You are on page 1of 21

Database

A database is a system intended to organize, store, and retrieve large amounts of data easily. It consists of an organized collection of data for one or more uses, typically in digital form. One way of classifying databases involves the type of their contents, for example: bibliographic, document-text, statistical. Digital databases are managed using database management systems which store database contents, allowing data creation and maintenance, and search and other access.

Database architecture consists of three levels: external, conceptual and internal. a) The external level defines how users understand the organization of the data. A single database can have any number of views at the external level. b) The internal level defines how the data is physically stored and processed by the computing system. Internal architecture is concerned with cost, performance, scalability and other operational matters. c) The conceptual is a level of indirection between internal and external. It provides a common view of the database that is uncomplicated by details of how the data is stored or managed, and that can unify the various external views into a coherent whole.

DBMS
A DBMS is a system software package that helps the use of integrated collection of data records and files known as databases. It allows different user application programs to easily access the same database. DBMSs may use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way. Instead of having to write computer programs to extract information, user can ask simple questions in a query language. A database management system (DBMS) consists of software that operates databases, providing storage, access, security, backup and other facilities. Database management systems can be categorized according to the database model that they support, such as relational or XML, the type(s) of computer they support, such as a server cluster or a mobile phone, the query language(s) that access the database, such as SQL or XQuery, performance trade-offs, such as maximum scale or maximum speed or others. Some DBMS cover more than one entry in these categories, e.g., supporting multiple query languages. Examples of some commonly used DBMS are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Microsoft Access, SQL Server, FileMaker,Oracle,Sybase, dBASE, Clipper,FoxPro etc. Almost every database software comes with an Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) driver that allows the database to integrate with other databases.

COMPONENTS OF DATABASE SYSTEM


A database system is composed of four components; Data Hardware Software Users

Data - It is a very important component of the database system. The data acts a bridge between the machine parts i.e. hardware and software and the users which directly access it or access it through some application programs. Hardware- The hardware consists of the secondary storage devices such as magnetic disks (hard disk, zip disk, floppy disks), optical disks (CD-ROM), magnetic tapes etc. on which data is stored together with the Input/Output devices (mouse, keyboard, printers), processors, main memory etc. which are used for storing and retrieving the data in a fast and efficient manner. Software- The Software part consists of DBMS which acts as a bridge between the user and the database or in other words, software that interacts with the users, application programs, and database and files system of a particular storage media (hard disk, magnetic tapes etc.) to insert, update, delete and retrieve data. Users - Users are those persons who need the information from the database to carry out their primary business responsibilities i.e. Personnel, Staff, Clerical, Managers, Executives etc. On the basis of the job and requirements made by them they are provided access to the database totally or partially.

MS- Access

Microsoft Access,is a relational database management system from Microsoft that combines the relational Microsoft Jet Database Engine with a graphical user interface and softwaredevelopment tools. It is a member of the Microsoft Office suite of applications, included in the Professional and higher editions or sold separately. In mid-May 2010, the current version of Microsoft Access 2010 was released by Microsoft in Office 2010; Microsoft Office Access 2007 was the prior version. Access stores data in its own format based on the Access Jet Database Engine. It can also import or link directly to data stored in other applications and databases. Software developers and data architects can use Microsoft Access to develop application software, and "power users can use it to build simple applications. Like other Office applications, Access is supported by Visual Basic for Applications, an object-oriented programming language that can reference a variety of objects including DAO (Data Access Objects), ActiveX Data Objects, and many other ActiveX components. Visual objects used in forms and reports expose their methods and properties in the VBA programming environment, and VBA code modules may declare and call Windows operating-system functions.

Within Access there are four major areas: Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports Tables store your data in your database Queries ask questions about information stored in your tables Forms allow you to view data stored in your tables Reports allow you to print data based on queries/tables that you have created

Different views to create tables A) Design View


1) Open MS-Access and save the database. 2) Open the Design View and save the table. 3) A screen similar to the one gets displayed:

4) Enter the required field in the Field Name Column along with their respective datatypes. For ex- Field name- S_name Data type- Text 5) Save the table.

6) A table with the entered fields get created i.e S_name, Roll and F_name.

B) Datasheet View 1) Open MS-Access and save the database. 2) Now create a table in datasheet View(default) and save it. 3) On the field name column, Right click to change the column name. 4) A table similar to the one gets created.

Designing table using SQL view

1) Open MS-Access and save the database. 2) In the Menu bar, go to Create menu. 3) Select Query Design option. 4) Add the corresponding table you created. 5) Right click on the Query1 option and select SQL View. 6) There type the query- Create table abc(Roll number, S_name char, F_name char); 7) Run the query. 8) A table similar to the one shown gets created.

Queries using SQL command

1) SQL SELECT clause selects data from one or more database tables and/or views. In its

basic form the SQL SELECT syntax looks like this: SELECT ColumnName1, ColumnName2, FROM Table1 For ex- Select roll, s_name from abc;

2) SQL INSERT INTO clause facilitates the process of inserting data into a SQL table.

Here is how you can insert a new row into the Weather table, using SQL INSERT INTO: INSERT INTO Weather (City, AverageTemperature, Date) VALUES ('Los Angeles', 20, '10/10/2005') The result of the execution of the SQL INSERT INTO above will look like this:

City New York Seattle Washington

AverageTemperature Date 22 C 21 C 20 C 10/10/2005 10/10/2005 10/10/2005 10/10/2005

Los Angeles 20 C

3) SQL WHERE clause works in conjunction with other SQL clauses like SELECT,

INSERT and UPDATE to specify a search condition for these statements. We are going to give an example of the SQL WHERE clause used along with the SQL SELECT clause: SELECT AverageTemperature FROM Weather WHERE City = 'New York'

4) SQL UPDATE clause serves to update data in database table. The SQL UPDATE clause

basic syntax looks like this: UPDATE Table1 SET Column1 = Value1, Column2 = Value2, Before we run this UPDATE SQL expression, our Weather table looks like this: City New York Seattle AverageTemperature Date 22 C 21 C 10/10/2005 10/10/2005 10/10/2005 10/09/2005 10/09/2005 10/09/2005

Washington 20 C New York Seattle 18 C 20 C

Washington 17 C After the update it looks like this: City New York Seattle

AverageTemperature Date 20 C 20 C 10/10/2005 10/10/2005 10/10/2005 10/09/2005 10/09/2005 10/09/2005

Washington 20 C New York Seattle 20 C 20 C

Washington 20 C

5) SQL DELETE clause is used to delete data from a database table. The simplest SQL

DELETE syntax looks like this: DELETE FROM Tablename;

Forms
Microsoft Access forms provide a quick and easy way to modify and insert records into your databases. They offer an intuitive, graphical environment easily navigated by anyone familiar with standard computer techniques. Creating a form is a quite simple, pleasant experience.

Create Access form


Through ACCESS FORM WIZARD. 1. Select form wizard Open your database if it is not already open. Click the CREATE tab on the ACCESS RIBBON and then select MORE FORMS from the forms group.

A drop down list of form types appears. You need to select FORM WIZARD from this list.

2. Select table and fields The Form wizard then opens as the pop up window below.

On the first page of the form wizard we select which table we are going to use as the DATA SOURCE. Since there is only one table in this database so far, it should already be selected for us in the TABLES/QUERIES combo box. Underneath there is a list of the four fields in your table. You could select each field individually by highlighting the field name and clicking the single arrow >. We can, however, select all four just by clicking the double arrow >>. Once they have been transfered into the right hand box they are selected. We can now click NEXT to go to page 2 of the form wizard.

3. Form Layout

This is where we choose the FORM LAYOUT. We are going to leave this on the default setting of COLUMNAR. Click NEXT again to move onto page three of the form wizard.

4. Form Style

Here we select a style that from the list box. Preview a style by clicking on its name. This step just determines how the form looks aesthetically. Once you have selected a style to your taste,click NEXT again.

5. Form Title

This is the last stage of the wizard. Here we are going to choose the name for our form - lets say FORM1. We are going to leave the radio button selected for OPEN THE FORM TO ENTER OR VIEW INFORMATION All we need to do now is click FINISH and our form should like something like this:

6. Navigate Records via Access Form As you can see, the form opens with the first record in your original table displayed. You can navigate through each record using the NAVIGATION BUTTON at the bottom left of the form window.

To move to the next record click the right arrow button on the navigation control. To move to the last record click the >| button on the navigation control. To move backwards through the recordset use the left arrow buttons. You could edit any record from the form, which will update the data in your table. For now, though, just try navigating through the three records without changing any data.

7. Create New Record via Access Form Now that you know how to move through the recordset, lets finish off by adding two more records. To do this click the star button on the right of the navigation control. This should bring up a blank record. Add JOE for firstname, BROWN for surname, and 39 for age. Click the star again to bring up a new blank record, and enter SUE MOORE 33. When you have finished click x on the form window to close.

Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that standard Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. use the

It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the interlinked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web (WWW) and the infrastructure to support electronic mail.

Uses of Internet

Data Searching- Internet is used to search any type of data available and that too available across any corner of the world. Communication- With the internet, communication has not been a problem and that too across any corner of the world.

Networking- Its possible to connect a group a computers together and hence sharing of data can be possible. Research- The internet has tons of information available. Anything you want to know or need to know is available online.

Online Books- Reading is just now a click away. There are number of books online and that too for different ages. Online Shopping- Shopping is possible just by sitting at your home and shop whatever you want to.

E-Banking- Internet banking is a new concept that says you can do any number of transactions by using the internet.

World Wide Web


The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW or W3 and commonly known as the Web, is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them via hyperlinks. Inventor- Tim Berners-Lee Launch year-1991 Company- CERN

A system of Internet servers that support specially formatted documents. The documents are formatted in a markup language called HTML (HyperText Markup Language) that supports links to other documents, as well as graphics, audio, and video files. This means you can jump from one document to another simply by clicking on hot spots.

Protocol
Protocol is a set of rules which is used by computers to communicate with each other across a network. A protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between computing endpoints

HTTP- The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a networking protocol for distributed, collaborative, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web HTTP functions as a request-response protocol in the client-server computing model. In HTTP, a web browser, for example, acts as a client, while an application running on a computer hosting aweb site functions as a server. The client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which stores content, or provides resources, such as HTML files, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response message to the client. A response contains completion status information about the request and may contain any content requested by the client in its message body. A client is often referred to as a user agent (UA). A web browser, or web crawler (spider, used by search providers) are examples of common types of clients or user agents. HTTP is an Application Layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet Protocol Suite.

TCP/IP- The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. TCP is one of the two original components of the suite, complementing the Internet Protocol (IP), and therefore the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP provides reliable, ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. TCP is the protocol that major Internet applications rely on, applications such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, and file transfer. Other applications, which do not require reliable data stream service, may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) which provides a datagram service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability. TCP provides a point-to-point channel for applications that require reliable communications. IPThe Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol used for

relaying datagrams(packets) across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite. IP is the primary protocol in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite and has the task of delivering datagrams from the source host to the destination host solely based on their addresses. The Internet Protocol is responsible for addressing hosts and routing datagrams (packets) from a source host to the destination host across one or more IP networks. For this purpose the Internet Protocol defines an addressing system that has two functions. Addresses identify hosts and provide a logical location service. Each packet is tagged with a header that contains the meta-data for the purpose of delivery. This process of tagging is also called encapsulation. IP is a connectionless protocol and does not need circuit setup prior to transmission.