I would like to express my gratitude to Ms. S.A. Shanti for the great support throughout the assignment and for helping me to choose the organization for the job analysis. I am thankful to her for elucidating the basic concept of the job analysis and explaining how it is practically applied in an organization and also for efficiently answering all the queries during the compilation of the assignment. I would also like to thank my family and friends for their constant support.

communicating. and when the worker performs each activity. This category includes information regarding tools used. or painting. and work aids. the number of people with whom the employee would normally interact. work experience) and required personal attributes (aptitudes. This includes information regarding the job’s human requirements. personality.  Human behaviors. physical characteristics. The employer may also want information about the job’s performance standards (in terms of quantity or quality levels for each job duty. The supervisor or HR specialist normally collects one or more of the following types of information via the job analysis:  Work activities.  Job context.THE NATURE OF JOB ANALYSIS Organizations consist of positions that have to be staffed. why.  Performance standards.  Human requirements. and services rendered (such as counseling or repairing). materials processed. equipment. JOB DUTIES JOB TASKS JOB ANALYSI S JOB RESPONSIBILITIES . and the organizational and social context—for instance. This list may also include how. such as job-related knowledge or skills (education. training. and writing. First. Management will use these standards to appraise employees. teaching. Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties of these positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for them. deciding.  Machines. Job analysis produces information used for writing job descriptions (a list of what the job entails) and job specifications (what kind of people to hire for the job). Included here is information about such matters as physical working conditions. The specialist may also collect information about human behaviors like sensing. Included here would be information regarding job demands such as lifting weights or walking long distances. tools. work schedule. interests). for instance). such as cleaning. Information regarding incentives might also be included here. selling. knowledge dealt with or applied (such as finance or law). he or she collects information about the job’s actual work activities.


Step 1 Decide how you’ll use the information. is any reference to managing raw material inventories. For example. You know from your review of other jobs like these that someone should be managing inventories. who reports to whom and with whom the job incumbent communicates. A process chart provides a more detailed picture of the work flow. Compensation (such as salary and bonus) usually depends on the job’s required skill and education level. you learn that none of the other manufacturing people are responsible for inventory management. In its simplest form a process chart shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job you’re analyzing. degree of responsibility. and so on—all factors you can assess through job analysis. your company’s production manager says she’s responsible for a dozen or so duties. and where the job fits in the overall organization. since this will determine the data you collect and how you collect them. safety hazards. Compensation Job analysis information is crucial for estimating the value of each job and its appropriate compensation. however. thanks to job analysis. like the position analysis questionnaire described later. STEPS IN JOB ANALYSIS There are six steps in doing a job analysis. Other techniques. Training The job description should show the activities and skills—and therefore the training—that the job requires. they provide numerical ratings for each job. helps management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire. The chart should show the title of each position and. such as production scheduling and raw material purchasing. . On further study. and job descriptions. Managers use job analysis to determine the job’s specific activities and performance standards. either. these can be used to compare jobs for compensation purposes. process charts. Some data collection techniques—like interviewing the employee and asking what the job entails—are good for writing job descriptions and selecting employees for the job. Discovering Unassigned Duties Job analysis can also help reveal unassigned duties. do not provide qualitative information for job descriptions.USES OF JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION Recruitment and Selection Job analysis provides information about what the job entails and what human characteristics are required to perform these activities. This information. Step 2 Review relevant background information such as organization charts. in the form of job descriptions and specifications. Instead. performance with his or her performance standards. Missing. Organization charts show the organization wide division of work. by means of interconnecting lines. how the job in question relates to other jobs. You’ve uncovered an essential unassigned duty.

Step 4 Actually analyze the job—by collecting data on job activities. or consultant) might observe and analyze the job and then develop a job description and specification. by giving that person a chance to review and modify your description of the job activities. They all provide realistic information about what job incumbents actually do. For example. The HR specialist (perhaps an HR manager. They then average data from several employees from different departments to determine how much time a typical employee spends on each of several specific tasks. The supervisor and worker may fill out questionnaireslisting the subordinate’s activities. as well as its important features. The point is that you must understand the job’s departmental context: The way someone with a particular job title spends his or her time is not necessarily the same from department to department. skills. and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. Interviews. The supervisor and worker may then review and verify the job analyst’s conclusions regarding the job’s activities and duties. use one or more of the job analysis methods explained later in this chapter. This will help confirm that the information is factually correct and complete. the worker. The job specification summarizes the personal qualities. required employee behaviors. Step 5 Verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor. questionnaires. and background required for getting the job done. job analyst. observations. Managers use them for developing job descriptions and job specifications. This review can also help gain the employee’s acceptance of the job analysis data and conclusions. . It may be in a separate document or in the same document as the job description. traits. working conditions. Step 6 Develop a job description and job specification. and diary/logs are the most popular methods for gathering job analysis data. if there is one. In practice. HR assistants need to devote to “interviewing candidates” could end in misleading results. firms usually collect job analysis data from multiple “subject matter experts” (mostly job incumbents) using questionnaires and interviews. it is usually unnecessary to analyze the jobs of 200 assembly workers when a sample of 10 jobs will do. such as working conditions and safety hazards.Finally. say. simply adding up and averaging the amount of time that. Step 3 Select representative positions. Why? Because there may be too many similarjobs to analyze. and the worker’s supervisor. usually provides a starting point for building the revised job description. Therefore. The problem is that employees who have the same job title but work in different departments may experience very different pressures. These are two tangible products of the job analysis. The job description (to repeat) is a written statement that describes the activities and responsibilities of the job. the existing job description. For this step. METHODS OF COLLECTING JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION Conducting the job analysis usually involves a joint effort by an HR specialist.

including information that might never appear on a written form. experience. or informal contacts that wouldn’t be obvious from the organization chart. and prudent analysts get multiple inputs. Obtaining valid information can thus be a slow process. Whichever kind of interview you use. A skilled interviewer can unearth important activities that occur only occasionally. and supervisor interviews with one or more supervisors who know the job. Pros and Cons The interview is probably the most widely used method for identifying a job’s duties and responsibilities. . First. since it can be a quick and inexpensive way to gather information. you can interview the supervisor separately to get that person’s perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities. you need to be sure the interviewee fully understands the reason for the interview.The Interview Managers use three types of interviews to collect job analysis data—individual interviews with each employee. group interviews with groups of employees who have the same job. and its wide use reflects its advantages. the job analyst and supervisor should work together to identify the workers who know the job best—and preferably those who’ll be most objective in describing their duties and responsibilities. And the employee can vent frustrations that might otherwise go unnoticed by management. Distortion of information is the main problem—whether due to outright falsification or honest misunderstanding. interviewees may hesitate to describe their jobs accurately. They use group interviews when a large number of employees are performing similar or identical work. Some typical interview questions include: What is the job being performed? What are the major duties of your position? What exactly do you do? What physical locations do you work in? What are the education. and [where applicable] certification and licensing requirements? In what activities do you participate? What are the job’s responsibilities and duties? What are the basic accountabilities or performance standards that typify your work? What are your responsibilities? What are the environmental and working conditions involved? What are the job’s physical demands? The emotional and mental demands? What are the health and safety conditions? Are you exposed to any hazards or unusual working conditions? Interview Guidelines . The interview also provides an opportunity to explain the need for and functions of the job analysis. the workers’ immediate supervisor attends the group session.” If so. since there’s a tendency for such interviews to be viewed. As a rule. rightly or wrongly. They may then tend to exaggerate certain responsibilities while minimizing others. interviews are widely used.Keep several things in mind when conducting a job analysis interview. as “efficiency evaluations. Typical Questions Despite their drawbacks. if not. Employees therefore may legitimately view the interview as an efficiency evaluation that may affect their pay. It’s a relatively simple and quick way to collect information. Job analysis is often a prelude to changing a job’s pay rate. skill.

Observation Direct observation is especially useful when jobs consist mainly of observable physical activities —assembly-line worker and accounting clerk are examples. or longer for complex jobs. and provide some open-ended questions like. it’s less costly than interviewing hundreds of workers. when duties are not performed in a regular manner—for instance. after completing the interview. On the other hand. Managers often use direct observation and interviewing together. One approach is to observe the worker on the job during a complete work cycle. and explain how the person was chosen for the interview. for instance. design engineer). Ask the person to clarify points not understood and to . it could be a minute for an assembly line worker or an hour. questionnaires have both pros and cons. Each employee gets an inventory of perhaps hundreds of specific duties or tasks (such as “change and splice wire”). speak in easily understood language. Some questionnaires are very structured checklists. At the other extreme the questionnaire can be open-ended and simply ask the employee to “describe the major duties of your job. A typical job analysis questionnaire might have several open-ended questions (such as “state your main job duties”) as well as structured questions (concerning. quickly establish rapport with the interviewee. review the information with the worker’s immediate supervisor and with the interviewee. Questionnaires Having employees fill out questionnaires to describe their job-related duties and responsibilities is another good way to obtain job analysis information. briefly review the interview’s purpose. observation is usually not appropriate when the job entails a lot of mental activity (lawyer. for instance. However.Whether structured or unstructured. (However. if so. when the worker doesn’t perform the same job over and over again many times a day—ask the worker to list his or her duties in order of importance and frequency of occurrence. you interview the worker. Then. a day. after accumulating as much information as possible. And reactivity—the worker’s changing what he or she normally does because you are watching —can also be a problem. previous experience required).) Here you take notes of all the job activities. review and verify the data. how much time is normally spent on each. “Was there anything we didn’t cover with our questions?”) Fourth. such as a nurse who handles emergencies. A questionnaire is a quick and efficient way to obtain information from a large number of employees. Know the person’s name. one that lists questions and provides space for answers.” In practice. This will ensure that you don’t overlook crucial but infrequently performed activities—like a nurse’s occasional emergency room duties. This ensures you’ll identify crucial questions ahead of time and that all interviewers (if there’s more than one) cover all the required questions. Nor is it useful if the employee only occasionally engages in important activities. the best questionnaire often falls between these two extremes. follow a structured guide or checklist. also make sure to give the worker some leeway in answering questions. developing the questionnaire and testing it (perhaps by making sure the workers understand the questions) can be expensive and time consuming. Specifically. Third. He or she is asked to indicate whether or not he or she performs each task and. Finally.Second. (The cycle is the time it takes to complete the job. You have to decide how structured the questionnaire should be and what questions to include.

The PAQ contains 194 items. “To do this task and meet these standards. functional job analysis also identifies performance standards and training requirements. the employee records the activity (along with the time) in a log. It therefore lets you answer the question. especially when supplemented with subsequent interviews with the worker and the supervisor. if so. observations. This approach can avoid one pitfall of the traditional diary/log method: relying on workers to remember what they did hours earlier when they complete their logs at the end of the day. Some firms take a high-tech approach to diary/logs. or questionnaires. skilled activity. Position Analysis Questionnaire . QUANTITATIVE JOB ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES Qualitative approaches like interviews and questionnaires are not always suitable. the mathematical ability required to perform the task. Then at random times during the day. They give employees pocket dictating machines and pagers. or from the observations of job analysts. For example. chronological nature of the log tends to mediate against this. to what extent The advantage of the PAQ is that it provides a quantitative score or profile of any job in terms of how that job rates on five basic activities: (1) having decision-making/communication/social responsibilities. the detailed. if your aim is to compare jobs for pay purposes. but also on four more dimensions: the extent to which specific instructions are necessary to perform the task. for instance. people.explain what other activities he or she performs that you didn’t observe. This can produce a very complete picture of the job. the Department of Labor approach. (3) being physically active. each of which (such as “written materials”) represents a basic element that may or may not play an important role in the job. who dictate what they are doing at that time. and the verbal and language facilities required to perform the task. However. of course. You can therefore use the PAQ results to quantitatively compare jobs to one another. might try to exaggerate some activities and underplay others. Yet a recent study suggests that using just one source may not be wise.The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) is a very structured job analysis questionnaire. and things. The job analyst decides if each item plays a role and.Functional job analysis rates the job not just on data. the extent to which reasoning and judgment are required to perform the task. it lets you assign a quantitative score to each job based on its decision-making. Participant Diary/Logs Another approach is to ask workers to keep a diary/log of what they do during the day. . asking questions while the worker performs his or her job. For every activity he or she engages in. The employee. The PAQ’s real strength is thus in classifying jobs. and (5) processing information. Functional Job Analysis . what training does the worker require?” Using Multiple Sources of Information There are obviously many ways to obtain job analysis information. and functional job analysis are three popular quantitative methods. You can also observe and interview simultaneously. The position analysis questionnaire. physical activity. groups.9 and then assign pay levels for each job. you may want to be able to assign quantitative values to each job. or supervisors. In other words. (2) performing skilled activities. vehicle/equipment operation. You can get it from individual workers. Some firms use just one basic approach. they page the workers. (4) operating vehicles/equipment. and information-processing characteristics. You can use interviews. like having the job analyst do interviews with current job incumbents.

However. It’s better to try to avoid such inaccuracies by using several sources. supervisors. WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS A job description is a written statement of what the worker actually does. And if possible. some group members may feel forced to go along with the consensus of the group. For example. make sure the questions and surveys are clear and understandable to the respondents. Job identification 2. how he or she does it. There is no standard format for writing a job description. For example. observe and question respondents early enough in the job analysis process to catch any problems while there’s still time to correct them. What this means is that collecting job analysis data from just interviews. and analysts. Standards of performance 6. most descriptions contain sections that cover: 1. and skills required to perform the job satisfactorily. where possible. may lead to inaccurate conclusions. You use this information to write a job specification. Job specifications . observers. in a group interview. Authority of incumbent 5. or an employee may be careless about how he or she completes a questionnaire. this lists the knowledge. Job summary 3. Working conditions 7. individuals. and what the job’s working conditions are. or just observations. Responsibilities and duties 4. collect job analysis data from several types of respondents— groups.The problem is the potential inaccuracies in people’s judgments. abilities.

making big Bazaar India’s favorite shopping destination. . There is always a ‘first mover advantage’ in an upcoming sector.Big Bazaar and Food Bazaar blend the look. It currently operates out of more than 150 stores and top 25 stores register a cumulative footfall of 30 lakh a month on an average. convenience and quality. utensils. Its values and missions are to be the best in Value Retailing by providing the cheapest prices and hence go the tag-line “Is se sasta aur achcha kahin nahin” It sells variety of merchandise at affordable rates. crockery.” It has brought about many changes in the buying habits of people. sports goods. or so it claims.BIG BAZAAR COMPANY PROFILE: Kishore Biyani led the company’s foray into organized retail with the opening up of the Big Bazaar in the year 2001. feel and touch of Indian Bazaar with modern retail concepts of choice. it has opened the doors into the world of fashion and general merchandise including Home furnishings. It was started as a hypermarket format head quartered in Jogeshwari. the prices of which it claims are lowest in the city. Big Bazaar plans to add much more to complete your shopping experience. It is owned by Pantaloon Retail India Ltd. And this is just the beginning. cutlery. First Food Bazaar format was added as Shop-In-Shop within Big Bazaar in the year 2002. 50. offer weekend discounts and works on the same economy model as Wal-Mart and has considerable success in many Indian cities and small towns. that advantage goes to “Big Bazaar. Mumbai with approx. convenience and quality. In India. plastics. with the ever increasing array of private labels.000 products under one roof that cater to every need of family. It has created formats which provide all items under one roof at low rates. books and music. Big Bazaar is the destination where you get products available at prices lower than the MRP. car accessories. Usually the items are clubbed together for offers as on the lines of Wal-Mart and Carrefour.000 sqft of space. computer accessories and much more at prices that will surprise you. setting a new level of standard in price. Future Group and caters to the Great Indian Middle Class. Also. In Big Bazaar you will find over 170.

Leveraging on the company’s inherent strength of fashion. Launch of Pantaloons Trouser. Big Bazaar crosses 100 store mark. Its success is a true testament to the emotional bonding it has established with the Indian customer. Future Group enters into joint ventures with US Office stationery retailer. Future Group acquires rural retail chain. Bangalore and Hyderabad. 2002 – Food Bazaar 2004 – Central – India’s first seamless mall is launched in Bangalore. 1995 – John Miller 1997 – company enters modern retail with the launch of the first 8000 square feet store. India’s first formal trouser brand. Aadhar present in 65 rural locations. 2006 – Future Capital Holdings. Pantaloon Retail wins the ‘International Retailer of the Year’ in New York and ‘Emerging Retailer’ of the year award in Barcelona. HISTORY 1987 – company incorporated as ‘Manz Wear Private Limited’. 1991 – launch of BARE 1992 – Initial Public Offer (IPO) was made in the month of May 1994 – the Pantaloon Shoppe – exclusive menswear store in franchisee format launched across the nation. on account of its value offerings. Pantaloons in Kolkata. 2005 – acquires stakes in Galaxy Entertainment. inspirational appeal and service levels. Indus League Clothing and Planet Retail. Staples. 2008 – Future Capitals Holdings becomes the second group company to make a successful IPO in the Indian Capital markets. Big Bazaar has created a strong value-for-money proposition for its customers. . 2001 – three Big Bazaar stores launched within 22 day in Kolkata. 2007 – Future Group crosses $1 billion turnover mark.


 Demonstrate the products and services. Sales Representative Job Summary: • • to promote the sale of the company's merchandise to existing customers to obtain and develop new business in line with company sales objectives and strategic programmes. . Duties:  Handling Complaints  Maintaining Customer Relationships  Educate the customers. Sales Executive in merchandising Title: Sales Executive Department: Merchandising Summary: They help people buy what they need. patient and tactful when dealing with difficult customers  ability to work under pressure. Report to: Buyer Job specification Education: High school graduate. Experience: Relevant work experience KSA: Ability to calculate prices quickly and accurately  awareness of current fashion trends and customer tastes  ability to remain courteous.  Create and improve customer loyalty.1. prospects and influencers. 2.

Key Responsibilities and Duties Performance indicators .

requirements and offering solutions  can advise customers of 1. offers/promotions. complete company paperwork relating to post:  prompt. Exterior 2.5. maintain up-to-date files and portfolios of company  all necessary literature and sales sales literature. Keep up-to-date on product technology particularly technical developments and identify developments impacting on the company's product range opportunities/threats to maintain and and sales competitiveness.3. Maintain a detailed knowledge of company products.g.personnel. market intelligence reports  running and repair costs.1. services and prices competitors.  can present new lines and 1.4. promotion materials are available for samples and prices customer visits and follow-ups  representative contributes detailed 2. ensure car is safety and economically driven. action reports and and returns.3. services and activities are up-to-date and used meetings and in planning own effectively in analysis priorities 2. promote sales 2. useful reports weekly sales reports. Maintain up-to-date knowledge of competitor's advantages of own products over products. enable targeting of sales and customer and prospect data and analysis of business achievement of sales targets obtained  completeness and reliability of customer data and its usage 2. systems and services and apply it effectively in  customers are informed and understanding customer/client problems. diagnosing delighted.2. schedules. and interior care reflects company properly serviced and maintained standards . time by effective  value of orders/calls made to types planning of calls. product specifications. manage appointments. accurate. Information Systems  ratio of travel time to total time  mileage/types of calls 2. expense sheets. needs are satisfied.1. maintain own sales information system records: e. files/records on area/group competitors .6. travel and interviews of customer  evidence of good customer visit preparation  complete records  sales analysis reports and plans 2.2. knowledge of competitors to sales products.1. Technical and Product Knowledge 1.

provide regular and up-to-date information on  customer business evalation customer businesses developments/activities relating to reports needs. business trends/opportunities competitors and the industry  new competitor lines are analysed  acceptance/competitiveness of company products and and reported services  contributions to sales quality  unexploited sales opportunities meetings  technological developments affecting the company 4. product and service . likely demand.6. Maintain liason with support departments in the company to ensure that value-added to the customer is maximised 3.1. Obtain orders to meet sales targets. Provide effective presentations and demonstrations 3. Obtain inquiries from interested and prospective customers.Manage agreed discounts to eligible customers in line  discounts in relation to sales value with company promotion and profit policies  self-review planning and 3.1. trading weaknesses and reactions to  operations. Offer feedback through reporting channels on:  the company is informed about  company image as perceived by customers.3. Maintain high level selling skills by evaluating own implementation competences and sales performance. Create opportunities to present company products/services.3.4.7. Market Research 4. Assist customer accounts to obtain customer payments against outstanding accounts by following up queries and misunderstandings that may delay payment 4. Locate prospective customers 3. Selling 3.5.2. demostrate ability as  contributions to sales training and a learner manager peer development  no after-sales complaints  support departments aware of customer needs  no customers lost through lack of support from other depts  low debtors ratio for represetnative's customers 3. Ensure that customer prblems arising from sales are responded effectively  no likely customer overlooked  number of inquiries  number of presentations  involvement with clients in supply chain discussions  achieved sales vs target  sales profitability  sales by customer group  after-sales problems and service indicators 3.2.

Consult with product development personnel on product specifications such as design. such as budgets.4. Marketing Manager  Develop pricing strategies.  Identify.  Formulate.our goods and services 4.  Direct the hiring. based on knowledge of establishment objectives. balancing firm objectives and customer satisfaction. expenditures. undertake individual projects for National FS Mgr development and accounts departments have up-to-date information  competitor business evalation reports  as for 4. and cost and markup factors. training. develop.3. establishing distribution networks and developing distribution strategies. working with advertising and promotion managers. and return-on-investment and profit-loss projections.2. direct and coordinate marketing activities and policies to promote products and services. and packaging.  customer business evalation reports  investigations completed.) for competitors in sales area 4. Use sales forecasting and strategic planning to ensure the sale and profitability of . research and development appropriations. market characteristics.2.  Negotiate contracts with vendors and distributors to manage product distribution. effective informative reports useful for business development Scope of Authority  to charge business travel and car expenses to company expense account  negotiation of discounts for customers within the parameters defined by company discounting policy 3. and performance evaluations of marketing and sales staff and oversee their daily activities. color.  Evaluate the financial aspects of product development. do the same (4. and evaluate marketing strategy.  Compile lists describing product or service offerings.

national. Rquirements: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sales and marketing Customer and personal service English Language Administration and Management Communications and Media Psychology Computers and Electronics Education and Training Clerical Personnel and Human Resources Critical Thinking Judgment and Decision Making Time Management Negotiation Speech Clarity Problem Sensitivity . such as copyright infringement and royalty sharing with outside producers and distributors. lines.  Advise business and other groups on local. analyzing business developments and monitoring market trends.products. advertisers. or services.  Coordinate and participate in promotional activities and trade shows. and production managers.  Confer with legal staff to resolve problems. to market products and services. and international factors affecting the buying and selling of products and services. working with developers.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful