allowed by many grammarians. which. and what. Obj. same. Obj. is the only authority in language. we said that +usage+. We may use +each other+ with more than two. whosesoever. which." 2. whose.Nom. and we there explained how we are able to appeal to usage as we all along have done. have no possessive form.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 144 reflexives. in fact. Singular and Plural. to turn the action of the verb back upon the actor. +Interrogative Pronouns+. what. as determined by the majority of the best writers and speakers of the generation. and others to hide their individuality. or what-like. none. whichsoever. we may use one another in such a case. and neither are always singular.

and are not declined. We may use +such+ before an adjective and its noun." or "for some reasons for it other than those suggested. There is scarcely any authority for placing the ('s) upon one or body." 12." The paragraphs below contain noteworthy uses of adjective pronouns but no really alternative expressions. Usage is overwhelmingly in favor of +any one else's." 6. we may use so with the adjective in such a case. we may use the two others in such a case. or a noun and other words. somebody else's." or "in one or two days." "Both of the trees." or "So strong an argument. etc. we may use each instead. We may say." "Both trees. ***** LESSON 125. We may say. both+. three last. "I will go in a day or two.] Descriptive adjectives used as nouns are plural." 10. Usage is also decidedly in favor of +first two. "Here are three candidates." "The whole of the farm. "The home one must quit. no one else's." "Such admirable talent. "He wrested the land on either side of the Seine. We are advised to shun it." or "on each side of the Seine." or "None hears thy voice." "The whole farm." 7. we may place the than immediately after other. We may apply +the other two+ to those that remain when one of three things has been taken from the rest." 8. 13. CASE FORMS--PRONOUNS.. but we need not. we may use these words as adjectives qualifying the noun. with more than two. We may say. we may use none in the singular. nobody else's+. I have white ones. We may use the plural +ones+. We may insert a noun. We may use the pronouns +either+ and +neither+." This form is common and convenient. and +whole+ with a preposition and a noun following. we may repeat the one in such a case. "Written by Dickens for his own or any one else's children." or "the two others ran away." 11. we may use any one and none in such cases. etc. We may use +he+ or some other personal pronoun after the indefinite one. the other two ran away." 4." or "for any one or for none of them. Such expressions as "the wretched's only plea" and "the wicked's den" are exceptional. We may say." 9. "None hear thy voice. "All of the people. 14. "Such a strong argument." "Talent so admirable. "You have red roses. you may vote for either or for neither of them. We may use +none+ in the plural. . last three+." or "white roses. "We must look for somee other reasons for it than those suggested." or "All the people." 5. We may say. We may use +all. instead of two first. we may use one or two before the noun in the plural. We may say. We may say. instead of any one's else. We may say. we may use the noun for which onesstands. We may say. We may use +either+ in the sense of each. We may say." or "along with one. We may use +a+ before a noun in the singular and +or two+ after it. etc.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 145 3. "One of them kept his ground. between +other+ and +than+. as we do the conjunctions either and neither. yet taking much of its life along with him.

] them. the habitual. "Who servest thou under?" and from Steele. Lesson 119. 14. 23. It was Joseph. 17. only to these fifteen words.--I. 16. You have seen Cassio and she together. and correct these errors:-Our's. practically. thee. We will refer it to whoever you may choose. It is not me you are in love with. [Footnote: Her is also a possessive. or to the common usage of the unreflecting and the uncultivated. Whosoever the court favors is safe. 28. we. It was her. 5. he. ye. 18. It was not them. Scotland and thee did in each other live. and must not be used in the nominative case. if such inadvertencies are to be erected into authority. 33. and then correct these errors. +Direction. 25. and on the ground that they are "more frequently heard than the prescribed form. My hour is come. "Who should I meet?" They justify such expressions as It is me from the analogy of the French c'est moi. and that these are almost. 29. giving your reasons in every instance:-1. He was angry. I am not so old as her. "The nations not so blest as thee" "Such weak minister as me may the oppressor bruise. [Footnote: Dr. and asserts that thee and me are correct in. Between you and I. 15. He is better than me. yourn. he or I? 21. her. It isn't for such as us to sit with the rulers of the land." Professor Bain justifies If I were him. 11. happy us! surrounded thus with blessings. 13.] 3. and. but condemns It is him. Who did he choose? Did he choose you and I? 22. and must not be used in the objective case. 12. they easily misled him. +Direction+. Its being me should make no difference. I took that tall man to be he. and me too. I knew that it was him. Dean Alford regards as correct the forms condemned by Latham. hern. I believe that he is losing his mind. she is older than me by ten years. . To whatever is the prevailing. and who are the only words in the language that have each three different case forms. she. he of whom I so often speak.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 146 The pronouns I. All the rules of syntax given in the grammars to guide in the use of the nominative and the objective case apply. [See previous Footnote. A Violation of every principle of grammar may be defended. but not to render up my soul to such as thee." But such analogy would justify It are them (ce sont eux). 6. I knew it to be he. He that is idle and mischievous reprove. him whom Pharaoh promoted. and It is her. Remark. Who servest thou under? [See previous footnote. Who will go? Me. if the argument from the speech of the uneducated is to have weight. your's. he. it was her. They that are diligent I will reward. Him being a stranger.] 2.+ and +who+ are +nominative+ forms. Them that study grammar talk no better than me. him. Not one in a thousand could have done it as well as him. Whom did you suppose it was? 32. their's. I thought that tall man was him. Him and me are of the same age. thou. Who did he refer to. she. 7. She was neither better bred nor wiser than you or me. 20. hisn. 27.--Study the Declensions. usage of a majority of the best writers and speakers the grammarian should bow without question. 8. +Me. they. hi's. 24. and even defends the use of who as an objective form by quoting from Shakespeare. Oh. 19. Construction of Case Forms--Pronouns. but not to the accidental slips of even the greatest writers. it's. Latham defends It is me. thou. 9. +Caution. 10. theirn. we have good authority for "Her ain't a calling we: us don't belong to she. No one has freed himself from the influence of early associations that are in a careless moment some vicious colloquialism may not creep into his discourse. Who should I meet the other day but my old friend? 20." A course of reading will satisfy one that the best writers and speakers in England are not in the habit of using such expressions as It is me.+--Study carefully the Definitions and principles given under the head of case. 30. if not quite unknown in American literature.--The eight nominative forms and the seven objective forms here given are the only distinctive nominative and objective forms in the language.+ and +whom+ are objective forms. Who did you suppose it to be? 31. her's.] 4. us. I referred to my old friend.

. and Walker's dictionary. life was a noble one. Objective Complement (31). Third (119). He spoke of you studying Latin.) NOUN. Person. 20. 118). Direction. These are neither George nor Fanny's books. It did not occur during Washington. Objective (119). 12. Satan except. I consulted Webster. Whom here may be parsed as an objective case form used idiomatically in place of who. Object Complement (28). Plural (112-116). 15. I am sure it could not have been them. (Abstract and Collective.--Correct these errors. A valuable horse of my friend William's father's was killed. this would be correct. than whom. +Explanation. 8). 122. Modifications. 27. 22. none higher sat. the philanthropist's. or Adams's administration. 29. Independent (44). 21. Number. Nominative (119). but it is better to avoid these awkward forms. 5. Scheme for the Noun. 26. 7. Classes. 1. He thought it was us. In some cases a single question may suffice for a whole lesson. (The numbers refer to Lessons. Gender. 10. Singular (112-116). What need is there of the man swearing? 16. you or me. 3. He asked help of men whom he knew could not help him. It is not him whom you thought it was. Ask somebody's else opinion. I understood it to be they. 28. Second (119). 18. and give your reasons:-1. 19. our noble and valiant general's. Questions on the Noun. Who was Joseph's and Benjamin's mother? 2. Subject (4. Define the noun and its classes.--These schemes and questions under the head of General Review are especially designed to aid in securing an outline of technical grammar. 24. 123). For the queen's sake. 25. 118). his brother Philip's wife. 17. For Herodias's sake. 30). Possessive (119. . I am opposed to the gentleman speaking again. A lady entered. his sister's. John's. This state was south of Mason's and Dixon's line. Us boys enjoy the holidays. whom I afterwards found was Miss B. 23. Uses. All enjoyed themselves.. Attribute Complement (29. 4. We shall shortly see which is the fittest object of scorn. It is Othello's pleasure. Common (85). and Andrew's occupation was that of fishermen. us excepted. MISCELLANEOUS--REVIEW. The questions given below may be made to call for minute details or only for outlines. It was Virgil. TO THE TEACHER. Let him be whom he may. who I afterwards found to be Miss B." Than whom is an irregularity justified only on the basis of good usage. 30. He visited his sons-in-law's homes. CONSTRUCTION OF CASE FORMS. Let you and I try it. Feminine (117. A lady entered.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 147 Although than is not a preposition. 13. ***** LESSON 126. Howard's. It being difficult did not deter him. Worcester." 31.) Proper (85). 8. Principal word in Prep. 14. Jefferson. 6. First (119). Case. 11. Masculine (117. Adjective Modifier (33). Phrase (17). it is sometimes followed by whom.as in the familiar passage from Milton: "Beelzebub. Adverb Modifier (35).+--If the possessive plural of such nouns were used. Peter's. 9. Neuter (117. him who wrote the "Aeneid. 118).--Lesson 85. I shall not learn my duty from such as thee.

This appleis sweet. Name and define the several numbers. as sweeter. but this one is the sweetest. This modification is called +Comparison+. and this is marked by form. is of the +Comparative Degree+. 125. 86.--Same as those of the Noun (112. 87). have one modification.+--That apple is sweet. 113. +Classes+. that the adjective in the comparative and superlative degrees always expresses the quality relatively. or inflection. +Scheme for the Pronoun. that which expresses the quality in a greater or a less degree. 114.--Lessons 112. Questions on the Pronoun. 2. and give the lists. 119. Give and illustrate the several ways of distinguishing the genders. 119. genders. When we say. but only that one apple is sweeter than the other. but possessed by them in different degrees. as you see. is of the +Superlative Degree+.--Lessons 112. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the possessive forms. 1.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 2.--Same as those of the Noun. or. least sweet.--Lessons 112. Name and define the modifications of the noun. Adjective (85. The adjective sweet. The form of the adjective which expresses the simple quality. Interrogative (85). Personal (85. inflected by adding er and est. How is the possessive case formed?--Lesson 122. as sweet. unless this particular fruit had more of the quality than ordinary apples possess. or the sweetest of those compared. Relative (85. 142. 7.+ 148 PRONOUN. 86. ***** LESSON 127. 142). less sweet. persons. we do not mean that any one of the apples is very sweet. is. This apple is the sweetest of the three. 4.--Lesson 124. +Uses+. 119. that other is sweeter. +Modifications+. 117. 117.--Lesson 117. But even the positive implies a comparison. 3. This apple is sweeter than that. is of the +Positive Degree+.--Lesson 128. Adjectives. as sweetest. 4. because it is used when things are compared with one another in respect to some quality common to them all. 118. Give and illustrate the several ways of forming the plural. 125. 124. 5. and cases. +Introductory Hints. we should not say. Notice. 87. then. 6. too. the gender forms. 87). Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the number forms. and the case forms.--Lessons 86. Define the pronoun and its classes. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the different pronouns.--Lessons 118. and that which expresses the quality in the greatest or the least degree. 87). expressing a quality of the three apples. 3. 117. . COMPARISON.--Lesson 85. Decline the several pronouns.

--Final e is dropped before a suffix beginning with a vowel. dry. Degrees of diminution are expressed by prefixing less and least[Footnote: This use of an adverb to form the comparison was borrowed from the Norman-French. changeable. beginning. and est to the positive to form the superlative+.--More beautiful. or somewhat sweet. Exceptions. hoeing. love. The adjective. also. +Remark+. can hardly be called degree forms of the adjective. +RULE II. etc. is varied in sense the same as when the inflections er and est are added. that. begin. as well as adjectives. +Comparison is a modification of the adjective (or the adverb) to express the relative degree of the quality in the things compared.] +The Positive Degree expresses the simple quality.+ +The Comparative Degree expresses a greater or a less degree of the quality. lady's. these. +The Superlative Degree expresses the greatest or the least degree of the quality+. +Exceptions.---Y does not change before 's. as+. number.--In monosyllables and words accented on the last syllable. peaceable. loving.---Y after a consonant becomes i before a suffix net beginning with i. wittier. or much. RULES FOR SPELLING. Adjectives have one modification. have number forms--this. +RULE I. nor in forming the plural of proper nouns. But note how the adverb is compared. The Saxon .] +DEFINITIONS+. hot. however. and v are never doubled. +RULE III. We can say very. dried.--X. are compared. exceedingly. singeing. +RULE. and in parsing they may be regarded as separate words. (2) after o. viz. sweeter. Some adverbs. In Anglo-Saxon and Latin. and case.--Adjectives are regularly compared by adding er to the positive to form the comparative. adjectives have forms to indicate gender. fine. as. and gas has gases in the plural. [Footnote: Two adjectives. still. a final consonant after a single vowel doubles before a suffix beginning with a vowel. hotter.+ witty.. Exceptions. finer. The adverbs more and most have the degree forms. rather. Adjectives of more than two syllables are generally compared by prefixing more and most. as+. this and that. k. and (3) when it is needed to preserve the identity of the word. as.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 149 The several degrees of the quality expressed by the adjective may be increased or diminished by adverbs modifying the adjective. by far or much the sweetest. +Comparison+. as. dyeing. the Henrys. as. as. far. may sometimes be expressed by comparison. This method is often used with adjectives of two syllables and sometimes with those of one. those.+ [Footnote: Different degrees of quantity. most beautiful. the Marys.+--The e is retained (1) after c and g when the suffix begins with a or o.

happy. most. Superlative. After the French method of comparing was introduced into English. virtuousest. upmost or uppermost. upper. is the last letter in less--changed to +r+. wisely. hinder. Much. best. infinite. that. inner. (Forth). (In). utmost or uttermost.]. lunar. Top. Most definitive and many descriptive adjectives cannot be compared.--Learn to compare the following adjectives and adverbs:-Adjectives Irregularly Compared. in coming into English. nearer nearest or next. Some +adverbs+ are compared by adding er and est.* after. common.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 150 superlative ending +st+ is in most and least. and compare those that remain:-Observe the Rules for Spelling given above. Ill | Far. witty.--Compare the following:-Early. topmost. two-wheeled. easily. Near. foolishly. Wooden. as. comfortabler. as. older or oldest or elder.--From this list of adjectives select those that cannot be compared. +Direction+. eloquenter. amusingest. aftmost or aftermost. less valuable. as it regularly was. ----. Hind. able. superior.+ less or least. farther. outer or outmost or utter. eldest. English. Direction. unchanged to +r+. furtherest or furthermost. for a time. holy. Old. . little boy. + worse. undeviating. foremost or first.--Correct the following:-Famousest. firmly. physical. Many or more. undermost. thin. as. often. nimble. er was added. ----. humble. handsome. better. vertical. long. as their meaning will not admit of different degrees. further. and.] Adverbs Irregularly Compared. sweet. smaller and smallest are substituted. Some adjectives and adverbs are irregular in their comparison. Comp. valuable. fartherest or fathermost Fore. one. Bad. and we have the double comparative lesser--in use to-day. (Out). Of the two forms of comparison. Late. polite. When it was forgotten that less is a comparative. hot. soon. hindmost or hindermost. smaller boy. smallest boy. outermost. (Aft). any. | Evil. Under. former. it is the r in more. in the sense of small in size. +Direction+. both methods were often used with the same adjective. that which is more easily pronounced and more agreeable to the ear is to be preferred. In "King Lear" Shakespeare uses the double comparative a dozen times.] [Footnote +: For the comparative and the superlative of little. and the Saxon comparative ending +s+. fast. +Direction+. worst. unwelcome. inmost or innermost. double comparatives and double superlatives were common. late. intemperate. later or latest or latter last. Little. Good. lesser. and some by prefixing more and most. (Up). worser. [Footnote *: The words inclosed in curves are adverbs--the adjectives following having no positive form. Pos. most boldest. least valuable.

***** LESSON 128. 2. more. furthest. 6. | Pos. 151 Badly. 3. less.] +Remark+. London is larger than any other city in Europe. +Caution+. Time ought. China has a greater population than any nation on the globe. +Correction+. or. farthest. London is larger than any city in Europe. farther.--We give below a model for writing the parsing of adjectives. of course. best. The star is brighter to-night. A similar form may be used for adverbs. | -----. 60. | " " " still | " | " | Completes are and modifies glades. includes London.--Study the Caution and the Remark. Exercises for the parsing of adjectives and adverbs may be selected from Lessons 12. 48. [Footnote: The comparative is generally used with reference to two things only.| " " " dewy | Des.--In stating a comparison avoid comparing a thing with itself. above all kinds of property. TO THE TEACHER. 31.] +Direction+. 64. Itcontains more than all the others combined. I like this book better than any book I have seen. | All | Def. The comparative degree is generally followed by than. The grass is greener to-day. 65. Much. or the term introduced by of. It should be. further. |SYNTAX -------------------|---------------|---------------------------------Adjectives. Comp. worst. (A comparison is here stated. and so London is represented as being larger than itself. Superlative. London is the largest city in Europe. 4. any city in Europe. 63. better. There is no metal so useful as iron. 46.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Pos. He is no better than other men. Little. as. All the metals are less useful than iron. be compared with itself as existing under different conditions. +Caution+. CLASSIFICATION. of Comp. | MODIFICATION.--The comparative degree refers to two things (or sets of things) as distinct from each other.) 5. CONSTRUCTION OF COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES. Forth. 14. to be free from invasion. Well. Ill. most. although no degree form is employed. least. [Footnote: A thing may. the | " | -----. 29. 47.| worse.| Modifier of glades. +Remarks+. Model for Written Parsing. .--The second term of comparison. 30. but it may be used to compare one thing with a number of things taken separately or together as.--In using the superlative degree be careful to make the latter term of the comparison.--All the dewy glades are still. include the former.| Kind. | Far.--The superlative degree refers to one thing (or set of things) as belonging to a group or class. and correct these errors:-1. 44. | Deg. and implies that one has more of the quality than the other.

] +Direction+. A worser evil awaits us. This was the most satisfactory of any preceding effort. A more beautifuler location cannot be found. 6. +Remark+. Profane swearing is.--Whittier. and are compared by good writers. 3. 2. Solomon was the wisest of all the other Hebrew kings. and other excludes him from this group--a contradiction in terms. 6.--Correct these errors:-1. as. as. The extension of these exceptional forms should not be encouraged. These kind of people will never be satisfied. +Correction+. 4. It should be. Most perfect harmony--Longfellow. +Direction+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg and as having more of the quality than any of the rest. We were traveling at the rate of forty mile an hour. Of all the other books I have examined. The chiefest prize.--Avoid double comparatives and double superlatives. the adjective and the noun must agree in number. Miscellaneous. The opinion is becoming more universal. I measured it with a two-feet rule.--Study the Caution and the Remarks. +Correction+. or more nearly perpendicular. as.--Study the Caution and the Remark. John is the oldest of any boy in his class. These sort of expressions should be avoided. This is the better of the two. The superlative is generally followed by of. this is the most satisfactory. Remove this ashes and put away that tongs. of all other vices. Solomon was the wisest of Hebrew kings. +Caution+. The room is fifteen foot square. 5.--Sheridan.) 5.--Byron. 5. Less perfectimitations.--Of (= belonging to) represents Solomon as belonging to a group of kings. 2. Divinest Melan. This is the best of the two. or an adjective denoting more than one. He was the most active of all his companions. The farmer exchanged five barrel of potatoes for fifty pound of sugar. But in such cases usage largely favors the comparative. and correct these errors:-1. Extremesthell.--Draw that line perpendicular. a ten-foot pole (not a ten-feetpole).[Footnote: Many words which grammarians have considered incapable of comparison are used in a sense short of their literal meaning.--Milton. 4. Draw that line more perpendicular. My chiefest entertainment. the most inexcusable. He took the longest. as. 3.--A numeral denoting more than one may be prefixed to a singular noun to form a compound adjective. but the most pleasantest. 3. 7. and correct these errors:-1. +Caution+. +Direction+.--Macaulay. The most principal point was entirely overlooked. .choly. or Solomon was wiser than any other Hebrew king. 152 Good writers sometimes use the superlative in comparing two things. (He was not one of his own companions. 6. 4. route. is joined to a noun.--When an adjective denoting one. 2. a three-cent stamp. That form of expression is more preferable. and the comparison of adjectives whose meaning will not admit of different degrees.

Manner. 6. Scheme for the Adjective. " + 127. Define comparison and the degrees of comparison. | Place. | Cause. 4. page 255. " | Questions on the Adjective.--See suggestions to the teacher. He writes better than any boy in his class. Modification.--Lesson 89. 8. I don't like those sort of people. The younger of the three sisters is the prettier. is most to be dreaded. Deg. 3. Attribute Complement (29. Sup. Illustrate the regular method and the irregular methods of comparison. Pos. Uses.) ADJECTIVE. | Modification. TO THE TEACHER. 153 2.--Lesson 128. See the second Remark in this Lesson. Time. 9.--Lesson 127.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 1. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of adjectives. + 92-94. | Comp. " + 127. 3. Pos. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of adverbs. | Degree. --Lesson 127. Modifier (12). 2.--Comparison. He was more active than any other of his companions. ***** . This is the more preferable form.--Comparison. 30). 10. +Correction+. (This is the construction which requires the superlative. 1. Define the adjective and its classes. 5. This result. Scheme for the Adverb. Classes. --Lesson 93. 1. 128. Definitive (89-91).--Lesson 92. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of comparative and superlative forms. 5. Objective Complement (31). of all others.) 4. (The numbers refer to Lessons. | Comp. GENERAL REVIEW. Define the adverb and its classes. He did more to accomplish this result than any other man that preceded or followed him. Give and illustrate the regular method and the irregular methods of comparison. Deg. 91. She was willing to take a more humbler part. Sup. ADVERB. 3. Classes.--Lesson 127. Descriptive (89-91). " | Questions on the Adverb. Which are the two more important ranges of mountains in North America? 11. 128. Solomon was wiser than any of the ancient kings. 7. I have the most entire confidence in him.--As he is not one of his companions. 2. other is unnecessary.--Lessons 90.

You are mistaken.+---Tell which of the following completed predicates may be treated as single verbs. A fool and his money are soon parted. and which should not be so treated:-1. The house is situated on the bank of the river. 13. was picked. A shadow was mistaken for a foot-bridge.+--The coat was sometimes worn by Joseph (was worn-. The same thing is here told in two ways.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg LESSON 129. or when.+--Name all the transitive verbs in Lesson 78. we do not care to name the agent. My body is inclined by years. I am obliged to do this. The passive voice may be used when the agent is unknown. The first form is in the +Active Voice+. . Dinner was soon prepared. MODIFICATIONS OF THE VERB. +The Passive Voice shows that the subject names the thing acted upon. ***** LESSON 130.passive voice). The first verb. 8. The man was drunk before the wine was drunk. +Direction. and whether the verb may be followed by by before the name of the agent without changing the sense. 10. The coat was badly worn (was--incomplete predicate. 154 +Introductory Hints+. when the thing acted upon is to be made prominent. The lady is accomplished. 9. 5. picked. A rose was picked by him. The ship was wrecked. +Examples. is to be made prominent. +Direction. VOICE. An expression consisting of an asserting word followed by an adjective complement or by a participle used adjectively may be mistaken for a verb in the passive voice. 7. These different forms and uses of the verb constitute the modification called +Voice+. shows that the subject names the actor. and give their voice.+--To test the passive voice note whether the one named by the subject is acted upon. the second verb. and may be resolved into an asserting word (some form of the verb be) and an attribute complement (a past participle of a transitive verb). +The Active Voice shows that the subject names the actor+. +Remark. +Voice is that modification of the transitive verb which shows whether the subject names the actor or the thing acted upon+. for any reason. 11. The tower is inclined. Money is coined. The active voice is used when the agent. shows that the subject names the thing acted upon. Are you prepared to recite? 4. 12. as. the second is in the +Passive Voice+. DEFINITIONS. 6. COMPOSITION--VOICE. or actor. 14. worn--adjective complement). I am obliged to you.--He picked a rose. This task was not accomplished in a day.+ The passive form is compound. the passive. 3. The horse is tired. 2.

+--Change the voice of the transitive verbs in these sentences. Bacchus. was worshiped in many parts of Greece and Rome. in the second sentence.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 155 The +object complement+ of a verb in the +active voice+ becomes the +subject+ when the verb is changed to the +passive voice. +Direction. and note the other changes that occur:-1. It is true that it is a violation of the general analogies.+ +Example. In "I offered him money. +Remark. Some call it an adverbial modifier. 17." him represents the one to whom the act was directed. The minds of children are dressed by their parents as their bodies are dressed--in the prevailing fashion. 9.+ or dative." the relation of the act to the person and to the thing is not changed. the messenger of the gods. . money still names the thing directly acted upon. The luxury of Capua. Harvey. 5. +Remark. an English physician. 10. I was asked that question yesterday. My wife was chosen as her wedding dress was chosen. (Notice that the objective complement is here an infinitive phrase. 12.+--Notice that the objective complement becomes the attribute complement when the verb is changed from the active to the passive voice. His eloquence had struck them dumb. 20. We saw the storm approaching. +object+ is sometimes made the +subject+ of a verb in the passive voice. In "He was offered money. 21. and money names the thing directly acted upon. sunk to beasts. That tribunal pronounced Charles a tyrant. is beyond controversy." and some say that it is a noun without grammatical construction. not for a fine. Mercury. The town had nicknamed him Beau Seymour. We found him lying dead on the field. They were refused the protection of the law. or laws.+--In each of these sentences change the voice of the transitive verb without altering the meaning of the sentence. We all believe him to be an honest man. Some. He told me to leave the room. discovered that blood circulates. 7. 15. 11. 3. +Direction. which was a dialect of the Teutonic. glossy surface.+--The porter refused him admittance = He was refused admittance by the porter. some call it a "retained object.+--The Danes invaded England = England was invaded by the Danes. When the Saxons subdued the Britons. Concerning the parsing of the noun following this passive. of language.+--You will notice that in the first sentence the agent is made prominent. there is difference of opinion. He kept his mother waiting.] +Example. wore a winged cap and winged shoes. (Notice that the objective complement is here a participle. 8. [Footnote: Some grammarians condemn this construction. 19. the god of wine. Even silent night proclaims my soul immortal. the receiver. more powerful than the Roman legions. but that it is an idiom of our language. they introduced into England their own language. vanquished the victorious Carthaginians. He was offered a pension by the government. 14. 2. while the object complement is retained after the verb.) 13. Everybody acknowledged him to be a genius. 6. The +indirect.) 16. or Gothic. established by good usage. find pleasure end in pain. 4. and note the other changes that occur:-18. but for such qualities as would wear well.

Some grammarians. Here the walking is asserted as an actual fact. 28. Some of his characters have been found fault with as insipid.+--Here the infinitive phrase is the object complement. Here the walking is asserted not as an actual. 32. +Example. Here the walking is not asserted as a fact. and sight as a noun used adverbially to modify was lost. however. ***** LESSON 131. A transitive verb which. He was taken care of by his friends. To leave the room = that I should leave the room. 33.+---Was laughed at may be treated as one verb.+--He promised me a present = A present was promised me (regular) = I was promised a present (idiomatic). retaining the complement and the preposition to complete its meaning.+--James walks. +Introductory Hints. His original purpose was lost sight of (forgotten). 24. +Direction. he will improve. If James walk out. +Remark. and did not refer to it afterward. This artful fellow has imposed upon us all. The speaker did not even touch upon this topic. MODIFICATIONS OF THE VERB--CONTINUED. 29. MODE. +Remark. They took care of it.+--All his friends laughed at him = He was laughed at(ridiculed) by all his friends. I taught the child reading. I taught the child to read.+--Put the following sentences into several different forms. [Footnote: Some would parse of as an adverb relating to was lost. James. It was taken care of. +Direction. James may walk. in the passive. AND PERSON. and determine which is the best:-30. would call at an adverb.+--The following sentences present a peculiar idiomatic construction. NUMBER. and others. others would call was lost sight of a compound verb. TENSE.+--Change the following transitive verbs to the passive form. +Direction. He offered them their lives if they would abjure their religion. They must allow us the privilege of thinking for ourselves. takes.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Explanation. others would treat sight as an object [complement] of was lost. and (to) me is used adverbially. They told me that your name was Fontibell. Here the walking is asserted only as thought of. 25. 23. 156 22. is followed by an object complement and a prepositional phrase. without regard to its being or becoming either an actual or a possible fact. fact. believing that the logical relation of these words is not lost by a change of position. An intransitive verb is sometimes made transitive by the aid of a preposition. Such talents should be made much of. The intransitive verb and preposition are together equivalent to a transitive verb in the passive voice. analyze the expression as if arranged thus: Sight of his original purpose was lost. the principal word of the phrase for its subject. in the active voice. He dropped the matter there.] 31. as. 26. using first the regular and then the idiomatic construction:-+Model. but as a command--James is ordered to make . but as a possible. walk out.+--Change the voice of the following verbs:-27.

or wish+. but the time in which the action takes place is different. or necessity of acting or being+.+ Shall walk asserts the action as future. as +Tense+ means time. +Tense is that modification of the verb which expresses the time of the action or being+.+ The first verb is in the +Indicative Mode. and the hearer is requested to name the person. I shall have walked out by to-morrow.] +The Potential Mode asserts the power. I shall walk. It will be seen that the Indicative Mode may be used in asking a question. +The Past Participle denotes action or being as past or completed at the time indicated by the predicate+. in the third sentence.+ Walked asserts the action as past. +The Infinitive is a form of the verb which names the action or being in a general way. In these three sentences the manner of asserting the action is the same. and. supposition.+ the second in the +Potential Mode. In the second sentence walkis changed by adding +est+. +The Present Participle denotes action or being as continuing at the time indicated by the predicate+. and is in the +Past Perfect Tense. I had walked out when he called. and expressing the action or being as assumed+. possibility.+ Had walked asserts the action as completed in the past. +The Indicative Mode asserts the action or being as a fact+. +The Participle is a form of the verb partaking of the nature of an adjective or of a noun. without asserting it of anything+. [Footnote: In "Are you going?" or "You are going?" a fact is referred to the hearer for his admission or denial. +The Present Tense expresses action or being as present+. and is in the +Past Tense.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 157 it a fact. is in the +Present Tense.+ see Lessons 37 and 40. by adding +s. liberty. and is in the +Future Tense. and is in the +Present Perfect Tense. These different uses and forms of the verb constitute the modification which we call +Mode. I walked. They walk.+ I have walked out to-day.+ For the two forms of the verb called the +Participle+ and the +Infinitive.+ Verbs are said to agree in +Person+ and +Number+ with their subjects. In "Who did it?" the fact that some person did it is asserted.+ Shall have walked asserts action to be completed in the future. Walk asserts the action as going on in present time. +The Imperative Mode asserts the action or being as a command or an entreaty+. Thou walkest. I walk. and is in the +Future Perfect Tense.+ the third in the +Subjunctive Mode. He walks.+ the fourth in the +Imperative Mode. +DEFINITIONS+. +The Subjunctive Mode asserts the action or being as a mere condition. +Mode is that modification of the verb which denotes the manner of asserting the action or being+. But this agreement is not generally marked by a change in the form of the verb. +The Past Perfect Participle denotes action or being as completed at a time previous to that indicated by the predicate+.+ I walk. Have walked asserts the action as completed at the present. .

should. might. tell. The past participle of all strong verbs once ended in en or n. +The Future Perfect Tense expresses action or being to be completed at some future time+. have. and be (with all its variations. led. rid. we did love. see Lesson 135). CONJUGATION.+ List of Irregular Verbs.we call such Regular. Our irregular verbs include all strong verbs and those that may be called "irregular weak" verbs. teach.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +The Past Tense expresses action or being as past+. +The Present Perfect Tense expresses action or being as completed at the present time+. Since most verbs form their past tense and past participle by adding ed. are the present indicative or the present infinitive. set. Strong verbs form their past tense by changing the vowel of the present without adding anything. They have dropped the past tense ending. did. taught. but in many verbs this ending is now lost. and all others Irregular. had. fed. +Synopsis is the regular arrangement of the forms of one number and person in all the modes and tenses+. ***** LESSON 132. The d of the participle is not from did but is . weak verbs form their past tense by adding ed. as. +The Past Perfect Tense expresses action or being as completed at some past time+. +Auxiliary Verbs are those that help in the conjugation of other verbs. told. as. as. +The Principal Parts of a verb. These are weak because they add d or t.+ The auxiliaries are do. [Footnote: Grammarians have classed verbs on the basis of their form or history as Strong (or Old) and Weak (or New). +Conjugation is the regular arrangement of all the forms of the verb+. or those from which the other parts are derived. and the past participle. Of the ed added to form the past tense of regular verbs. shall. set. Some weak verbs change the vowel of the present. feed. d. would. +DEFINITIONS+. 158 +Number and Person of a verb are those modifications that show its agreement with the number and person of its subject+. +The Future Tense expresses action or being as yet to come+. d is what remains of did. FORMS OF THE VERB. could. must. the past indicative. will. being written love-did-we. rid. may. for instance. and some have the present and the past alike. Some weak verbs shorten the vowel of the present without adding anything.This derivation of d in ed is questioned. lead. can. or t.

Catch. Forbear. Grind. Creep. Draw. the Rules for Spelling (see Lesson 127) should be observed. hewed. hidden. hung. chosen. Bear. brought.+ The present participle is not here given as a principal part.Bless. knelt. Hang. blest. digged. clave.(For)Give. Bear. blended. froze. kneeled.Do.+ Verbs that are wanting in any of their parts.Be or am. durst. bid. bet. forsook. bore. cleaved. bet. (En)Grave graved. chidden. Lead. cast. knew. Freeze. cost. Cost. bended. awaked. girt. kneeled. broke. Blow. came. (venture) dared. knit. in studying and in reciting these lists of irregular verbs. was. holden. Beat. hurt. bled. bereaved. dealt. cleft. hanged. dwelled.Bereave. hid. Keep. flung. gotten. Past Par.Knit knit. forbore. Dig. blew. Hear.] . dug. dreamt. had. had. bereaved. borne.Drink. burned. driven. graven. found. fed. as can and may. cut. Clothe. abode. begun. fled. built. Bet. laid. grew. forsaken. led. besought. caught.Gird. Cleave cleft. began. clung.(adhere) clave. blended. eaten. and those in smaller type are obsolete. cut. got. and ought were originally past forms. Choose. fought. and need not be committed to memory. Hurt. brought. Fling.] 159 TO THE TEACHER. Cleave. burned. bit. gilded. Dare. ate. dealt. drank. laded. fought. Past. Bite. Bend. Forsake. beat. Blend. clothed clothed. Feed. Flee. grown. born. flown. Can. dug.Beseech. bought. Grow. found. (For)Get. digged.] [Footnote 4: Hang. Kneel knelt. crowed. Dream. besought. brake. beaten.[2] Gild. Present. Begin. hit. come.[3] gone. gilt. fallen. e. bred. blessed. hurt. bereft.[5] heaved.Know. knitted. crowed. kept. chid. In this way the pupils will be saved the mechanical labor of memorizing forms which they already know how to use. dreamed. clung. knitted. He has begun to do better. laded. forborne. clad. betted. got. dreamt. Break.[1] could. gilded. (split) clove. Heave hove. bound.Cling. bended. abode. hid. bitten. Find.g. dwelled. known. bid. led. awaked. to go. Hit. fed. [Footnote 1: Can. Cut. Dwell dwelt. Go. drest. bred.+--Verbs that have both a regular and an irregular form are called +Redundant. went. cloven. fell. cleaved.] [Footnote 5: Hove is used in sea language. Burst. drawn. Bleed. must. Crow crew. bade. may. fled. dwelt. caught. is regular. heard heard. bent.Hew. cost. bidden. awoke. hit.[4] Have. broken. bent. flew. chose. Breed.--It would be well to require the pupils. Build. blown. (Be) Fall. built. laid. clad. (Be)Hold. Bind. chid. Buy. crept. kept. ground. hewn. felt.(Be)Come. Deal. Bring. -----. Hide. bought. blent. are called +Defective. did. gave. dressed. Awake. burst. hung. Cast. In adding ing and other terminations.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg from an old participle suffix. cleaved. girded. felt. drunk. shall.] [Footnote 2: Gotten is obsolescent except in forgotten. blent. Chide. heaved. Lay. to execute by hanging. bereft. bound.Dress drest. Fly. +Remarks. drove. Fight. I began yesterday. Drive. drew. borne. betted. (carry) bare. burst. girded. will.Abide. (bring forth) bare. burnt. held. The e in the ea of both these forms is the old connecting vowel. bore. dared. given. flung.Bid. The forms below in Italics are regular. hewed.(load) laden.] [Footnote 3: Went is the past of wend.Eat. beat. This accounts for their having no change in the third person. and they will be led to correct what has been faulty in their use of other forms. Burn burnt. It may always be formed from the present tense by adding ing. gilt. ground. Feel. cast. dreamed. been. held. blessed. girt. bled. frozen. bit. graved. hove. dressed. Lade. hanged. done. blest. crept. to frame short sentences illustrating the proper use of the past tense and the past participle.

" Methinks (A. swelled. Spoil. showed. Ring. shone. sowed. swore. Stand. Ought. spitten. Sleep. stung. Speak. spent. quit. . sweated. penned.. meant. Steal. S. spent. leant. shapen Shave. thrived. sunk. shore. Sing. smit. Shed. staved. Show. Shoot. sunken.] NOTE. Tear. Spill. wet. Shred. met. 160 Lean. (inclose) penned. the regular verbs are slowly gaining in number. shaken. quitted. stayed. sodden. Spell. Stride. LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS--CONTINUED. shed. stunk. "The present disposition of the language is not only to hold firmly to the strong verbs it already possesses but . Wring. ----. strode. Shrink. spoiled. shot. won. mowed. spelt. spoiled. woke. Split. spun. See. slid. ----. Sling. said. Thrive. taken. Slay. rapped. Past. read. sped. ----. spoke. strowed. leaned. wrung. rapt. struck. Slit. Wake. shone. as. or strong. riven. leapt. sawn. woke. slept. Shut. and meis a "dative. Leap. Mean. stunk. seethed. split. lost. Wax. spread. sat. Swing. In the sentence above. put. waked. rung.--Professor Lounsbury says. Read. (recline) Light." or a pronoun used adverbially. stood. showed. told. spilt. swum. sank. So that while the regular verbs are not increasing by desertions from the irregular. shrunk. Teach. Lie. won. rose. swung. swum. Work. waxen. ----. smelled. waxed. spit.. let. Weave. ran. sold. wound. Stay. spelt. Win. shut. spake. Spin. Weep. slew. from whatever source derived. thrived. shut. shorn. form their past tense and participle in ed. slang Slink. Shine. lain. Shoe. written. Spread. spit. strewed. sprung. tore. thought. woven. shrank. Send. Spend. even to extend their number whenever possible. swept. leaned. rapped. spilt. worked.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 133. sworn sware. stove. spilled. shook. slain. swam. Leave. quoth. left. strewed. stood. wrought. trodden. Throw. smelt. wound. shod. quitted. said. seen. sung. rapt. stole. Put. paid. lighted. staid. tare. But it should be said that new English verbs. sweat. sowed. worked. "Modern English has lost not a single one [irregular. stridden.] [Footnote 2: Quoth. swept. slit. rung. sawed. risen. leaped. Rap. Tell. strung. shrunken. I scent the morning air is the subject. Spit. slunk. Quit. smelled. set. throve. learnt. striven. wore. slit. worn. spoken. Ride. sent. shot. Let. (Be)Set. strung. made. to seem. rived. is used only in the first and the third person of the past tense. shod. shaved. now nearly obsolete. spread. leaped. taught. sheared. shaped. Other forms nearly obsolete are sometimes met in literature. spelled. to be or become) the day = Woe be to the day. would. meant. staid. Swear. Quoth I = said I. Sting. wept. set. Stave. Wind. rent. shown. sown. ----. strowed. pent. shred. slept. stuck. Spring. wet. swollen. slitted. Shape. lent. sped. rode. sprang. shaped. wrung. sprung. let. stricken. rid. might. wot. took. stung. wept. Thrust. sheared. Saw. Pay. Sow. Sink. met. [Footnote 1: Lighted Is preferred to lit. Speed. smote. shed.[1] Lose. Shake. quit. Learn." And he instances a few which since 1600 have deserted from the regular conjugation to the irregular. and adds. slung. trod. leant. Shear. should. mowed. torn. sunk. run. left. stove. shaven. swung. smelt. Strew. spoilt. thought. shred. rent. sought. Think. (to)wit. strove. trod. threw. sung. lent. weorthan. rived. waked. strown. String. slidden. rang. stuck. stolen. thrust. ----. Slide. thincan. mown. ----. shaved. made. Say. paid. swelled. lay. not thencan. staved. Swell. Rend. May. Write. Smell. lighted. Strive. learned. spelled. verb] since the reign of Queen Elizabeth". Seek. read. thinks is the predicate. Present. stayed. Pen. rid. lost. slitted. sweat. Make. Run. Shall. sent. ridden. wove. ------. slunk. Stick. Seethe. lit. "Methinks I scent the morning air". Tread. struck. Smite. lit. Strow. pent. Past Par. Take.[2] ----. slid. Sweat. strewn. wist. Meet. or May woe be to the day. Woe worth (A. Wear. Rid. sawed. sod. spat. Wet. waxed. Strike. spoilt. sold. shrunk. spilled. thriven. put. ----. learnt. Sell. Rive. sat. to think) = seems to me. Sweep. Lend. (A)Rise. taught. learned. wrought. thrust. S. sweated. saw. sang. Will. Swim. told. leapt. smitten. seethed. spun. Stink. slung. Must. span. thrown. wrote. Sit. Mow. "Woe worth the day. sought. split. stank. or Letwoe be to the day.

(They) /Pres. +walkedst+.--English verbs have few inflections compared with those of other languages./. (You) /Pres. +sees+. 2. or periphrastic././. As a substitute for other inflections we prefix auxiliary verbs./.. 1. +walked+. 1. (He) ha-+s+ /Past Par. 2.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 134. +seeing+./. 3. (We) /Past/. 3./. 3. (Thou) wil-+t+ have /Past Par. (He) will /Pres. (You) will /Pres. REMARK. 3. forms./. 1. Singular. (Thou) wil-+t+ /Pres. 2. (I) /Past/. (I) have /Past Par. 3. Plural. 1. (We) have /Past Par./. (You) /Pres. Those who wish to reject the Potential Mode. 2./.--Fill out the following forms. (I) shall have /Past Par. (You) /Past/. (They) had /Past Par. +Direction+. +seen+./. PAST TENSE.. (They) /Past/. 374. PAST PERFECT TENSE.[1] 3. (He). (You) have /Past Par. (We) /Pres. 2. past participle +walked+:-INDICATIVE MODE. (You) will /Pres. 3. +walks+. 2. (You) will have /Past Par././. (Thou) ha-+st+ /Past Par./. are referred to pages 373. +sawest+. (I) had /Past Par. (Thou) /Pres./. and make what are called compound./.. +walkest+. 1. Much of this scheme might well be omitted. FUTURE TENSE. 1. (He) /Pres. regular verbs have six--+walk+./ FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. (You) had /Past Par. (He) /Past/./. 161 CONJUGATION [Footnote: We give the conjugation of the verb in the simplest form consistent with what is now demanded of a text-book././Past Par. past +walked+./. (Thou) /Past/+st+./+s. 2. 3./../. FORMS OF THE VERB--CONTINUED. (We) had /Past Par. 3./+est./. .will have. Some irregular verbs have seven forms--+see+. 1. ]--SIMPLEST FORM. 1. (They) will /Pres. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.[1]. (He) had /Past Par. 2./. using the principal parts of the verb walk--present +walk+. (I) shall /Pres. 1. 3. 2. 1. 1./. (We) shall /Pres. (We) shall have /Past Par. 3. (You) /Past/.. 2. (They) will have /Past Par. 2. (You) have /Past Par./ (Thou) had-+st+ /Past Par./. (You) had /Past Par./. +walking+. 1./././. PRESENT TENSE./. (You) will have /Past Par. (I) /Pres. and who prefer a more elaborate and technical classification of the mode and tense forms. (They) have /Past Par. 3. +saw+. +seest+./ 2./.

/./. 2././. eth is added. (You) might /Pres. 2. and should are independent verbs in the indicative. Singular. 2. 1. 3. (You) may have /Past Par./. might./ 3././.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 162 [Footnote 1: In the indicative present./. 2./. (If he) /Pres. may be used in a true subjunctive sense. but in these cases it is not the form of the verb but the connective or something in the construction of the sentence that determines the manner of assertion./. Such forms as If he have loved. Plural. and in the third person. 2. (They) might have /Past Par. (They) may /Pres. 3. etc. (You) may /Pres.] POTENTIAL MODE. are referred to pages 370-374. 1. old style. what is merely thought of. 1. (We) may /Pres. It is true that other forms. (He) may /Pres. 2.. Singular. singular. 2. (Thou) might-+st+ have /Past Par./. and even these ate giving way to the indicative. (He) might /Pres./. (You) might have /Past Par. (Thou) may-+st+ /Pres. 1. [Footnote 2: Those who do not wish to recognize a Potential Mode. a classification based strictly . (I) may /Pres. (He) may have /Past Par. must./. (They) might /Pres. 1. PAST PERFECT TENSE. (Thou) may-+st+ have /Past Par. to assert what is a mere conception of the mind. 2. Should he fall. could./. es is added when s will not unite./. are exceptional. (Thou) might-+st+ /Pres. (He) might have /Past Par.] SUBJUNCTIVE MODE./. 3. the verbs in such constructions may be treated as indicative or potential. second. i. (If thou) /Pres. 1. (You) may have /Past Par. 1. (I) might /Pres. stis sometimes added in stead of est. (You) may /Pres. 3. Had he been. 3. but prefer the unsatisfactory task of determining when may.[2] PRESENT TENSE./. (They) may have /Past Par. 3./. without regard to its being or becoming a fact./. (You) might have /Past Par. (We) might have /Past Par. In parsing./. as. 2./ [Footnote 3: The subjunctive as a form of the verb is fading out of the language. (We) might /Pres. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE./. 3. The offices of the different mode and tense forms are constantly interchanging.[3] PRESENT TENSE. (We) may have /Past Par././. with a subjunctive meaning. PAST TENSE. and when auxiliaries in the subjunctive. (You) might /Pres./. 3. (I) may have /Past Par./. old style. common style. Singular. In the third person. The only distinctive forms remaining (except for the verb be) are the second and the third person singular of the present./. would. 1. (I) might have /Past Par./. If he had known./. can. e.

/ (you or thou). "And for to deck heaven's battlements. making the three forms alike. /Pres."--K. after the dropping of the ne ending. but without expressing relation. as indicated by the (). When. "Shut the gates for to preserve the town.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg on meaning would be very difficult. nominative etan (to eat). 163 [Footnote 4: From such forms as Let us sing. When the dative ending ne was dropped." "Perish the thought" = "May the thought perish. though they have no antecedent term of relation.] PARTICIPLES . dative to etanne. as. or as does the to in He was spoken to. Part III. When the infinitive phrase is used as a noun. where it had its proper function as a preposition. placed before that of which it forms a part --placed before itself. for it in no way affects the meaning. This dative of the infinitive." or "I desire that the thought may perish. 2." or "Let the thought perish. (To)[5] /Pres. as. it seems merely to introduce the phrase. and let is not of the first person. for. the idea of purpose had to be conveyed by the infinitive.] IMPERATIVE MODE. I came to hear. we do not see why it should change its name. and would confuse the learner. We cannot see that to is a part of the verb. some grammarians make a first and a third person imperative."] INFINITIVES. For me to do this would be wrong.[4] PRESENT TENSE. the to came to be used before the nominative and the accusative. Some would find a first and a third person imperative in such sentences as "Now tread we a measure". Overthe fence is out of danger. with to. But us is not the subject of the verb-phrase let-sing.. Those who call it a part of the verb confuse the learner by speaking of it as the "preposition to" (which. having us for its assumed subject. and the infinitive singis the objective complement.e. as they have said. Hen. etc. VI./ (you or ye). PRESENT TENSE. is not a preposition) "placed before the infinitive. I am inclined to believe. Plural."-Greene. as does an auxiliary." But these verbs express strong wish or desire and by some grammarians are called "optative subjunctives. is not treated as a part of the verb. /Pres. was used mainly to indicate purpose. it became usual in Elizabethan literature to place for before the to. 2. Singular. In the expressions. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE." i. few grammarians would hesitate to call forand over prepositions.. Let them talk. Us is the object complement of let. "Perish the thought.. When a word loses its proper function without taking on the function of some other part of speech. it performs its proper function as a preposition. the to expresses no relation./ [Footnote 5: To. to was used with the infinitive only in the dative case. In the Anglo-Saxon. accusative e:tan. "What went ye out for to see?"-Bible./ (To) have /Past Par. Writers on language are generally agreed that when to introduces an infinitive phrase used as an adjective or an adverb. meaning toward.

and +should+. +could+. paying no attention to the line at the right of each verb:-INDICATIVE MODE. (We) were ----. (You) are ---. (They) will be ----. They be.--Require the pupils to fill out these forma with other verbs. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. I be. 1. (We) shall be ----. is./+ing+. (I) had been ----./ Having /Past Par. (They) had been ----. Ye be. (Thou) hast been ----. be. 3. was. 3. (You) will be ----. (We) had been ----. (Thou) wilt be ----. 3. art. PAST PERFECT 1. Singular. 2. (You) have been ---. (Thou) art ----. 1.or 2. . (Thou) wast ----. and +must+ are potential auxiliaries in the present and the present perfect tense. (I) am ----. Am = as-m (m is the m in me). Am. Plural.or 2. Thou beest. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB +BE+./ 164 +May+. We be. (You) had been ---. (We) have been ----. 3. 1. are are from as. /Pres. (You) will be ---. (You) have been ----. (They) were ----. +can+. 3. 2. 2. FORMS OF THE VERB-CONTINUED. 2. (I) shall be ----. (I) have been ----. (They) have been ----. 1.] +Direction+. (I) was ----. (He) was ----. 2. Do is prefixed to the imperative also. 3. +would+. He beth or bes. ***** LESSON 135. +might+. regular and irregular. 1. in the past and the past perfect. [Footnote: The conjugation of be contains three distinct roots--as.or 2. (He) is ----. using the auxiliaries named above. (You) were ---.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg PRESENT PAST PAST PERFECT. /Past Par. 3. (They) are ----. TO THE TEACHES. (He) had been ----. (You) had been ----. 3. The +emphatic+ form of the present and the past tense indicative is made by prefixing +do+ and +did+ to the present.or 2. (Thou) hadst been ----. FUTURE TENSE. PAST TENSE. (We) are ----. (You) are ----. 3. 3. 1. Art = as-t (t is the th in thou). (He) will be ----. Be was formerly conjugated. (He) has been ----. 1.--Learn the following forms. PRESENT TENSE. (You) were ----. 1. 1.or 2.

1. (You) might have been ---. PRESENT TENSE.1. (Thou) mayst have been ----. (If you) were ----. (If they) may have been ----. 3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 3. 1. Having been ----. 2. (If I) were -----. (To) be ----.2. PARTICIPLES. (They) may be ----. (We) might have been ----. 165 1. (If thou) mayst have been ----. (We) may be ----. (You) may have been ----. 3. 1. 2. (If he) may have been ----. INFINITIVES. PRESENT TENSE. PRESENT TENSE. (We) may have been ----. (You) may have been ---. 3. Singular. PAST. (They) might have been ----. 3. Singular. 3. (You) will have been ----. (You) may be ---. (To) have been ----. 1.1. (They) may have been ----. 1. 3. or (If thou) wert ----. (He) will have been ----. Singular. PAST TENSE. (I) may be ----. 3. Been. 1.or 2.or 2.or 2. (You) might be ----.or 2. 2. (They) will have been ----. (If you) may have been ---. Plural. (He) may have been ----. PRESENT. (Thou) mightst be ----. Plural. Be (you or thou) ----. (If you) may have been ----. 1. (If I) may have been ----. 2. 2. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE. (If we) may have been ----. (If he) were ----. (I) shall have been ----. Singular. PBESENT TENSE. Be (you or ye) ----.or 2. Plural. 3.or 2. . 3. 1. (I) may have been ----. (You) might be ---. PAST PERFECT. (He) might be ----. (I) might have been ----. 3. 2. (You) might have been ----. IMPERATIVE MODE. 3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE. 2. 1. (I) might be ----. (You) may be ----. (He) may be ----. (You) will have been ---. PAST PERFECT TENSE. 3.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg FUTURE PERFECT TENSE. (He) might have been ----. Being ----. 2. POTENTIAL MODE. (We) shall have been ----. (Thou) mayst be ----. (Thou) mightst have been ----. 1. (They) might be ----. (Thou) wilt have been ----. (We) might be ----. PAST TENSE.

As now used. +Remark+. having been chosen. Being choosing. and require the pupils to conjugate them in the progressive and in the passive form. A transitive verb is conjugated in the +passive voice+ by joining its past participle to the different forms of the verb be. We say. The house is building. or was being built. Require them in some of their synopses to . While the ark was a preparing. in the preceding Lesson. In modern language the preposition is dropped. The past participle of a transitive verb is always passive except in such forms as have chosen. Notice that after the past participle of the verb be no blank is left.* ------. Simplest form. had chosen.. Progressive form.] +Direction+. Such a form seems to be needed when the simpler form would be ambiguous. as.--Conjugate the verb choose in the progressive form by filling all the blanks left after the different forms of the verb be. In such cases the word in ing was once a verbal noun preceded by the preposition a. CONJUGATION--PROGRESSIVE AND PASSIVE FORMS. While the flesh was in seething. (See have written. the past participle is wanting. lift. The birds are singing. The child is whipping. it is never compound.--The progressive form is sometimes used with a passive meaning. +Remarks+. having chosen.) In the progressive. with the present participle choosing. as. and then in the passive form by filling these blanks with the past participle chosen. Present. Verbs that in their simple form denote continuance--such as love. All the participles of the verb choose are arranged in order below. a contraction from on or in. the so-called neologism has pushed its way. drive. it has grown rapidly into good use. 166 A verb is conjugated in the +progressive form+ by joining its present participle to the different forms of the verb be. Being chosen.--Select other verbs. FORMS OF THE VERB--CONTINUED.--The progressive form denotes a continuance of the action or being. respect. as. especially in England. as. +Direction+. Require them to give synopses of all the forms. has recently appeared in our language--The house is being built.e. chosen. and the word in ing is treated adjectively. TO THE TEACHER. the new form stands to the old in about the ratio of three to one. and is found where the old form would not be ambiguous. Passive form. read. i. chosen. having been choosing. Choosing. [Footnote *: This form is not commonly used. Although condemned by many linguists as awkward and otherwise objectionable. know--should not be conjugated in the progressive form. Another passive progressive form. Past Perfect. Past. Introduced only to prevent ambiguity. Lesson 138. The past participle of the passive is not formed by the aid of be. The prisoner is trying. when its subject might be taken to name either the actor or the receiver.--Write and arrange as above all the participles of the verbs break. consisting of the verb be completed by the present passive participle.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** LESSON 136. I love the child--not I am loving the child.

we shall find that the so-called auxiliary is the real verb. ***** LESSON 138. We say. Such forms are still common in poetry. and a participle used as attribute complement. etc. Does he sing? A verb may be conjugated +negatively+ by placing not after the first auxiliary. might write. The forms +is writing. ***** LESSON 137. . Is it right? Have you another? +Direction+. Remember that the indicative and the potential are the only modes that can be used interrogatively. I will write+. it was common to use the simple form of the present and past tenses interrogatively and negatively thus: Loves he? I know not. as they do not take the auxiliary do. He does not sing.--Select other verbs. A question with negation is expressed in the indicative and potential modes by placing the subject and not after the first auxiliary. not singing. The verbs be and have are exceptions. 167 A verb may be conjugated +interrogatively+ in the indicative and potential modes by placing the subject after the first auxiliary. as. +I shall write = I owe+ (to) +write. and that write is an infinitive used as object complement. not to sing. singular. of the verb walk conjugated (1) interrogatively. but in prose they are now scarcely used. or +periphrastic. To THE TEACHER.--Write a synopsis in the third person. as. INTERROGATIVE AND NEGATIVE FORMS.--Formerly. can write. could write. forms+ of the verb consisting of two words may each be resolved into an +asserting word and a participle+ or an +infinitive+. Require the pupils to give synopses of all the forms. Does he not sing? +Remark+. (2) negatively. and +should write+ may each be resolved into an asserting word and an infinitive.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg use it or some noun for the subject in the third person. MODE AND TENSE FORMS. consist each of an asserting word (the verb be). I will write = I determine+ (to) +write+. as. must write. Does he love? I do not know. We say. Not is placed before the infinitive and the participles. and (3) so as to express a question with negation. as. The +compound+. +May write. +I do write = I do+ or +perform+ the action (to) write. would write+. If we look at the original meaning of the forms +I do write. CONJUGATION--CONTINUED. was written+. COMPOUND FORMS--ANALYSIS. and require the pupils to conjugate them negatively and interrogatively in the progressive and in the passive form. I shall write.

and +may have+ is composed of the auxiliary +may+ and the infinitive +have+. condemned by many grammarians who suppose had to be here used incorrectly for would or should. "I should hold going preferable. is objective complement. I shall be contented. the infinitive go is the object complement. idioms having the almost universal popular and literary sanction of centuries. Times will surely change. 7." The expressions "You had better stay. (2) what is true at all times. distinguishing carefully between participles that may be considered as part of the verb and words that must be treated as attribute complements:-1.) [Footnote: A peculiar use of had is found in the expressions had rather go and had better go. as the case may demand. from which comes the idea of preference. Rather is the comparative of the old adjective rathe = early. He mounts the scaffold. must not be mistaken for transitive verbs in the passive voice. The sun gives light (true at all times). but in all ordinary cases 'I had rathernot go' has the merit of being idiomatic and easily and universally understood. 10. I may be mistaken. Birds have flown. (Is come. for had. being now regularly used instead of the more logical perfect tense forms. the critics insisting upon the substitution of would or should. Birds are flown. I shall be satisfied.--Study what has been said above and analyze the following verbal forms. or will. in which have ( = possess) is a transitive verb taking letter for its object complement. +Direction+. If sooner is here allowed as an idiom. the . +Examples+. Had(= should hold or regard) is treated as a past subjunctive. The rule has not been observed. (4) what is to take place in the future. Has it been decided? 5. You should have been working. They originated from such expressions as I have a letter written. but had rather and had better are thoroughly established English. The use of this form has been extended to intransitive verbs--Spring has come. 9. The +Present Tense+ is used to express (1) what is actually present. etc. it is a modifier of had. and it is used (5) in describing past or future events as if occurring at the time of the speaking. Of these expressions the "Standard Dictionary. "If for 'You had better stay at home' we substitute 'You should betterstay at home. 4. The danger might have been avoided. 'I would rather not go' is undoubtedly correct when the purpose is to emphasize the element of choice. May is the asserting word--the first auxiliary is always the asserting word. and the adjective rathercompletes had and belongs to go. TENSE FORMS--MEANING. 8. 6." "I had as lief not be. i." "I had sooner go" is condemned by grammarians because sooner is never an adjective.--I hear a voice (action as present).Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 168 The forms +have written+ and +had written+ are so far removed from their original meaning that their analysis cannot be made to correspond with their history.e. "I should more willingly have going.' an entirely different meaning is expressed. may have been+ is composed of the compound auxiliary +may have+ and the participle +been+. etc. in the matter. He may have been tired and sleepy. Stars have disappeared. The expression means." In the analysis of "I had rather go."] Compounds of more than two words may be analyzed thus: +May have been written+ is composed of the compound auxiliary +may have been+ and the participle +written." are similar in construction to "I had rather go. The expression equals. are flown. 3. 11. The farm was sold." had is the predicate verb.. (3) what frequently or habitually takes place. 12. 2. He writes for the newspapers (habitual). Phillips speaks in Boston to-morrow night (future). the idea of expediency giving place to that of obligation. says:-"Forms disputed by certain grammatical critics from the days of Samuel Johnson. and the participle has lost its passive meaning. Spring is come. She is singing. and written is a passive participle modifying letter." an authority worthy of our attention. The idea of possession has faded out of have.

--I had seen him when I met you (action completed at a specified past time). Oh! it has a voice for those who on their sick beds lie and waste away. Cicero has written orations. | | | | | | | | . 13. I would try that.|Mode. 169 The +Past Tense+ may express (1) simply past action or being. The first column of each table has been repeated for easier reference. The clans of Culloden arescattered in fight. | MODIFICATIONS. (3) a future event. 2. She sings well. | " | " | | | a |Adj. |Per. If I should go. The +Present Perfect Tense+ expresses (1) action or being as completed in present time (i.|Num. 6.) The +Future Perfect Tense+ expresses action to be completed at some specified future time. (2) a past habit or custom. He wrote for the newspapers (past habit). he struggles. You may hear when the next mail arrives. [Transcriber's Note: The following two tables have been split to fit within Project Gutenberg line-width requirements. she seems to feel the thrill of life along her keel. |Per. |Nom. Had I known this before. She starts.| | | | | | | | | | | Oh! |Int. The village master taught his little school.--I shall write soon (simply future action). 14.| ad. +Examples+.] |CLASSIFICATION.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg executioners approach to bind him. 15. +Model for Written Parsing adapted to all Parts of Speech+. +Example+. 17. 12. +Examples+. you shall have it (action to be completed in a future period). | has |Vb. The +Past Perfect Tense+ expresses (1) action or being as completed at some specified past time.. | Act. The +Future Tense+ may express (1) simply future action or being. 11. | | | | | | | | | it |Pro. He will occasionally lose his temper. 5. and (4) it may refer to present time. you would miss me (future events). If he were here. 8. |Sub-C. 7. and (2) in a conditional or hypothetical clause it may express past time. |Ir. he would enjoy this (refers to present time). A triangle has three sides. ---------|-----------------|---------------------------------------------| Sentence. 10.--I shall have seen him by to-morrow noon.e.--Homer has written poems (the period of time affected by this completed action embraces the present). |Voice. etc.|Class. | Ind. To-morrow is the day appointed. If I had had time. resists.|Tense. He will become discouraged before he has thoroughly tried it. I should have written (I hadnot time--I did not write. (2) a habit or custom as future or as indefinite in time.|Pres. I could have saved you much trouble. 4. and describe carefully the time expressed by each of the following verbs:-1.--Study what has been said above about the meaning of the tense forms. 9. He would sit for hours and watch the smoke curl from his pipe. a year.| Gen. The ship sails next week.--The birds sang (simply past action). He will sitthere by the hour (indefinite in time). +Direction+. (past events pictured to the imagination as present). I go to the city to-morrow. |Case. |Def. Tr. 3. If I were you. a period of time--an hour. Plato reasons well. Moses has told many important facts. they bleed. (future events now seen in vision). +Examples+. and (2) action or being to be completed in a future period. they rally.. | | | |Sing. etc. +Examples+. she moves. At the end of this week I shall have been in school four years. 16. an age--of which the present forms a part). When I have finished this.| Neut.

| MODIFICATIONS. selling his farm. wanders away to seek new lands. | -. | Act. |Des. of lie to beds. |Per. word in phrase | Mod. |Voice. according to the Model below. She sets by the open window enjoying the scene that lays before her.| Ind.Verbs. set (to place) is transitive. | -. beds | |Prin. Tr.|Num.| " | -. 3. of| | Comp. +Direction+. |Ir. | | | | " | " | Neut.--For further exercises in parsing the verb and for exercises in general parsing. | sick |Adj. | | | | " | " | " |Obj. ----------------------------------------------------TO THE TEACHER. |Com.| Act. For the agreement of verbs. word in Prep. |Place. of has to those.|Tense.| *seek |Inf. it | |Subject of has.| Oh! | |Independent. [Footnote: Participles and infinitives have neither person nor number. Tr. |Pres. | selling |Mod. | | | | | | | | waste |Vb. | " | " | | | and |Conj. waste | |Predicate of who. |Sing. voice | |Object comp of has. sick | Pos. |Rel. and give your reasons:-1. CLASSIFICATION. | -.| | | | | | | | | | SYNTAX --------|--------. |Per. word in Prep.| *selling|Pr.| -. | for |Prep. | on |Prep. 2.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 170 voice |N. +Explanation+. seek |Prin.|Modifier of voice.|Modifier of waste. He throwed it into the river. ***** LESSON 139 PARSING.| -. | | | | | | | | beds |N. | " |M.| -. +Direction+. their | |Possessive Mod. |Adv.|Pres. of beds.. | | | | " | " | " |Pos. |Co-or. I done it myself. ---------------------------|------------------------------| Verbs.|Deg. the verbs in the sentences of Lesson 42. Ir.--Lay (to place) is transitive. |Modifier of beds. +Caution+.--Correct the following errors. | | | | | | | | -------------------------------------------------------------------------| | SYNTAX.| " | who |Pro.. lie (to rest) is intransitive.--Select and parse.Int.] (See Model for Written Parsing on opposite page. |Obj. and | |Connects lie and waste.|Ind. Ir.Int.. a | -. sit (to rest) . of Yankee. | | | |Plu.|Mode. select from the preceding Lessons on Analysis. | | | | | | | | | those |Pro.) ***** LESSON 140.--The Yankee. |Adj.. on | |Shows Rel. phrase. | -. ---------|-------|----------------------------------. | | | | " | " | " |Nom.--Be careful to give every verb its proper form and meaning. or F. of wanders..Sentence. Int. CONSTRUCTION OF MODE AND TENSE FORMS. | lie |Vb. | | | | | | | | | their |Pro.. for | |Shows Rel.| wanders |Reg.| 3d. |Com. +Model for Written Parsing--Verbs+.| -. |Reg. those | |Prin. | Kind. has | |Predicate of it. of Yankee. who | |Subject of lie and waste. Par. see Lesson 142. wanders |Pred. for I seen him when he done it. | -..| " | " | " | " | | | away. away. phrase. lie | |Predicate of who.

I knowed that it was so. I expect that he has gone to Boston. 9. Though it rain to-morrow. He has laid there an hour.--When there is doubt as to whether the indicative or the subjunctive mode is required. 19. a wish in (10) for something not at once attainable and in (11) for something forever unattainable.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg is intransitive. it cannot be used after had to form a compound tense. If it rains (now). 5. I wish the lad were taller. If my friend is in town. though. There is an indirect question in (9). Some valuable land was overflown. the work will be delayed. or in such a clause the speaker prefers to put hypothetically something of whose truth or untruth he has no doubt. why do you go? 2. etc. The tide sits in. one can't make a meal of it. 16. +Explanation+. If my friend were here. use the indicative. etc. The present subjunctive forms may be treated as infinitives used to complete omitted auxiliaries.--In (1) the raining is assumed as a fact. +Direction+. 30. 23. 11. I cannot go out. It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck. the difficulty would vanish. Though this seems improbable. 34. Your dress sets well. He has went and done it without my permission. unless. or when the uncertainty lies merely in the speaker's knowledge of the fact. 24. 7. She come just after you left. I have got no mother. +Remarks+. 5. and in (12) the subjunctive mode is used in place of the potential. Oh! that I were a Samson in strength. I laid there an hour. but these words are now more frequently followed by the indicative than by the subjunctive. One may doubt whether the best men be known. Go and lay down. the work will be delayed. 5.-. in expressing a wish for that which it is impossible to attain at once or at all. are usually spoken of as signs of the subjunctive mode. He flew from justice. I did not see him. 8. for I seen him when he done it. The water I drunk there was better than any that I had drank before. 27. 12. it is true. 2. If to-morrow be fine. If he was there. and instead of the potential mode in independent clauses. 10. 12. I am setting by the river. 6.--A conditional or a concessive clause takes a verb in the indicative mode when the action or being is assumed as a fact. The leaves had fell. 13. 7. Though immortality were improbable. 3. He run till he became so weary that he was forced to lay down. as. 15. 4. I am afraid that I cannot learn him to do it. lest. 11. 18. 29. If. If (= since) it rains. the subjunctive is used. The bird is setting on its eggs. They sung a new tune which they had not sang before. Though honey be sweet. 31. he will call this . If it (should) rain. +Explanation+. The sun sits in the west. I had rode a short distance when the storm begun to gather. If there be mountains. 21. we must march. I guess that I will stop. If this were so.1. +Examples+. 3. I will walk with you. 10. He raised up. 4. Can I speak to you? 35. 32. I remember when the corner stone was lain. Till one greater man (shall) restore us. If it rain. 22. 8. 17.--Justify the mode of the italicized verbs in the following sentences:-1. But when the action or being in such a clause is merely thought of as a contingency. He had ought to see him. The speaker is certain of the truth of what is hypothetically expressed in the conditional clause of (5) and in the concessive clause of (6). 6. I found the water froze. 20. 171 4. there must be valleys between. 25. and is certain of the untruth of what is hypothetically expressed in the conditional clause of (7) and in the concessive clause of (8). This will often serve as a guide in distinguishing the indicative from the subjunctive mode. +Caution+. 14. 9. There ain't any use of trying. In (2) the speaker is uncertain of the fact. Set in some of its meanings is intransitive.--As ought is never a participle. he would enjoy this. we should still believe in it. Set down and talk a little while. Sit the plates on the table. He sat out for London yesterday. I had began to think that you had forsook us. 26. 28. The subjunctive is frequently used in indirect questions. 33. In the conditional clause of (3) and in the concessive clause of (4) the raining is thought of as a mere contingency.

4. 16. Though it be cloudy to-night. it will swing to the other. 2.--This is incorrect.--In (6) and (7) the coming is referred to as a fact to be decided in future time. 2. 24.in my power to help you. 11. 8. That custom has been formerly quite popular. 23. the evidence does not show it. [Footnote: The "Standard Dictionary" makes this restriction: "The doubling of the past tenses in connection with the use of have with a past participle is proper and necessary when the completion of the future act was intended before the occurrence of something else mentioned or thought of. Oh.--Correct the following errors.there. I wish that I were a musician. 7. I tremble lest he ----. +Remark+. +Direction+. let me know. +Direction+. If I ---. The ship leaps. lest sin surprise thee. If a pendulum is drawn to one side. 18. If there be an eye. Attention to this qualification. expecting. If one says. 3. as it were. there would be no colors. desiring. which has been overlooked in the criticism of tense-formation and connection. 15. 13. we sometimes prefer a part to the whole.--Verbs of commanding. Whether he go or not.--Be careful to employ the tense forms of the different modes in accordance with their meaning. If he ever comes. 7. 5. This sword shall end thee unless thou yield. I should have known him.guilty. If I had have seen him. intending. and give a reason for your choice:-1. I could not gratify you. and may therefore be allowed. Were I so disposed.but discreet. Neither will they be persuaded. Though an angel from heaven command it. and give your reasons:-1. after keeping it three months. If he ---. and.men. he will succeed.--Supply in each of the following sentences a verb in the indicative or the subjunctive mode. I would do differently. it will be cold. It were well it were done quickly. hoping. 7. we shall know it. that he were a son of mine! 19. If he comes by noon. 22. Would he were fatter! 17. The act of calling was not completed at the time indicated by intended. 6. permitting. I know not whether it is so or not. fight. 'I meant to have visited Paris and to have . A man bought a horse for one hundred dollars. from billow to billow. 10.he. 9. 6. Though the whole exceed a part. it was made to see. If there were no light. is especially important and imperative. I wish it ---. If a pendulum is drawn = Whenever a pendulum is drawn. 9. I did not see him. What per cent does he gain? 5. Govern well thy appetite. +Explanation+. Take heed that thou speak not to Jacob. and in such a way as to preserve the proper order of time. at an expense of ten dollars a month. Though he ---. etc. 3. I intended to call. He that was dead sat up and began to speak. I should say that it was an hour's ride. He deserves our pity. 6. we should not steal.--Be is often employed in making scientific statements like the preceding. I must be there. 8. 12. 14. If ye ---.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg evening. though one rose from the dead. +Caution+. ***** LESSON 141. I wish I was in Dixie. 4. 172 +Explanation+. it should be. +Explanation+. 20. CONSTRUCTION OF MODE AND TENSE FORMS--CONTINUED. If he ---. I intended to have called. unless his tale ---. We should be obliged if you will favor us with a song. are followed by verbs denoting present or future time.a false one. he sells it for two hundred dollars. 8. 21.

Shall I go? Here the speaker puts himself under the control of some external influence--the will of another. We then fell into a discussion whether there is any beauty independent of utility. because the meeting took place before the time of being glad. You ought to have helped me to have done it. 16. I am glad to have met you is correct. 18. 'I meant to visit Paris and to returnto London before my father arrived from America. Will I go?--i. but even here we can trace the original meaning of shall and will. He shall go. Dr. Johnson maintained that there was. The tense of the dependent verb is sometimes attracted into that of the principal verb. He will go. Here the action is under the control of the speaker's will. +Caution+. The experiment proved that air had weight.--The original meaning of shall (to owe. I should not have let you eaten it. It would be absurd for one to ask what his own will is. Is it my will to go?--is not used except to repeat another's question. You will go. There seems to be danger of applying this rule too rigidly. I should have liked to have seen it.. +Remark+. as.. is necessary for the expression of the completion of the acts purposed. as. Ought has no past tense form. as. 15. The General maintained that there was not. +Examples+. e. giving it the form of an indirect quotation. The only case in which some trace of the original meaning of these auxiliaries cannot be found is the one in which the subject of will names something incapable of volition. Even this may be a kind of personification. I will go. These are the proper forms to express mere futurity. 11.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 173 returned to London before my father arrived from America. Here the speaker either promises the going or determines to compel these persons to go. at the time indicated by the principal verb. +Remark+. in either case the one who goes is under some external influence. 17. 10. In the second and third persons it is more courteous to refer to the will of others than to their duty.' the past [present perfect] infinitive .. 19.--What is true or false at all times is generally expressed in the present tense.' may convey suggestively the thought intended. He said that iron was the most valuable of metals. whatever tense precedes. I ought to have gone is exceptional. When a speaker does not wish to vouch for the truth of the general proposition. He either promises or determines to go. . You shall go."] The present infinitive expresses an action as present or future. The wind will blow.--I shall go. I had never known before how short life really was. 12. In the first person the speaker avoids egotism by referring to the act as an obligation or duty rather than as something under the control of his own will. I knewwhere the place was.--Use will and would to imply that the subject names the one whose will controls the action. We expected that he would have arrived last night. and so the present perfect infinitive is used to make the expression refer to past time. 13. use shall and should to imply that the one named by the subject is under the control of external influence. 20. he may use the past tense. I have already told you that I was a gentleman. He would not have dared done that. but does not express it. and the present perfect expresses it as completed. 14. We hoped to have seen you often. to be obliged) and will (to determine) gives us the real key to their proper use. Our fathers held that all men were created equal.

should. 5. Thou shalt surely die. 6. You will see that my horse is at the door by nine o'clock. Hear me. Will I be in time? 3. They knew that I should be there. ***** LESSON 142. 3. and give your reasons:-1. He says that he will go. AGREEMENT. The same auxiliary is used in the question that is used in the answer. 8. we have. +Caution+. The difficulty that might do the hindering is not to be left to itself. I ---. Shall you be at liberty to-day? 4. He says that he shall go.come by noon. ---.say so. yet will I not deny thee. 9. 4. . 10. +Direction+. ---. if I do not come? +Direction+.--A verb must agree with its subject in number and person. for I will speak. It was requested that no person would leave his seat. and refer to his subordinate's willingness to obey. I ---.be greatly obliged if you ---.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 174 Shall you go? Ans. They know that I shall be there. They do me wrong. A superior may courteously avoid the appearance of compulsion. I ---. He will. CONSTRUCTION OF NUMBER AND PERSON FORMS. Will he go? Ans. Will you go? Ans. No difficulty shall hinder me. I shall be happy to accompany you. and the force of should will be seen. Though I should die. and I ---.be guilty of falsehood. Truth.--Fill each of the following blanks with shall. +Direction+. I will. I shall never see him again. They requested that the appointment would be given to a man who should be known to his party. I think we will have rain. If I ---. Change the indirect quotations introduced by that to direct quotations. crushed to earth. 8. but is to be kept under the control of the speaker. The same principles apply to should and would that apply to shall and will.have done. ---.do me the favor. 9. and the application of the Caution will be apparent. If he ---.--Assign a reason for the use of shall or will in each of the following sentences:-1. yet would I not put forth my hand against the king's son. 7. Shallhe go? Ans. You did better than I ---.betray him. 2. 6. or would. 7.not endure it. My friend said that he should not set out to-morrow. 3. 2. He knew who ---. Change the indirect to a direct quotation. making them future as to present time. When will we get through this tedious controversy? 6. shall rise again. I shall. He shall.he be allowed to go on? 10.you be ready? 5. In this example the events are future as to past time. 5. and give the reasons for your choice:-1.see it. Where will I leave you? 2. You ---. 4.--Correct the following errors.be fatigued if I had walked so far.be disappointed if you ---. and that he will be there. and that he would be there. Though I should receive a thousand shekels of silver in mine hand. will. This is only an apparent exception to the rule. If you will call.you be unhappy. I will never see him again. I said that he should be rewarded.--VERBS--PRONOUNS.

3. as. 3. and he = we. as. or when they name several things taken as one whole. A number were inclined to turn back. and. We say. is a contraction of the indicative present--ha(ve)s). +Remarks+. made by adding +s+ or +es+ (has. . except when he confesses a fault.l. +Caution+. most verbs have one person form. +st+. In the solemn style. is needed. you. When the connected subjects are different names of the same thing. Mary and I shall (not will) be busy to-morrow. Time. +Caution+. The multitude was too large to number. When one of the subjects is affirmative and the other negative. as well as patience. 2. or +t+. He dare not do it. He need not do it.--A collective noun requires a verb in the plural when the individuals in the collection are thought of. the third person singular adds +eth+. (The same is true of subjects connected by as well as. every. when one of the subjects is of the second person. the verb agrees with the affirmative. in the present perfect tense. and the verb agrees with the nearest. when the collection as a whole is thought of. When several subjects follow the verb. When the connected subjects are preceded by each.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 175 +Remarks+.--When one of two or more subjects connected by and is of the first person. Every man. The number present was not ascertained. is needed. the verb agrees with the first and is understood with the second. as. as. and patience also. 5. (See Lessons 134 and 135. In using pronouns of different persons. the verb should be singular.) 4. Bread and milk is excellent food. When the subjects require different forms of the verb. 4. as. the second person singular takes the ending +est+.-. Neither he nor they were satisfied. as. My old friend and schoolmate is in town. as. The verb be has +am+ (first person) and +is+ (third person). the verb must be singular.--l. each subject may be emphasized by making the verb agree with that which stands nearest. The multitude were of one mind. it is generally better to express the verb with each subject or to recast the sentence.--When two or more subjects are connected by or or nor. they are taken separately. it is generally more polite for the speaker to mention the one addressed first. this rule applies to but few forms. when followed by an infinitive without to. the verb agrees in person and number with the nearest.--When a verb has two or more subjects connected by and. +Examples+. as.--When a singular and a plural subject are used. +Exceptions+.) Need and dare. Time. woman. many a. +Caution+. and not pleasure. and child was lost. Books. In the common style. or no. it must agree with them in the plural. +Remark+.--Practically. the plural subject is generally placed next to the verb. +Are+ and +were+ are the only plural forms retained by the English verb. Neither poverty nor wealth was desired. I. Thine is the kingdom and the power and the glory. and none of the first. and himself last. When the subjects are emphatically distinguished. occupy his time. but. are generally used instead of needs and dares. the verb is in the second person. 2. the verb is in the first person. you and he = you. in the indicative present.

7. Each of these expressions denote action. 11. Neither the intellect nor the heart are capable of being driven. and give your reasons:-1. 19." says I. even when singular. What sounds have each of the vowels? 4. as. The House has decided not to allow its members the privilege. 3.] 31. 20. Young's "Night Thoughts" is his most celebrated poetical work. 10. 6. 17. 30. and person. 15. 4. requires a plural verb. 13. Every book and every paper was found in its place. Neither you nor he is to blame. 18.] 6. Plutarch's "Parallel Lives" are his great work. He who writes. 28. 21. 29.--The pronoun and the verb of an adjective clause relating to the indefinite subject it take. The three special Cautions given above for the agreement of the verb will also aid in determining the agreement of the pronoun with its antecedent. Nine-tenths of every man's happiness depend upon this. The committee were unable to agree. 16. This orator and statesman has gone to his rest. by attraction. To relieve the wretched was his pride. [Footnote: The verb here agrees with figures. The hue and cry of the country pursues him. as. Twice as much is too much. John. The good are great. no labor. not words. and they asked to be discharged. 9. Flesh and blood hath not revealed it. 12. boys. Three times four is twelve. is going. is here protected in his right. The nation are prosperous. 25. It is I that am in the wrong. 18. as picture-writing is logically explanatory of figures. 22. +Direction+. 30. Neither wealth nor wisdom is the chief thing. "We agree. It is the dews and showers that make the grass grow. represent things. Nine o'clock and forty-five minutes is fifteen minutes of ten. 14. The question is (see Caution for collective nouns). I want every one of you to decide for themselves. Every one is accountable for his own acts. 23. were needed. Three quarters of the men was discharged. Books is a noun. 20. Man is masculine because it denotes a male. or are the individual units composing it thought of? The expression = Four taken three times is twelve. The mind. The assembly was divided in its opinion. Every one of these are good in their place. The pronoun you. 28.--Justify the use of the following italicized verbs and pronouns:-1. There are one or two reasons. the tendency is to make the verb agree with the noun expressed. Many a heart and home have been desolated by drink. Our welfare and security consists in unity. 24. Five years' interest are due. Where was you? 7. +Direction+. Thou who writest. "No. 8. 8. Neither of them have recited their lesson. etc. 32." says they. and not the body. Five dollars is not too much. Either you or I am right. but strong proofs bring conviction. Therein consists the force and use and nature of language. 31. Talking and eloquence are not the same. To profess and to possess are two different things. 26. . 10. She fell to laughing like one out of their right mind. 17. Why are dust and ashes proud? 27. and his sister also. One of you are mistaken. and both are defended. were spared.] 29. Not a loud voice. 16. The committee were full when this point was decided. no money. or picture-writing. 14. 21. Money.--Correct the following errors. 22. Many a kind word and many a kind act has been put to his credit. They who write. No time. It is thou that liftest me up. 5. Is the number four thought of as a whole. 2. 26. 15. [Footnote: "Three times four is twelve" and "Three times four are twelve" are both used. He don't like it. 25. Mexican figures. 12. 11. 13. One or the other have erred in their statement. 23. as well as the richest citizen. There comes the boys. 5. Either the master or his servants is to blame. Neither the servants nor their master are to blame. The tongs are not in their place. The second and the third Epistle of John contain each a single chapter. 9. Victuals are always plural. sin. [Footnote: When two adjectives differing in number are connected without a repetition of the noun. the person and number of the complement when this complement immediately precedes the adjective clause. The lowest mechanic. no. 19. as well as men. 3. gender. 27. Now. Two hours is a long time to wait. The public is invited to attend.--A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number. +Remarks+. 2. There is several reasons for this. Times is a noun used adverbially. 24.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 176 +Caution+.

modes. 132. Some which have no plural. Past Perfect. Intransitive (92). | Future Perfect. 5. figures.| 140. being. Form. 134. Potential (131. | Present Perfect. 6. +Scheme for the Verb.--Lessons 129. and tenses. and of the person and number forms. Transitive (92). Indicative (131. 134.| 131. TO THE TEACHER. Voice.+ (The numbers refer to Lessons. How do compounds form the plural? Illustrate the several ways. Subjunctive (131. (Redundant and Defective) Meaning. 134-137). Uses.--Lessons 129. | Person. 137. 134-137. Lesson 114. 134. + 131. 7. Irregular (92. 140). 141. form the plural? Illustrate. Some which are always plural. + 131. 134-137). etc. 135.Present. Lesson 113. 130). 11) To assume action. ***** LESSON 143. 132. Present Perfect. Some which have the same form in both numbers. +Questions on the Verb+. 8. Mode.--Lesson 131. 134-137). | Future. Participles (37) Infinitives (40) Classes. Lesson 112. 142. Give and illustrate the principles which guide in the use of the mode and tense forms. Present.--Lesson 138. 134-138.) 177 VERB. | Past. Active (129.--Lessons 134. | Past. 133).-. being. Give a synopsis of a regular and of an irregular verb in all the different forms. Singular. 3.--Give examples of nouns having each two plurals differing in meaning. Analyze the different mode and tense forms. 2.--Classes. Past Perfect. How do letters. and give the functions of the different tenses. + 131. page 255*. Define the participle and its classes. | Infinitives. Plural. | Number. Define the infinitive. Passive (129. or state. Modifications. 141. Third.--Give the plural of some nouns adopted from other languages.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg GENERAL REVIEW. + 131.--Lessons 92. | Second.--Lessons 140. 4. 136. 136. First.--What are Modifications? Have English words many inflections? Have they lost any? What is Number? Define the singular and the plural number. 131. Present. How is the plural of nouns regularly formed? In what ways may the plural be formed irregularly? Illustrate. Define the modifications of the verb. Imperative (131. 131. 135. Define the verb and its classes. 135. Regular (92). 1.--See suggestions to the teacher. 130). To assert action. 135. Tense. 134. What is said of the . | Participles. or state.--Lesson 131. REVIEW QUESTIONS. Define the several voices.--Predicate (4.

--What is Person? Is the person of nouns marked by form? Define the three persons. Lesson 121. What is the difference between sex and gender? The gender of English nouns follows what? Have English nouns a neuter form? Have all English nouns a masculine and a feminine form? In what three ways may the masculine of nouns be distinguished from the feminine? Illustrate. when is the masculine pronoun used. Lesson 124. What is the Caution relating to gender? Lesson 119.--What is Gender? Define the different genders.--What is Declension? Decline girl and tooth. Give the three gender forms of the pronoun. Lesson 122.--What is Parsing? Illustrate the parsing of nouns. 178 Lesson 117. How are some adverbs compared? Illustrate the irregular comparison of adjectives and adverbs. What is the case of a noun used independently? Of an explanatory modifier? Of an objective complement? Of a noun or pronoun used as attribute complement? Illustrate all these. What adjective pronouns are declined wholly or in part? Illustrate. Lesson 123. . How are adjectives regularly compared? What are the Rules for Spelling? Illustrate them. Lesson 125. REVIEW QUESTIONS.--In what case alone can mistakes in the construction of nouns occur? Illustrate the Cautions relating to possessive forms.--What words in the language have each three different case forms? What are the nominative. Lesson 128. and what the objective.--To how many things does the comparative degree refer? What does it imply? Explain the office of the superlative.--How is gender in grammar important? When is the pronoun of the masculine gender used? When is the neuter pronoun it used? By the aid of what pronouns are inanimate things personified? In personification.--In what four ways may the number of nouns be determined? Illustrate.--How many case forms have nouns. and what the superlative? Give the Cautions relating to the use of comparatives and superlatives. the relative and the interrogative. When is a noun in the first person? In the second person? What classes of words have distinctive person forms? Why is person regarded in grammar? What is Case? Define the three cases. ***** LESSON 144.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg number of collective nouns? Lesson 116. Instead of the possessive form. forms of the pronouns? Lesson 127. What is the possessive sign? To which word of compound names or of groups of words treated as such is the sign added? Illustrate.--What one modification have adjectives? What is Comparison? Define the three degrees. and what are they? How is the possessive of nouns in the singular formed? Of nouns in the plural? Illustrate. what may be used? Illustrate. and when is the feminine? Illustrate. Decline the several personal pronouns. and illustrate them fully. How are adjectives of more than one syllable generally compared? How are degrees of diminution expressed? Can all adjectives be compared? Illustrate. What word usually follows the comparative. Lesson 118.

When is the one voice used.--How is a verb conjugated in the progressive form? How is a transitive verb conjugated in the passive voice? Give an example of a verb in the progressive form with a passive meaning. Lesson 140. What is Tense? Define the six tenses. ***** LESSON 145.+ +TO THE TEACHER+. What are the principal parts of a verb? What are redundant and what are defective verbs? Lesson 134. Lesson 141. lift. what does the object complement become? How may an intransitive verb sometimes be made transitive? Illustrate. +Suggestions for the Study of the following Selections.--What is Voice? Of what class of verbs is it a modification? Name and define the two voices. What is said of the participle in have written. Lesson 131. When does a conditional or a concessive clause require the verb to be in the indicative? Illustrate. read. Lesson 137. Define the participle. and when the other? Into what may the passive form be resolved? Illustrate. Define the infinitive. drive. Lesson 142.--What is Conjugation? Synopsis? What are auxiliary verbs? Name them.--In changing a verb from the active to the passive.--Into what may the compound.--What is Mode? Define the four modes. What may be mistaken for a verb in the passive voice? Illustrate.--The pupil has now reached a point where he can afford to drop the diagram--its mission for him is fulfilled.--Give and illustrate the Cautions relating to the agreement of verbs and pronouns.--Show how the general Caution for the use of the verb is frequently violated. Define the classes of participles. Illustrate the exceptions and the Remarks.--Give and illustrate the general Caution relating to mode and tense forms.? Give and illustrate the several uses of the six tenses." unless it be to . shall and should. How may a question with negation be expressed in the indicative and potential modes? Lesson 138.--How many inflectional forms may irregular verbs have? How many have regular verbs? What is said of the subjunctive mode? Of to with the infinitive? How is a verb conjugated in the emphatic form? Lesson 136. What are the number and person of a verb? Lesson 132. REVIEW QUESTIONS.--How may a verb be conjugated interrogatively? Negatively? Illustrate. break. When is the subjunctive used? Illustrate the many uses of the subjunctive. or periphrastic. had written. Lesson 130. What does the progressive form denote? Can all verbs be conjugated in this form? Why? Give all the participles of the verbs choose. etc. Give and illustrate the Caution in regard to will and would. forms of the verb be resolved? Illustrate fully. ***** ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES FOR ANALYSIS. For him to continue its use with these "Additional Examples.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 179 Lesson 129.

is needless." are. I can even imagine that England may cast all thoughts of . of the split infinitive. which center may be far too distant for any vision of man. etc. order. Let him try to see which structure is the more natural. the last sentence in (20)--a sentence that has several points at any one of which a complete thought has been expressed. gathered into zones or strata. He may note that poems are not pitched in the same key--that the extracts from Wordsworth and Goldsmith and Cowper. converted by metaphor into a maiden.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 180 outline the relations of clauses or illustrate peculiar constructions. they [our fathers] raised their flag against a power to which. for instance--the meaning of which remains in suspense till near or at the close. the oratorical character of Macaulay's. is a part of such a zone. It is thought by some people that all those stars which you see glittering so restlessly on a keen. all exquisite except in the first line. one condition seems imperative--the pupil should thoroughly understand what the author says. the relations of the independent and the dependent parts. and what style gains by a judicious blending of the two. and their connection. In some far-away and yet undreamt-of hour. where the moon. for example. for purposes of foreign conquest and subjugation. as lie and lay. by itself. if we. to reach. This will lead him to take a step or two over into the field of literature. On this question of principle. circles the earth with one continuous and unbroken strain of the martial airs of England. that our own wicked little earth. poets differ from each other. here showing vast zaarahs of desert blue sky. of certain prepositions. We know no better way to secure this than to exact of him a careful reproduction in his own words of the author's thought. He should study the general character of each sentence.--Webster. 1. he will merely be repeating that with which he is already familiar. as we learn from the context. and how. and is crowded with audacious imagery. and which is the more forcible. in fact. naked or armed. the poetical beauty of Emerson's. in the use of these particulars. The pupil may see how ellipses and transpositions and imagery abound in poetry. and which seem to have been sown broadcast with as much carelessness as grain lies on a threshing-floor. of the relatives in restrictive and in unrestrictive clauses. If the attempt is made. of certain idioms. in the height of her glory. the vividness of Webster's. Rome. Especially should the pupil look at the thought in these prose extracts and at the manner in which it is expressed. deal with common facts and in a homely way. of punctuation. He should note in contrast the +loose structure+ of others--for example. These extracts are not given for full analysis or parsing. has that said of her that is inconsistent with her in her new character.--De Quincey 2. of the distinctions in meaning between allied verbs. could but survey it from the true center. One gains nothing in doing what he already does well enough--progress is not made in climbing the wheel of a treadmill. with the whole of our peculiar solar system. and for the same reason. and the brilliancy of Holmes's--the last lines from whom are purposely stilted. and that all this perfect geometry of the heavens. of double negatives. these radii in the mighty wheel. would become apparent. 3. the humor of Irving's. for instance. while that from Shelley is all imagination. also. and why. frosty night in a high latitude. and to some eyes presenting "The beauteous semblance of a flock at rest. make complete sense. This. that the one from Lowell is in a higher key. the pupil would find profitless. the ruggedness of Carlyle's. but the part of the sentence following does not. following the sun and keeping company with the hours. etc. But the pupil may here review what has been taught him of the uses of adjective pronouns. He should note the +periodic structure+ of some of these sentences--of (4) or (19). of the subjunctive mode. there again lying close. whose morning drum-beat. the spectators. is not to be compared--a power which has dotted over the surface of the whole globe with her possessions and military posts. its divisions and subdivisions. This will reveal to him the differences between his work and the original. while actual suffering was yet afar off. and bring into relief the peculiarity of each author's style--the stateliness of De Quincey's.

And. while from all around-. with fern and heath And juniper and thistle sprinkled o'er. Then. 10. Fixing his downcast eye. When thoughts Of the last. the dumb old servitor. 4. and over which they exercise their control. she speaks A various language. But the dark foliage interweaves In one unbroken roof of leaves."--Saxe. 9. immortal as the intellectual principle from which they derived their origin. lay. 8. 6. Cried. "Farewell.--Henry Taylor. still more beauteous. sir. There sat the life-long creature of the house. to that stream whereon the barge. "Served him right! 'tis not at all surprising. from first to last. To lie amid some sylvan scene.--Macaulay.--how lovely 't is Thou seest. Winking his eyes. His only visitant a straggling sheep. Whilst all its instruments. and sad images Of the stern agony and shroud and pall And breathless darkness and the narrow house Make thee to shudder and grow sick at heart. he many an hour A morbid pleasure nourished. The stone-chat.-. Or where the denser grove receives No sunlight from above. lifting up his head. eloquent. And on these barren rocks.Comes a still voice. while the sands of the Indus and adamant of Golconda may yet stiffen the housings of the charger and flash from the turban of the slave. The worm was punished. There were communities.--Longfellow. bitter hour come like a blight Over thy spirit. To him who in the love of Nature holds Communion with her visible forms. o'er her hung The silken case with braided blazonings. exempt from mutability and decay. when the scepter shall have passed away from England. when civilization and knowledge shall have fixed their abode in distant continents. the long drooping boughs between. I like the lad who. for his gayer hours She has a voice of gladness and a smile And eloquence of beauty. Where liberty and justice. for early rising. So those two brethren from the chariot took And on the black decks laid her in her bed. tracing here An emblem of his own unfruitful life. "These are my Jewels. sweet sister. Set in her hand a lily. the sad chariot-bier Past like a shadow thro' the field. farewell forever.--and he would gaze till it became Far lovelier. Underneath whose sloping eaves The shadows hardly move. and that. when woods were green.--Bryant. Where power was of God's gift to whom he gave Supremacy of merit--the sole means And broad highway to power."--Ruskin.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 181 possessive wealth back to the barbaric nations among whom they first arose. where great men grew Up to their natural eminence.--Tennyson . Ordered the common weal. but once far-famed. saying. when his father thought To clip his morning nap by hackneyed praise Of vagrant worm by early songster caught. and twisted all his face. as a Christian mother. when those who have rivaled her [Athens's] greatness shall have shared her fate. 5. and. The tools of state for service high or low. on deck. and list To Nature's teachings. Where. Stranger. saying to her. and be able to lead forth her Sons. 7.--her influence and her glory will still survive. just. and here he loved to sit. that steals away Their sharpness ere he is aware.Go forth under the open sky. when the next sun brake from underground.--Wordsworth. that ever then Was meritoriously administered. But. and she glides Into his darker musings with a mild And healing sympathy. Pleasant it was. he then would gaze On the more distant scene. those two brethren slowly with bent brows Accompanying. or the glancing sand-piper. and shall see a single naked fisherman wash his nets in the river of the ten thousand masts. perhaps." parted all in tears. may at last attain to the virtues and the treasures of a Heathen one. shall hear savage hymns chanted to some misshapen idol over the ruined dome of our proudest temple. Were chosen for their aptness to those ends Which virtue meditates.Earth and her waters and the depths of air-. hand in hand. and his heart could not sustain The beauty. scarce known by name In these degenerate days. that shone Full-summer. when. these gloomy boughs Had charms for him. Pall'd all its length in blackest samite. travelers from distant regions shall in vain labor to decipher on some moldering pedestal the name of our proudest chief. And. fresh in eternal youth. "Sister. and none Saving the wise. And kiss'd her quiet brows. she. Shadows dark and sunlight sheen Alternate come and go." and again. And winds were soft and low. Loyal. were great.

to kneel and draw The chalky ring and knuckle down at taw.--Shakespeare. That orbed maiden with white fire laden. and view her stores unrolled. in this dark world and wide. The bench on which we sat while deep employed. though my soul more bent To serve therewith my Maker. lakes. and present My true account. Is the immediate jewel of their souls. Good name in man and woman. who best Bear his mild yoke. they serve him best: his state Is kingly. Bearing Sir Launfal. Be it a weakness. at evening's close.What moistens the lip. Sir Launfal flashed forth in his maiden mail To seek in all climes for the Holy Grail. And. When the gray-haired New-Englander sees round his board The old broken links of affection restored. and seas. The playful children just let loose from school. 18. sweet. Tho' mangled.These all in sweet confusion sought the shade. and the heart is stone That feels not at the sight.-. it deserves some praise. lest he. dear my lord. simple years again. and feels at none. The mingling notes came softened from below."Doth God exact day-labor. Who steals my purse steals trash.--Lowell. returning. As happy as we once.-. To climb the trackless mountain all unseen. With the wild flock that never needs a fold. May have broken the woof of my tent's thin roof.-. hacked. and on the very spot. --Byron. And post o'er land and ocean without rest. glowing hot.--Sonnet on his Blindness. The very name we carved subsisting still. Playing our games. and what brightens the eye? What calls back the past like the rich pumpkin-pie? --Whittier. Till the calm rivers. 't is but to hold Converse with nature's charms.We love the play-place of our early days. we seem almost t' obtain Our innocent. Up yonder hill the village murmur rose. as I passed with careless steps and slow. 17. To slowly trace the forest's shady scene. And the worn matron smiles where the girl smiled before. unbuttoned.The pleasing spectacle at once excites Such recollection of our own delights That. binding them all in one blazing sheaf.--The Cloud. The wall on which we tried our graving skill. chide. The noisy geese that gabbled o'er the pool. so. 12. to muse o'er flood and fell. not yet destroyed. 't is something. The scene is touching. And mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been. When I widen the rent in my wind-built tent. soon replies. viewing it. --Goldsmith. And I laugh to see them whirl and flee Like a swarm of golden bees. Like strips of the sky fallen through me on high. 16. when oft.-. nothing. 't is his. thousands at his bidding speed. Or drive it devious with a dexterous pat. The sober herd that lowed to meet their young. To pitch the ball into the grounded hat. "God doth not need Either man's work or his own gifts. And filled each pause the nightingale had made. The swain responsive as the milk-maid sung. And through the dark arch a charger sprang.This is not solitude. Alone o'er steeps and foaming falls to lean. --Shelley. They also serve who only stand and wait.--Cowper. Lodged with me useless. From North and from South come the pilgrim and guest. There. Where things that own not man's dominion dwell. that flamed so bright It seemed the dark castle had gathered all Those shafts the fierce sun had shot over its wall In his siege of three hundred summers long. light denied?" I fondly ask: but Patience. when from East and from West. When the care-wearied man seeks his mother once more. And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind. Which only the angels hear. The drawbridge dropped with a surly clang. 15. Whom mortals call the moon.-. 14. the maiden knight.-. When I consider how my light is spent Ere half my days. In his gilded mail. 'T was mine. ." --Milton. Sweet was the sound. The little ones. to prevent That murmur. By the midnight breezes strewn. young and strong And lightsome as a locust leaf. And wherever the beat of her unseen feet. which is death to hide. Had cast them forth. But he that filches from me my good name Robs me of that which not enriches him. Are each paved with the moon and these. The stars peep behind her and peer. and has been slave to thousands. The watch-dog's voice that bayed the whispering wind. To sit on rocks.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 182 11. Glides glimmering o'er my fleece-like floor. 13. And makes me poor indeed. and hewed. And that one talent. Ah! on Thanksgiving Day.

. we see the tyrant humbled. Platbush. 22. in these times especially. and the broad fans of insect-angels open and shut over their golden disks. are not unwilling to play the despot on a narrower scale. and we bask in the shining hours of Florida and Cuba. we blush for a race which can stoop to such an abject lot. we are ready to ask ourselves. I am not sure that even one has ever followed it implicitly. just where you found it. Bergen.---Emerson. sentencing myriads of the young to make murder their calling and rapacity their means of support. as the rhythmic waves of blissful consciousness pulsate through their glorified being. To sweeten the beverage. in obedience to a kind of feeling that told you it had been lying there long enough.--Carlyle. when she says to herself. and those who mainly support newspapers will be annoyed and often exposed by it. Next year you will find the grass growing tall and green where the stone lay. and the earth make a harmony. At length. nothing is to desire that we have heard of the happiest latitudes. whether in the way of philosophy or history. which is still kept up by some families in Albany. and all our uncontaminated Dutch villages.--Irving. a lump of sugar was laid beside each cup. when everything that has life gives sign of satisfaction. Considering our present advanced state of culture. the heavenly bodies. until an improvement was introduced by a shrewd and economical old lady. when the air.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 183 19. indeed. by a string from the ceiling. insinuated your stick or your foot or your fingers under its edge.--it might strike the reflective mind with some surprise that hitherto little or nothing of a fundamental character. so that not the smallest cranny or doghole in nature or art can remain unilluminated. when. but innumerable rush-lights and sulphur-matches. and how the torch of science has now been brandished and borne about. butting each other and everything in their way. in walking in the fields. a heart as sensitive to oppression and degradation in the next street as if they were practiced in Brazil or Japan. When we see one word of a frail man on the throne of France tearing a hundred thousand sons from their homes. which was to suspend a large lump directly over the tea-table. as if Nature would indulge her offspring. the dandelion and the buttercup are growing there. so that it could be swung from mouth to mouth--an ingenious expedient. and the company alternately nibbled and sipped with great decorum. stripped of power. nobody knows how long. not only the torch still burns. though they can never repay advocacy. when the sad reality comes home to us. as it were. close to its edges. and end in a general stampede for underground retreats from the region poisoned by sunshine. and extorting from nations their treasures to extend this ruinous sway. and perhaps more fiercely than ever. This path demands an ear ever open to the plaints of the wronged and the suffering. There is a different and sterner path. 21. are also glancing in every direction. come across a large flat stone. a pen as ready to expose and reprove the crimes whereby wealth is amassed and luxury enjoyed in our own country at this hour as if they had been committed only by Turks or pagans in Asia some centuries ago.--Channing. and have you not. but stripped by those who. and turned it over as a housewife turns a cake. with more or less effect. Is not this a dream? and. kindled thereat. wherein the world reaches its perfection. and the cattle that lie on the ground seem to have great and tranquil thoughts. Did you never. 23. which had lain. "It's done brown enough by this time"? But no sooner is the stone turned and the wholesome light of day let upon this compressed and blinded community of creeping things than all of them which enjoy the luxury of legs--and some of them have a good many--rush round wildly. There are days which occur in this climate. 20. at almost any season of the year.--I know not whether there be any now qualified to tread it. for five thousand years and upwards. and to break down the spirit of nations under the same iron sway. the ground-bird builds her nest where the beetle had his hole. all round it.--Greeley. how. in these bleak upper sides of the planet. 24. has been written on the subject of Clothes. with the grass forming a little hedge. and the haste wherewith any fame acquired in a sphere so thoroughly ephemeral as the Editor's must be shrouded by the dark waters of oblivion. in view of the certain meagerness of its temporal rewards. in the main.--Holmes. breaking asunder the sacred ties of domestic life. but which prevails without exception in Communipaw.

and other phrases. Use the comma (13) to denote an omission of words. 2.--All exclamatory expressions must be followed by the exclamation point. (2) an abbreviation. and the quotation marks:-1. and (12) the parts of a compound predicate. namely.. (11) co-ordinate clauses when short and closely connected. 7. LESSON 146. Separate by the comma (10) connected words and phrases. Mistress Dial. three sons of Catherine de Medici and Henry II. the semicolon. 9. (3) a direct quotation making complete sense or a direct question introduced into a sentence. often learns himself. chapters. Obsolete words.. as everybody knows. and (4) phrases or clauses separately numbered or paragraphed should begin with a capital letter.. as. Low words. and (4) Arabic figures used to enumerate. (2) a participle used as an adjective modifier. unless formally introduced. 1492. Francis II. unless restrictive. and. for you. No sleep till morn.. Charles IX. (7) a direct quotation introduced into a sentence. unless all the conjunctions are expressed. Begin with a capital letter (5) proper names (including all names of the Deity). 4. when Youth and Pleasure meet To chase the glowing hours with flying feet! Direction. and give your reasons:-- . (2) a line of poetry. San Salvador. 8.--Every direct interrogative sentence or clause should be followed by an interrogation point. etc. It is easy. set yourself up above me. +Interrogation Point+.] +Period+. among the early conquests of the Saracens. +Comma+. 5. (6) a word or phrase independent or nearly so. 6. c and q. to accuse me of laziness. taken Jerusalem. when long or differently modified. and Henry III.--Give the Rule for each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences.--Set off by the comma (1) an explanatory modifier which does not restrict the modified term or combine closely with it. 10.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg ***** COMPOSITION. and (9) numbers in the Roman notation.--Place a period after (1) a declarative or an imperative sentence. Foreign words. TERMINAL MARKS. (8) a noun clause used as an attribute complement. sat upon the French throne. with the words belonging to it. SUMMARY OF RULES FOR CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION..--The first word of (1) a sentence. [Footnote: Small letters are often used in referring to sections. and (7) most abbreviations. Write in capital letters (8) the words I and 0. (6) names of things vividly personified. and (15) when it is needed to prevent ambiguity. (5) a phrase out of its usual order or not closely connected with the word it modifies. 184 +Capital Letters+. Purity of style forbids us to use: 1. Oct. or slang. fell. +Direction+. foremost fighting. in 637 A. and when shall I use oh?" 3. indeed. (4) the adverb clause.. etc. introducing illustrations. The pupil asked. 3. 2.--Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. (3) the adjective clause when not restrictive. He who teaches. D. unless it closely follows and restricts the word it modifies. who have always. CAPITAL LETTERS. (3) a number written in the Roman notation. and (9) a term connected to another by or and having the same meaning. Caliph Omar having. +Exclamation Point+. and words derived from them. AND THE COMMA. except the colon. The Holy Land was. He rushed into the field. Some letters are superfluous. "When shall I use O. (14) after as. 12.

It may cost treasure. still more extravagantly.---Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. SEMICOLON AND COLON. kennedy taking from her a handkerchief edged with gold pinned it over her eyes the executioners holding her by the arms led her to the block and the queen kneeling down said repeatedly with a firm voice into thy hands o lord i commend my spirit +Colon+. proclaim it there. a large rough mantle of sheepskin fastened around the loins by a girdle or belt of hide was the only covering of that strange solitary man elijah the tishbite 3. e. but it will stand. and that is. Ontario. when they introduce examples or illustrations. pitiful German prince that sells and sends his subjects to the shambles of a foreign country: your efforts are forever vain and impotent. and the lights in the palace of the victor were extinguished.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 185 1. Use the semicolon (3) between serial phrases or clauses having a common dependence on something which precedes or follows. 3. 2. o has three sounds: 1. some letters stand each for many sounds. lowell asks and what is so rare as a day in June 6. 2. all parts of a plant reduce to three namely root stem and leaf 2. to wit. +Direction+. that in move5. the last loiterer had retired from the banquet. +Semicolon+. 2.--Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation (except the colon) in these sentences:-1. 4. The shouts of revelry had died away. as. SUMMARY OF RULES--CONTINUED. let them see it who saw their brothers and their sons fall on the field of Bunker Hill: and the very walls will cry out in its support." . spring is a fickle mistress but summer is more staid 7. let them hear it who heard the first roar of the enemy's cannon. that in note. Some words are delightful to the ear. and lo from the assembled crowd there rose a shout prolonged and loud that to the ocean seemed to say take her o bridegroom old and gray 2. when the world is dark with tempests when thunder rolls and lightning flies thou lookest in thy beauty from the clouds and laughest at the storm 3. and it may cost blood. the roar of the lion had ceased. (1) when slightly connected. oriole. if i may judge by his gorgeous colors and the exquisite sweetness and variety of his music autumn is i should say the poet of the family 8. must be separated by the semicolon. +Direction+. traffic and barter with every little. 3.--Use the colon (1) between the parts of a sentence when these parts are themselves divided by the semicolon. accumulate every assistance you can beg and borrow.. or (2) when themselves divided by the comma. that in not. Send it to the public halls. the oaks of the mountains fall the mountains themselves decay with years the ocean shrinks and grows again the moon herself is lost in heaven 4. and (2) before a quotation or an enumeration of particulars when formally introduced.--Co-ordinate clauses. and (4) before as.--Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences:-1. +Direction+. and strain every effort. i. namely. golden. You may swell every expense. and give your reasons:-1. The result however of the three years' reign or tyranny of jas ii was that wm of orange came over from holland and without shedding a drop of blood became a d 1688 wm in of england 4. new york apr 30 1789 9. This is a precept of Socrates: "Know thyself. and it will richly compensate for both. as a and o ***** LESSON 147.

His place business is 225--229 High street. the advice given ran thus take care of the minutes and the hours will take care of themselves 2. though subject to England.) .--Marks of parenthesis may be used to inclose what has no essential connection with the rest of the sentence. Assyria. adding to their force. The dash may be used (5) instead of marks of parenthesis. +Dash+. and may (6) follow other marks. Greece. namely.--Use the hyphen (-) (1) to join the parts of compound words. or that is.--Justify each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences:-1. 7. AND BRACKETS. introducing illustrations or equivalent expressions. APOSTROPHE. figures.--Use quotation marks to inclose a copied word or passage. and give your reasons:-- 186 1. If the quotation contains a quotation. and Solomon. (See Lesson 74. (2) in the pluralizing of letters. +Direction+. she fainted away. David. the human species is composed of two distinct races those who borrow and those who lend 2. and (2) of such words as as. +Apostrophe+. 4. +Direction+. we may abound in meetings and movements enthusiastic gatherings in the field and forest may kindle all minds with a common sentiment but it is all in vain if men do not retire from the tumult to the silent culture of every right disposition +Direction+.--Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. the account of a ___'s shame fills pp 1 19 4. 6. and characters. +Hyphen+.---Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. and the same thought is resumed after a slight suspension. lord marmion turned well was his need and dashed the rowels in his steed +Marks of Parenthesis+. and (2) between syllables when a word is divided. QUOTATION MARKS. And--"This to me?" he said. and the comma. SUMMARY OF RULES--CONTINUED. Carthage--what are they? 5.--Use the apostrophe (1) to mark the omission of letters. HYPHEN. the latter is inclosed within single marks. Use the dash (3) where the sentence breaks off abruptly. The most noted kings of Israel were the first three--Saul. or another takes its place. the colon. yet is distinct from it. and give your reasons:-1.--Use the dash where there is an omission (1) of letters or figures. MARKS OF PARENTHESIS. 2.---Write sentences illustrating the several uses of the semicolon. THE DASH. and (3) to distinguish the possessive from other cases. When Mrs. B---. 3. Rome.heard of her son's disgrace. and (4) before a word or phrase repeated at intervals for emphasis. this bill this infamous bill the way it has been received by the house the manner in which its opponents have been treated the personalities to which they have been subjected all these things dissipate my doubts 3. We know the uses--and sweet they are--of adversity. ***** LESSON 148. I do not rise to supplicate you to be merciful toward the nation to which I belong. +Quotation Marks+.--toward a nation which.

of the Mediterranean. The profound learning of Sir William Jones (he was master of twenty-eight languages) was the wonder of his contemporaries. my neighbor. you insert by way of explanation or correction. and the peak. 0 Ship of State. +Direction+.'" 3. Acts xxi. The speaker said american oratory rose to its high water mark in that great speech ending liberty and union now and forever one and inseparable ***** LESSON 149. 5. 15. with all his canvas strained to the wind. Judea. 4.--Use brackets [ ] to inclose what. 10. +Direction+. lying along the eastern edge. and that i's isn't a verb. 7. in quoting another's words. 2. or give me death. The land flowing with "milk and honey" (see Numbers xiv. 13. Galilee. 12. the feelings. that he sometimes fights ahead of his orders. 2. Red-hot is a compound adjective. don't neglect in writing to dot your is cross your ts and make your 7s unlike your 9s and don't in speaking omit the hs from such words as which when and why or insert rs in law saw and raw4. dark and terrible. is it. (if I may borrow an illustration from his favorite amusement) he was as unconcerned and as free of spirit as some here present have seen him while floating in his fishing-boat along a hazy shore. 3. 3--11. 6. or coast. require the pupils to justify the punctuation of . As I saw him [Weoster. new. Thou. By means of the apostrophe you know that love in mother's love is a noun. 1. narrow strip. too. Luke says. This--trial! 11." 2. Samaria. 0 Union. On the north. +Direction+. and bearing down like a tempest upon his antagonist. and give your reasons:-1. 5. dropping his line here and there. and went up to Jerusalem. 4. The "beatitudes" are found in Matt. The last sentence of the composition was. The next morning he was like some mighty admiral. by one who wore The badge of Ursini.--Give the reason for each capital letter and each mark of punctuation in these sentences:-1." Trench well says. his broad pendant [pennant] streaming at the main. An honest man.--If further work in punctuation is needed. the scriptures tell us take no thought anxiety for the morrow 5. man the life boat 3. the stars and the stripes at the fore.--there he stands-Was struck--struck like a dog. it has quickened to life the giant brood of useful arts. namely. In the middle. TO THE TEACHER. A bigot's mind is like the pupil of the eye.--Justify the marks of punctuation used in these sentences:-1. There are only three departments of the mind--the intellect. with the varying fortune of the sport. Telegraph is divided thus: tel-e-graph. v. O'Connell asks. in the name of H----n. The only fault ever found with him is. the more it contracts.---Use capital letters and the proper marks of punctuation in these sentences. This is the motto of the University of Oxford: "The Lord is my light. and the will. next to a conscience void of offense without which by the bye life isnt worth the living is the enjoyment of the social feelings 2. the mizzen. Hayne of South Carolina] in the evening. flying as clouds. On the south. the asylum of our better liberty.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 187 +Brackets+. the more light you pour upon it. and all his thunders roaring from his broadsides. "What a lesson. casting the long shadow of his frowning tiers far over the sea. if it is not the establishment of a revolutionary tribunal?" 9. "We took up our carriages [luggage]. strong and great. the day before his great reply to Col. sail on. "The clause which does away with trial by jury--what. it has whitened lake and ocean with the sails of a daring. "I close in the words of Patrick Henry. Sail on. American nationality has made the desert to bud and blossom as the rose. 8. and consisted of three divisions. it has extended to exiles. that seemed to sink beneath him." 3. CAPITAL LETTERS AND PUNCTUATION--REVIEW. and lawful trade. 8) was a long. "the word 'diligence' contains!" 6. gently rocking on the tranquil tide. 'Give me liberty.

Use simple words--words which those who are addressed can readily understand. +The Use of the Right Words. and slang.+--Many thoughts. and of clauses to one another should be obvious at a glance. of expression.+--The relations of single words to each other. and they. ***** LESSON 150. last. The first and great service of imagery . In ordinary discourse. and those that have no footing in the language--foreign words. the relation that the several parts of each sentence hold to one another. Perspicuity depends mainly upon these few things:-1. terms. +Imagery--Figures of Speech+. +Perspicuity. should not be crowded into one sentence. vigor. holding to them the relation that its own sentences hold to one another. When energetic. its expression might better have been left unattempted. no other. The sentence should not need rearrangement in order to disclose the meaning.+--Use such words as convey your thought--each word expressing exactly your idea. Energetic thought seeks variety of expression. +Energy+. +One's Clear Understanding of What One Attempts to Say. Perspicuity is an indispensable quality of style. and put the strongest word in the clause. Do not omit words when they are needed. it is not often sought. inkhorn. III. arouse the feelings. with the sentence that follows. prefer the concrete to the abstract. it. or make your thought clearer to them than it is to yourself. it means clearness of expression.+--Perspicuity is opposed to obscurity of all kinds. and in no discourse is it constantly sought. It demands that the thought in the sentence shall be plainly seen through the words of the sentence. terms. QUALITIES OF STYLE. 4. no less. Avoid what are called bookish. she. the strongest sentence in the paragraph. Every paragraph should be a unit in thought. and the strongest paragraph in the discourse. is usually charged with intense feeling. +The Unity of the Sentence.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg the sentences beginning page 314. choose specific. and the ending of each. 3. other +things are (2) unlike each other+ in some particular.--Things stand in many relations to each other. Use words in the senses recognized by the best authority. if the thought is not understood. +Figures of Speech+ are those expressions in which. II. Sentences should stand in the paragraph so that the beginning of each shall tally exactly in thought with the sentence that precedes. 2. distinct from other paragraphs. Some +things are (1) like each other+ in some particular. and still other +things stand to each other (3)+ in some +other+ noteworthy +relation than+ that of +likeness+ or +unlikeness+. place subordinate clauses before the independent. or thoughts having no natural and close connection with each other. words newly coined. Styles differ as men differ. we assert or assume any of these notable relations. Be cautious in the use of he. of phrases to the words they modify. departing from our ordinary manner in speaking of things. and do not use a superfluity of them.--By energy we mean force. We use energy when we wish to convince the intellect. use few words and crowd these with meaning. or it is misunderstood. and requires impassioned delivery. the strongest clause in the sentence. Things long seen and associated by us in any of these relations come at last readily to suggest each other. shun words that have passed out of use. no more. and capture the will--lead one to do something. 188 +Style+ is the manner in which one expresses himself.+--You cannot express to others more than you thoroughly know. and not general. we select words and images for strength and not for beauty. +A Happy Arrangement. But there are some cardinal qualities that all good style must possess. I.

(4) that of +container+ to the +thing contained+. the full method of statement is followed by the contracted. as. It raises (2) +mere animals to+ the plane of +persons+. The gloom of despondency hung like a cloud over the land. figures of speech sparkle here and there in a setting of plain language. declarative sentences are relieved by interrogative and exclamatory. The most important of these relations are (1) that of the +sign+ to the +thing signified+. A stately squadron of snowy geese were riding in an adjoining pond. long sentences stand side by side with short. the verb in the assertive form frequently gives way to the participle and the infinitive. we bring over and apply to one of them the term that denotes the other. Nothing in discourse pleases us more than light and shade. and loose sentences with periods. or +Comparison+. (2) that of +cause+ to +effect+. In discourse properly varied. no one form or method or matter is continued so long as to weary. So talked the spirited. A +Personification+ is a figure of speech in which things are raised to a plane of being above their own--to or toward that of persons. and sentences heavy with meaning and moving slowly are elbow to elbow with the light and tripping. and simple sentences by compound and complex. A +Metaphor+ is a figure of speech in which. An +Antithesis+ is a figure of speech in which things mutually opposed in some particular are set over against each other. . This last relation has been thought so important that the metonymy based upon it has received a distinct name--+Synecdoche+. ***** LESSON 151. sly Snake. its huge flanks purr pleasantly for you. the same word does not appear with offensive frequency. is a figure of speech in which we point out or assert a likeness between things otherwise unlike. long words alternate with short. the usual order now and then yields to the transposed. as. It +raises+ (1) +mere things to+ the plane of +animals+.--Question the pupils upon every point taken up in this Lesson and require them to give illustrations where it is possible for them to do so. A +Simile+. (5) that of +material+ to the +thing made out of it+. (3) that of +instrument+ to the +user+ of it. as. impassioned language is succeeded by the unemotional. In a word. PERSPICUITY--CRITICISM. (7) that of the +abstract+ to the +concrete+. as. Variety is restful to the reader or hearer and therefore adds greatly to the clearness and to the force of what is addressed to him.--Variety is a quality of style opposed to monotonous uniformity. Variety+. which assume. Imagery adds beauty to style--a diamond brooch may adorn as well as do duty to the dress. +IV. It +raises+ (3) +mere things to+ the plane of +persons+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 189 is to the thought--it makes the thought clearer and stronger. The sea licks your feet. Earth fills her lap with pleasures of her own. the sea mocks their thirstand lets them die. The mountains givetheir lost children berries and water. TO THE TEACHER. as. and the reader is kept fresh and interested throughout. (6) that of +contiguity+. assuming the likeness between two things. and (8) that of +part+ to the +whole+ or of +whole+ to the +part+. A +Metonymy+ is a figure of speech in which the name of one thing connected to another by a relation other than likeness or unlikeness is brought over and applied to that other. as. clauses have no rigidly fixed position.

and recast these sentences. Two men will be tried for crimes in this town which are punishable with death. 3. before the breath was out of his body was proclaimed king in his stead.. then we had half an hour to dress in. and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:-1. 4. The moon cast a pale light on the graves that were scattered around.] 1. and remove the ambiguity:-1. +Direction+. Lovest thou me more than these? ***** LESSON 152. as soon as he stepped out on the ground. They used to ring a large bell at six o'clock in the morning for us to get up. People had to travel on horseback and in wagons. as it peered above the horizon. Study had more attraction for him than his friend. give these. Richelieu said to the king that Mazarin would carry out his policy. 3. +Direction+. 5. after which we would go to Chapel exercises. 3. and told him to consider himself at his service. which was a very slow way.--Point out the faults. 6. 4. then breakfast. Direction. Jewelry was worn in the time of King Pharaoh which is many thousand years before Christ in the time when the Israelites left they borrowed all the jewels of the Egyptians which were made of gold and silver. . supply the two ellipses in each sentence. 5. +Direction+. and recast these sentences. if they traveled at all. but he took it ill that he set the Spaniards on to punish them.--Each of these sentences may have two meanings. school would commence at nine o'clock and closed at four in the afternoon allowing an hour for dinner from one until two then we would resume our studies until four in the afternoon. if a full court should attend. Charles I. A large number of seats were occupied by pupils that had no backs. He aimed at nothing less than the crown.--In all your work in Composition attend carefully to the punctuation. How can brethren partake of their Father's blessing that curse each other? 7. 4. 2. making them clear:-- 190 [Footnote: These four sentences and others in these Lessons. Crusoe was surprised at seeing five canoes on the shore in which there were savages.) 1. 3. He did not like the new teacher so well as his playmates.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +General Direction+. given just as we found them. He was locked in and so he sat still till the guard came and let him out. he would have punished the sailors severely. have been culled from school compositions. He told the coachman that he would be the death of him. 2. he saw the dead and dying laying about everywhere. if he did not take care what he was about. and he sent for one of his workmen. This tendency will be headed off by approximations which will be made from time to time of the written word to the spoken. James's son. and mind what he said. PERSPICUITY--CRITICISM. making them clear:-(If any one of the sentences has several meanings. He was overjoyed to see him. 2. 2. Blake answered the Spanish priest that if he had sent in a complaint.--So place these subordinate clauses that they will remove the obscurity. 4. When it is made of gold they can not of pure gold but has to be mixed with some other metal which is generally copper which turns it a reddish hue in some countries they use silver which gives it a whitish hue but in the United States and England they use both silver and copper but the English coins are the finest. 5. Let us trust no strength less than thine.--Point out the faults.

exclusive of Dorchester. We do those things frequently which we repent of afterwards. The Prince of Wales was forbidden to become king or any other man. 9.8. I have a wife and six children. He made a sad faux pas. To your tents. boys. 6. and note the loss in energy:--- . She has donned the habiliments of woe. Two owls sat upon a tree which grew near an old wall out of a heap of rubbish. In Paris. These designs any man who is a Briton in any situation ought to disavow. He departed this life. first served.--Expand these brief expressions into sentences full of long words. He took the initiative in inaugurating the ceremony. ***** LESSON 153.--Change these specific words to general terms. 7.--Condense each of these italicized expressions into one or two words. 3. +Direction. +Direction. 6. Death to the tyrant! 15. 4. +Direction+. said among themselves with the scribes. 13. The author surpassed all those who were living at the same time with him. 4. A devastating conflagration raged. No matter. 13. 5. +Direction+. Exclamation points are scattered up and down the page by compositors without any mercy. 9. although it was contrary to the wishes of his parents. To say that revelation is a thing which there is no need of is to talk wildly. Don't give up the ship! 6. 7. He had no capillary substance on the summit of his head. 7. Indeed! 4.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 191 Direction. and I have never seen one of them. Bah! 5. He could not face an enraged father in spite of his effrontery. and note the gain:-1. I have partaken of my morning repast. 16. I spent most on the river and in the river of the time I stayed there. Boston has forty first class grammar-schools. ho! 17. and at them! 3. at the age of eighteen. First come. 11. Hurrah! 10.+--So place the italicized words and phrases in each sentence that they will help to convey what you think is the author's thought. 12. horror-stricken at his crime. 2. Oh! 8. Diligence is the sine qua non of success. "He saved. Are you excavating a subterranean canal?5. Rascal! 12. with interstices at equal distances between the intersections. and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:-1. 0 Israel! 2. What is his coming or going to you? 5. +Direction+. Least said. Help. 2. He conducted her to the altar of Hymen. 3.+--Make these sentences clear by using simpler words and phrases:-1. I rushed out leaving the wretch with his tale half told. ENERGY--CRITICISM. 4. 8. and then see in how many ways each sentence can be arranged:-1. and drove twelve cows on horseback. He rode to town. The inmates proceeded to the sanctuary. 7. 8. 4. 10. The chief priests. I'll none of it. Silence there! 9. and note the loss of energy:-1. I want to make a present to one who is fond of chickens for a Christmas gift. 3. He shuffled off this mortal coil yesterday. 10." etc. 2. I saw my friend when I was in Boston walking down Tremont street. 2. A donkey has an abnormal elongation of auricular appendages. mocking. every lady in full dress rides.--So place these italicized phrases that they will remove the obscurity. Hay is given to horses as well as corn to distend the stomach. Shame on you! 18. 3. Death or free speech! 11. 14. 5. Murder will out. Up. 6. The deceased was to-day deposited in his last resting-place. soonest mended. A network is anything reticulated or decussated. Some say that ever 'gainst that season comes wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated this bird of dawning singeth all night long. He wanted to go to sea.

like the Nile. 37. 5. and resisted him. and their spears into pruning-hooks. and note the gain in energy:-1. you are yoked with a lamb that carries anger as the flint bears fire. 4. Three hundred men held the hosts of Xerxes at bay. 19. The cities of the plain were annihilated. +Direction+. There's no use in crying over spilt milk. Borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry. Caesar were no lion were not Romans hinds. 3. +Direction+. 35. The hearth blazed high. ***** LESSON 154. 32.--Change these general terms to specific words. and note the loss of beauty and force:-1. 5. 3. taste appreciates what is created. while death fell in showers. 5. The threaded steel flies swiftly. if we mean to preserve inviolate our rights. I will feed fat the ancient grudge I bear him. pursued. 6. He doth bestride the narrow world like a Colossus. like a river in its banks. Anne Boleyn was executed. He will bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave. 14. 39. I am now ready here to stake upon it.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 192 1. The good is often buried with men's bones. Don't fire till you see the whites of their eyes. Traffic has lain down to rest. I shall defend it without this House. Nations shall beat their swords into plowshares. I live an American. and all that I have in this life. 2. 31. and jocund Day stands tiptoe on the misty mountain top. in time of peace and in time of war. O Cassius. The pen is mightier than the sword. All nations respect our flag. Break down the dikes. 6. . 7. placing the strongest last. give Holland back to ocean. 24. The soul of Jonathan was knit to that of David. 10. The robin knows when your grapes have cooked long enough in the sun. Burn Moscow. 22. It were better for him that a heavy weight were fastened to him and that he were submerged in the waste of waters. 27. If I can catch him once upon the hip. 3. We must fight if we wish to be free. Lentulus returned with victorious eagles. A day will come when bullets and bombs shall be replaced by ballots. 20. I shall die an American. 40. Then burst his mighty heart. Night's candles are burnt out. but a prisoner and an exile. 4. 30.--Arrange these words. 2. The destinies of mankind were trembling in the balance. All hands to the pumps! 25. Beware of the bottle. I sat at her cradle. In proportion as men delight in battles and bull-fights will they punish by hanging. Their daggers have stabbed Caesar. I was born an American. at all times. 2. 29. 6. The nations of the earth repelled. FIGURES OF SPEECH--CRITICISM. The ice is covered with health and beauty on skates. 11. My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar. I have no spur to prick the sides of my intent. 5. 7. and clauses in the order of their strength. 9. 4. with a constant stream. 28. starve back the invaders. 15. The capital of the chosen people was destroyed by a Roman general. Lend me your ears. Virgil. The air bites shrewdly.--Name the figures of speech. Our chains are forged. phrases. Have you read Froude or Freeman?12. surrounded. 21. and then recast a few sentences. The marble speaks. Caesar was slain by the conspirators. Homer. 2. 16. 13. pours out his riches with a sudden overflow. I have bought golden opinions. Genius creates. in all places. 18. I followed her hearse. His words fell softer than snows on the brine. and note the gain in energy:-1. 23. I called the New World into existence to redress the balance of the Old. 34. if we do not mean to abandon the struggle. 9. 8. The gray-eyed Morn smiles on the frowning Night. 17. 38. Death hath sucked the honey of thy breath. 8. 3. When I'm mad. Consider the flowers how they increase in size. +Direction+. All that I am. 36. 33. and the rack. Please address the chair. I weigh a ton. 26. The Morn in russet mantle clad walks o'er the dew of yon high eastern hill. 6. He was no longer consul nor citizen nor general nor even an emperor. all that I hope to be. I am as constant as the northern star. 4. and within this House. burning. using plain language.

7. but I shall yet nip him in the bud. Our dispositions should grow mild as we grow old. Have you read Lamb's Essays? 15. VARIETY IN EXPRESSION. The news of the battle of Bunker Hill. English vessels plow the seas of the two hemispheres. a prepositional phrase. is called a mixed metaphor. It is then put into stacks. that direct quotations and questions may be changed to indirect. that an adverb clause may be contracted to a participle. I heard a loud noise. The water is boiling.--If what is begun as a metaphor is not completed as begun. It requires great care to avoid this very common error. to the wretches that will be roasted at the stake. 56. The flowers are the sweet and pretty growths of the earth and sun. 11. a participle phrase. I smell a rat. 5. He flew with the swiftness of an arrow. We have to have money to have a horse.--Correct these errors:-1. that it may be made prominent. We sailed across a bay and sailed up a creek and sailed back and sailed in all about fourteen miles. All the ripe fruit of three-score years was blighted in a day. Swords flashed. that an adverb clause may stand before. in 74. We must apply the axe to the fountain of this evil. in the third four. ***** LESSON 155. +Direction+. 17. that compound sentences may be formed out of simple sentences. in 73. The stars can no longer be seen. between the parts of.--Recast these sentences. may be contracted to simple sentences. 20. in 130. 4. that participles. 2. or it is put into barns either to use it to feed it to the stock or to sell it. In battle some men are brave. 3. and. that a noun clause as subject may stand last. 4. use similes. in 77. +Remark+. Boston is the place where American liberty began. in 68. The cock tears up the ground for his family of hens and chickens. metonymies:-- 193 1. 2. that adjectives may be expanded into clauses. and bullets fell. The waves were still. with the cloak of hypocrisy in his mouth. 4. 19. fought on the 17th of June in the year of our Lord 1775. 12. that it may be contracted by the omission of words. 9.--You learned in Lessons 52. His head is as full of plans as it can hold. +Remark+. 8. metaphors.--Illustrate all these changes. +Direction+. an absolute phrase. +Direction+. in 79. 5. and may be changed to complex sentences. 3. and after. roused the patriotism of the people to a high pitch of . 3. and indirect to direct. and as object complement may stand first. in 61. that a verb may change its voice. 8. I see him brewing in the air. 53. 2. in the last eight. The brittle thread of life may be cut asunder. Unravel the obscurities of this knotty question. personifications. The oak stretches out its strong branches. and may be contracted. in the second four. avoiding offensive repetitions of the same word or the same sounds:-1. His banner led the spearmen no more. Wretched people shiver in their lair of straw. that one kind of simple sentence may be changed to another. 7. others are cowardly. the independent clause. 6. 10.--In the first four sentences. others are cowardly. and may be changed to an adjective clause or phrase. 54 that the usual order may give way to the transposed. absolute phrases. 5. and infinitives may be expanded into different kinds of clauses. 16. The thin mantle of snow dissolved. in 57. in 67. that simple sentences may be contracted. The man stalks into court like a motionless statue. but is completed by a part of another metaphor or by plain language.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. This day we undertake to render an account to the widows and orphans whom our decision will make. we have what. 18. 14. We have prostrated ourselves before the king. 13. in 55. In battle some men are brave. 6. The devouring fire uprooted the stubble. The soldier is giving way to the husbandman.

***** LESSON 156. and the captain predicted that we should encounter a gale from the southeast. The wind died away.---Using other words wholly or in part. THE PARAGRAPH. see in how many ways you can express the thoughts contained in these sentences:-- 194 1. Was asked on which side he voted. 7. Four of the sails were already in ribbons: the winds whistling through the cordage.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg enthusiasm. Henry IV. said that James I. Rip was dazed by the question. 4. The captain predicted a gale. Hurrying on my clothes. marked by beginning the first word a little to the right of the marginal line. Between sentences there exists a wider separation in meaning. supplying all you need to make the narrative smooth:-Rip's beard was grizzled. It was still quite dark. 1. Stared in stupidity. and tell what each paragraph is about:-- . In the profusion and recklessness of her lies. Dress uncouth. A breeze from the north and northwest. the bond which unites them being their common relation to the thought which jointly they develop.--The clauses of complex sentences are so closely united in meaning that frequently they are not to be separated from each other even by the comma.--Give and number the facts contained in the paragraph below:-I awoke with a confused recollection of a good deal of rolling and thumping in the night. was. Whether he was Federal or Democrat. the noise and spray scarcely less than I found them under the great sheet at Niagara. though he was pronounced the first gentleman in Europe. George IV. and looking out in the utmost consternation. nevertheless. what we call a Paragraph.--Notice the facts which this paragraph contains. Elizabeth had no peer in England. a snob. holding on. a semicolon. 4. The gale came on about eleven o'clock. but increasing every moment.---Weave the facts below into two paragraphs. not violent at first. 3. +Direction+. Fowling-piece rusty. +Direction+. in the meantime. Was eyed from head to foot. It came on. or a colon is needed to divide them. the wind died away about four o'clock yesterday afternoon. 2. Cowper's letters are charming because they are simple and natural. occasioned by the dashing of the waves against the ship. 6. But even sentences may be connected. at an extraordinary rate. and the relation to each other of the clauses and the sentences expressing these facts:-After a breeze of some sixty hours from the north and northwest. +Direction+. Attracted attention. 2. 3. marked by a period or other terminal point.---Weave the facts below into a paragraph. supplying what you need. It increased in violence. the rain dashing furiously and in torrents. Women and children at his heels. +Direction+. +The Paragraph+. Barometer fell. Sentences thus related are grouped together and form. was the wisest fool in Christendom. 5. as you have already learned. The calm continued till about nine in the evening. at the doors of the hurricane-house. The mercury in the barometer fell. The clauses of compound sentences are less closely united--a comma.. I found such of the passengers as could stand. A calm. +Direction+.

Renowned for fruitfulness. Appetite extraordinary. Earliest mess of peas. +Person+. A foreigner. Bustled out from the leaves. Cheeks had taken toll of all that had entered his mouth. Remnant of a single bunch. In 1629 appointed governor of Nieuw Nederlandts. and indigo. Legs short and sturdy. and too large for any neck. Whole valley an inland sea. Body capacious. The valley very fertile. Two principal channels. Had sacked the vine. One of blue and buff in its place. Runs north. Course through the valley is 1. Mottled and streaked with dusky red. But Rip saw something he remembered. Taste for fruit. I. Overflow caused by rains at the sources. Fond of cherries. Face a vast. Rises till the close of September. Made shrill. II. This was tall and naked. Minor outlets. ***** LESSON 158. cotton. Noisy. The fertile strip is from five to one hundred and fifty miles wide. Shy of bearing. Begins at the end of June. Plows into the Mediterranean. Eats with a relishing gulp. They secreted sugar from the sunbeams. The tavern sign.500 miles. A flag was fluttering from it. Born at Rotterdam. The deposit.---Weave these facts into four paragraphs. A sword. Arrived in June at New Amsterdam--New York city.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 195 In place of the old tree there was a pole. This summer bore a score of bunches. six feet five in circumference. Only villages above the surface. Subsides. Receives two branches only. like Dr. Egypt long the granary of the world. The melting of the mountain snows. Nile overflows its banks. and write on the margin what each is about:-The Nile rises in great lakes. Robins joined in the merriment. Eats his own weight in a short time. Wore a cocked hat. Sources two thousand miles from Alexandria. Two small. Laughed. unfurrowed expanse. +Direction+. Nature set it on the back-bone. A spice of vulgarity in him. . unhandsome remarks about me.--Weave these facts into four paragraphs:-Note that the several paragraphs form a composition. the general subject of which is WOUTER VAN TWILLER (according to Diedrich Knickerbocker). Runs through an alluvial valley. The red coat gone. Rises four inches daily. The robins beforehand with me. The flag had on it the stars and stripes. writing the margin of each the main thought:-The robin is thought by some to be migratory.---Weave the facts below into three paragraphs. and not a scepter. But he stays with us all winter.--Was five feet six inches high. or +Theme+.--Van Twiller was a Dutchman." ***** LESSON 157. Direction. Three crops from December to June. +Direction+. Cheerful. How it looked at the bottom of my basket! A humming-bird's egg in an eagle's nest. +Who he was+. THE PARAGRAPH. One morning. A few years ago I had a grapevine. He recognized on it the face of King George. Underneath was painted--"General Washington. Poor soloist. Head spherical. PARAGRAPHS AND THE THEME. This was strange to Rip. Angleworms his delight. Still the picture was changed. No lines of thought. A beer-barrel on skids. Johnson's. in the hand. Descended from burgomasters. Dash of prose in his song. Productions--grain. went to pick them. Mulberries. gray eyes. Lion's share of the raspberries.

write on the margin the special topic of each. he is the God. to surrender. and over the whole the general subject of the theme:-Fort Ticonderoga on a peninsula. at length. look toward the sea. Sacrifices. Difficulty in crossing. dust. a lad. Each claims the command. two hundred and seventy men meet at Castleton. ***** LESSON 159. Bows in prayer. Capture forty-eight men. and then do as directed above:-Joseph was Jacob's favorite. +Direction. Fire falls. Classify them as they seem to you to be related. +Habits+. and by the outlet. Noises of contending doubts. A. "Go up now. like a man's hand. and the constable pay the costs. Separated by Lake Champlain from Mount Independence. Formed by the outlet of Lake George and by Lake Champlain.+--Weave these facts into as many paragraphs as you think there should be. Rush upon the parade ground. Seize a boat at anchor. Allen chosen.+---Weave these facts into four paragraphs. No answer by fire. Digs a trench. IV. Elijah commands the people to come near. in the name of the great Jehovah and the Continental Congress. Shake his head.--Regular." Servant reports. Conceived everything on a grand scale. each an hour long. Send for a scow. All but forty-six. Van T. Leap upon the altar. climbs the stairs. Loud cheer. Vermont.+--Settled a dispute about accounts thus: sent for the parties. and write on the margin of each paragraph the speciai topic. one for each tribe. 1775. where they are slain. equally thick. they reach the lake. Perplexed by a joke. One day was sent to inquire after the other sons. +Direction. Cry out twice. Only eighty-three able to cross. They were . Smoked and breathed his last together. Swayed a Turkish pipe instead of a scepter. Known to sit with eyes closed two hours. "The Lord. "There is nothing. it is said. Form." Orders Ahab to prepare his chariot. Sentinel retreats. counted the leaves." "Go again seven times. Girding up his loins. Used next winter at the siege of Boston. May 7.--These facts are thrown together promiscuously. consumes flesh. Cry till the time of the evening sacrifice. Green Mountain boys. stones. Elijah ascends Mount Carrael. guides them to the fort. Blood. Four meals daily. Every man responds. Observe. small arms. Fort one hundred feet above the water. Smoked and doubted eight hours. Internal commotion shown by guttural sounds. Fronts south.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 196 III. Question left to the officers. made each give the other a receipt. in state. Smoke in silence. would put on a mysterious look. Day is dawning when these reach the shore. equally heavy. Repairs an old altar with twelve stones. Are mocked by Elijah." Take the prophets to the brook Kishon. Never laughed. from Mount Defiance. Nathan Beman. When a question was asked. Pours water three times upon it. water on three sides. Allen and Arnold there. Cut themselves. and over the whole what you think it the general subject of the theme:-The prophets of Baal accept Elijah's challenge. Allen orders all who will follow him to poise their firelocks. Battled with doubts regarding the Yankees. One hundred and twenty cannon. PARAGRAPHS AND THE THEME. Meet to plan and execute an attack upon Fort T. Not prudent to wait. Several swords and howitzers. he runs before Ahab to Jezreel. Orders La Place. +Exploits. As self-contained as an oyster. Rarely spoke save in monosyllables. using the variety of expression insisted on in Lesson 150. and ammunition. weighed the books. People see it." "Behold there ariseth a little cloud out of the sea. But never said a foolish thing. They dress a bullock. and find small row boats. each produced his account-book. Sentinel snaps his gun at A. +Direction+. Wore fine garments. Presided at the council. Slept twelve. he had doubts. wood. They follow. Search. admirers said. Fall on their faces. Determine the number of paragraphs and their order. Misses fire. On evening of the 9th. licks up water. Demanded why Van Rensselaer seized Bear's Island. Call on Baal. Prays.

" Seemed as if they had not known how deeply they loved him. The sentences of each paragraph are related to each other. Knelt down again and kissed his forehead." ***** LESSON 160. Killed a kid and dipped the coat in its blood. I have done my duty. An example which is our shield and strength. C. While the brothers were eating.587 men won. determine carefully the number and the order of the paragraphs. "How goes the day with us?" he asked Hardy. "They have done for me at last. Fifty fell before a shot was returned. Hardy. In one dream his brothers' sheaves bowed to his. Refused comfort. in the Victory led the weather line. +Direction+. His articulation difficult. And the .--Classify these promiscuous facts. At 4 fifteen had struck." They mourned as for a dear friend. They bore him below. N. Ishmaelites took him down into Egypt. 1805. Camels loaded with spices. They saw him coming. Plotted to throw his body into a pit. Take any book. ***** LESSON 161. They sat down to eat. tending the flocks. "Kiss me. He signaled those memorable words: "England expects every man to do his duty. "I am a dead man. TO THE TEACHER--Continue this work as long as it is needed. English fleet twenty-seven sail of the line and four frigates. At 1. Threw him alive into a pit. The best riflemen in the enemy's boats. Most awful death that of the martyr patriot. Heard to say. At 4. At 2. The combined fleets in close line of battle. Nelson in command of the English fleet.15 N.'s death was more than a public calamity.30 he expired. Plotted to kill him. know now whether it be thy son's coat or no. "Thank God. Joseph used to dream. and read to the class items of facts. Has left a name which is our pride. C. Were going down into Egypt. The loss seemed a personal one. Near the Straits of Gibraltar. At the intercession of Reuben they did not kill Joseph. ANALYSIS OF THE SUBJECT OF THE THEME. Ishmaelites approached. The wound was mortal. October 21. Joseph foolishly told these to his brothers." he said." said N. Off Trafalgar. Signal received with a shout.--A Theme is made up of groups of sentences called Paragraphs. Hardy. Brought it to Jacob. "I hope none of our ships have struck. They bore down. Rent his clothes and put on sackcloth. in the Royal Sovereign led the lee line of thirteen ships. Sold him to Potiphar. +Analysis of the Subject+. "This have we found.25 ten of the enemy had struck. C. steered for the center. Judah advised that he be raised from the pit. They took his coat. Most triumphant death that of a martyr. because they jointly develop a single point. Jacob recognized the coat. Buried him in St.'s secretary the first to fall. fleets of Spain and France. In another the sun. PARAGRAPHS AND THE THEME. Most splendid death that of the hero in the hour of victory. These were his last words. in weaving these facts together. Englishmen turned pale at the news. Kissed him on the cheek. At 12 the Victory opened fire. moon. A raking fire opened upon the Victory. He shook hands with Hardy.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 197 at a distance. N." Enemy had four thousand troops. The victory that cost the British 1. Hardy. Paul's. or thought. Had more and larger cannon than the English. Thus the spirits of the great and the wise live after them. Agreed to report to their father that some beast had devoured Joseph. Delighted at being the first in the fire. shot through the shoulder and back. Thirty-three sail of the line and seven frigates." N. engaged the Santa Anna. Collingwood second in command. Hated him because of the dreams and their father's partiality. Require them to use the imagination and whatever graces of style are at their command. and stars bowed to him. and then do as directed above:-Trafalgar a Spanish promontory.

--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. +Direction+. 2. TO THE TEACHER. Reasons why one Should Not Smoke. nor (4). 2. 8.--Question the pupils carefully upon every point taken up in this Lesson. it must be resolved into the main thoughts which compose it. When and by whom equipped. Battle of Plattsburg. Be careful not to split your general subject up into very many parts.--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. What Does a Proper Care for One's Health Demand? ***** LESSON 163. 3. depends largely the worth of the theme. See. ANALYSIS OF SUBJECTS. The consequences to England and to Spain. too. ANALYSIS OF SUBJECTS.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 198 paragraphs are related to each other. because these points which they develop are divisions of the one general subject of the Theme. . Suppose you had taken The Armada as your subject. 3. 4. Perhaps the 1st point could include the 2d and the 3d. Its dispersion and partial destruction by the storm. What Does a Proper Observance of Sunday Require of One? ***** LESSON 164. There is a natural order. 7. +Direction+. 6. (1). A Day's Nutting. The return to Spain of the surviving ships and men. that no point is repeated. (6) could not precede (5). ANALYSIS OF SUBJECTS. and that all the points together exhaust the subject as nearly as may be. What the Armada was. that no point foreign to the subject is introduced.--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. Its sail over the Bay of Biscay and entrance into the English Channel. the +Framework+ of the theme. These points form. ***** LESSON 162. 2. 5. Upon the thoroughness of this analysis and the natural arrangement of the thoughts thus derived. 2. Look to the arrangement of the points. when arranged. Perhaps you could say under these heads all you wish: 1. After the subject has been chosen. and before writing upon it. The Arrest of Major Andre. The attack upon it by Admiral Howard and his great Captains--Drake and Hawkins. A Winter in the Arctic Region. (4). +Direction+. 3. Its purpose. A Visit to the Moon. nor (5).

if continuative of it. be sure that everything falls under its appropriate head. What are Books Good for? ***** LESSON 165. The Gulf Stream. complex. long and short. and by further thinking upon the subject. and across the top write your name and the date. at the right-hand corner. to the clear understanding of which some other point is necessary. or heads. if you exceed three pages. 199 +I. the subject should be analyzed. and you must look sharply to the spelling. If developing all the points would make your theme too long. Use familiar words. and your clauses. A Descent into a Whirlpool. at any rate. On the left of the page leave a margin of an inch for corrections. 2. or an inference from it. then bring the top down to the middle and fold again. Let a fresh image here and there relieve the uniformity of plain language. as it seems to you. and place these. and read nothing on it. Do not write on the fourth page. that by brooding over your material. as thoughts flash upon you. and that no one is irrelevant. Do not strain after effect or strive to seem wiser than you are. your sentences must pass rigid muster in syntax. and let your handwriting be clear. The subject should be on your level. Express yourself easily--only now and then putting your thought forcibly and with feeling. and let sentences. When the writing is done. Accumulate the Material+.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +Direction+. 3. and fold through the middle. . Choose a Subject+. should be interesting and suggestive to you. your phrases. Study now to find the natural order in which these points should stand.--Question the pupils closely upon every point in this Lesson. simple. change from the usual order to the transposed. where they will make your thought the clearest.--Give your whole attention to your work as you write. as it stands. let it swing into position on the hinge of a fitting connective. Cast out irrelevant matter. In expanding the main points into paragraphs. Talk with no one on the subject. Let no point. double the lower half of the sheet over the upper. Study these points carefully. and. Of course. to the use of capital letters. till you have thought yourself empty. and. Perhaps this or that thought. Attend to the Mechanical Execution+. One sentence should follow another without abrupt break. +III. you get at all the general thoughts into which.--Prepare the framework of a theme on each of these subjects:-1. Write+. +II. as. and compound.--Before writing hunt through your material for the main points. rather than what you have heard or read. +V. and to punctuation.--Choose your subject long before you are to write. take a fragment of it. stand shoulder to shoulder in the paragraph. and other thoughts will occur to you. and should instantly start in your mind many trains of thought. Construct a Framework+. Bring the right-hand end toward you. study to see what points you can omit without abrupt break or essential loss. TO THE TEACHER. HOW TO WRITE A THEME. See to what general truths or thoughts these jottings and those jottings point. that no one appears twice.--Begin to think about your subject. jot them down in your blank-book. See that no two overlap each other. Be sure. This superscription will be at the top of the fourth page. precede that other. and even then you should note down what the conversation or reading suggests. indicate this. Avoid a full. round term like Patriotism or Duty.--Keep your pages clean. or heads. use another sheet. that no one has been raised to the dignity of a head which should stand under some head. As occasion calls. adversative to it. and at right angles to the ruled lines. includes enough to serve as a head. If any of these seem broad enough for the main points. and better ways of putting the thoughts already noted down. How can a Boy be Patriotic? or Duties which we Schoolmates owe Each Other. +IV. Turn it over in your mind in leisure moments. and the hearer needs to be advised of this.

22. 62. give the door-number. 25. 53. Famous Streets. and The Superscription. 17. Whiskers. Clouds. the day of month. Vt. 71. the second line should begin farther to the right than the first. +How Written+. 68. 46. 21. Pluck. Timepieces. 64. The Conclusion. 77. My Walk to School. Our Neighborhood. 74. Letters need special treatment. The Tides. The Ship of the Desert. Well-begun is Half-done. 16. I Can. 30. as may also the number of your post-office box. 49. 37. 59. the name of the county. A Spider's Web. Jack and Gill. 52. ***** LESSON 166. Castles in Spain.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Additional Subjects for Themes. 26. 40. In writing a letter there are five things to consider--The Heading. Cleanliness Akin to Godliness. 50. LETTER-WRITING. The Boy of the Story Book. Jack Frost 43. 20. 6. 51. its name may take the place of the door-number and the name of the street. Maple Sugar. Addison Co. Robinson Crusoe. the rest. 5. A Rainy Saturday. School Friendships. and the third farther to the right than the second. each item is set off by the comma. When my Ship Comes In. Street Cries. 1895. Theatre-going. A Day on a Trout Stream. Homes without Hands. and write the following headings according to these models:-1. Our Minister. Ancient and Modern Warfare. A Boy's Trials. 66. Winter Sports. 42. Our Sunday School. 35. and the name of the state. The World Owes me A Living. Young America. Up in a Balloon. 80. The Story of Ruth. 85. Examinations. 18. 58. Bore. Fighting Windmills. 23. 27. The Early Bird Catches the Worm. Gypsies. Bulls and Bears. My Friend Jack. and the year are written in figures. the name of the street. Autumn's Colors. 29. The Making of Beer. 82. A Day in the Woods. If you write from a village or other country place. The View from my Window. Make Haste Slowly. 34. Robin Hood. 31. Queer People. and that of the state. 44. 78." 83. Over the Sea. The Schoolmaster in "The Deserted Village. 70. Commerce. and the whole closes with a period. 10. 81. The door-number. 13. 48. If the letter occupies but a few lines of a single page. The Mission of Birds. the day of the month. 56. 67. A Girl's Trials. The Yankee. Along the Docks. 79. 45. The Watched Pot Never Boils. Pigeons. The Date consists of the month. 11. Apples and Nuts. Umbrellas. The Body of the Letter. A Stitch in Time Saves Nine. Grandmothers. +Direction+. you may begin the Heading lower down. Mosquitoes. Parasites. A Visit to Olympus. My First Sea Voyage. Monkeys. Monday Morning. 75. Black Diamonds. give your post-office address. 8. 32. If it occupies more than one line. 60. the name of the city. 38.--Begin the Heading about an inch and a half from the top of the page--on the first ruled line of commercial note. 19.. THE HEADING. July 10. 54. 39. 3. A Plea for Puss. in words. 84. 12. and the +Date+. . 36. +Parts+. 57. 72. 7. 4. and the year. 63. 15. Cities of the Dead. 55. A Visit to Neptune. 47. My Native Town.--Study what has teen said. John Chinaman. 28. Donkeys. Street Arabs. 76. How Horatius Kept the Bridge. A Descent in a Diving Bell. 24. 200 1. Irish Characters. 65. Begin the first line of the Heading a little to the left of the middle of the page. Politeness. Ripton. 33. A Pleasant Evening. 69. 9. Spring Sports 41. The Southern Negro. Legerdemain. 14.. A Country Store. The Introduction. Of What Use are Flowers? 86.--The Heading consists of the name of the +Place+ at which the letter is written. If you are at a Hotel or a School or any other well-known Institution. 2. 61. If you write from a city. Bach important word begins with a capital letter. 73.

25.. If the Address occupies more than one line. Prefix Mr. Dearest Ellen. or Rev. Easton. it should be placed at the top and as directed above. champlain co clinton n y jan 14 1800 3. Smith & Jones. Hon. Sir. let them stand in the order in which they were conferred--this is the order of a few common ones: A. Dear Madam. and Mesdames to those of several married or elderly ladies. Ph. after it. . and the Place of Business or Residence of the one addressed--and the +Salutation+.--The Address may follow the Heading.the higher implies the lower. Prefix Dr. 1887. or it may stand in corresponding position after the Body of the Letter and the Conclusion. and the Address should begin on the marginal line. 3. or write Rev. to the names of several gentlemen. to that of a married lady. Every important word in the Address should begin with a capital letter. ann arbor 5 July 1820 michigan 2. 1. ] and to that of a Governor or of an Ambassador. N. +Direction+. to a man's name. Guard against an excessive use of titles-. p o box 2678 1860 oct 19 chicago 4.D. or a Mayor. Polytechnic Institute. Dear Sir. 1890. New York City. friends as My dear Sir. or write M. March. 201 +Parts+. the Salutation is simply. and the whole should be followed by a comma. Executive Mansion.. Messrs. Messrs. Prof. 250 Broadway. Rev. Prefix His Excellency to the name of the President. Pa. 1888. May 3. if you do not know his Christian name. Begin the Salutation on the marginal line or a little to the right of it when the Address occupies three lines. etc. Strangers may be addressed as Sir. to the name of a physician (but never Mr. if he is a Doctor of Divinity. before the name and D.. the Address may appropriately be placed at the bottom of the letter. Prefix Rev. 4. Washington. Master to the name of a young lad. a Member of Congress. Feb. If two literary or professional titles are added to a name. it should close with a period.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 2. after it. on the marginal line or farther to the right or to the left than the second line of the Address when this occupies two lines. Salutations vary with the station of the one addressed. to the name of a clergyman. Dr. Gentlemen.. Never omit it from the letter except when the letter is written in the third person.1. etc. as it is an abbreviated sentence. June 6.D. philadelphia 670 1858 chestnut st 16 apr 5. If the letter is of an official character or is written to an intimate friend.M. Brooklyn.. and near relatives and other dear friends as My dear Wife.D. a little to the right of the marginal line when the Address occupies one line. N. Miss to that of an unmarried lady. Rev. My dear Boy. My dear Madam. saint nicholas new york 1 hotel nov 1855 THE INTRODUCTION. D. All the items of it should be set off by the comma. +How Written+. My dear Sir. Y.). and. Titles of respect and courtesy should appear in the Address.. General. Every important word in the Salutation should begin with a capital letter.. Mr. My dear Jones. etc.. on the marginal line when the Address stands below. Madam.D. a State Senator. President. Dr. Mrs. To the President. There should be a narrow margin on the left side of the page. T. the Title. to the name of a Cabinet Officer. 771 Broadway. LL. and standing on the left side of the page. beginning on the next line.--The Introduction consists of the +Address+--the Name. Me.--Write these introductions according to the models:-. Misses to the names of several young ladies. but in ordinary business letters. or by a comma and a dash. the initial words of these lines should slope to the right. D. a Law Judge. Mr.. or the writer's degree of intimacy with him.D. C. Saco. acquaintances as Dear Sir.. 2. [Footnote: The preferred form of addressing the President is. etc.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 3. My dear Mother, When, etc. 4. Messrs. Vallette & Co., Middlebury, Vt. Dear Sirs,


1. mr george platt burlington iowa sir 2. mass Cambridge prof James r lowell my dear friend 3. messrs ivison blakeman taylor & co gentlemen new york 4. rev brown dr the arlington Washington dear friend d c 5. col John smith dear colonel n y auburn ***** LESSON 167. LETTER-WRITING--CONTINUED. THE BODY OF THE LETTER. +The Beginning+.--Begin the Body of the Letter at the end of the Salutation, and on the same line if the Introduction is long--in which case the comma after the Salutation should be followed by a dash,--on the line below if the Introduction is short. +Style+.--Be perspicuous. Paragraph and punctuate as in other kinds of writing. Avoid blots, erasures, interlineations, cross lines, and all other offenses against epistolary propriety. The letter "bespeaks the man." Letters of friendship should be colloquial, chatty, and familiar. Whatever is interesting to you will be interesting to your friends, however trivial it may seem to a stranger. Business letters should be brief, and the sentences short, concise, and to the point. Repeat nothing, and omit nothing needful. Official letters and formal notes should be more stately and ceremonious. In formal notes the third person is generally used instead of the first and the second; there is no Introduction, no Conclusion, no Signature, only the name of the Place and the Date at the bottom, on the left side of the page, thus:-Mr. & Mrs. A. request the pleasure of Mr. B.'s company at a social gathering, on Tuesday evening, Nov. 15th, at eight o'clock. 32 Fifth Ave., Nov. 5. Mr. B. accepts [Footnote: Or regrets that a previous engagement (or illness, or an unfortunate event) prevents the acceptance of ----; or regrets that on account of ---- he is unable to accept ----.] with pleasure Mr. & Mrs. A.'s kind invitation for Tuesday evening, Nov. 15th. Wednesday morning, Nov. 9th. THE CONCLUSION. +Parts+.--The Conclusion consists of the +Complimentary Close+ and the +Signature+. The forms of the Complimentary Close are many, and are determined by the relations of the writer to the one addressed. In letters of friendship you may use, Your sincere, friend; Yours affectionately; Your loving son or daughter, etc. In business letters you may use, Yours; Yours truly; Truly yours; Yours respectfully; Very respectfully yours, etc. In official letters you should be more deferential. Use, I have the honor to be, Sir, your obedient servant; Very respectfully, your most obedient servant; etc., etc.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg The Signature consists of your Christian name and your surname. In addressing a stranger write your Christian name in full. A lady addressing a stranger should prefix to her signature her title, Mrs. or Miss (placing it within marks of parenthesis), unless in the letter she has indicated which of these titles her correspondent is to use in reply.


+How Written+.--The Conclusion should begin near the middle of the first line below the Body of the Letter, and, if occupying two or more lines, should slope to the right like the Heading and the Address. Begin each line of it with a capital letter, and punctuate as in other writing, following the whole with a period. The Signature should be very plain. +Direction+.--Write two formal notes--one inviting a friend to a social party, and one declining the invitation. +Direction+.--Write the Conclusion of a letter of friendship, of a letter of business, and of an official letter, carefully observing all that has been said above. +Direction+.--Write a letter of two or three lines to your father or your mother, and another to your minister, talcing care to give properly the Heading in its two parts, the Introduction in its two parts, and the Conclusion in its two parts. Let the Address in the letter to your father or your mother stand at the bottom. ***** LESSON 168. LETTER-WRITING--CONTINUED. THE SUPERSCRIPTION. +Parts+.--The Superscription is what is written on the outside of the envelope. It is the same as the Address, consisting of the Name, the Title, and the full Directions of the one addressed. +How Written+.--The Superscription should begin just below the middle of the envelope and near the left edge--the envelope lying with its closed side toward you--and should occupy three or four lines. These lines should slope to the right as in the Heading and the Address, the spaces between the lines should be the same, and the last line should end near the lower right-hand corner. On the first line the Name and the Title should stand. If the one addressed is in a city, the door-number and name of the street should be on the second line, the name of the city on the third, and the name of the state on the fourth. If he is in the country, the name of the post-office should be on the second line, the name of the county on the third, the name of the state on the fourth. The number of the post office box may take the place of the door-number and the name of the street, or, to avoid crowding, the number of the box or the name of the county may stand at the lower left-hand corner. The titles following the name should be separated from it and from each other by the comma, and every line should end with a comma except the last, which should be followed by a period. [Footnote: Some omit punctuation after the parts of the Superscription. ] The lines should be straight, and every part of the Superscription should be legible. Place the stamp at the upper right-hand corner. +Direction+.--Write six Superscriptions to real or imaginary friends or acquaintances in different cities, carefully observing all that has been said above. +Direction+.--Write two snort letters--one to a friend at the Astor House, New York, and one to a stranger in the country. [Illustration: Envelope with stamp in upper-right corner. Addressed to

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Master H. Buckman, Andover, Mass.] [Cursive Text: Ithaca, N. Y, June 15, '96. My dear Friend,


You tell me that you begin the study of English Literature next term. Let me assume the relation of an older brother, and tender you a word of counsel. Study literature, primarily, for the thoughts it contains. Attend to these thoughts until you understand them and see their connection one with another. Accept only such as seem to you just and true, and accept these at their proper value. Notice carefully the words each author uses, see how he arranges them, whether he puts his thought clearly, what imagery he employs, what allusions he makes, what acquaintance with men, with books, and with nature he shows, and in what spirit he writes. Your study of the author should put you in possession of his thought and his style, and should introduce you to the man himself. Pardon me these words of unsought advice, and believe me. Your true friend, John Schuyler. Master H. Buckman, Andover, Mass.] A SUMMARY OF THE RULES OF SYNTAX. We here append a Summary of the so-called Rules of Syntax, with references to the Lessons which treat of Construction. I. A noun or pronoun used as subject or as attribute complement of a predicate verb, or used independently, is in the nominative case. II. The attribute complement of a participle or an infinitive is in the same case (Nom. or Obj.) as the word to which it relates. III. A noun or pronoun used as possessive modifier is in the possessive case. IV. A noun or pronoun used as object complement, as objective complement, as the principal word in a prepositional phrase, or used adverbially [Footnote: See Lesson 35.] is in the objective case. V. A noun or pronoun used as explanatory modifier is in the same case as the word explained. +For Cautions, Principles, and Examples respecting the cases of nouns and pronouns, see Lessons 119, 122, 123, 123. For Cautions and Examples to guide in the use of the different pronouns, see Lessons 86, 87.+ VI. A pronoun agrees with its antecedent in person, number, and gender. +For Cautions, Principles, and Examples, see Lessons 118,142.+ VII. A verb agrees with its subject in person and number.

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg +For Cautions, Examples, and Exceptions, see Lesson 142.+ VIII. A participle assumes the action or being, and is used like an adjective or a noun. +For Uses of the Participle, see Lessons 37, 38, 39.+


IX. An infinitive is generally introduced by to, and with it forms a phrase used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. +For Uses of the Infinitive, see Lessons 40, 41, 42.+ X. Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns. +For Cautions and Examples respecting the use of adjectives and of comparative and superlative forms, see Lessons 90, 91, 128.+ XI. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. +For Cautions and Examples, see Lesson 93.+ XII. A preposition introduces a phrase modifier, and shows the relation, in sense, of its principal word to the word modified. +For Cautions, see Lessons 98, 99.+ XIII. Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses. +For Cautions and Examples, see Lessons 100, 107.+ XIV. Interjections are used independently. CONJUGATION OF THE VERB. +Remarks+.--The scheme of conjugation presented below is from English text-books. In some of these books the forms introduced by should are classed, not as Future, but as Secondary Past Tense forms of the Subjunctive. If we substitute this scheme of conjugation for the simpler one given in the preceding pages, we still fail to get a classification in which every form corresponds in use to its name. The following examples will illustrate:-He returns to-morrow. (Present = Future.) When I have performed this, I will come to you. (Present Perfect = Future Perfect.) If any member absents himself, he shall pay a fine. (Indicative = Subjunctive.) You shall go. (Indicative = Imperative.) After memorizing all the terms and forms belonging to the conjugation here outlined, the student will find that he has gained little to aid him in the use of language. For instance, in this synopsis of the Subjunctive are found nineteen forms. As there are three persons in the singular and three in the plural, we have one hundred and fourteen subjunctive forms! How confusing all this must be to the student, who, in his use of the

We are told that can and must are always independent verbs in the indicative. says. 9. may in (7) denotes a possible removal of hindrance. might. and could are past forms of shall. In some constructions the meaning is fainter or less emphatic than in others. he would succeed. 2. can. after passing through various shades of meaning. some philologists regard them as originally transitive. might. He might have done it if he had liked. With the meager instruction given by any one or by all of these authors. May you be happy. 6. and how much to be a "notional. can. as the infinitive with which they combine names the act on which this power is exercised. the student will find it exceedingly difficult to determine when these auxiliaries are true subjunctives. so that it would be worse than useless to attempt to analyze these periphrastic tenses of our moods. as does could in (11). could in (6) above expresses power or ability to do. These are some of the difficulties--not to say inconsistencies--met by the student who is taught that there is no Potential Mode. Prof. shall. Wrightson. Should. The forms italicized above are said to be subjunctive auxiliaries. must. and as to the office of the infinitives that follow. If he teach! Beyond these. Must denotes power from without coming from circumstances or the nature of things. Active Voice. separately from the infinitives with which they seem to combine. To say just how little of its common or original meaning may. or will love.--hence ability. But in parsing these words as separate verbs the student is left in doubt as to whether they are transitive or intransitive.--hence necessity or obligation. He might ask you to go. I would not tell you if I could. I learn that I may be able to teach. In a scholarly work revised by Skeat. 8.--hence permission or possibility. but these verbs. Shall (to owe) and will (to determine) are. in their original meaning. Can denotes power from within.Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 206 subjunctive. "These auxiliary verbs had at some time such a clear and definite meaning that it would have been tolerably easy to determine the case function discharged by the infinitive. May denotes power from without coming from a removal of all hindrance. Francis A. would. may. May. To illustrate:-1. If he should try. 4." or independent. will. 10. yet we are told that the former could is a mere auxiliary. can. and must denote power (hence potential). I could do this at one time. and the latter a "notional. 5. The auxiliaries take different shades of meaning. . or will must have to be an auxiliary. while the latter is an independent verb. speaking of I may. verb. March. I could not do this if I were to try. You should not have done that. It is hard to see why the former may is necessarily a mere auxiliary. the subjunctive manner of assertion is discovered from the structure of the sentence or the relation of clauses. verb would be extremely venturesome For instance. Those English authors and their American copyists who eliminate the Potential Mode from their scheme of conjugation tell us that the so-called potential auxiliaries are either independent verbs in the indicative or are subjunctive auxiliaries. needs to distinguish only such as these: If he be. could. have at last become little more than conventional symbols. If he were. transitive. and. shall. He may be there. 3. not from the conjugation of the verb. and can. Among these is our distinguished critic." or independent. 11. He would not come when called. 7." A CONJUGATION OF TEACH. May in (1) denotes a desired removal of all hindrance. would. those below are said to be independent verbs in the indicative. and that may. INDICATIVE MODE. and should are either subjunctive auxiliaries or independent verbs parsed in the indicative.

.. Present Perfect...... Present Perfect Continuous... Present Imperfect.............He will have taught...........He will be taught.............(If) he were teaching......... PARTICIPLES........... Past Imperfect. Present Perfect Continuous..He was taught. INDICATIVE MODE.... Present Perfect...............He is teaching........Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg 207 Present Indefinite... Future Indefinite..He is being taught............. Present Indefinite.. Perfect.. Past Perfect Continuous........ Past Perfect Continuous......(To) have taught. Present Perfect Continuous.................... INFINITIVE MODE. Present Imperfect.....He has been teaching.....................(If) he should have taught....... Past Indefinite...................(If) he should have been teaching....He has been taught. Future Imperfect......He will have been teaching......He teaches.....-----------------------..... Future Perfect.. Present Indefinite. Imperfect....... Future Perfect.............. Future Imperfect..He had taught.........Having been teaching......................... Present.Present Perfect...He will have been taught........He will be teaching............(To) be teaching.......He had been teaching....(If) he have been taught............... Future Indefinite.......(If) he should teach...... Passive Voice.........He was being taught..... Past Perfect.. Future Imperfect...... Present Perfect.......(If) he have been teaching.(If) he taught..................He has taught... Present Indefinite.... SUBJUNCTIVE MODE.... Present Perfect. SUBJUNCTIVE MODE... Past Imperfect....Future Perfect.......(If) he have taught...................(To) teach............ Present Indefinite......(If) he be taught........He was teaching........... Future Perfect Continuous.........Having taught..............(If) he be teaching.He taught.. Past Indefinite. Present Imperfect. Past Indefinite...................He is taught.(If) he had taught.....Teach [thou]..............He will teach.-----------------------...... .Teaching. Future Indefinite.. Present Imperfect. Perfect Continuous......... Past Perfect................(If) he should be teaching... Present Imperfect........(If) he had been teaching..(To) have been teaching... Past Perfect.......... Future Perfect Continuous...... IMPERATIVE MODE.He had been taught.......(If) he teach...... Past Imperfect....

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg Past Indefinite...............(If) he were taught. Past Imperfect................(If) he were being taught. Past Perfect..................(If) he had been taught. Future Indefinite.............(If) he should be taught. Future Imperfect..............------------------------ Future Perfect................(If) he should have been taught. IMPERATIVE MODE. Present.......................Be [thou] taught. INFINITIVE MODE. Present Indefinite............(To) be taught. Present Perfect...............(To) have been taught. PARTICIPLES.


Imperfect.....................Being taught. Perfect.......................Taught. Compound Perfect..............Having been taught. INDEX. A, or an, uses of A and the uses of distinguished A (day) or two, or one or two (days) +Abbreviations+ common ones how made and written of names of states +Absolute Phrases+ definition of diagram of expansion of +Adjective+ an, definition of +Adjectives+ apt ones to be used +classes+ definitive (numeral) descriptive +comparison+ adjectives not compared adjectives irregularly compared form preferred in er and est with adverb descriptive, used as nouns errors in use of having number forms needless ones avoided not always limiting not used for adverbs numeral cardinal ordinal proper order of scheme for general review used as abstract nouns +Adjective Clauses+ connectives of definition of = adjectives = explanatory modifiers = independent clauses = infinitive phrases = participle phrases = possessives modifying omitted words position of restrictive and unrestrictive unrestrictive, punctuation +Adjective Complement+ distinguished from adverb modifier +Adjective Modifiers+ analysis of nouns as +Adverb+ an definition of +Adverbs+ apt ones to be used classes of comparison of errors in use of expressing negation irregular comparison of modifying clauses phrases prepositions sentences not used for adjectives not used needlessly position of scheme for general review sometimes like adjective attributes +used+ independently (note) interrogatively (note) with connective force (note) +Adverb Clause+, definition of +Adverb Clauses+ +classes+ cause, real concession condition degree (result) evidence manner place purpose time +contracted+ by omitting words to absolute phrases to participles and participle phrases to prepositional phrases = adjective clauses and phrases (note) = adverbs = independent clauses (note) position of punctuation of +Adverbial Modifiers+ analysis of nouns as parsing of +Adversative Connectives+, list +Adversative+, meaning of (note) A few, a little, vs. few and little +Agreement+ of parts of a metaphor of pronoun with its antecedent of verb with the subject +Allusion+ (note) +Alphabet+ definition of perfect one what the English imperfect how +Alternative+, meaning of (note) +Alternative Connectives+, list +Ambiguity+ of pronouns, how avoided +Analysis+ examples for, additional of a sentence of subjects of themes +Antecedent+, a clause, phrase, or word (note) +Antithesis+ (note) Any body (or one) else's (note) +Apostrophe+ the +Appositives+ +Argumentative Style+ +Arrangement+ +Articles+ +classes+ definite indefinite errors in use of repeated when uses of a, or an, and the As introductory conjunction relative pronoun (note) with clauses of degree, manner, and time with variety of clauses As ... as, construction of As it were, construction of +Aspirates+ +Assumed Subject+, what +Attribute Complement+ definition of diagram of +Auxiliary Verbs+ Be, conjugation of derivation of (note) Beside and besides distinguished (note) Best of the two Between with three or more (note) +Brackets+, use of But adversative conjunction a preposition various uses of with or without that with what incorrect for but that or but Can +Capital Letters+ in abbreviations in beginning

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg


sentences in class names in compound names in names of the Deity in proper names in titles rule for I and O summary of rules for +Case+ defined of attribute complement of explanatory modifier of noun or pronoun independent of noun or pronoun used adverbially of objective complement +Cases+ definitions of in Anglo-Saxon and in Latin +Case Forms+ errors in use of five pronouns have three nouns have two only eight nominative only seven objective +Cause+, adverbs of +Cause Clauses+, divisible +Classification+ necessity of not governed by logical relation +Clauses+ classes dependent independent complex and compound +dependent+ adjective adverb noun +independent+ (the thought) in alternation in contrast in same line inferred +Collective Nouns+ form of verb with of what number +Colon+ +Comma+, rules for +Comparison+ adjectives without it cautions to guide in definition of degree used with two degrees of, defined...257. 268 double, origin of double, to be shunned errors in use of forms of irregular when adverb used which form preferred +Complement+ is what the modified is what +Complements+ attribute (subjective) object objective +Complex Sentences+ definition treatment of +Compound Attribute Complement+ +Compound Object Complement+ +Compound Personal Pronouns+ +Compound Predicate+, defined +Compound Relative Pronouns+ +Compound Sentence+ changed to complex contracted defined treatment of +Compound Subject+, defined +Condition Clauses without conjunction+ +Conjugation+ definition of forms of more elaborate form +Conjunction a, definition of+ +Conjunctions+ +classes+ co-ordinate subordinate +co-ordinate+ adversative alternative +Conjunctions+ (cont.) +co-ordinate+ copulative co-ordinate connect sentences and paragraphs scheme for review +Conjunctive Adverbs+ are what offices of +Connectives+ apt ones to be chosen +co-ordinate+ adversative alternative copulative errors in use of in correlation introductory +subordinate+ of adjective clauses of adverb clauses of noun clauses +Consonants+, classes of +Contraction+ of +Sentences+ +Co-ordinate Conjunctions+ +Copulative+, meaning of +Copula+, what +Correlatives+, errors in use of D of the ed of verbs in past tense D of the ed of past participles Dare, without s form +Dash+ the +Declarative Sentence+, defined +Declension+ defined of interrogative pronouns of nouns of personal pronouns of relative pronouns +Degree+, adverbs of +Descriptive Style+ +Diminution+, degrees of +Diagram+ a, what may be omitted Do, idiomatic use of Each other construction of with two or more Ed of past tense and participle Either and neither, pronouns and conjunctions, with two or more Either may be used for each +Elocution+, object of +Energy+ defined exercises in secured how +English Grammar+, definition of +Epigrams+ are what +Evidence+ distinguished from +Cause+ +Exclamatory Sentences+ definition of order of words in +Expansion+ of absolute phrases of infinitive phrases of participles of sentences +Explanatory Modifier+ definition of punctuation of +Figures of Speech+ basis of definition illustrations of names of uses of First two, etc. +Force+ (see +Energy+) For to +Gender+ defined distinguished from sex of names of animals of what importance of pronouns, errors in used in personification +Gender Forms+ +Genders+, the three defined Had better, rather, sooner Hand in hand, construction of Have written, history of He or one after the indefinite one +Humor+, in style +Hyphen+, use of +Idea+ distinguished from object If for even if, although for whether omission of variety of uses +Imagery+, discussion of +Imperative Sentence+ definition of order of words in In and Into distinguished In case that, construction of +Independent Clauses+ definition of joined without conjunction punctuated +Independent Expressions+, punctuated +Indirect+, or +Dative+, Object +Inference+, expressed by an independent clause +Infinitive+ (the), and assumed subject after for definition of double nature of old dative of use of present perfect after past indicative why called infinitive +Infinitive Phrase+ after a preposition as adjective as adjective modifier as adverb modifier as attribute complement as explanatory modifier as object complement as objective complement as subject cleft or split does not with the noun form a clause expansion into clauses independent In order that, construction of +Interjections+ +Interrogation Point+, use of +Interrogative

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg


Pronouns+ declension definition list +Interrogative Sentences+ definition of order of words in +Intransitive Verbs+, definition +Introductory Words+ +Invitations+, form of +Irregular Verbs+ definition of inflections of list of persistence of It for a clause idiomatic use of use for animals and children vague It is me, him, etc. Just as, construction of +Language+ definition of made up of words natural word Last two, etc. Lay and lie Less, the final s of, and lesser Lest equaling that not various uses of with noun clause +Letters+, the alphabet +Letters+ body of conclusion of heading of illustration of introduction of parts of superscription of +Letter-Writing+ +Loose Sentence+ Many a, explanation of +Manner+, adverbs of +Masculine Gender+ distinguished +Masculine Pronoun+, use of May +Metaphor+ definition of exercises in use of Methinks +Metonymy+ definition of exercises in use of Mine, thine, of mine, etc +Mode+ is what +Modes+ +classes+, imperative indicative potential subjunctive definitions of imperative, no 2d and 3d persons indicative, uses of potential omitted subjunctive +Modifications+, definition +Modified Complement+ +Modifiers+, definition different rank explanatory, punctuation Must Myself, explanatory +N+, Saxon ne, the negative particle +Narrative Style+ +Natural Language+ Need, without s form +Negation+ by adverbs +Negatives+, double No and yes, sentence-words No body (or one) else's +Nominative Forms+, eight +Noun+ a, definition of +Nouns+ abstract as adjective modifiers as adverb modifiers cases of classes of collective common and proper declension gender of number, kinds of person of roots of scheme for general review +Noun Clauses+ as attribute complement as explanatory modifier as object complement as principal term of prepositional phrase as subject connectives of contraction of definition of position of punctuation of +Noun Modifier+ explanatory (appositive) explanatory of a sentence possessive +Number+ definition of kinds of of noun agreeing with adjective of nouns determined of verbs shows what 0 and oh distinguished +Object+ and +Object Complement+ distinguished +Object+, indirect +Object+, indirect, made subject +Object Complement+ becoming subject compound definition of retained after verb in passive +Objective Forms+, seven +Objective Complement+ an infinitive phrase a participle becoming an attribute complement definition of extended beyond its factitive sense Of in place of possessive sign not always indicating possession Of mine, etc On condition that One another syntax of with two or more Only, position of syntax of +Order+ (words and phrases) transposed usual Other, misuse of Ought +Paragraph+ (the) composition of definition of topics and subtopics of unity of +Paragraphing+, exercises in +Parallel Construction+ +Parenthesis+, marks of +Parenthetical Classes+, punctuation +Parsing+ definition of first step in models for written +Participles+ adjectival as adjective modifiers as attribute complements as mere adjectives as mere nouns as objective complements as prepositions as principal word in a phrase definition of expansion of forms of in independent phrases misuse of modified by a and the modified by a possessive nounal, called gerunds, infinitives, verbal nouns place of punctuation of used in slurring +Passive Voice+, idiomatic constructions +Period+, use of +Periodic Sentence+ +Person+ forms of a noun or pronoun of a verb why regarded in the grammar +Personification+, the figure +Persons+, the three defined +Perspicuity+ definition of exercises in +Phrases+ absolute adjective and adverb as prepositions complex and compound definition of infinitive interchange with clauses interchange with words participial position of prepositional punctuation of used independently verb +Place+, adverbs of +Plural Number+ +Plural+ ending, origin foreign forms of formed irregularly formed regularly form same as singular forms treated as singular no form for of compound words of letters, figures, etc. of proper names some originally singular some words always two forms with different meaning without singular of like meaning +Possessive Ending+ added to explanatory word ambiguity avoided by attached to the adjective confined to what error respecting errors in use of of for of compound names origin of when omitted when pronounced es +Predicate+ adjective defined a verb or contains one compound definition of modified noun defined of two or more words +Preposition+ a, defined +Prepositions+ becoming adverbs ending a sentence ending in ing errors in use of list of two before a noun where sometimes found with verb before a noun +Pronoun+ a, defined +Pronouns+ agreement Nom. and Obj. forms +classes+ adjective interrogative personal relative declension of denote relations errors in use of need of number scheme for review vagueness of +Pronouns (Adjective)+ a (day) or two all, both, and whole before of any body (or one) else's, etc. declension of definition of demonstrative distributive each other, with two or more either, neither, with two or more either for each first two, last three, etc., he, etc. after indefinite one indefinite none in both numbers ones, plural other and than, words between other two, when one of three is

Higher Lessons in English by Alonzo Reed and Braiderd Kellogg


taken partial list of such or so with adjectives +Pronouns (Interrogative)+ declension definition list +Pronouns (Personal)+ avoided when compound consistent use of declension definition its, history of misuse of them for those my and mine, etc. order of ours, yours, etc., double possessives +Pronouns (Personal)+ (cont.) use of compound used needlessly we hardly plural of I we instead of I ye has given way to you +Pronouns (Relative)+ agreement of compound declension definition discriminated in use omitted when same with same antecedent that in restrictive clauses that instead of who and which what misused for that who and which restrictive and unrestrictive with omitted antecedents +Pun+, a +Punctuation Marks+ exercises in summary of rules for +Qualities of Style+ +Question+, direct and indirect +Quotation Marks+, use of +Quotations+ capitalization of definition of direct indirect punctuation of Quoth +Regular Verbs+ definition increasing inflections of +Relative Clauses+, position +Result+, clauses of +Review Questions+ +Review+ of +Sentence+, scheme for +Satire+ +Semicolon+, rules for +Sentence+ (the) balanced contracted defined expanded loose period +Sentences+ (classed) +form+ complex compound simple +meaning+ declarative exclamatory imperative interrogative Set and sit Shall and will Should and would +Simile+, definition and exercises in +Simple Sentences+ definition of treatment of Since, various uses of +Singular Number+ So ... as, construction of Some body (or one) else's +Sounds+ and +Letters+ +Speech+ figures of mechanism of +Spelling+, rules for +Style+ argumentative definition of descriptive illustrations narrative qualities of +Subject+ assumed, what assumed, changed to prevent ambiguity compound defined determined how +Subject+ (cont.), modified, or logical +Subjunctive Mode+ definition of disappearing uses of +Subordinate Conjunctions+ +Subordinate Connectives+ +Synecdoche+ +Synopsis+ is what +Syntax+, rules for +Tense+ defined future, how used future perfect, how used past, how used past perfect, how used present, how used present perfect, how used +Tenses+ defined emphatic form of errors in use of conjunctive adverb Than errors in use of followed by adjective replaced by but, etc. use after comparatives with me after it Than whom That and this, adjectives, plurals That and this (Adj. Pro.) declension reference That (Conj.) with cause clause with noun clause with purpose clause That, Conj. Adv., degree clause That (Rel. Pr.) distinguished from who and which for who and which generally restrictive preposition follows The, uses of The ... the construction of explanation of +Themes+ framework of how to write them subjects for The one, the other This +Thought+, how expressed Three times four is twelve To with infinitive construction of expressing relation extension of no part of not expressed position of without relation +Transitive Verbs+ definition of conjugated passively +Unity+ of paragraphs Unless (= if not) +Usage+ +Variety+ how secured illustrations of want of +Verb+ a, defined +Verb+ Be an auxiliary conjugation of derivation of +Verb-Phrases+ +Verbs+ (classes) +form+ irregular regular +meaning+ intransitive transitive +Verbs+ a modern passive progressive form analysis of compound tense forms as nouns auxiliary changing their voice conjugated in progressive form conjugated interrogatively conjugated negatively conjugation of +Verbs+ (cont.) defective forms not asserting improper forms used indicative and potential with subjunctive meaning inflections of +intransitive+ definition of made transitive +irregular+ definition of list of persistence of principal parts of mode, defined model for written parsing number forms number of defined passive form compound periphrastic forms resolved, person forms person of potential auxiliaries principal parts redundant +regular+ definition of increasing scheme for gen. review Strong (or Old), Weak (or New) subjunctive form fading tense the e and the d of past tense, the e and the d of past participle +transitive+, definition of conjugated passively voice +Verbs+ (agreement of) attracted errors in with and in what with collective noun with subjects connected by and with subjects connected by or or nor with subjects emphatically distinguished with subjects naming same thing with subjects one affirmative and one negative with subjects following with subjects preceded by each, every, etc. with subjects varying in person +Vocal Consonants+ +Voice+, the voices defined +Voices+ changed +Vowels+ What equal to that or whom in origin misuse for that various uses of without antecedent

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