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ISP, Volume 23, No. 265, 1976.

Report 0427-P, 1976,


Updated: 13-09-2001. Delft University of Technology,
Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory,
Internet: Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft,
http://dutw189.wbmt.tudelft.nl/~johan The Netherlands.
http://shipmotions.nl E-mail: J.M.J.Journee@wbmt.tudelft.nl

Prediction of Speed and Behaviour of a Ship in a Seaway

J.M.J. Journée

Delft University of Technology

Summary

A computer program has been developed to calculate speed and behaviour of a ship in a
seaway. In this stage the program is suitable for seagoing vessels in head waves. In
determining the speed, two factors are considered: the natural speed reduction due to added
resistance caused by wind and waves and the voluntary speed reduction by the ship's captain,
in order to prevent severe motions.

1 Introduction When routing a ship for the first time a


routing officer needs reliable speed loss
For almost twenty years now, a ship's graphs, to read the ship’s speed as a
captain can make use of routing advises function of wave height and mean wave
from weather routing departments like that direction. Developments in the last decade
from the K.N.M.I. (Royal Netherlands made it possible to calculate with
Meteorological Institute) at De Bilt [1]. sufficient accuracy the speed in still water
With a known rough weather pattern in the and the natural speed reduction due to
ocean an optimum ship’s route can be added resistance caused by wind and
found with a minimum travelling time, waves. At this theoretical speed dangerous
fuel consumption or risk of damage of the motions can arise for the safety of crew,
ship and its cargo. These routing advises, ship or cargo. Then the master will
are based on the momentary and expected voluntarily reduce speed in order to
wind and waves and the ship’s reaction to prevent severe motions. Several criteria for
them. The forecast of wind and waves is a this decision can be found in literature.
meteorological problem. Up to now the At the Ship Hydromechanics Laboratory
prediction of the behaviour of a ship in a of the Delft University of Technology a
seaway - especially the ship’s speed - is method has been developed to calculate
based on routing experience with the ship the natural speed, the voluntary speed
considered or similar ships. reduction and the behaviour of the ship at

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this speed in a seaway with head waves. where the relation between Va and V is
This method has been worked out into an given by:
Algol’60 computer program, named Va = V ⋅ {1 − w(V )}
ROUTE, which enables a practical use.
At a certain engine setting these two
2 Calculation of Speed equations are solved in the program
ROUTE for every wind and sea condition
Apart from wind and sea conditions, the as shown in Figure 1.
speed of a ship in a seaway mainly
depends on three aspects:
- dimensions and form of the ship's hull
and superstructure,
- dimensions and characteristics of the
propeller and
- output and characteristics of the
propulsive machinery.
The energy flow of a ship in operation is
given in the following scheme.

The propeller behind a ship is considered


as an energy transformer: torque with rpm
will be transformed into thrust with a mean
speed of advance. At a certain steam or
fuel inlet ratio of the engine there will be
equilibrium between the number of
revolutions and the ship’s speed. This Figure 1 Scheme of Speed Calculation
equilibrium is in such a way that two
conditions are fulfilled: the torque needed For a number of ship speeds the relations
by the propeller must be in equilibrium between torque needed by propeller and
with the torque delivered by the engine rpm are calculated from the torque
and the thrust delivered by the propeller characteristics of the propeller behind the
must be in equilibrium with the total ship and an adapted wake fraction. The
resistance of the ship. relation between torque delivered by the
These two conditions of equilibrium are engine to the propeller and rpm is known
shown in two coupled equations as from engine characteristics and shaft
mentioned below: losses. These relations give a relation of
equilibrium for speed and rpm, which
Q(Va , n )
Qm (Q0 , n0 , c, n ) = together with the thrust characteristics of
ηm the propeller behind the ship and a thrust
deduction fraction results in a resistance,

( )
which can be achieved by propeller and
RT V , VW , α W , H 1 / 3 , T , µ = T (Va , n ) ⋅ engine, as a function of the ship’s speed. If
⋅ {1 − t (V , n )} the total resistance of the ship for a
number of speeds is known by calculation
the actual speed of the ship can be found.

2
Some parts needed for the determination method can be used for most normal
of the speed are discussed in the following and full ships in full load condition.
parts of this chapter. With less accuracy a ship in light load
condition can be considered as a ship
in full load condition with a large
2.1 Resistance breadth - draught ratio.

The total resistance of a ship in a seaway is Both methods are valid for single-screw
divided into three parts: ships with a limited speed range. For too
- still water resistance: RSW (V ) low a speed the resistance is extrapolated
- wind resistance: RW (V , VW , α W ) with a second-degree polynomial and for
too high a speed with a third degree
- added resistance due to waves:
( )
polynomial. No allowances are made for
R AW V , H 1 / 3 , T , µ fouling or a bulbous bow. In the program
however, it is possible to multiply the still
So the relation between resistance and water resistance with a correction factor.
thrust can be written as:

RSW (V ) + RW (V ,VW ,αW ) + 2.1.2 Wind Resistance


(
+ RAW V , H 1 / 3 , T , µ =) For containerships and ships in ballast
= T (Va , n ) ⋅ {1 − t (V , n )} condition the wind resistance often is a
part of the total resistance which may not
The determination of these three com- be neglected. Isherwood [5] has analysed
ponents of the resistance is given in more the results of wind resistance experiments
detail in the following paragraphs. carried out at different laboratories with
models covering a wide range of merchant
2.1.1 Still Water Resistance ships. He gives empirical formulas for
determining the two horizontal
In literature several methods have been components of the wind force and the
described to determine the still water wind-induced yawing moment on any
resistance of a ship. These methods have merchant ship form for a wind from any
been based on the results of a large direction. The formula and the
number of model experiments and full- corresponding coefficients for the wind
scale experiments which have been resistance are used in the program.
systematically or statistically transformed
into graphs, tables or empirical formulas.
Up to now in the computer program 2.1.3 Added Resistance due to Waves
ROUTE, one of the next two methods can
be used: To calculate the added resistance of a ship
• The method of the Shipbuilding in a seaway a computer program, named
Research Association of Japan [2]. TRIAL, is available at the Delft Ship
This method has been developed for Hydromechanics Laboratory. An earlier
fast slender ships with a block- version of the program has been described
coefficient between 0.55 and 0.65. It is in [6].
a great advantage of this method that it The ship is considered to travel in
can be used for different loading unidirectional head waves and only pitch
conditions of the ship. and heave motions are determined. Added
• The method of Lap [3] with an mass and damping for the ships cross-
extension of Auf ‘m Keller [4]. This sections are calculated by using a Lewis

3
conformal transformation. The resulting fit frequently used in practice. At present
to the actual cross sectional form is about 120 propeller models of the B-series
satisfactory for the present purpose [7]. have been tested at the Netherlands Ship
The increase of resistance in regular waves Model Basin.
is calculated with the method of Gerritsma The thrust and torque coefficients are
and Beukelman by determining the expressed by Oosterveld and Van
radiated energy of the damping waves as Oossanen [9] as polynomials in the
described in [8]. number of propeller blades, blade area
The calculation in an irregular sea is based ratio, pitch ratio and advance coefficient.
on the superposition principle for the With the aid of a multiple regression
components of the wave, motion and analysis the significant terms of the
resistance spectra as well as on the polynomials and the values of the
assumption of linearity for the ship’s corresponding coefficients are determined.
response. In regular waves the added The polynomials are valid for open-water
resistance varies as the square of the wave propeller models with Reynolds number
amplitude. In a wave spectrum the mean Rn = 2 ⋅ 10 6 .
added resistance would then be calculated Oosterveld and Van Oossanen [10] also
from: give polynomials to correct thrust and

R torque coefficients for the actual Reynolds
R AW = 2 ∫ AW2 (ω e ) ⋅ S ζ (ω e ) ⋅ dω e number of the full-size B-series open-
0 ζa
water propeller. These polynomials are
used in the program.
The program TRIAL has been adapted to For the propeller behind a ship the
this special problem in the program calculated torque must be corrected for
ROUTE. For the description of the sea this behind condition:
surface two parameter Pierson-Moskowitz
Qopen water
wave spectra are used. For each wave ηR =
spectrum, the mean added resistance is Qbehind ship
calculated as a function of the ship’s
speed. For single-screw ships 1.04 is a good mean
value for this relative rotative efficiency,
while for twin-screw ships 0.97 is advised.
2.2 Propeller Characteristics

Thrust and torque of an open-water 2.3 Wake and Thrust Deduction


propeller are defined by:
T = K T ⋅ ρD 4 n 2 In the program, the wake fraction and the
thrust deduction fraction can be estimated
Q = K Q ⋅ ρD 5 n 2
by very simple formulas. If one of these
values is known, for instance from model
The coefficients K T and K Q are tests, it is also possible to make use of this
depending on the number of propeller value.
blades, blade area ratio, pitch ratio and
advance coefficient which is defined by: Wake fraction:
V • Taylor [11]
J= a single-screw ship:
nD
w = −0.05 + 0.50 ⋅ C b
Propeller characteristics can be obtained twin-screw ship:
from open-water test results of the w = −0.20 + 0.55 ⋅ C b
Wageningen B-series propellers, which are • Harvald [12]

4
single-screw ship: In this connection two important types of
w = w(C b , L / B, D / L, hull form ) engines for ship's propulsion are
twin-screw ship: distinguished.
w = w(C b , L / B )
• A given value of the wake fraction. 2.4.1 Turbine
Thrust deduction fraction: Usually it is accepted that at an increasing
• Weingart: engine loading and a constant engine
single-screw ship: setting the power remains constant. This
 C  means a hyperbolic relation between
t = w ⋅ 1.57 − 2.30 ⋅ b + 1.50 ⋅ C b 
 C wp  torque and number of revolutions:
 
n
twin-screw ship: Q = c ⋅ η m ⋅ Q0 ⋅ 0
n
 C 
t = w ⋅ 1.67 − 2.30 ⋅ b + 1.50 ⋅ C b  According to some authors like Geisler
 C wp 
  and Siemer [13] and Goodwin et. al. [14]
• A given value of thrust deduction in practice there is a linear relation
fraction - wake fraction ratio. between torque and number of revolutions:
• A given value of the thrust deduction  n
Q = c ⋅ η m ⋅ Q0 ⋅ a − (a − 1) ⋅ 
fraction.  n0 
where the coefficient a depends on the
The above mentioned values are valid in
type of the turbine:
still water. Model tests in still water
a = 2 .0 − 3 .0
showed that wake fraction and thrust
If one takes into consideration that the
deduction fraction are practically
number of revolutions of the propeller of a
independent of speed. It can be shown
ship in a sea-way will not reduce more
from overload tests in still water that at an
than 10-15 percent at a constant steam
increasing propeller loading and a constant
inlet ratio, the assumption of a constant
number of revolutions, the wake fraction
power is sufficiently accurate for
keeps constant and the thrust deduction
calculating the ship’s speed. The relations
fraction is approximately linearly
between torque and rpm mentioned above
decreasing with the model speed.
are shown in figure 2.
Experiments at the Delft University of
Technology with a model of a fast cargo
ship showed no difference between still
water and regular waves for both fractions
at the same average loading of the
propeller [28].

2.4 Engine Characteristics

For solving the equation between the


needed and delivered torque at the
propeller it is necessary to know the Figure 3 Torque – RPM Relation of
relation between torque and rpm of the a Turbine
engine at a certain steam or fuel inlet ratio.

5
2.4.2 Diesel Engine

For a diesel engine it is mostly accepted


that at an increasing engine loading and a
constant engine setting the torque remains
constant. This means that a = 1.0 in the
last equation and so:
Q = c ⋅ η m ⋅ Q0
In practice there is some difference with
this assumption. At a constant engine
setting and an increasing engine loading
the torque will increase first, then obtains a
maximum value and afterwards will Figure 4 Symbols and Definitions
decrease again. This can be approximated
by a linear relation between torque and Let us consider the heave motion as an
number of revolutions, provided that the example for the calculating method. The
number of revolutions will not reduce definitions and symbols are shown in
more than 10-15 per cent. Then the linear Figure 4.
torque-rpm relation can be used with for In a complex notation the heave motion in
instance a = 1.5 . These relations between regular waves can be written as:
torque and number of revolutions are ( )
z (t ) = ζ a ⋅ H zζ (ω e ) ⋅ e
i ω et + ε zζ
shown in Figure 3.
where
za
H zζ (ω e ) =(ω e )
ζa
defines the response function of the heave
motion. The superposition principle
enables the calculation of the variance of
the heave motion in a known wave
spectrum:

m0 z = ∫ S z (ω e ) ⋅ dω e
0

Figure 3 Torque-RPM Relation for a where


S z (ω e ) = H zζ (ω e ) ⋅ S ζ (ω e )
2
Diesel Engine
defines the heave spectrum.
3 Calculation of Motions For most practical applications it may be
assumed that motion, velocity and
The program TRIAL, mentioned before, acceleration amplitudes follow the
calculates vertical absolute and relative Rayleigh distribution law. In this example
motions in regular waves for different ship the probability that the heave amplitude
*
speeds. Ship motions in an irregular sea exceeds a certain value z a is given by:
are determined by linear superposition of ( )
− za
* 2

the ship responses to the individual regular


wave components.
{
Pr z a > z a = e
*
} 2 m0 z

The occurrence rate for this per hour will


be:

6
{ } {
N z a > z a = Pr z a > z a ⋅
* *
} 3600 good agreement between the measure-
ments and this empirical formula. For
m0 z
2π ⋅ calculating the probability of deck wetness
m2 z at the forward perpendiculars the
in which the second moment of the heave geometrical freeboard is decreased with
spectrum is given by: the static swell-up obtained from Tasaki's

formula.
m2 z = ∫ S zζ (ω e ) ⋅ ω e ⋅ dω e
2
Generally, the probability of slamming
0
will be calculated at station 17 or 18. It is
The significant amplitude of the heave assumed that the static swell-up at these
motion is given by: stations is zero at the instant of re-entry of
z a1 / 3 = 2 ⋅ m0 z the forefoot in the water in case of
slamming.
In this way the program TRIAL calculates Dynamic phenomena increase the
the significant amplitudes of heave, pitch, amplitude of the relative motion at the
absolute and relative motions and bow; there is a dynamic swell-up. When
accelerations and the probability and the bow immerses, the water surface will
number per hour of exceeding a certain rise and when the bow emerges, the water
value by the relative motion. surface will fall. Tasaki [15] has carried
out forced oscillation tests with a towed
ship model in still water to measure the
3.1 Relative Motions displacement of the water surface relative
to the bow of the model. From the results
Neglecting the wave disturbance by the of these experiments he has obtained an
ship the relative motion at a longitudinal empirical formula to estimate the dynamic
distance xb from the centre of gravity is swell-up at the bow:
given by: ∆s a C b − 0.45 L
= ⋅ ⋅ωe
s = ζ xb − z + xb ⋅ θ sa 3 g
where ζ xb is the vertical wave displace- with the restriction:
0.60 < C b < 0.80
ment at position xb .
So the amplitude of the relative motion at
Significant amplitudes and probabilities of
the bow is:
exceeding a given value are calculated as
 ∆s 
showed for the heave motion. Because of s a = s a ⋅ 1 + a 
*

bow waves and sinkage due to the ship’s  sa 


speed, the effective freeboard f e at the
bow generally differs from the geometric This formula is used in the program for
freeboard f . calculating the probability of shipping
Tasaki [15] gives an empirical formula for water at the forward perpendiculars.
this static swell-up at the bow:
L Van Sluys and Tan have carried out
∆f = f − f e = 0.75 ⋅ B ⋅ ⋅ Fn 2 experiments in regular waves [16] with
Le
compact frigates that have shown that the
with L is the ship length and Le is the wave amplitude along the ship’s hull is
length of entrance of the water line. influenced by a factor between 0 and 2.
Experiments at the Delft Ship The highest dynamic swell-up appeared in
Hydromechanics Laboratory with a model the neighbourhood of station 17 or 18.
of a fast cargo ship in full load and in Also, experiments at the Delft Ship
ballast condition has shown a remarkably Hydromechanics Laboratory have shown

7
here a dynamic swell-up of roughly double 4 Voluntary Speed Reduction
the value of the dynamic swell-up at the
bow. For calculating the probability of When a ship encounters a severe storm the
slamming it is assumed that the dynamic ship’s captain will reduce speed in order to
swell-up at station 17 or 18 is double the ease severe motions.
value of Tasaki at the bow. More
investigations are necessary to estimate a The most important phenomena for this
good mean value. decision are the probability of occurrence
and severity of:

3.2 Accelerations 1. Deck wetness


Caused by shipping water, this will
The absolute motion at a longitudinal happen if the relative motion of the
distance xb from the centre of gravity can bow exceeds the effective freeboard
be expressed in heave and pitch motions forward. The probability of deck
by: wetness is expressed by:
− f e2
v = z − xb ⋅ θ
Pr{deck wetness} = e 2 m0 s

The response function of the absolute in which m0 s includes the dynamic


motion is: swell-up.
v
H vζ (ω e , xb ) = a (ω e , xb ) 2. Slamming
ζa
Slamming is a phenomenon associated
which also can be used for calculating the with extreme ship motions in waves.
response function of the accelerations at At certain ship speeds in rough seas,
position xb by: the forefoot of the ship emerges from
H v!!ζ (ω e , xb ) = H vζ (ω e , xb ) ⋅ ω e
2
the water as a result of large pitch and
heave motions and violently impacts
the water surface as it re-enters. The
The variance of the accelerations in a wave
ship's forward bottom thereby sustains
spectrum and the Rayleigh distribution
a heavy impulsive pressure from the
gives the probability of exceeding a certain
water and this impulsive force
value by the amplitude of the acceleration:
produces a shudder throughout the
( )
− v!!a
* 2

{ }
Pr v!!a > v!!a = e
* 2 m 0 !v!
hull.
According to Ochi [18] the probability
of occurrence of slamming is the joint
It is also possible to determine the probability that the bow emerges and
probability of exceeding a certain value by that the relative velocity exceeds a
the significant amplitude of the certain magnitude at the instant of re-
acceleration. entry. He found a critical relative
As Ochi and Motter have shown in [17], velocity between the bow and waves,
the probability expression: below which slamming does not occur
Pr{v!!a1 / 3 > a} ≤ b and recommends as a good threshold
is the same expression as: value:
 1  s!cr = 0.093 ⋅ g ⋅ L
Pr v!!a ≥ ⋅ a ⋅ − 2 ⋅ ln b  ≤ b
 2  The probability of slamming is
This expression will be used in chapter 4. expressed by:
 T2 s! 2 
− + cr 

Pr{slamming} = e
 2 m0 s 2 m0 s! 
 

8
in which mos and m0 s! include the  sign. ampl. 
dynamic swell-up. deck  of bow  
 wetness   
  and/or acc. will   ≤ 0.07
Pr 
at 
3. Propeller racing  
The time-dependent immersion of the Station 20
 exceed  
propeller results in a fluctuating torque  0.4 ⋅ g  

and thrust of the propeller. Although
the rpm governors greatly reduce
2. Light load condition
possible damage to the propelling
Slamming at station 17 and bow
machinery due to racing, large torque
acceleration are in this condition
and thrust fluctuations are observed in
reasons for voluntary speed reduction.
waves, even at constant rpm.
Aertssen [19] analysed a lot of full-
scale trials and defined for propeller  sign. ampl. 
slam  of bow  
racing: there is racing - or the propeller impact 
  
will be called emergent - on every Pr   and/or acc. will   ≤ 0.03
occasion when the decrease of torque at   
is in excess of 25 per cent. Neglecting Station 17 
 exceed  
 0.4 ⋅ g  
a static and dynamic swell-up at the 
stern, Fukuda [22] has adopted
occurrence of propeller racing when Relative motion and velocity are both
the propeller emergence exceeds one- normal random processes, so they are
third of the diameter of the propeller. treated as statistically independent.
4. Accelerations For two statistical independent events A
Too high accelerations can also be a and B may be written:
reason to reduce speed. The magnitude Pr{A and/or B} =
of the accelerations is strongly
dependent on the ship’s length. = 1.0 − Pr{(not A) and/or (not B )}
Aertssen [20] measured on the trawler = 1.0 − Pr{not A}⋅ Pr{not A}
“Belgian Lady” even accelerations of
2.75 ⋅ g at the forward perpendiculars. So the probability function:
Gerritsma showed the same in [21]. Pr{A and/or B} ≤ c

In [17] Ochi and Motter distinguish, for may be written as:


the estimation of a limit below which no Pr{not A}⋅ Pr{not A} ≥ 1.0 − c
voluntary speed reduction is expected, two
loading conditions:
As mentioned in Section 3.2, the
probability expression with significant
1. Full load condition
acceleration amplitude can be expressed in
In this condition voluntary speed reduction
the amplitude of this acceleration and the
is depending on deck wetness and
two criteria of Ochi and Motter can be
accelerations at the bow:
expressed as follows:

• Full load condition:


 − fe   − (0.4612⋅ g ) 
2 2

1 − e 2 m0 s  ⋅ 1 − e 2 m0 v!!  ≥ 0.93
   
   

9
• Light load condition: - from ordinate zero until forward, for
 every ordinate:
+ cr   
 T2 2 
s! − (0.5296⋅ g ) 
2
−
  2 m0 s 2 m0 s!   
   ≥ 0.97 - ordinate number
1 − e  ⋅ 1 − e
2 m0 !v!

    - array with half widths of the


   section at the waterlines from keel
until load waterline
These two conditions are used in the - array with waterline distances of
program ROUTE the section from keel until load
waterline
- array with positions with respect to
5 Practical Applications ordinate zero of the points for which
relative motions, shipping water,
In the following parts of this Chapter a slamming and acceleration forward
description of the data input in the will be calculated
program is given with a discussion about - array with z -values for calculating the
sea and wind conditions. For six ships, probability of exceeding, shipping
calculation results are compared with full- water and slamming (above load
scale measurements. The time used by an waterline is positive)
IBM 370/158 system, like that of the - array with wave directions (head
Mathematical Centre of the Delft waves is 180 degrees)
University of Technology, for calculating - array with absolute wind directions
speed and motions in a seaway is about (head wind is 180 degrees)
two minutes for one loading condition - array with significant wave heights
with a memory use of about 400 Kbytes. - array with average wave periods
- array with absolute wind speeds
- length overall
5.1 Description of Data Input - lateral projected wind area
- transverse projected wind area
The program needs much information - length of perimeter of lateral projected
about the ship. To show this, the data input wind area excluding waterline and
for a fully loaded ship is given here: slender bodies such as masts and
- text card with 80 symbols including ventilators
spaces - number of distinct groups of masts or
- length at design waterline king posts seen in lateral projection
- length between perpendiculars - type of estimation method of the still
- distance from ordinate zero until APP water resistance:
- ratio between gyradius and length - 1 = method of Lap and Auf 'm
between perpendiculars Keller
- estimated service speed - 2 = method of Shipbuilding
- even number of ordinate intervals Research Association of Japan
- even number of waterline distances - multiplication coefficient for correc-
- number of wave and wind directions ting the calculated still water resistance
- number of points for which relative for a bulbous bow, fouling, etc
motions will be calculated - type of estimation method of the wake
- number of wave spectra and wind fraction:
speeds - 1 = method of Taylor
- number of power inputs - 2 = method of Harvald
- array with ordinate distances from - 3 = a given value of w
ordinate zero until forward - if type = 3 : value of w

10
- type of estimation method of the thrust in which:
deduction fraction: ω wave frequency and
- 1 = method of Weingart A, B coefficients.
- 2 = a given value of t / w
- 3 = a given value of t If statistical information is available on the
- if type = 2: value of t / w characteristic wave period T and the
- if type = 3: value of t significant wave height H 1 / 3 , a two-
- relative rotative efficiency parameter spectral formulation can be used
- number of propellers by defining:
- number of propeller blades
173 ⋅ H 1 / 3
2
691
- diameter of propeller A= 4
and B = 5
- blade area ratio T T
- pitch ratio in which:
- boolean: English horsepower H 1 / 3 = 4 ⋅ m0
(1 hp = 76 kg m/sec)
- for every input of power: m0
T = 2π ⋅
- type of machine: m2
1 = power is constant This period is based on the spectral centre
2 = torque-rpm is linear of gravity and it can be taken as the
- steam or fuel inlet ratio observed period. The spectral formulation,
- mechanical efficiency of the shaft mentioned above, is used in the program.
bearings
- power in design condition If the only information available is the
- rpm in design condition significant wave height, the 12th ITTC re-
- if type = 2 : linear coefficient commends for the coefficients A and B :
of torque-rpm relation 3.11
- boolean: ballast condition A = 0.78 and B = 2
- if this boolean is true: H 1/ 3
- change of draught at ordinate zero This means in the two-parameter spectral
- change of draught forward formulation a relation between significant
- ratio of gyradius and length wave height and characteristic wave
between perpendiculars. period:
T = 3.86 ⋅ H / 3
The dimensions of the different values are:
length: meter The 12th ITTC also recommends a relation
time: second between wind speed and significant wave
speed: knots height in an open ocean when no data are
power: horsepower available:
angle: degree
VW H 1/ 3
(kn) (m)
5.2 Sea and Wind Conditions
20 3.05
The recommendations of the twelfth 30 5.25
I.T.T.C., Rome, 1969, are used for the 40 8.10
description of sea and wind conditions. 50 11.15
The wave spectra are defined by: 60 14.65
−B

S ζ (ω ) = 5 ⋅ e ω
A 4

11
5.3 Calculations and Full Scale It may be noted that differences between
Measurements predictions and measurements, apart from
possible disagreements between theory
For six ships calculation results of and practice, can be caused by different
program ROUTE are compared with full- reasons. All measurements have a certain
scale measurements: 4 ships with a diesel error depending on measuring techniques
engine and 2 ships with a turbine and accuracy of the measuring equipment.
propulsion plant. The main dimensions of There is always a difference between the
these ships are shown in Table 1. actual wave spectrum and the wave
Only measurements in head waves spectrum derived from a spectral
( 150 0 ≤ µ ≤ 180 0 ) are observed to com- formulation with a measured, estimated or
pare them with calculations of the assumed significant wave height and
behaviour of these ships in head wind and average wave period. The input values in
the program, like engine setting
waves ( 180 0 ).
corresponding to a certain torque or power,
In calculating the wave spectra the relation
wave direction, wind direction and wind
between significant wave height and
speed are mean values. Deviations from
average wave period is defined by:
these mean values result in differences
T = 3.86 ⋅ H 1 / 3 between predicted and measured beha-
as mentioned before. The corresponding viour of the ship.
wind speed as recommended by the
twelfth I.T.T.C. is used.

Table 1 Main Dimensions of Comparing Ships

12
Firstly the calculation results for the four maximum rpm belonging to it, the engine
ships with a diesel propulsion plant will be setting is assumed to be 100 per cent.
discussed and after that the results for the The comparison between predictions and
two ships with turbine propulsion plant. measurements are shown in Figures 6, 7, 8
In the last two decades, Aertssen has and 9. The predicted speeds are in
carried out experiments with several ships reasonably good until very good
to study the behaviour of these ships in a agreement with the mean values of the
seaway. The measurement results of 4 measurements. In rough seas however the
ships are used to compare them with the predicted speeds are a little bit too low, but
predictions in head waves: the measurement points scatter more than
m.s. Lukuga [23] two knots. The predicted number of
m.s. Lubumbashi [24, 25] revolutions is somewhat too high; in mild
m.s. Jordaens [19] weather conditions even higher than the
m.s. Dart Europe [26]. maximum value limited by the governor of
The first three ships are conventional the engine. Figure 11 shows that this can
cargo liners and the last one is a partly be caused by the estimated wake
containership, all owned by the and thrust deduction fraction. Another
Compagnie Maritime Belge in Antwerp, reason can be a possible difference
Belgium. between the characteristics of the actual
Aertssen gives in his papers much propeller and the characteristics of the
information and data. The following are Wageningen B-series propeller used in the
used to compare them with the predictions: calculations. The predicted significant
power delivered at the propeller, number amplitudes of pitch and heave motions and
of revolutions per minute of the propeller, vertical bow accelerations are in good
speed, significant wave height and the agreement with the measurements by
significant amplitudes of pitch and heave Aertssen.
motions and vertical bow acceleration. The calculated limits of speed and
For m.s. Lukuga, m.s. Lubumbashi and significant wave height for voluntary
m.s. Jordaens, the increase of power due to speed reduction due to the two criteria of
fouling is assumed to be 8 per cent of the Ochi and Motter are also plotted in the
power in still water at the same speed. In Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9. There was no bad
calculating the still water resistance of m.s. weather in head seas during the
Dart Europe no allowance is made for the experiments of m.s. Lukuga in full 1oad
bulbous bow, so it is assumed that increase condition and m.s. Lubumbashi in both
of power due to fouling will be nullified loading conditions. The criteria could not
by decrease of power due to a bulbous be checked in these cases.
bow. The criterion for full load condition (in the
In order to get a good comparison it is Figures marked by SH) with a maximum
necessary to use the actual torque-rpm probability of shipping water and
relation in the calculations. Figure 5 shows exceeding 0.4 ⋅ g by the significant ampli-
these relations for the torque measured at tude of the bow acceleration of 7 per cent,
the propeller. Those measurements are seems to be too low for m.s. Jordaens and
divided into groups having broadly the m.s. Dart Europe.
same torque. Assuming a constant torque The criterion for light load condition (in
at a constant engine setting, this means the Figures marked by SL) with a
groups of a constant engine setting. For a maximum permitted probability of
torque equal to the torque derived from the slamming and exceeding 0.4 ⋅ g by the
break horsepower of the engine and a significant amplitude of the bow
acceleration of 3 per cent, appears also to

13
be too low. The criterion valid in full load course this is depending on the ship’s
condition seems to be better here. More length.
investigations are necessary to get good In designing a ship, much attention will be
mean values for these percentages used in paid to the still water resistance in relation
the program. to bull form and expensive bulbous bows.
The predictions of this computing method On the North Atlantic however, a sea state
are also compared with measurements on of Beaufort 6 is exceeded in 70 per cent of
turbine ships. In 1972 Beukelman and the time during the winter season. In the
Buitenhek carried out experiments on the summer season this percentage is 45 [21].
containership Atlantic Crown [27]. In the Considering this, it is worth while to pay
calculations it is assumed that the still more attention to added resistance and
water resistance of this twin-screw ship motions in a seaway.
with a bulbous bow, including fouling, is The program ROUTE can be an expedient
equal to the still water resistance for investigating this problem. This
calculated by the method of the program can be made suitable for
Shipbuilding Research Association of calculating the fuel consumption of a ship
Japan for single-screw ships with a in a seaway after which it can be used for
conventional bow, excluding fouling. The routing a ship with a minimum use of fuel,
agreements between predictions and predictions of fuel consumption, etc.
measurements of speed, number of Except for routing purposes, this program
revolutions and pitch and heave motions can be used for the determination of
are very good as is shown in Figure 10. needed machine power at a service speed
The routing office of the Royal in a certain state and choice of a propeller
Netherlands Meteorological Institute made in the regular design procedure of a ship,
speed loss graphs available for a group of in lengthening of ships, etc. In the near
turbine ships. For one of these ships, t.s. future this program will also be made
Kelletia, predictions are made in full load suitable for following waves.
condition. The increase of power due to
fouling is assumed to be 8 per cent of the
power in still water at the same speed. The 7 Acknowledgement
predictions and observations are shown in
Figure 10. Maximum observed speeds are The author wishes to thank Prof. ir. J.
in good agreement with the predicted Gerritsma and Mr. W. Beukelman for their
speeds at 7500 horsepower. The maximum stimulating attention paid to this work and
continuous number of revolutions of the their valuable advises and remarks.
propeller, 100 rpm, is in very good The conversations with Ir. D. Moens of the
agreement with the predicted value. Royal Netherlands Meteorological Insti-
tute about routing problems are very much
appreciated.
6 Final Remarks Last but not least the preparation of the
graphs by Mr. P. de Heer is gratefully
The calculation of the three components of acknowledged.
the total resistance and the speed of a ship,
at a constant engine setting in a seaway,
shows in Figure 12 for m.s. Lubumbashi 8 References
that added resistance due to waves can be
a considerable part of the total resistance. [1] W. D. Moens, Meteorological Route-
At a significant wave height corresponding ing (in Dutch).
with Beaufort 6 the added resistance is
equal to the still water resistance. Of

14
[2] Design Charts for the Propulsive [11] W. J. Luke, Experimental Investi-
Performances of High Speed Cargo gation on Wake and Thrust Deduction
Liners, The Shipbuilding Research Values, Trans. of the Inst. of Naval Arch.,
Association of Japan, 1964. 1910, 1914, 1917.

[3] A. J. W. Lap, Diagrams for Deter- [12] S.A. Harvald, Wake of Merchant
mining the Resistance of Single Screw Ships, Doctor's Thesis, The Danish Tech-
Ships, International Shipbuilding Progress, nical Press, Copenhagen, 1950.
Vol. 1, No. 4, 1954.
[13] 0. Geisler and G. Siemer, Dynamische
[4] W.H. Auf ‘m Keller, Extended Dia- Belastung von Schiffsdampfturbinen-
grams for Determining the Resistance and anlagen bei Umsteuer-Manövern, Schiff
Required Power for Single Screw Ships, und Hafen, Heft 3, 1974.
International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol.
20, No. 225, 1973. [14] A.J.H. Goodwin, et. al., The Practical
Application of Computers in Marine Engi-
[5] W. Beukelman and E.F. Bijlsma, Des- neering.
cription of a Program to Calculate the
Behaviour of a Ship in a Seaway (named [15] Shipment of Water in Waves, The
TRIAL), Report 383, Delft University of Society of Naval Architects of Japan, 60th
Technology, Ship Hydromechanics Labo- Anniversary Series, Vol. 8, Par. 6.4, 1963.
ratory.
[16] M.F. van Sluys and Tan Seng Gie,
[7] J. Gerritsma and W. Beukelman, Behaviour and Performance of Compact
Analysis of the Modified Strip Theory for Frigates in Head Seas, International
the Calculation of Ship Motions and Wave Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 19, No. 210,
Bending Moments, Netherlands Ship February 1972.
Research Centre TNO, Shipbuilding
Department, Report 96-S. [17] M.K. Ochi and E. Motter, Prediction
of Extreme Ship Responses in Rough Seas
[8] J. Gerritsma and W. Beukelman, of the North Atlantic, International
Analysis of the Resistance Increase in Symposium on the Dynamics of Marine
Waves of a Fast Cargo Ship, International Vehicles and Structures in Waves.
Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 19, No. 217, London, 1974, Paper 20.
1972.
[18] M.K. Ochi, Prediction of Occurrence
[9] M.W.C. Oosterveld and P. van Oos- and Severity of Ship Slamming at Sea, 5th
sanen, Recent Developments in Marine Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics,
Propeller Hydrodynamics, International Bergen, Norway, 1964.
Jubilee Meeting 1972, NSMB, Wagen-
ingen. [19] G. Aertssen, Service Performance and
Seakeeping Trials on m.v. Jordaens,
[10] M.W.G. Oosterveld and P. van Oos-
sanen, Representation of Propeller [20] G. Aertssen, Laboring of Ships in
Characteristics Suitable for Preliminary Rough Seas, SNAME, Diamond Jubilee
Ship Design Studies, International Con- International Meeting, New York, 1968.
ference on Computer Applications in the
Automation of Shipyard Operation and [21] J. Gerritsma, Sustained Sea Speed,
Ship Design, Tokyo, 1973. 12th ITTC, Rome, 1969.

15
[22] J. Fukuda, Y. Ono and G. Ogata, P power
Determination of Fore and After Draught Va speed of advance
of Ballasted Bulk Carriers Associated with V ship’s speed
the Criteria of Slamming and Propeller t thrust deduction fraction
Racing, 11th ITTC, Tokyo, 1966. w wake fraction
VW true wind speed
[23] G. Aertssen, Service Performance and
Seakeeping Trials on m.v. Lukuga. αW true wind direction
H 1/ 3 significant wave height
[24] G. Aertssen, Sea Trials on a 9500 Ton
T average wave period
Deadweight Motor Cargo Liner.
µ wave direction
[25] G. Aertssen, Further Sea Trials on the c steam or fuel inlet ratio
Lubumbashi. ηm mechanical efficiency of the shaft
bearings
[26] G. Aertssen and M.F. van Sluys, Ser- KT thrust coefficient
vice Performance and Seakeeping Trials KQ torque coefficient
on a Large Containership, TRINA, Vol.
114, 1972. ρ density of water
D diameter of propeller
[27] W. Beukelman and M. Buitenhek, J advance coefficient
Full Scale Measurements and Predicted ηR relative rotative efficiency
Seakeeping Performance of the Container- L length
ship Atlantic Crown, TNO Report 185S. B breadth
T draught
[28] J.M.J. Journée, Motions, Resistance Cb block coefficient
and Propulsion of a Ship in Longitudinal C wp water plane coefficient
Regular Waves, Report 428, Delft Univer-
sity of Technology, Ship Hydromechanics θ pitch motion
Laboratory, February 1976. z heave motion
v absolute vertical motion
v!! vertical acceleration
9 List of Symbols s relative vertical motion
xb longitudinal distance to centre of
RSW still water resistance gravity
RW wind resistance ζa wave amplitude
R AW added resistance due to waves ωe frequency of encounter
RT total resistance S .. spectral value
T trust of the propeller m.. variance or spectral moment
Q torque at the propeller f geometric freeboard
Qm torque at the engine fe effective freeboard
Q0 torque at the engine Pr{ } probability
(design maximum) g acceleration of gravity
n number of revolutions ω circular wave frequency
n0 number of revolutions
(design maximum)
a coefficient for the torque-rpm
relation

16
Figure 5 Measured and Assumed Torque-RPM Relation for Diesel Propelled Ships

17
Figure 6 Predicted and Measured Behaviour of m.s. Lukuga in a Seaway (Head Waves)

18
Figure 7 Predicted and Measured Behaviour of m.s. Lubumbashi in a Seaway (Head Waves)

19
Figure 8 Predicted and Measured Behaviour of m.s. Jordaens in a Seaway (Head Waves)

20
Figure 9 Predicted and Measured Behaviour of m.s. Dart Europe in a Seaway (Head Waves)

21
Figure 10 Predicted and Measured Behaviour of 2 Turbine Ships in a Seaway (Head Waves)

22
Figure 11 Influence of Estimated Wake and Thrust Deduction Fraction on Calculated Speed
and RPM

23
Figure 12 Division of the 3 Components of Total Resistance at a Constant Engine Setting of
a Ship in a Seaway (Head Waves)

24