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Kinematics of Mechanisms

2.1 Preamble

Robot kinematics is the study of the motion (kinematics) of robotic mechanisms.

In a kinematic analysis, the position, velocity, and acceleration of all the links are

calculated with respect to a xed reference coordinate system, without considering

the forces or moments. The relationship between motion and the associated forces

and torques is studied in robot dynamics. Forward kinematics and inverse kinemat-

ics are the main components in robot kinematics.

Forward kinematics (also known as direct kinematics) is the computation of the

position and orientation of a robots end effector as a function of its joint angles.

Inverse kinematics is dened as: given the position and orientation of a robots end-

effector, calculate all possible sets of joint motion that could be used to attain this

given position and orientation.

From the viewpoint of robot structure, robot can be divided into two basic types:

serial robot and parallel robot. Besides, there is a hybrid type, which is the combi-

nation of serial and parallel robots. Serial robots have open kinematic chain, which

can be further classied as either articulated or cartesian robots.

In the following, the basic mathematical and geometric concepts including

position and orientation of a rigid body are presented (Sect. 2.2). Translational

coordinate transformation, rotational coordinate transformation and homogeneous

transformation are introduced in Sect. 2.3. DenavitHartenberg expression of kine-

matic parameters is discussed in Sect. 2.4. Section 2.5 describes the derivation of

Jacobian Matrix. Finally, the conclusions are given in Sect. 2.6.

2.2 Position and Orientation of Rigid Body

2.2.1 Rotation Matrix

To explain the relationship between parts, tools, manipulator etc., some concepts

such as position vector, plane, and coordinate frame are utilized.

D. Zhang, Parallel Robotic Machine Tools, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1117-9 2,

c Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

19

20 2 Kinematics of Mechanisms

Fig. 2.1 Presentation

of position

The motion of a robot can be described by its position and orientation, which is

called pose as well. Once the reference coordinate system has been established, any

point in the space can be expressed by a (3 1) vector. For orthogonal coordinate

system {O

a

.

a

,

a

z

a

], any point p in the space can be written as follow:

a

p =

2

4

p

x

p

y

p

z

3

5

. (2.1)

where p

x

. p

y

. p

z

denote the components of the vector p along the coordinate axis

x

a

. y

a

. z

a

, respectively. Here, p is called position vector, which is shown in Fig. 2.1.

To investigate the motion and manipulation of robots, not only the description of

position is needed, but also the orientation is likewise important. To dene the ori-

entation of point b, we should assume that there is an orthogonal coordinate system

{O

b

.

b

,

b

z

b

] attached to the point. Here, x

b

. y

b

. z

b

denote the unit vectors of the

coordinate axes. With respect to the reference coordinate system {O

a

.

a

,

a

z

a

],

the orientation of point b is expressed as follow:

a

b

R =

a

x

b

a

y

b

a

z

b

=

2

4

r

11

r

12

r

13

r

21

r

22

r

23

r

31

r

32

r

33

3

5

. (2.2)

where

a

b

R is called rotation matrix.

a

b

R has nine elements in total, but only three of

them are independent. The following constraint conditions should be satised by

the nine elements:

a

x

b

a

x

b

=

a

y

b

a

y

b

=

a

z

b

a

z

b

= 1. (2.3)

a

x

b

a

y

b

=

a

y

b

a

z

b

=

a

z

b

a

x

b

= 0. (2.4)

It can be concluded that the rotation matrix

a

b

R is orthogonal, and the following

condition should be satised:

a

b

R

1

=

a

b

R

T

: [

a

b

R[ = 1. (2.5)

2.2 Position and Orientation of Rigid Body 21

The rotation matrix with respect to the rotation transformation by an angle 0

about the axis .. ,. z, respectively, can be calculated:

R(.. 0) =

2

4

1 0 0

0 c0 s0

0 s0 c0

3

5

. (2.6)

R(,. 0) =

2

4

c0 0 s0

0 1 0

s0 0 c0

3

5

. (2.7)

R(z. 0) =

2

4

c0 s0 0

s0 c0 0

0 0 1

3

5

. (2.8)

where s0 = sin 0 and c0 = cos 0

Suppose that coordinate frames {B] and {A] have the same orientation. But the

original points of the two coordinate frames do not overlap. Using the position

vector

a

p

O

b

to describe the position related to frame {A].

a

p

O

b

is called the trans-

lational vector of frame {B] with respect to frame {A]. If the position of point p in

the coordinate frame {B] is written as

b

p, then the position vector of p with respect

to frame {A] can be written as follows:

a

p =

b

p

a

p

O

b

. (2.9)

That is equation of coordinate translation which is shown in Fig. 2.2.

Suppose that coordinate frames {B] and {A] have the same orientation, but their

orientation is different. Using the rotation matrix

a

b

R to describe the orientation of

z

a

z

b

y

a

O

a

O

a

y

b

x

b

x

a

p

a

p

p

b

{A}

{B}

Fig. 2.2 Translational transformation

22 2 Kinematics of Mechanisms

Fig. 2.3 Rotational

transformation

frame {B] with respect to frame {A], then the transformation of point p in frames

{A] and {B] can be deduced as:

a

p =

a

b

R

b

p. (2.10)

where

a

p denotes the position p with the reference coordinate system {A], and

b

p

denotes the position p with the reference coordinate system {B]. It is called equation

of coordinate rotation which is shown in Fig. 2.3.

The following equation can be deduced:

b

a

R =

a

b

R

1

=

a

b

R

T

. (2.11)

For the common condition, neither the original points of frames {A] and {B]

overlap nor they have the same orientation. Use the position vector

a

p

O

b

to describe

the original point of frame {B] with respect to frame {A]; use the rotation matrix

a

b

R to describe the orientation of frame {B] with respect to frame {A]. To any point

in the space, the transformation can be found:

a

p =

a

b

R

b

p

a

p

O

b

. (2.12)

2.2.2 Euler Angles

The Euler angle I, shown in Fig. 2.4, denes a rotation angle around the z-axis,

then a rotation angle 0 around the new x-axis, and a rotation angle around the new

z-axis.

R

z

=

2

4

c s 0

s c 0

0 0 1

3

5

. R

u

0

=

2

4

1 0 0

0 c0 s0

0 s0 c0

3

5

. R

w

00

'

=

2

4

c s 0

s c 0

0 0 1

3

5

.

(2.13)

2.2 Position and Orientation of Rigid Body 23

Fig. 2.4 Euler angle I

Fig. 2.5 Euler angle II

Resultant Eulerian rotation matrix generates:

R = R

z

R

u

0

R

w

00

'

=

2

4

cc ssc0 cs scc0 ss0

sc csc0 ss ccc0 cs0

ss0 cs0 c0

3

5

.

(2.14)

The Euler angle II, shown in Fig. 2.5, denes a rotation of angle around the

z-axis, then a rotation of angle 0 around the new y-axis, and nally a rotation angle

around the new z-axis.

Note the opposite (clockwise) sense of the third rotation . Matrix with Euler

Angle II generates:

2

4

ss ccc0 sc scc0 cs0

cs scc0 cc scc0 ss0

cs0 ss0 c0

3

5

(2.15)

24 2 Kinematics of Mechanisms

2.3 Homogeneous Transformation

If the coordinates of any point in an orthogonal coordinate system is given, then the

coordinates of this point in another orthogonal coordinate system can be calculated

by homogeneous coordinate transformation.

The transformation (2.12) is inhomogeneous to point

b

p, but it can be expressed

by an equivalent homogeneous transformation:

a

p

1

a

b

R

a

p

O

b

0

13

1

b

p

1

. (2.16)

where the vector (4 1) denotes the coordinates in three-dimensional space. It still

can be noted as

a

p or

b

p. The above equation can be rewritten in the format of

matrix:

a

p =

a

b

T

b

p

a

p

O

b

. (2.17)

where the vector (4 1) of

a

p and

b

p is called homogeneous coordinates, here,

a

b

T =

a

b

R

a

p

O

b

0

41

1

. (2.18)

In fact, the transformation (2.18) is equivalent to (2.12). The (2.17) can be

rewritten as

a

p =

a

b

R

b

p

a

p

O

b

. (2.19)

Suppose vector ai bj ck describes one point in the space, where i. . k are

the unit vector of the axes .. ,. z, respectively. This point can be expressed by the

translational homogeneous transformation matrix.

Trans(a,b,c) =

2

6

6

4

1 0 0 a

0 1 0 b

0 0 0 c

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.20)

where Trans denotes translational transformation.

If a rigid body rotates about ., , and z-axis with 0, then the following equations

can be obtained:

Rot(.. 0) =

2

6

6

4

1 0 0 0

0 c0 s0 0

0 s0 c0 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.21)

2.3 Homogeneous Transformation 25

Rot(,. 0) =

2

6

6

4

c0 0 s0 0

0 1 0 0

s0 0 c0 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.22)

Rot(z. 0) =

2

6

6

4

c0 s0 0 0

s0 c0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.23)

where Rot denotes rotational transformation.

As the transformation is based on the xed reference frame, a left-handed multi-

plication of transformation sequences is followed. For example, a rigid body rotates

90

about the

y-axis and nally it translates 4 unit lengths along x-axis of the xed reference frame,

the transformation of this rigid body can be described as:

T = Trans(4,0,0)Trans(y,90)Trans(z,90) =

2

6

6

4

0 0 1 4

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.24)

The above matrix represents the operations of rotation and translation about the

primary reference frame. The six points of the wedge-shaped object (Fig. 2.6(a))

can be expressed as:

2

6

6

4

0 0 1 4

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

2

6

6

4

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 0 0 0 4 4

0 0 2 2 0 0

1 1 1 1 1 1

3

7

7

5

=

2

6

6

4

4 4 6 6 4 4

4 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 2 2 4 4

1 1 1 1 1 1

3

7

7

5

.

(2.25)

Figure 2.6(b) shows the result of transformation.

Fig. 2.6 Transformation of wedge-shaped object

26 2 Kinematics of Mechanisms

In the above sections, the rotational transformation matrix with respect to rota-

tions about x, y and z-axis has been analyzed. Here is the rotation matrix in the

common situation: rotation about any vector (axis) with 0.

Suppose f is the unit vector of z-axis in coordinate frame C, namely:

C =

2

6

6

4

n

x

o

x

a

x

0

n

y

o

y

a

y

0

n

z

o

z

a

z

0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.26)

f = a

x

i a

y

a

z

k. (2.27)

Therefore, rotation about vector f is equivalent to rotation about z-axis in coordinate

frame C, thus one has,

Rot(f. 0) = Rot(c. 0). (2.28)

If the coordinate frame {T] is known with respect to reference coordinate frame,

then another coordinate frame {S] can be calculated with respect to frame {C],

because,

T = CS. (2.29)

Where, S is the relative position of T with respect to C, then,

S = C

1

T . (2.30)

The rotation of T about f is equivalent to the rotation of S about z-axis of frame {C],

Rot(f. 0)T = CRot(z. 0)S. (2.31)

Rot(f. 0)T = CRot(z. 0)C

1

T . (2.32)

Then the following equation can be derived,

Rot(f. 0) = CRot(z. 0)C

1

. (2.33)

As f is the z-axis of frame {C], then it can be found that Rot(z. 0)C

1

is just the

function of f, because,

CRot(z. 0)C

1

=

2

6

6

4

n

x

o

x

a

x

0

n

y

o

y

a

y

0

n

z

o

z

a

z

0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

2

6

6

4

c0 s0 0 0

s0 c0 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

2

6

6

4

n

x

o

x

a

x

0

n

y

o

y

a

y

0

n

z

o

z

a

z

0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

1

.

(2.34)

2.4 DenavitHartenberg Representation 27

Note that z = a. vers0 = 1 c0. = z. Equation (2.34) can be simplied as,

Rot(f. 0) =

2

6

6

4

f

x

f

x

vers0 c0 f

y

f

x

vers0 f

z

s0 f

z

f

x

vers0 f

y

s0 0

f

x

f

y

vers0 f

z

s0 f

y

f

y

vers0 c0 f

z

f

y

vers0 f

x

s0 0

f

x

f

z

vers0 f

z

s0 f

y

f

z

vers0 f

x

s0 f

z

f

z

vers0 c0 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

.

(2.35)

Each basic rotation transformation can be derived from the general rotation trans-

formation, i.e., if f

x

= 1. f

y

= 0 and f

z

= 0, then 1ot (f. 0) = 1ot (x. 0). Equation

(2.35) yields,

1ot (.. 0) =

2

6

6

4

1 0 0 0

0 c0 s0 0

0 s0 c0 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.36)

which is identical to (2.21).

2.4 DenavitHartenberg Representation

DenavitHartenberg (DH) representation is a generic and simple method to dene

the relative motion parameters of two consecutive links and joints. Any arbitrary

type of mechanism can be represented using the DH method to relate the position

and orientation of the last link to the rst one.

In studying the kinematic motion between two jointed links, the DH method de-

nes the position and orientation of two consecutive links in a chain, link i with

respect to link (i 1) using a 4 4 homogeneous transformation matrix. With ref-

erence to Fig. 2.7, let axis i denotes the axis of the joint connecting link (i 1) to

link i. Four parameters should be determined, which are 0

i

. J

i

. a

i

, and

i

. 0

i

denotes

the rotation angle measured from axis .

i1

to .

i

with respect to z

i

axis. J

n

de-

notes the displacement measured from axis .

n1

to .

n

with respect to z

n

axis. a

i

denotes the displacement measured from axis z

i

to z

iC1

with respect to .

i

axis.

i

denotes the rotation angle measured from axis z

i

to z

iC1

with respect to .

i

axis.

Following steps can help to determine the link and joint parameters of the whole

kinematic model.

Number the joints from 1 to n starting with the base and ending with the end-

effecter

Establish the base coordinate system. Establish a right-handed orthonormal co-

ordinate system (.

0

. ,

0

. z

0

) at the supporting base with z

0

axis lying along the

axis of motion of joint 1

Establish joint axis. Align the z

i

with the axis of motion (rotary or sliding) of

joint i 1

28 2 Kinematics of Mechanisms

Fig. 2.7 DenavitHartenberg

kinematic description

Establish the origin of the ith coordinate system. Locate the origin of the ith

coordinate at the intersection of the z

i

and z

i1

or at the intersection of common

normal between the z

i

and z

i1

axes and the z

i

axis

Establish .

i

axis. Establish .

i

= (z

i1

z

i

),[z

i1

z

i

[ or along the common

normal between the z

i1

and z

i

axes when they are parallel

Establish ,

i

axis. Assign ,

i

= (z

i

.

i

),[z

i

.

i

[ to complete the right-handed

coordinate system

Find the link and joint parameters

With the parameters dened in Fig. 2.5, the DH model transformation matrix can

be obtained as follows

i1

i

T = A

i

= Rot(z. 0

i

) Trans(0. 0. J

i

) Trans(a

i

. 0. 0) Rot(..

i

). (2.37)

A

i

=

2

6

6

4

c0

i

s0

i

c

i

s0

i

s

i

a

i

c0

i

s0

i

c0

i

c

i

c0

i

s

i

a

i

s0

i

0 s

i

c

i

J

i

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.38)

2.5 Jacobian Matrix

To describe a micro-motion of robot, differential coefcient is utilized for coordinate

transformation. Given a coordinate frame {T],

T dT = Trans(J.. J,. Jz)Rot(. J0)T. (2.39)

2.5 Jacobian Matrix 29

where Trans(dx. dy. dz) denotes the differential translation of dx. dy. dz. and

Rot(. J0) denotes the differential rotation about the vector . Then dT can be

calculated as follows:

dT = Trans(dx. dy. dz)Rot(. J0) 1|T. (2.40)

The homogeneous transformation expressing differential translation is

Trans(dx. dy. dz) =

2

6

6

4

1 0 0 dx

0 1 0 dy

0 0 1 dz

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.41)

For the formula of general rotation transformation

Rot(. J0)

=

2

6

6

4

x

vers0 c0

y

x

vers0

z

s0

z

x

vers0

y

s0 0

y

vers0

z

s0

y

y

vers0 c0

z

y

vers0

x

s0 0

z

vers0

z

s0

y

z

vers0

x

s0

z

z

vers0 c0 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

.

(2.42)

Since lim

!0

sin 0 = J0. lim

!0

cos 0 = 1. lim

!0

vers 0 = 0. differential rota-

tional homogeneous transformation can be expressed as,

Rot(. J0) =

2

6

6

4

1

z

J0

y

J0 0

z

J0 1

x

J0 0

z

J0

x

J0 1 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.43)

Since z = Trans(J.. J,. Jz)Rot(. J0). it yields,

z =

2

6

6

4

1 0 0 J.

0 1 0 J,

0 0 1 Jz

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

=

2

6

6

4

1

z

J0

y

J0 0

z

J0 1

x

J0 0

y

J0

x

J0 1 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

2

6

6

4

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

=

2

6

6

4

0

z

J0

y

J0 J.

z

J0 0

x

J0 J,

y

J0

x

J0 0 Jz

0 0 0 0

3

7

7

5

(2.44)

30 2 Kinematics of Mechanisms

The differential rotation J0 about vector is equivalent to the differential

rotation with respect to the x, y and z-axis, namely

x

.

y

. and

z

, respectively. Then

x

J0 =

x

.

y

J0 =

y

.

z

J0 =

z

. Displace the above results into (2.44) yields:

z =

2

6

6

4

0

z

y

J.

z

0

x

J,

y

x

0 Jz

0 0 0 1

3

7

7

5

. (2.45)

If J = J

x

i J

y

J

z

k. =

x

i

y

z

k, then the differential motion vector

of rigid body or coordinate frame can be expressed as follows:

D =

J. J, Jz

x

y

z

T

=

. (2.46)

The linear transformation between motion speed of manipulator and each joint

can be dened as the Jacobian matrix of a robot. This Jacobian matrix represents the

drive ratio of motion velocity from the space of joints to the space of end-effector.

Assume the motion equation of manipulator

. = .(q) (2.47)

represents the displacement relationship between the space of operation (end-

effector) and the space of joints. Differentiating (2.47) with respect to time yields,

. = J(q) q. (2.48)

where . is the generalized velocity of end-effector in operating space. q is the joint

velocity. J(q) is 6n partial derivative matrix which is called Jacobian Matrix. The

component in line i and column is:

J

ij

(q) =

d.

i

(q)

dq

j

. i = 1. 2. . . . . 6: = 1. 2. . . . . n (2.49)

From (2.49), it is observed that Jacobian Matrix J(q) is a linear transformation from

the velocity of joints space.

The generalized velocity . of rigid body or coordinate frame is a six-dimensional

column vector composed of linear velocity v and angular velocity w.

. =

v

w

= lim

t!0

1

^t

. (2.50)

2.6 Conclusions 31

Equation (2.50) can be rewritten as

D =

= lim

t!0

.^t. (2.51)

Replace (2.48) into (2.50), one has:

D = lim

t!0

J(q) q^t. (2.52)

D = J(q)Jq. (2.53)

For a robot with n joints, its Jacobian matrix is a 6n matrix, in which the rst three

lines denote the transferring rate of end-effectors linear velocity, and the last three

lines denote the transferring rate of end-effectors angular velocity. Jacobian matrix

can be expressed as:

v

w

J

l1

J

l2

J

ln

J

a1

J

a2

J

an

=

2

6

6

6

4

q

1

q

2

.

.

.

q

n

3

7

7

7

5

. (2.54)

The linear velocity and angular velocity of an end-effector can be expressed as the

linear function of each joint velocity q

v = J

l1

q

1

J

l2

q

2

J

ln

q

n

: w = J

a1

q

1

J

a2

q

2

J

an

q

n

. (2.55)

where J

li

and J

ai

means the linear velocity and angular velocity of end-effector

resulted in joint i .

2.6 Conclusions

In this chapter, kinematics of robot manipulators is introduced, including the con-

cept of reference coordinate frame, translational transformation, rotational trans-

formation and homogeneous transformation, as well as the basic knowledge in

robot kinematics, such as Euler angle, DenavitHartenberg representation, and Ja-

cobian matrix of robot. These are the important knowledge in parallel robotic

machine design.

http://www.springer.com/978-1-4419-1116-2

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