AP American History Summer Assignment Jennifer Onativia The Generation 1) The difference between the American Revolution and

other revolutions in history is that both sides left the war being virtual equals. Neither gained supremacy emerging from the war. The American Revolution seemed improbable considering England was the most powerful country in the world at the time. The American Republic was the first republic to last for such a long period of time. The American Revolution also was primarily a peaceful revolution (relative to the other revolutions of the time). Disputes were settled with debates which eventually led to the formation of political parties. 2) The American Revolution is unique from all others. Ellis emphasized the importance of this difference this because it has led to the longevity of the American Republic. The peace of the revolution paved the way for the political party system, which we still have today. The fact that neither England, nor America, emerged superior from the war was essential to American independence. It led to the security that America wouldn't be conquered again. In it's exhaustion from the war, that respect and recognition between the countries was key. 3) The eight key players in the American independence movement were Abigail and John Adams, Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and George Washington. 4) Ellis argued that the lives of these people illuminated four common themes. These themes were: a) The diversity of the personalities that were represented. b) They all knew each other personally. c) They ignored the subject of slavery in order to maintain peace in the republic. d) They knew how significant they were to history. The Duel 5) The duel signifies the intensity of the politics at the time. Hamilton and Burr developed intense hatred for each other due to various political differences. The fact that their hatred was triggered by this shows how seriously and personally political divisions were taken. The duel shows how important of politics were. 6) "The supercharged political culture of the early republic" is a term used by Ellis to describe the mood of the time. The politics of the time were extremely important. Politicians became central figures in their communities and in the infant nation. The politics of America were essential to the course of action that the nation would take in many instances. Every American at the time had great concern for politics and, due to various interpretations of the Declaration of Independence, who was leading a state, city or the country was tremendously important. 7) The duel led to the decline of the Federalist Party and to the decline of Aaron Burr's reputation, as well. The Dinner 8) The dinner was a dinner party hosted by Jefferson. The three people who attended were James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and, of course, Jefferson, himself. The purpose of the dinner was to reach a compromise between Hamilton and Madison regarding Hamilton's financial plan which Madison had

blocked from passing. The end result was Hamilton using his influence to persuade Congress to relocate of the national capital to near the Potomac River. In return Madison would not go through great effort to make sure his plan did not pass. 9) The location of the capital was essential to the harmony of the Union. Many people wanted the capital in their own states. Pennsylvania was often proposed because it was situated in the approximant center of the states.

The Silence 10) The silence referred to the awkward avoidance of the subject of slavery. People like James Jackson, representative of Georgia, claimed that slavery was "God's will," and used the Bible to justify being able to keep their slaves. 11)According to abolitionists, slavery was a contradiction of the values of the American Revolution. However, the Constitution prohibited any reforms about slavery being made until after 1808. 12) According to proslavery forces, the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 prohibiting slavery in north of the Ohio River endorsed slavery in the southwest. James Jackson said that the Bible supported slavery. He also said that the liberated African Americans would have no where to go after being freed (most probably due to how world was made difficult for them to get along in). The Farewell 13) Washington was, without a doubt, the single most recognizable face of infant America. The letter of farewell published in newspapers announcing Washington's retirement was very important for America. He was no longer there to guide the nation through its nationhood. The politics of America could drastically change now that Washington was no longer president. Washington's retirement really threw the nation into a feeling of loss. 14) The farewell left the new president, John Adams, with vast foreign policy decisions. Washington had supported a policy of isolation. In a way, Washington's farewell letter also asked that America would not become a brand of sorts. He didn't want Americans to be separated into an ethic community. However, Adams found as president that isolation was impossible. Adams soon tried to develop diplomacy with France in order to ignore his other option, going to war with France. Washington's farewell had signaled uncertainty for Adams in the foreign policy department and led to the XYZ Affair, something Adams's administration had become known for. 15) a) Jay's Treaty: Jay's Treaty was an agreement made with the English that allowed the British to tariff American goods. The British also agreed to removed troops from American posts and pay back all American cargos that were taken by them. The Americans agreed to lesser tariffs being put on English goods and to pay back all pre-Revolutionary debts. b) Whiskey Rebellion: The Whiskey Rebellion was a rebellion in western Pennsylvania. The participants wanted to end the excessive tax on whiskey. Washington put down this rebellion using military force. Jefferson considered this excessive force for a rebellion he believed to be of trivial importance overstepping the power of the president. This caused a rift in the friendship between Jefferson and Washington. c) Shays Rebellion: Shays Rebellion was another rebellion by farmers due to discontent over taxes and debt. The rebellion caused the leaders of America at the time to realize the weakness of the Articles of Confederation and led to the Constitution being written. 16) The Whiskey Rebellion response and Jay's Treaty were meant to make the nation realize that Washington, though poised for retirement, had not left

office just yet. He wanted to use his position to unite the people the way he felt that they should be by the American Revolution. 17) The collaboration between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson was significant because they were complete opposites and were often at odds. Their competition led to the widening gap between Federalists and Republicans. When the Jefferson-Adams collaboration ended, Jefferson began to collaborate with James Madison. However, the rift in Adams and Jefferson's friendship became extremely influential in American politics when the two ran against one another for Presidency and Jefferson lost. He became vice president and according to Abigail Adams would use his position to undermine Adams's presidential decisions. 18) Jefferson and Adams had different views on foreign policy. Jefferson thought England was not to be trusted and that France was the new American ally. Adams, meanwhile, believed the opposite and boosted the nation's navy in case of any conflict with France, which he expected. Adams wanted to avoid war at all costs and isolate America from European wars. 19) The passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts led to tremendous opposition. Jefferson and Madison countered the acts by setting forth the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions. The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions stated that the sedition acts were unconstitutional. He claimed that they violated the natural rights of Americans considering the vast amounts of immigrants in America namely the Irish in New York and the Germans in Pennsylvania. The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions secured Jefferson's victory for president.

The Friendship 20) The friendship was between Jefferson and Adams. Formed during their service in the Continental Congress, the two had a love/hate relationship that would fume for years. The two had great political differences causing a split in their friendship. Over time, the two came to despise each other. Jefferson believed Adams wanted to bring back monarchy and that his Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. Adams's wife Abigail played a big part in separating the two claiming Jefferson diluted all Adams's decisions. 21)The friendship really helped separate the country into Federalist and Republican factions. It led to the downfall of Adams and the continued rise of Jefferson as a leader. 22) To Jefferson the American Revolution was a start of eliminating global oppression. The revolution was meant to break ties with England. The revolution was meant to inspire the world. Jefferson believed that after separation from England, America was all set to go. To Adams the revolution was an ongoing struggle. Once they were free, it was not the end. He insisted there never is an end and that liberty will bring more challenges to come. 23)The dialogue illuminates the critical issue of equality between the rich and poor in America. Adams and Jefferson both agreed the aristocracy should rule, but they disputed over what the aristocracy actually was. This displays the social structure in America at the time.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.