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Hernan Rivera Texas Lutheran University October 18, 2004

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Big M Method.

Consider the following example.

2 Minimize Z = 5 x1 + 1 x2 2

Subject to

3 1 x1 + 10 x2 10 1 x1 + 1 x2 2 2 3 x1 + 2 x2 5 5

≤

27 10

=6

≥6 x1 , x2 , x3 ≥ 0

**The minimization problem is transformed into a maximization form by the expression:
**

2 Maximize − Z = − 5 x1 − 1 x2 2

To transform the last constraint into an equation, we have to subtract a surplus variable from the left hand side,

2 3 5 x1 + 5 x2 − x3

=6

The ﬁrst constraint need a slack variable to become equation, 3 1 27 x1 + 10 x2 + x4 = 10 10 Now all the constraints are equations but do not provide a initial basic feasible solution, hence the need to add artiﬁcial variables to the second and third constraints,

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**obtaining the following augmented system. −Z + 2 x1 + 1 x2 5 2
**

1 3 x1 + 10 x2 + x4 10 1 1 x1 + 2 x2 2 3 2 x1 + 5 x2 − x3 5

+ M x5 + M x6 = 0 ¯ ¯ = + x5 ¯

27 10

=6 + x6 = 6 ¯

Notice that in the objective function artiﬁcial variables are penalized with big coefﬁcients M, so that they will never become basic variables. On TI-89 or Voyage 200 we will implement this Big M coefﬁcient by using the imaginary unit. These calculators provide the following elementary operations that we use in this type of computations: mRow(expr, mat, index) that multiplies the row indicated in index of the matrix mat by the expression in expr. mRowAdd(expr, mat, index1, index2) that adds to row index2 the row index1 multiplied by expr. We put the matrix in the calculator to get:

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However this is not a standard simplex tableau, since the coefﬁcients of the basic solution on the objective function have to be zero. To ﬁx this problem we use elementary operations and get.

Having the standard tableau we proceed with the simplex. Assuming that the pivot is in the ith row and the jth column, the calculator instructions will look like mRow(1/ans(1)[i, j], ans(1), i) mRowAdd(−ans(1)[k, j], ans(1), i, k), k = i After three iterations we obtain the following screen 0-3

The solution is −Z = − 21 , x1 = 4

15 2 ,

x3 =

3 10 ,

x2 =

9 2

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Two Phase Method. We run the simplex twice, the ﬁrst time with Minimize Z1 = x5 + x6 ¯ ¯ until both arbitrary variables become non-basic, and the second time with:

2 Minimize Z2 = 5 x1 + 1 x2 2

**The calculator implementation will take both phases simultaneously. Changing to maximization we have: −Z1 + x5 + x6 = 0 ¯ ¯
**

2 1 −Z2 + 5 x1 + 2 x2 = 0

The matrix, in the calculator will look like this one:

Again this is not a standard tableau, after two elementary operations we get:

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Three iterations latter we get the following screen

This corresponds to an optimal tableau, and the artiﬁcial variables are no longer basic variables. Ignoring the ﬁrst row and the columns corresponding to artiﬁcial variables we see that the resulting tableau is also optimal, and the solution is as before. 3 9 −Z = − 21 , x1 = 15 , x3 = 10 , x2 = 2 4 2

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Dual simplex Method In the original set of constraints we add slack variable to the ﬁrst, subtract surplus variable to the third and change the signs in the third constraint, this give us:

2 1 Maximize − Z = − 5 x1 − 2 x2

Subject to

1 3 10 x1 + 10 x2 + x3 1 1 x1 + 2 x2 2 2 − 3 x1 − 5 x2 5

=

27 10

=6

+ x4 = −6 x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ≥ 0

The corresponding matrix, in the calculator, looks like:

This, however is not a standard simplex tableau, we need a third basic variable. We choose x2 in the second constraint, make its coefﬁcient equal to one and zeros for the rest in its column.

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The current solution is not feasible, we apply dual simplex to the last constraint to obtain

This is not optimal, it needs a regular simplex for the fourth column

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This corresponds to an optimal tableau, and the solution is: 3 −Z = − 21 , x3 = 10 , x2 = 9 , x1 = 15 4 2 2

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Manual para realizar el metodo de la gran M en IOP para la ti89 y voyage

Manual para realizar el metodo de la gran M en IOP para la ti89 y voyage

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