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PROJECT REPORT

MT SUSHMA

DESIGN OF A 150,000 t DOUBLE ACTING ICE CLASS TANKER


OF SERVICE SPEED 15.0 KNOTS IN OPEN WATER AND 5.0
KNOTS IN SEVERE ICE CONDITION

Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment


of the Requirements for the Award of
The Degree of

Bachelor of Technology
in
Naval Architecture & Ship Building

by

VIMAL KUMAR

DEPARTMENT OF SHIP TECHNOLOGY


COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN-682022
APRIL 2008
Certified that this is the bonafide record of the thesis submitted in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of
Bachelor in Technology
in
Naval Architecture & Ship Building
by

VIMAL KUMAR

DEPARTMENT OF SHIP TECHNOLOGY


COCHIN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
COCHIN-682022

Thesis Approved by Thesis Accepted by

Cdr P .G Sunil Kumar Dr. Pyarilal S.K


Department of Ship Technology Reader and Head
Cochin University of Science & Department of Ship Technology
Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala Cochin University of Science &
Technology, Kochi-22, Kerala
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am deeply indebted to Cdr P.G Sunil Kumar, my guide and mentor for
his immeasurable help he lent me during the course of my project. I would like to
extend my thanks to all other faculty members of the department.

I am grateful to Mr. Muthukrishnan.A, and Mr. Shantanu Neema, my


class mates especially Mr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh, and Mr. Ujjawal Kumar Vidyarthi,,
with out whose help and assistance; my project would not have been completed. I take
this opportunity to thank all my juniors especially Mr. Ashish Kumar, Mr. Sachin
Kumar for helping me with the project.
Patience, understanding and constant prayers from my family played a
major role in completion of this thesis. The whole hearted cooperation, affection and
timely help of all my classmates are remembered with great appreciation and gratitude

Above all, I would like to thank Maa Durga for harbouring me safely thus
far

VIMAL KUMAR
Batch XXIX
Dedicated to my family
AIM OF THE PROJECT

Aim of this project is to prepare a preliminary design of a Double Acting Ice


Class Tanker to meet the owner’s requirements given in the assignment sheet:

ASSIGNMENT SHEET

Cochin University of Science and Technology (CUSAT)


DEPT. OF SHIP TECHNOLOGY
Ship Design Project work Assignment sheet

Student Name : Vimal Kumar

Ship Type : Double Acting Tanker (Ice Class 1AS)

Deadweight : 150,000 t

Service speed (open water) : 15.0 Knots

Service speed (1.0 m thick Ice) : 5.0 Knots

Signature of Project guide


“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

CONTENTS

Sl No: Chapter Page No:

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1

2.0 FIXING OF MAIN DIMENSIONS 7

3.0 HULL GEOMETRY 42

4.0 RESISTANCE AND POWERING 53

5.0 FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT 77

6.0 DETAILED MASS ESTIMATION AND CAPACITY

CALCULATIONS 103

7.0 DETAILED TRIM & STABILITY CALCULATION 112

8.0 MIDSHIP SECTION DESIGN 164

9.0 OUTLINE SPECIFICATION 195

10.0 DESIGN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 201


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LIST OF DRAWINGS

Sl No: Chapter Drg No

1 LINES PLAN XXIX/01

2 BONJEAN CURVES XXIX/02

3 HYDROSTATIC CURVES XXIX/03

4 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT XXIX/04

5 MIDSHIP SECTION XXIX/05


“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

LIST OF FIGURES

Chapter 1 Page No

Fig 1.1 Ice breaking capability of DAT 1

Chapter 2

Fig 2.1 Russian crude oil export pipelines 8

Fig 2.2 Typical GA 15

Fig 2.3 Power requirements of DAT 16

Fig 2.4 Graph of deadweight v/s length 21

Fig 2.5 Preliminary GZ curves 35

Chapter 3

Fig 3.1 Ice breaking tanker (hull form) 42

Chapter 4

Fig 4.1 Graph from guldhammer-harvald method of resistance calculation 58

Fig 4.2 Graph from Holltrop-Menon 1984 method of resistance calculation 59

Fig 4.3 Graph from BSRA method of resistance calculation 60

Fig 4.4 Graph to find KQ, J values for 4 bladed propeller 63

Fig 4.5 Power vs propeller speed 67

Fig 4.6 Azipod main dimensions 67

Fig 4.7 Propeller weight vs propeller diameter 68

Fig 4.8 Performance curves 70

Fig 4.9Graph showing Ice thickness (HICE) vs. VICE 76


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Chapter 5

Fig 5.1 Basic Frame Spacing 79

Fig 5.2 Arc of light 91

Chapter 7

Fig 7.1 Weather criteria curves 116

Fig 7.2 Cross Curves of Stability (Even keel condition) 134

Fig 7.3 GZ Curve for fully loaded departure condition 150

Fig 7.4 GZ Curve for fully loaded arrival condition 154

Fig 7.5 GZ Curve for ballast departure condition 158

Fig 7.6 GZ Curve for ballast arrival condition 162

Chapter 8

Fig 8.1Typical midship section of a double skin Ice class Tanker 164

Fig. 8.2 Itemization of parts 167

Fig 8.3 Framing system 168


Fig 8.4 Side shell regions 182
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LIST OF TABLES

Chapter 2 Page No

Table 2.1 Principle dimensions estimated by ARCOP 13

Table 2.2 Double acting Tankers 14

Table 2.3 Ratio of main dimensions 19

Table 2.4 Results of first iteration 20

Table 2.5 Results of Iterations 21

Table 2.6 Results of final Iteration 22

Table 2.7 GZ at different angles of heel 34

Table 2.8 Initial stability check with IMO Requirements 35

Table 2.9 Final Dimensions 41

Chapter 3

Table 3.1 Offsets of standard BSRA waterlines 44

Table 3.2 Stem and stern offsets 45

Table 3.3 Faired offsets 46

Table 3.4 Area table 48

Table 3.5 Moment table 49

Table 3.6 Hydrostatic parameters 52

Chapter 4

Table 4.1 Total resistance by guldhammer - harvald Method 58

Table 4.2 Total resistance by Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method 59

Table 4.3 Total resistance by BSRA Method 60


“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Table 4.4 Model used for Extrapolation 62

Table 4.5 KQ, J values for 4 bladed propellers 62

Table 4.6 J, KQ Values from the Graph above 63

Table 4.7 n, PD and η0 for selected models 64

Table 4.8 Performance values 69

Table 4.9 t, c, xo and xm with varying r/R 74

Table 4.10 Ordinates of back 74

Table 4.11 Ordinates of face 75

Chapter 5

Table 5.1 Basic Frame Spacing 78

Table 5.2- Division of Compartments 82

Table 5.3 Compliment List 88

Chapter 6

Table 6.1 Capacity of cargo Tanks 105

Table 6.2 Capacity of Ballast Tanks 105

Table 6.3 Capacity of storage tanks 106

Table 6.4 Capacity of other tanks/compartments 106

Table 6.5 Determination of COG of Steel Mass 111

Table 6.6 Determination of COG of Machinery 111

Table 6.7 Determination of COG of Light Ship 112


“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Chapter 7

Table 7.1 Determination of X1 X2 K and s 118

Table 7.2 Windage area 119

Table 7.3 Down flooding and deck immersion angle 119

Table 7.4-7.12 Hydrostatic condition (Trimmed condition) 120-128

Table 7.13-7.21 KN Values (Trimmed condition) 129-133

Table 7.22-7.30 computation of IMO envelop (Trimmed condition) 137-141

Table 7.31 Determination of centre of gravity of cargo holds 143

Table 7.32 Determination of centre of gravity of ballast tanks 144

Table 7.33 Determination of centre of gravity of consumables 145

Table 7.34 Summary of all loading condition 163

Chapter 8
Table 8.1 Value of Ka 168
Table 8.2 Value of ho and h 169
Table 8.3 Value of a and b 170
Table 8.4 Value of c1 170
Table 8.5 Value of la 171
Table 8.6 Extension of ice strengthening at midship 171
Table 8.7 Vertical extension of ice strengthening 173
Table 8.8 Value of mo 174
Table 8.9 Determination of scantlings of side shell longitudinals 182
Table 8.10 Determination of inner hull and longitudinal bulkhead plating 184
Table 8.11 Determination of scantlings of CL longitudinal bulkhead 185
longitudinal and inner hull longitudinals.
Table 8.12 Section modulus calculation 190-194
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
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1.1 Introduction

Earlier icebreakers used to assist ships navigating in the Arctic Region. Due
to the inherent cost of this practice, ice breaking tankers and other concepts were
developed. Routes were formulated accordingly through the Arctic Ocean depending
on seasons and climatic conditions. The conventional ice breaking tankers had a bow
somewhat similar to that of an icebreaker. The principle for breaking ice was to sit on
the ice and break it by its own weight. However due to the modified bow form the
efficiency of such tankers were vastly reduced in the open water regions. Thus
another engineering solution was developed in the concept of Double Acting
Tankers.

The double-acting concept is based on the idea that the vessel makes its
path in heavy ice conditions the stern ahead, which will be possible through the use
of electrical podded propulsion systems. Thus the stern and the propulsion units
need to be dimensioned and need to be optimised for both conditions.

This arrangement offers good icebreaking capability with reduced power level
and practically access to independent ice operation without compromising the open
water performance of the ship. Experience has demonstrated a reduction in fuel
consumption compared to conventional ships, which will be further enhanced through
the pulling mode of the propeller.

Ice breaking capability of DAT in ahead and astern condition

Fig 1.1

Ice breaking capability of DAT [34]

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Advantage of ice class tanker (double acting)


a) Hull form can be optimized for all conditions.
b) Total economy has improved.
c) Improved Manoeuvrability.
d) More freedom of design.
e) Low Ice resistance (up to 50% in certain ice conditions) as well as low
power requirements (up to 40% less than conventional ice breaking
tankers)
f) No need to stop propeller for reversing

The vessel is designed to follow the Double Acting principle and the hull form
is designed accordingly. The vessel will be fitted with a bulbous bow. The bow shape
is designed to be capable of operating in light ice conditions in Baltic Sea. The stern
shape is of ice breaking type, planned to operate independently in the most severe
ice conditions of the Baltic Sea.

1.2 Field search:

a) Ice conditions
b) Ice properties
c) Route selection
d) Design basis development

The Baltic Sea:

Areas of northern Europe, including Baltic basin and the territory of Poland,
were repeatedly covered by ice sheets. The Baltic Sea is a brackish inland sea, the
largest body of brackish water in the world. It is about 1610 km long, an average of
193 km wide, and an average of 55 m deep. The maximum depth is 459 m. The
surface area is about 377,000 km² and the periphery is about 8000 km of coastline.

Ice conditions in Baltic Sea:

About 45% of surface area Of Baltic sea is covered by ice annually. The ice-
covered area during normal winter includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland,
Gulf of Riga and Vainameri in the Estonian archipelago.

The thickness decreases when moving south. Freezing begins in the northern
coast of Gulf of Bothnia typically in early November, reaching the open waters of Bay
of Bothnia, the northern basin of the Gulf of Bothnia, in early January. The Bothnian
Sea, the basin south of it, freezes on average in late February. The Gulf of Finland
and the Gulf of Riga freeze typically in late January.

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Severe (337,000 km2) Mild (122,000 km2) Average (206,000 km2)

The ice extent depends on whether the winter is mild, moderate or severe.
Severe winters can ice the regions around Denmark and southern Sweden, and on
rare cases the whole sea is frozen,

Temperature Range:

In general ice forms in marine waters when temperatures are below zero on
the Celsius grade, exact freezing temperature depending on the salinity of the water;
more saline water freezes at lower temperatures. Because of this seawater freezes
at.-0.20o C in the Bothnian. Minimum temperature observed in this region is - 20o C

Ice properties in Baltic Sea:

The Baltic Sea is a brackish inland sea, the largest body of brackish water in
the world. Brackish water is water that is saltier than fresh water, but not as salty as
sea water. It may result from mixing of seawater with fresh water, as in estuaries, or it
may occur as in brackish fossil aquifers. Technically, brackish water contains
between 0.5 and 30 grams of salt per liter. There are various types of ice defined by
WMO (World Metrological Organization) in Baltic Sea are as follows:

New ice: A general term for recently formed ice which includes frazil ice, grease ice,
slush and shuga. These types of ice are composed of ice crystals which are only
weakly frozen together (if at all) and have a definite form only while they are afloat.

• Frazil ice: Fine spicules or plates of ice, suspended in water.

• Grease ice: A later stage of freezing than frazil ice when the crystals have
coagulated to form a soupy layer on the surface. Grease ice reflects little light, giving
the sea a matt appearance.

• Slush: Snow which is saturated and mixed with water on land or ice surfaces, or as
a viscous floating mass in water after a heavy snowfall.

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• Shuga: An accumulation of spongy white ice lumps, a few centimetres across; they
are formed from grease ice or slush and sometimes from anchor ice rising to the
surface.

Nilas: A thin elastic crust of ice, easily bending on waves and swell and under
pressure, thrusting in a pattern of interlocking 'fingers' (finger rafting). Has a matt
surface and is up to 10 cm in thickness. Maybe subdivided into dark nilas and light
nilas.

• Dark nilas: Nilas which is under 5 cm in thickness and is very dark in colour.

• Light Nilas: Nilas which is more than 5 cm in thickness and rather lighter in colour
than dark nilas.

• Ice rind: A brittle shiny crust of ice formed on a quiet surface by direct freezing or
from grease ice, usually in water of low salinity. Thickness to about 5 cm. Easily
broken by wind or swell, commonly breaking in rectangular pieces.

Young ice: Ice in the transition stage between nilas and first-year ice, 10-30 cm in
thickness. Maybe subdivided into grey ice and grey-white ice.

• Grey ice: Young ice 10-15 cm thick. Less elastic than nilas and breaks on swell.
Usually rafts under pressure.

• Grey-white ice: Young ice 15-30 cm thick. Under pressure more likely to ridge than
to raft.

First-year ice:

• Thin first-year ice/white ice: First-year ice 30-70 cm thick.


Thin first-year ice/white ice first stage: 30-50 cm thick.
Thin first-year ice/white ice second stage: 50-70cm thick

• Medium first-year ice: First-year ice 70-120 cm thick.

• Thick first-year ice: First-year ice over 120 cm thick.

Old ice: Sea ice which has survived at least one summer's melt; typical thickness
up to 3m or more. Most topographic features are smoother than on first-year ice.
Maybe subdivided into second-year ice and multi-year ice.

Second-year ice: Old ice which has survived only one summer's melts; typical
thickness up to 2.5 m and sometimes more. Because it is thicker than first-year ice, it
stands higher out of the water.

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In contrast to multi-year ice, summer melting produces a regular pattern


of numerous small puddles. Bare patches and puddles are usually greenish-blue.

• Multi-year ice: Old ice up to 3 m or more thick which has survived at least two
summers' melts. Hummocks even smoother than in second-year ice and the ice are
almost salt-free. Colour, where bare, is usually blue. Melt pattern consists of large
interconnecting irregular puddles and a well-developed drainage system

The basic requirements set for the project are:

ICE CLASS: Finnish-Swedish 1A super

SIZE: ~ 150000 t dwt,

ICEBREAKING CAPABILITY: Baltic conditions

1.3 Type of Propulsion System:

Pod propulsion system without any rudder and shafting is normally employed
for double acting tanker. It can generate thrust to arbitrary directions of 360 degrees.
Utilizing this characteristic, double acting tanker (DAT) was built at Sumitomo Heavy
Industries, Ltd. DAT is a double-bow tanker, which one bow is a bulbous bow and
another is an ice breaking bow,
Bulbous bow can reduce resistance of the ship by about 15% from ordinary ice
breaking ship with ice breaking bow (fuel economy 20%), and in addition during
navigation on ice sea area, broken pieces of ice can be separated from hull by
propeller flow and thus high ice breaking efficiency is expected

Main Advantages of the Azipod Propulsion


• Excellent dynamic performance and maneuvering characteristics, ideal even in
harsh arctic and offshore environments.
• Eliminates the need for long shaft lines, rudders, transverse stern thrusters,
CP-propellers and reduction gears
• Combined with the power plant principle, it offers not only new dimensions to
the design of machinery and cargo spaces, but also reduced levels of noise
and vibration, less downtime, as well as increase safety and redundancy.
• Operational flexibility leads to lower fuel consumption, reduced maintenance
costs, less exhaust emissions and increased redundancy with less installed
power.
• The Azipod unit itself has a flexible design. It can be built for pushing or
pulling, open water or ice conditions. The Azipod can be equipped with
skewed propellers, with or without a nozzle.
• Excellent wake field due to improved hydrodynamics.

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1.4 Hull Strengthening:

Hull strengthening due to Ice Load is dependent on:

• Ice conditions.
• Type of operation.
• Ice classification Rules.
• Direct Calculations.
• Combined.(Ice class rules as reference)

1.5 Trade Route:

The trade route is decided to carry crude oil from Belokamenka (Murmansk
Russia) to Rotterdam (Netherlands) via Baltic Sea. The ship will perform pendulum
service between the two ports.

1.6 Classification:

The selection of classification depends on specific oceans and sea areas in


the context of current and earlier commercial shipping developments for ice
operation. For Baltic Sea region FSICR (Finnish - Swedish Ice Class Rules) 1A/1C,
November ‘2004 (after amendments to the old rules) is used.

The above selection of classification is done on the basis of:


• Requirements of Administrations
• Area of operation (Ice level, Air/water temperature)
• Chartered requirements, and
• Future flexibility

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2.1 Preliminary Investigation:

The Baltic is as a export outlet for Russian crude/products and increasing its
importance in Europe’s energy needs. The Republic of Russia, has become second
largest oil producer after Saudi Arabia in world, Plans major energy infrastructure
investments to keep up with increasing demand in European countries. The oil
statistics of Russia:

Oil - production:
10.5 million barrels/day (2006 est.)

Oil - consumption: [26]


2.9 million barrels/day (2006 est.)

Oil - exports:
7.6 million barrels/day (2006 est.)

Oil imports from Russia to Europe have increased. Various European countries
shares the Russian oil Export; like Netherlands 9.1%, Germany 8%, Ukraine 6.4%,
Italy 6.2%, China 6%, US 5% etc.

Shipments in North Baltic:

• Export set to double in next 5 years.


• Need of Ice Class Tankers up to Aframax/Suezmax size.
• 100-150 million tons per year of oil transport is estimated for the future in the
arctic and far eastern areas of Russia.

The North Baltic, with a particular focus on the Port of Murmansk, is set to double
its output in next five years. Presently 20% of all Russian oil export is finding its way
to world market through the port of Murmansk. .The Russian Arctic region has oil
reserves of about 100 Billion tons for the future which is 75% of total Russian oil
reserves.
MURMANSK PIPELINE PROJECT

In November 2002, four largest Russian oil companies signed an MoU on the
development of an oil pipeline system via the sea bulk oil terminal in the area of
Murmansk. The construction started in 2004 and is to be completed by 2008, when it
will be put to operation. The yearly oil flow volume from the west Siberian –
Murmansk oil pipeline is expected to be 80 million tons. One of the major driving
factors behind the development of the terminal is the expected export growth,
especially in the USA.
There has been two pipeline routes under consideration:
Western Siberia – Ukhta – Murmansk (3600 km).
Western Siberia – Usinsk – Murmansk via the White Sea (2500 km).

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Russian crude oil export pipelines

Fig 2.1 [26]

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 2
FIXING OF MAIN DIMENSIONS
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.1.1 Mission Analysis:


Type : Double skin segregated ballast crude oil double
acting Ice Class Tanker
Type of cargo : Crude oil
Trade Route : Belokamenka vessel (Murmansk Russia) to
Rotterdam (Netherlands)
Feature of trade : Pendulum Service
Relevant Rules and Regulations: IMO, ILLC, SOLAS, MARPOL FSICR etc
Dead weight : 150,000 t
Service speed : 15 Kn (open water) and 5 Kn (1.0 m thick Ice)
Classification : FSICR, LRS
Radius of Action : 3800 Nautical Miles
Shape of Hull : BSRA
Shape of Stern : Form like the Bow of a normal Ice Breaker
Shape of Stem : Bulbous bow is provided as per normal
tankers

Before starting the design, the design problem is defined analyzing the different
frontiers that will influence the entire design. System operational requirements
include cargo and ballast pumping capabilities, speed, crude oil washing (COW)
system, inert gas system (IGS), emissions, and possibly ballast water exchange in
the future. All of these systems must work together in a safe manner, Constraints
include:
a) Propulsion power
b) Machinery
c) Deckhouse volume
d) Cargo block volume
e) Deadweight
f) tonnage
g) Stores capacity

2.1.1.1 Hold Capacity

Hold capacity depends on stowage factor for crude oil, 1.13 to 1.24 m3/t
2.1.1.2 Engine Plant
Space necessary for the engine plant and the mass of engine plant and
the fitting of the podded thrusters are the deciding factors. Engine plant should be
capable of providing power for propulsion as well as lighting, navigation, heating
coils, heaters, steering gear etc. Engine room is located in the aft region.
2.1.1.3 Super structure & deck house
Superstructures are usually arranged towards the ends. The forecastle is
helpful in preventing the shipping of green water. Normal sheer is not given to the
ship, for ease of construction.

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2.1.1.4 Shape of the hull, stern, stem

The parameters describe the actual hull form with coefficients: Beam to Draft
Ratio, Length to Beam Ratio, Block Coefficient, and Depth to Draft ratio. These allow
the optimizer to choose a variety of ship shapes and size. The following are the some
of the important points in relation with shaping the hull;
a) Minimization of Resistance ,
b) Interaction between hull and propeller,
c) Favourable hull in connection with behaviour in both Ice and Open water.
d) Favourable hull in connection with production
e) Favourable hull related to stability.

Stern: As the stern part is to be capable of breaking the ice, it should be shaped like
bow of an icebreaker with necessary arrangements to fit the Azipod. A bulbous bow
is provided at aft in the vicinity of propeller.

Stem: The stem is as per the normal conventional tankers provided with a bulbous
bow. Stem must be able to accommodate two bow thrusters.

2.1.1.5 Rules & Regulations Governing Double Hull Tanker Construction

The different rules and regulations governing double hull tanker


construction are,
a) Classification Society Rules
b) IMO Regulations
c) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, it
includes
• Annex I: Prevention of pollution by oil
• Annex II: Control of pollution by noxious liquid substances
• Annex III: Prevention of pollution by harmful substances in packaged
form
• Annex IV: Prevention of pollution by sewage from ships
• Annex VI: Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships

Most important factors to be incorporated are as follow.


(i) Wing tanks
w = 0.5 + dwt/20000 m or 2 m whichever is lesser.
The min value of w = 1 m
(ii) Double Bottom tanks
At any cross section the depth of each double bottom tank space shall be
such that the distance “h” between the bottom of cargo tanks and the moulded line of
the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the bottom shell plating is given
by,

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

h = B/15 or 2 m, whichever is lesser


The min value is of “h” 1m.
(iii) The aggregate capacity of ballast tanks.

On crude oil tankers of 20,000t deadweight and above, the aggregate


capacity of wing tanks, double bottom tanks, fore peak tanks and aft peak tanks shall
not be less than the capacity of segregated ballast tanks required to meet the
requirements
(iv) Ballast and cargo piping

Ballast piping and other piping such as sounding and vent piping shall not
pass through cargo tanks.

The amendments also considerably reduced the amount of oil which can be
discharged into the sea from ships (for example, following the cleaning of cargo tanks
or from engine room bilges). Originally oil tankers were permitted to discharge oil or
oily mixtures at the rate of 60 litres per nautical mile. The amendments reduced this
to 30 litres. For non tankers of 400 grt and above the permitted oil content of the
effluent which may be discharged into the sea is cut from 100 parts per million to 15
parts per million.

d) International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974

The important parts of this convention are,


• Chapter II-1 - Construction - Subdivision and stability, machinery and
electrical installations.
• Chapter II-2 - Fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction
• Chapter III - Life-saving appliances and arrangements
• Chapter IV - Radio communications
• Chapter V - Safety of navigation
• Chapter IX - Management for the Safe Operation of Ships
• Chapter X - Safety measures for high-speed craft
• Chapter XI-2 - Special measures to enhance maritime security

e) International Convention on Load Lines, 1966


The important parts of this convention are,
• Chapter I - General
• Chapter II - Conditions of assignment of freeboard
• Chapter III - Freeboards
• Chapter IV - Special requirements for ships assigned timber freeboards

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2.1.1.6 Trade routes

Vessel Belokamenka (Murmansk, Russia)

Belokamenka is an ULCC currently used as a storage tanker in the vicinity of


Murmansk port. It has been fixed over there to overcome the draft restriction of
Murmansk port. Different particulars of vessel have been provided below.

IMO NO : 7708314
Latitude: 69° 07'N, Longitude: 033° 16'E
Flag ; Russian federation
DNV ID : 11713
GT : 188728
NT : 125883
Capacity : 350000 Dwt
Draft : 23 meters

Port of Rotterdam (Netherlands)

Code: NL0051, UNTAD Code: NLRTM

Latitude: 51° 54.100'N,


Longitude: 004° 26.100'E

There are no restrictions regarding length and beam of the ship. Maximum
draft allowed is 22.55 m. Port of Rotterdam ideally located for the transshipment of
cargo. The port of Rotterdam is well equipped for handling bulk and general cargoes,
coal and ores, crude oil, agricultural products, chemicals, containers, cars, fruit, and
refrigerated cargoes.

This ice class tanker is meant to operate between these two ports. It will
impart pendulum services between origin and destination ports

2.1.2 Evaluation of DAT

In order to evaluate the new concept DAT in a more realistic way, following
factors has been considered.
(1) Size of vessel : Suezmax
(2) Route : Baltic Sea
(3) Main engine output : Based on charts or model tests
(4) Ice conditions around the route : statistical data between 1999-2005

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The principal dimensions of DAT are almost the same as a conventional


tanker because of its geometrical similarity with the conventional Tankers.

Principal dimensions of ice class tanker estimated by ARCOP

DWT (t) 63,000 90,000 120,000


LOA (m) 219.5 252.0 289.0
LBP (m) 202.0 228.0 268.0
B (m) 34.0 40.0 46.0
T (m) 13.0 14.0 15.0
D (m) 17.0 19.0 22.0
Power 14.5 18.0 22.0

Table 2.1 [22]


Principal dimensions as estimated by ARCOP

2.1.2.1 Principal particulars of the Tempera/Mastera:

Ship type: Crude oil and oil product carrier


LOA:. 252.00m
LBP: 228.00 m
Bm : 40.00 m
Dm: 19.00 m
TDesigned: 14.00 m
TScantling: 14.50 m
Speed: 13.5 knots in open water and 3 knots in 1 m thick Ice condition (Ice class
1AS)
Propulsive power: 21MW
Power: nominal output is 16 MW

Size of the DAT influences by


• Limitations for the Draught
• Icebreaking assistance
• the Beam of the ship

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Double acting tankers.

S.
No. IMO NO Dwt(t) LBP(m) B(m) D(m) T(m) V (Kn)
1 114639 240.90 44.00 21.00 14.80 15.10
2 9305568 117153 240.79 44.00 22.00 15.40 14.00
3 9000584 154970 260.76 43.90 24.40 17.52 14.60
4 hull 5310 157300 261.00 48.00 23.70 17.00 16.00
5 9290385 159062 261.80 48.00 23.10 17.00 15.37
6 9311622 162362 263.50 50.00 23.00 16.50 15.00
7 9320726 166546 270.41 50.00 22.50 16.50 15.30

Table 2.2
Some Ice class ships (DAT): [37]

Above data shows:

• The Double Acting Tankers have more breadth than the conventional tankers
of same deadweight.
• Beam of the DAT is more because of good Ice breaking capability; also the
smaller length reduces the lightship weight by some amount and subsequent
reduction in cost.
• For the same length of tankers, DAT is having more or less same deadweight
as conventional tankers with more breadth for Suezmax size tankers because
of the increased Engine plant mass and space for HFO and Stores and long
operation time.

Sketches

Typical general arrangement of the vessel is given below. The sketches are not to
the scale.

14
“D
Department of Ship
S technology
gy, CUSAT, B.T
Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX
X”

Fig
g 2.2
Typic
cal GA

15
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.2 First estimates of displacement/volume

Preliminary calculation of displacement is based on the displacement coefficient CD

CD = Deadweight/Displacement

For DAT, the value of CD is taken as 0.823 (Parent ship data).

Displacement = 150000/0.823 = 182260.02 t

2.3 Preliminary selection of main & auxiliary machinery

From empirical relation for calculating power delivered for conventional tanker.
Power delivered, PD = (Δ0.567 × VT3.6)/1000 (Volker’s Formula)
Where VT = Trial speed
PD = 16471.78 KW

Fig 2.3
Minimum required propulsion SMCR power demand (CP-propeller) for average-
size tankers with Finnish-Swedish ice class notation (for FP-propeller add
+11%) [34]

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

SMCR of engine considering FP Propeller =32000kw [34]


Selected Engine
Type: 9TM620
Number: 3
Manufacture: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO. Holland [33]
Rated output: 12,750KW
Rated speed: 428rpm
Consumption of heavy fuel oil: 174G/KWH +5%
Consumption of lube oil: 1.3+0.3G/KWH
Greatest weight/piece: 270T

Auxiliary Machinery
As an approximation the power of auxiliary engines is taken as 15 % of the
main engine power.
15 % of main engine power = 0.15*12.75x3 = 5737 KW. [35]

2.4 First estimate of main dimensions and coefficients

The main dimensions have a decisive effect on the ship’s characteristics. It


affects
¾ Stability
¾ Hold capacity
¾ Hydro dynamic qualities such as resistance, manoeuvring, sea keeping
¾ Economic efficiency
¾ Initial cost

Determining the main dimensions, proportions and form coefficients is one


of the most important phases of overall design.

Crude oil tankers are essentially slow speed ships carrying imperishable
cargo. The shipment of crude oil over the last two decades has increased
tremendously. Hence the need for economic optimality in design, capacity etc is
necessitated.

2.4.1 Symbols list and their units

Dwt - Dead weight (t)


Δ - Displacement (t)
LBP - Length between perpendiculars (m)
V - Velocity (kn)
g - Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
B - Moulded breadth of the ship (m)

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

D - Moulded depth of the ship (m)


T - Draft of the ship (m)
CB - Block coefficient of the ship
Fn - Froude number
PD - Power delivered (KW)
ΔEP - Engine plant mass (t)
ΔSE - Steel mass (t)
Δou - Out fit mass (t)
E - Lloyd’s equipment number

2.4.2 The stepwise procedure to find the length of a 150,000 ton DAT can be
summarized as below:

• Find Range of length by Danckwardt formula for a conventional tanker of


150,000 ton.
• Estimate the Block coefficient.
• Determination of B, T and D from the ratios (L/B, B/T and L/D) obtained from
the registered ice class ships ranging form 115,000 to 160,000 tonnes
deadweight. The ratios must be chosen to provide more breadth than
conventional tankers or L/B and L/D ratios should be comparable to
Tempera/Mastera.
• Select the ratios.
• Iterate the length found to satisfy the required deadweight.

Danckwardt formula:
LBP = (5.2 ±0.2-0.15×Δ×10-5)×Δ1/3
LBP = 267.98 m to 290.66 m [3]

Range of length selected:

From the lengths obtained by the above formulae a range of length is


selected. The range is from 260 m to 290 m

2.4.2.1. Estimation of Block Coefficient (CB)


CB = 0.975-(0.9×Fn) +- 0.02
Danckwardt Formula [4]
Fn = V/√ (gL) [4]

CB corresponding to the length found above is thus calculated.


Range of CB is from 0.817 to 0.857
Selected CB = 0.837

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.4.2.2. Determination of B, T, D

B, T and D are calculated from the ratios (L/B, B/T, L/D) obtained from parent
ships.
Ratio Range Taken
L/B 5.27-5.94 5.40
B/D 1.799 -2.222 2.05
T/D 0.700 - 0.736 0.71
B/T 2.506 – 3.03 2.86
L/T 14.884 – 16.38 15.70
Fn 0.148 – 0.163 0.16

Table 2.3

Ratios of Main Dimensions

First Iteration
Selected length is L = 260 m

Breadth
We have the value of L/B = 5.40
B = 48.15 m
Draught
We have the value of L/T = 15.70
T = 16.56 m
Depth
We have the value of B/D = 2.05
D = 23.49 m
Displacement
Δ = L.B.T.CB × 1.008 × 1.006
= 175958.6 t
(1.006 is for skin correction)
Equipment Number (E)
E = L (B + T) + 0.85L (D-T) + 250
= 18605
Steel mass [2]
7
ΔSE = Δ SE [1+0.5× (CB8 – 0.7)] + 900 t (addition for Ice Class 1A)
Δ7SE = K.E1.36
(K= 0.029 to 0.035 for tankers with 1500 < E <40,000)
E = 1500 – 40000 for tankers

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Take K = 0.035
Δ7SE = 22426.6
CB8 = Block Coefficient at 0.8D
= CB + (1- CB) (0.8D – T) /3T
= 0.843
ΔSE = 24933.5 t

Out fit mass


ΔOU = MOU× L × B + 100 t (approx additional weight for
Helipad and helicopter)
MOU = 0.24 [35]
ΔOU = 3104.44 t
Delivered Power
SMCR = 32000 KW [34]
Engine Plant mass
ΔEP = 0.72 X (SMCR) 0.78 [35]
= 2351.52 t,

Light ship weight, ΔLS = (ΔSE + ΔOU + ΔEP) X1.02,


= 30997.331 t
Dwt = Δ - ΔLS
= 144961.31t

LBP 260.0m
B 48.15 m
T 16.56m
D 23.49m
CB 0.837
Δ 17598.6 t
ΔSE 24933.6 t
ΔOU 3104.4 t
ΔEP 2351.5 t
ΔLS 30997.3 t
DWT 144961.3 t
Table 2.4
Results of First Iteration

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Similar iterations were done using the same procedure. Results are given in the table
below

LBP B D ΔOU
(m) (m) (m) T (m) CB Δsteel(t) (t) ΔEP(t) ΔLS (t) Dwt(t)
253.00 46.85 22.85 16.11 0.836 23227 2945 2352 29094 132838
255.00 47.22 23.04 16.24 0.836 23703 2990 2352 29626 136177
257.00 47.59 23.22 16.37 0.836 24186 3036 2352 30165 139570
260.00 48.15 23.49 16.56 0.837 24934 3104 2352 30997 144961
261.00 48.33 23.58 16.62 0.837 25182 3128 2352 31275 146722
262.00 48.52 23.67 16.69 0.838 25444 3151 2352 31565 148700
263.00 48.70 23.76 16.75 0.838 25696 3174 2352 31846 150491
264.00 48.89 23.85 16.82 0.838 25950 3198 2352 32129 152296
265.00 49.07 23.94 16.88 0.839 26217 3221 2352 32425 154326

Table 2.5

Results of Iterations
DWT V/S Length, a graph is plotted got from several iterations. The graph is
given below. In X-axis length is plotted, Dwt in Y- axis

150000

Dwt (t)

263
LENGHT(m)
Fig 2.4
Graph for DWT V/S Length

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

LBP 263.0 m

B 48.7 m

D 23.76 m

T 16.75 m

CB 0.838

Δse 25696 t

ΔOU 3174 t

ΔEP 2352 t

ΔLS 31846 t

DWT 150491t

Table 2.6
Results of Final Iteration
The Dwt obtained satisfies the requirements with an extra safety of margin

2.4.3 Water Plane Area Coefficient

CW = 0.76CB + 0.273 [4]


= 0.76*0.838 + 0.273 = 0.91
2.4.4 Midship Section Coefficient:
CM = 0.9 + 0.1* CB [4]
= 0.984
2.4.5 Prismatic Coefficient:
CP = CB / C M
= 0.852 [7]
2.5 Development of preliminary lines

Hull form of the ship has a decisive effect on almost all the aspects of ship
performance like:
a) Trim & stability
b) Resistance
c) Controllability
d) Sea keeping

It also has to satisfy the requirements regarding displacement, volume and


freeboard.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.5.1 Stem Design:


Stem is designed as per the conventional tankers with a bulbous bow.
2.5.2 Stern Design

Cruiser stern designed because of operation in ice, the vessel may encounter
severe ice loads while moving aft. To distribute the ice loads, cruiser stern is more
suitable. Because of its smooth curvature it is more suitable for running aft.

2.6 Preliminary General Arrangement

The allocation and dimensions of main spaces like length of cargo tanks,
width of double skin and height of double bottom etc of double hull tankers are
determined by the regulation 13 F MARPOL 73/78. Double hull is mandatory for
tanker above 500grt.

The Mid Deck arrangement makes use of a horizontal subdivision (mid


deck) of the cargo spaces so that the oil pressure is reduced to a level less than the
hydrostatic pressure. As a result of this even if the hull is damaged the oil out flow will
be considerably reduced.

Double hull construction makes use of wing tanks and double bottom
spaces throughout the cargo region, so that even if the outer hull is damaged, oil out
flow will not occur. Double hull construction is the modern trend.

2.6.1 Ballast Tanks or Spaces

According to regulations 13F and 13G of MARPOL 73/78, the entire cargo
length should be protected by ballast tanks or spaces other than cargo and fuel oil
tanks.

a) Wing Tanks or Spaces

Wing tanks or spaces should extend for the full length of ships side, from
the top of the double bottom to the upper most deck, They should be arranged such
that the cargo tanks are located in board of the moulded line of side shell plating
nowhere less than the distance W at any cross section is measured at right angles to
the side shell, as specified below.
w = 0.5 + Δ / 20000 m
= 9.61 m
or, w = 2 m, which ever is the lesser.

The minimum value of w is 1m. w is taken as 3.0 m to satisfy the ballast


requirements.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

b) Double Bottom Tanks or Spaces

At any cross section the depth of each double bottom tank or space is
such that the distance h between the bottom of the cargo tanks and the moulded line
of the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the bottom shell plating is not
less than specified below.
h = B /15 = 3.25 m
OR h = 2 m, whichever is lesser
The minimum value of h is 1.0m
Therefore h = 3.0 m to satisfy the ballast requirements.

2.7 Initial estimates of consumables, stores and cargo


Range = 3773 nm
Speed = 15.0 Knot (open water)
= 5.0 Knot (Most severe Ice conditions)
Max Hours of travel, H = 754.6 Hrs
Hours in port = 48 Hrs
No of officers = 21
No of crew = 23

2.7.1 Volume of heavy fuel oil (VHFO)


Specific fuel consumption, SFC = 185 g / KWh.
(Assumed for a slow speed large bore diesel engine)
Brake power, PB = 32000 KW
Mass of heavy fuel oil, MHFO = SFC × PB × H / 1000000 +20%
(Allowance)
= 5360 t
Volume of HFO, VHFO = MHFO /0.90 = 5955 m3

2.7.2 Volume of diesel oil (VDO)


SFC = 220 g /KWh
Power of auxiliary machinery, PAUX
= (1554 + 38.4 X1 – 0.269 X2 + 0.046X12 +16.21 X22
- 2.31X1.X2) 0.76 (H. SCHREIBER, HANSA 114 (1977)
NO 23 P 2117)
Where X1 = 0.001 × Dwt = 150.5
X2 = 0.001 PB’ ≈ 18.45
∴ PAUX = 10522 KW

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Mass of diesel oil, MDO = SFC × PAUX × H/1000000


= 1858 t
Volume of diesel oil, VDO = MDO/0.95

= 1956 m3

2.7.3 Volume of lubricating oil (VLO)


Mass of lube oil, MLO = 0.03 (MHFO + MDO)
= 216.6 t
Volume of lube oil = 59/0.9 = 240.6 m3
2.7.4 Volume of fresh water, (VFW)
Consumption of fresh water = 20 litres / person / day
Mass of fresh water, M FW = 27.6 t
Volume of fresh water, VFW = 27.6 m3

2.7.5 Volume of washing water (VWW)


Consumption 120 liters /person/ day for officers
60 liters /person/ day for crew
Mass of washing water, MWW = 130.4 t
Volume of washing water, VWW = 130.4 m3
2.7.6 Mass of crew and effects
Assume 150 kg per officers and 120 kg per crew
Mcrew = 150*21 + 23*120 = 5.91 t

2.7.7 Mass of Provision


Assume 8 kg/officer/day and 6 kg/crew/day
Mass of provision = 9.6 t

Mass of stores & crew = MHFO + MDO + MLO + MFW + MWW + MCRW
+MPRO
= 7609 t

2.7.8 Mass of Cargo

Mass of cargo, MCR = Dwt - Total mass of stores & crew

= 150491 – 7609

= 142882 t

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.8 Checks on hold and tank capacity

The total capacity of the ship is the volume required for cargo plus the
minimum volume required for ballast.

2.8.1 Volume of hold

VHD = (VDD + VSH + VCA + VHT + VHS)-(VFP + VAP + VER + VDB


+ VTA + VSS + VCOF)
Where:
VHD = volume of hold
VDD = volume up to upper deck
VSH = volume of sheer
VCA = volume of camber.
VHT = volume of hatchway trunks
VHS = volume of holds in superstructure
VFP = volume of forepeak tank
VAP = volume of aft peak tank
VER = volume of engine
VDB = volume of double bottom
VTA = volume of tank in the hold
VSS = volume of side tanks

(1) VSH = VHT = VHS = VTA = 0


(2) VDD = LBT CB (D/T)CB/CW ; CW = 0.76×CB+0.273= 0.92 [3]
(3) CB = 0.838
VDD = 247196 m3
(4) VAP = KAP (LAP/LBP)2 L.B.D.CBD [3]
Where KAP = 2.16 (2-K)
K = 3.33 AB/L –0.667 = 1.0745
AB = 0.523 L when CB > 0.72 BSRA REPORT NO 333
KAP = 1.998
LAP = 0.05 LBP = 13.15 m
CBD = block coefficient at uppermost deck. [3]
= CB + 0.25/T (D-T)*(1-CB)
= 0.855
∴ VAP = 1299 m3

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

(5) VFP = KFP (LFP/LBP) 2 .L.B.D.CBD [3]

Where KFP = 1.7 K.b


b = 1.4 (with bulbous bow)
KFP = 2.5573
LFP = 0.07 L = 18.41 m
∴ VFP = 3260 m3

(6) VER = B.(D-DDB).LER K ((KERA+KERF)/2) [3]


Where LER = 0.12 L = 31.56 m.
KERA = 5.4 XERA /L +0.11
XERA = 0.05*L = 13.15 m
KERA = 0.38
KERF = 5.4 XERF /L +0.11 = 1.028
XERF = 0.17*L = 39.066
∴VER = 24717 m3
(6) VCA = (2/3) × (L-LAP- LER - LFP – LCOF) × B/50 × B × C3
Where
C3 = 0.76CB + 0.273 = 0.909
∴VCA = 0 m3 (Camber has not been considered)
(7) VCOF = LCOF ×B×D
= 3471m3 (Length of Cofferdam taken as 3 m)

In segregated ballast tankers the ballast water is carried in the wing tanks and
the double bottom tanks. Therefore the volume required for ballast water must be
subtracted from the volume of hold, to get the actual volume available for the carriage
of cargo.

2.9.2 Volume of Required Minimum Segregated Ballast Water

The minimum volume of ballast water that the vessel should carry is given
by the MARPOL 73/78, Regulation 13.
Draft at aft, Ta = 0.7T (for full propeller immersion)
= 11.725 m.
Minimum draft, Tm = 2+0.02L
= 7.26 m.
Maximum trim by stern, tm = 0.015L
= 3.945 m.
Draft at fore, T f = Ta–tm = 7.78 m.
Tmean = (Ta + Tf)/2 = 9.75 m.
Mean draft, Tmean > Tm

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Ballast displacement, ΔB = (Tmin /T) (CW/CB)* Δ


∴ΔB = 73548 t
Mass of ballast water = ΔB-ΔLS
= 41702 t
Minimum volume of ballast water = 41702 /1.008 = 41371 m3

Available volume of ballast water

Total length of double bottom = LBP- LAP - LFP - LER - LCOF ≈ 196.88 m

Depth of double bottom = 3.0 m

Width of side skin = 3.0 m

Volume of double bottom = LDB*BDB*DDB*0.7

= 196.88*48.7*3*0.7

= 20135 m3
Total length of side skin = LBP- LAP - LFP - LER - LCOF ≈ 196.88m
Width of side skin = 6 m
Depth of side skin = 23.76 – 3 = 20.76 m
Volume of side skin = 196.88*6*20.76*0.95 = 23297 m3
Total ballast volume available = Volume of double bottom + Volume of side skin
+ Volume of Aft peak tank
= 20135 + 23297 + 1299
= 44731 m3
Available volume of ballast water is greater than the minimum required.

2.9.3 Volume of Cargo Required

Volume of Cargo required = (Mass of cargo, MCR)/0.85

= 142882/0.85 =168096 m3

2.9.4 Volume of Cargo Available

Volume of Cargo available = (VHOLD - VBALLAST)*0.98


The cargo hold is filled up to 98% of the capacity in order to account for the
expansion of the oil [9]

VHD = (247196) – (3260 + 24717/(D - DDB) + 3471 + 1299)

= 248735 m3

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Volume of ballast water in cargo space = Volume of ballast water in double


bottom and wing tank = 33259 m3

Volume of cargo available = (248735 – 44731)*0.98

= 199924 m3

Available volume is greater than required volume.

Stowage factor = Available volume/Mass of cargo

= 199924/142882 ≈ 1.39 m3 / t

2.10 Preliminary resistance calculation and propeller performance

The preliminary powering estimation is done by the Guldhammer and


Harvald method.

2.10.1 Residual Resistance Coefficient


LBP = 263 m
LWL = 103 % LBP = 1.03*229.8 = 270.89 m
CBL = (LBP / LWL) * CB = 0.838/ 1.03 = 0.813
∇ = 263*48.7*16.75*0.838*1.006 = 182337 m3
LWL/∇1/3 = 236.694/182337 1/3 = 4.79
From graph LWL/∇1/3 = 5 103 CR = 1.58
LWL/∇1/3 = 4.5 103 CR = 1.95
LWL/∇1/3 = 4.79 103 CR ≈ 1.77
CML = 0.9 + 0.1* CBL = 0.9813
CP = CBL / CML = 0.828
Various corrections applied are
1) B/T correction
103CR corrected = 103 CR +0.16(B/T-2.5)
= 1.77 + 0.16(48.7/16.75-2.5)
= 1.835
2) LCB correction
Assuming LCB aft of midship .hence no correction is required.
3) Shape correction
Assuming section not extremely U no correction is applied
4) Bulbous bow correction
Assuming ABT/AX = 0.1 no corrections are made.
Where ABT is the area of the bulbous bow at the fore perpendicular and AX is
the area of midship section.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5) Appendages
No rudder and bilge keel corrections are made
6) Incremental Resistance
For L = 200, 103 CA = 0
L = 250, 103 CA = -0.2
For L = 263, 103 CA = -0.2
Therefore 103 CR = 1.835 – 0.2 = 1.635
7) Air Resistance
103 CAA = 0.07
103 CR = 1.635+ 0.07= 1.705

8) Steering Resistance
103 CAS = 0.04
103 CR = 1.705 + 0.04 = 1.745
CR = 0.001745

2.10.2 Frictional Resistance Coefficient CF

Frictional resistance coefficient is calculated using the ITTC 1957 formula,


CF =0.075/ (log10 Rn -2)2
Rn , Reynolds number = VLWL/ν
V = 15.0 Knot = 7.716 m/s
LWL = 270.8 m
ν = 1.16*10-6 m2s-1 at T = 0 0C
Rn = 18.01 * 108
CF, Frictional resistance = 0.00142
CT, Total resistance = 0.00142 +0.001745
= 3.165 x 10-3
2.10.3 Total resistance
RT = CT*1/2ρSV2 where S is wetted surface area and it is calculated by
using the following formula
S = 1.7LWL T + ∇/T (Mumford’s Formula)
= 18513 m2
There fore total resistance
RT = 3.165 x 10-3*0.5*1.008*18513*(7.716)2
= 1758 KN

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

RT (with allowance of 20 %) = 2109


PE = RT V = 2109*7.716KW
= 16279 KW
PB = PE /( ηm x ηt x ηg x ηH )
ηH = Hull efficiency (Twin screw ships)
= 0.9
ηm = Efficiency of motor
= 0.96
ηt = Efficiency of transformer (ABB Finland)
= 0.97
ηg = Efficiency of generator
= 0.96
η0 = Efficiency of propeller
= 0.76 (assumed)
PB =26623 KW

2.11 Initial stability and Freeboard calculations

2.11.1 Freeboard Check (Practical Ship Design by DGM Watson)

Minimum freeboard is a statutory requirement for all vessels under the


Merchant Shipping Act 1968. The freeboard assigned should be in accordance with
the IMO Load line Convention Rules1966. The conventional tankers fall into IMO’s
type A ship with regard to freeboard. It is observed that double hull tankers have
excess freeboard. This is due to segregated ballast tank volume, which remains
empty in the loaded condition. Thus higher freeboard is inevitable

Tabular freeboard (for type A ship) for L = 263 m is 3089 mm

(After interpolation from table given in Ship Design and Construction by


Taggard)

This is the basic freeboard to which various corrections wherever applicable is


applied

a) Correction for CB

When CB is greater than 0.68, the basic freeboard is multiplied by


= (CBD +0.68)/1.36
= 1.116
Corrected freeboard
= 3089 x 1.116
= 3447.32 mm

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

b) Correction for Depth

Freeboard is increased by (D – L/15) R, where R is 250 for ships with L > 120m.
R = 250, since L>120m
Correction to be added
= (D-L/15)×R, since D>L/15
= (23.76-263/15)×250
= 1556.66 mm
Corrected freeboard
= 3447.32 + 1556.66
= 5003.98 mm

c) Correction for Superstructure

For lengths 125m and above, the standard height of superstructure is 2.3
m. the effective length of a superstructure of standard height can be taken as its
length itself. Assuming standard height of superstructure for the ship, the length of
superstructure is taken from a similar ship as 0.15 LBP and the length of forecastle is
assumed to be 0.07 LBP
Length of superstructure = 0.15 L
Length of forecastle = 0.07L
Effective length of superstructure = 0.15L + 0.07L = 0.22 L

When the effective length of superstructure and trunks of a ship is 1.0 L


the basic freeboard shall be reduced by an amount 1070 mm (from table).

When the effective length of superstructure and trunks is less than 1.0 L
the basic freeboard shall be reduced by an amount x % of 1070 mm
Therefore Correction x =15.7%
Therefore Correction factor to be added = 0.157*1070 = 167.99mm
Corrected freeboard = 5003.98 – 167.99 = 4835.99 mm

d) Correction for Sheer

No sheer is given. So there is sheer deficiency and penalty for no sheer is


to be applied.
Sheer Deficiency = (SAft+SFor’d)/16
SAft = 22.23L + 667
= 6513.5 mm
SFor’d = 44.47×L+1334
= 13029.6 mm

32
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Sheer Deficiency (SD) = (SAft+SFor’d)/8×1/2


= (6513.5 +13029.6)/16
= 1221.4 mm
Correction = SD {0.75- E/2L}; Where E is the effective length
Of super structure
= + 781.6 mm
Correction for Ice thickness of 1000 mm
= 8/9*(1.0)
= 888.8 mm
Corrected freeboard = 4835.99 + 781.6 + 888.8
= 6506.4 mm
Available freeboard = 7010 mm

Hence the vessel has sufficient free board as per load line regulations 1966

e) Minimum Bow Height

Minimum bow height = 56*L (1-L/500)*(1.36/ (CB+0.68)) mm

(LRS PART 3, CHAPTER 3, SECTION 6)

= 6254 mm

A forecastle deck is 2.3 m high above main deck.

Available freeboard = 7010 mm

Total bow height = Available freeboard + 2300

= 9320 mm

Hence minimum bow height required is satisfied.

2.11.2 Preliminary Stability Check

Preliminary Stability check is done by Prohaska’s first approximate method


(Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects, 1947)
h* A non dimensional parameter referred to as residuary stability coefficient.
GZ = h*BM+GMSinθ
GM = KB+ BM- KG [14]

1). KB = T* (0.9-0.3*CM – 0.1*CB) [4]


CM = 0.9+0.1* CB
= 0.983
KB = 8.73 m

33
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2). BM = IT/Volume displacement [4]


= (f (CW)*B2)/ (12*T* CB )
f (CW) = 0.096+0.89*CW2 (Normand’s Formula)
CW = 0.95* CP + 0.17*(1-CP)1/3 [4]
= 0.899
f (CW) = 0.815
BM = 11.47 m
3). KG = 0.58 D [3]
= 13.78 m
GM = 8.73 + 11.47 – 13.783
= 6.42 m
GM/B = 6.42/48.7 = 0.131 [3]

Required range of GM/B is 0.05 to 0.1; the calculated value is out of range. Hence
roll period has to be checked for crew comfort.

For the given values of T/B and D/B h* is read for the six angles of heel Viz.15º, 30º,
45º, 60º, 75º, 90º.
Angle of Heel
h* GM Sinθ BM x h* GZ (m)
(θ)
0 0 0 0 0

15 0.009 1.66 0.103 1.763

30 0.09 3.21 1.03 4.24

45 -0.185 4.53 -2.12 2.41

60 -0.325 5.55 -3.72 1.83

75 -0.475 6.20 -5.44 0.76

90 -0.62 6.42 -7.11 -0.69

Table 2.7

GZ at different angles of heel

34
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The curve of intact stability is plotted and checked according to the


guidelines set by IMO A. 749

8.0

7.2
RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

6.4

5.6

4.8

4.0

3.2

2.4

1.6

0.8

5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

ANGLE OF HEEL(deg)

Fig 2.5
Preliminary GZ curve

Description Requirement Available

Area under GZ curve upto 30° Should not be less than 0.055 m rad 1.021 m-rad

Area under GZ curve upto 40° Should not be less than 0.09 m rad 1.69 m-rad
Area under GZ between 30°
Should not be less than 0.03 m rad .66 m-rad
& 40°
Maximum righting lever, Should be at least 0.2 m at angle of
4.26 m
GZmax heel greater than 30°
Should occur at an angle greater than
Angle of GZmax 31.5o
30°
Initial GM Should not be less than 0.15 m 6.42 m

Table 2.8
IMO Requirements

The IMO conditions are satisfied.

35
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”
2.12 Flowchart of Design Process:
The flowchart of design process given below is not standard flowchart of any
ship design process. The flowchart is prepared based on the direction given by the
project coordinator and comply with the design guidelines given to us.

FLOW CHART OF DESIGN

READ DEADWEIGHT, SPEED AND RANGE

A INPUT, DIMENSIONAL RATIOS FROM

CALCULATE THE MAIN DIMENSIONS

ESTIMATE DISPLACEMENT FROM –


L x B x T x CB x ρSW x k

ESTIMATE LIGHT SHIP WEIGHT

DWT = DISPLACEMENT – LIGHTWEIGHT

36
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

A DWT ≥ GIVEN DWT

YES

A FBD. ≥ REQUIRED FBD.

YES

CALCULATE INITIAL STABILITY

NO CHECK WITH IMO


A
REQUIREMENTS

YES

37
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

ESTIMATE CAPACITY

NO
STOWAGE FACTOR
A WITHIN THE REQUIRED
RANGE

YES

PRELIMINARY GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

RESISTANCE AND POWERING

SELECTION OF MAIN ENGINE, POD AND


AUXILIARY MACHINERY

DETAILED GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

38
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

DETAILED CAPACITY CALCULATION

YES

CHECK FOR VOLUME


REQUIREMENTS

NO

D YES

DETAIL CALCULATION OF STABILITY


AND TRIM FOR MOST SEVERE CONDITION

NO CHECK WITH IMO


A
CRITERIA

YES

39
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

MIDSHIP SECTION DESIGN

NO

CHECK WITH MIN


CALCULATED
SECTION MODULUS

YES

DESIGN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

STOP

40
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

2.13 Final Main dimensions:

Considering all the requirements, the final dimensions are fixed and are
shown in following table given below.

LBP 263.0 m
B 48.7 m
D 23.76 m
T 16.75 m
CB 0.838
Δse 25696 t
ΔOU 3174 t
ΔEP 2352 t
ΔLS 31846 t
DWT 150491t

Table 2.9

Final Dimensions

Hence the final dimensions of the ship are fixed. Now the next step is to
generate the hull form that satisfies the above dimensions.

41
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 3

HULL GEOMETRY
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

3. HULL GEOMETRY
3.1 Lines Design
After fixing main dimensions and coefficients the next step is to develop the
lines plan of ship. Hull form of the ship has a decisive effect on almost all aspects of
ship performance like:
a) Trim & stability
b) Resistance
c) Controllability
d) Sea keeping

It also has to satisfy the requirements regarding displacement, volume and


freeboard. Design of hull form using first principle should be tested in towing tank to
determine its resistance and propulsion characteristics, which is beyond the scope of
this project. Hence lines plan is designed using the standard data available.

Body plan of ice breaking tanker [34]

Fig 3.1

42
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

A standard hull form has been selected from B.S.R.A (British Ship Research
Association) report no. 333.

Other advantages in choosing a BSRA standard hull forms are:


1) Development of lines by first principles involves a lot of trial and error and
quality of lines depends largely on experience. This can be avoided by selecting
a standard hull form.
2) Fairing of lines is minimized.
3) Standard lines are tested in towing tank and found satisfactory in resistance &
sea keeping qualities.
Standard lines give offsets for bulbous bow. So design of separate bulbous bow
not required.

43
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

3.1.1 Design Procedure


B.S.R.A presents waterline offsets for normal forms and bulbous bow forms on a
base of block coefficient. The offsets are presented in terms of the ratio (waterline
ordinate/full half breadth) for each of the standard B.S.R.A water lines as shown in table
3.1.
Stn/
WL A B C D E F G H J K
% of T 7.69 15.38 23.08 38.46 53.85 69.23 84.62 100 115.4 130.77
Real
WL 1.29 2.58 3.87 6.44 9.02 11.6 14.17 16.75 19.33 21.9
0 0 0 0 0 0 0.57 5.92 6.37 10.47 11.73
0.5 0.57 0.57 0.8 1.03 1.82 5.23 9.68 12.41 14.22 15.71
1 1.71 2.51 3.3 4.43 6.26 9.68 13.08 15.48 16.16 18.67
1.5 3.72 5.18 6.2 5.97 9.36 13.3 16.12 18.04 19.73 20.97
2 6.14 7.85 9.33 11.84 14.11 16.5 18.78 20.26 21.62 22.53
3 10.6 13.87 15.57 18.16 19.84 21.31 22.11 22.9 23.45 24.13
4 16.9 18.95 20.21 22.13 23.16 23.62 23.96 24.19 24.19 24.35
5 20.49 22.19 23.22 24.13 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35
6 22.65 23.56 24.13 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35
7 23.79 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35
8 23.84 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35
9 -16 23.9 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35
17 21.75 22.87 23.44 23.67 23.67 23.79 24.01 24.24 24.35 24.35
18 17.19 18.78 19.92 20.82 20.82 20.82 21.29 22.19 23.33 24.13
18.5 13.65 15.36 16.28 17.07 17.3 17.3 17.76 19.12 20.72 22.53
19 9.56 11.27 12.41 13.31 13.2 12.97 13.65 15.14 16.85 19.01
19.5 4.43 6.37 7.51 8.31 7.97 7.17 7.4 8.31 9.68 11.61
20 1.71 3.08 3.86 4.09 2.57 1.14 0.23 0 0.57 1.71
. Table 3.1

Offsets of standard B. S. R. A. waterlines

b) Stern Design

Stern is designed with a O-type bulbous bow with assumed height of 4.5 m,
the shape of bulb is given by iteration on AutoCAD after drawing the half breadth
plan and cross checking of all three views until the design is not satisfactory. Also the
Icebreaking stern is designed like a bow of an Icebreaker.

44
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Stern offsets (m) with respect to AP


wl 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 MDK
- - -
offset 14 7.5 6 6.1 10.5 11 11 7.62 -4.2 7.84 12.29 17 18 -19.5

Stem offsets (m) with respect to FP


wl 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 MDK
-
offset 0.6 1.9 2.9 4.3 4.54 3.8 2.6 1.59 0.76 0.41 0.41 1.56 3.06 4.7

Table 3.2
Stem Stern offsets

c) Pod Dimensions
Assumed pod diameter = 4.3 m (calculated from a scaled drawing
with some geometrical assumptions, Actual diameter can only be decided after the
final selection of the pod)

3.1.1 Final Lines

The offset values obtained by plotting body plan from BSRA Offsets. The
station curves are extended up to the main deck / forecastle deck. Offsets at regular
intervals of waterline are measured. The fairness is to be checked by drawing the
half-breadth plan and profile plan.

The offsets so obtained are presented in table 3.2

WL spacing = 2.0 m
LWL is 16.75 m above the base line.
MDK is 23.76 m above the base line.
STN spacing = 13.15 m. and STN 8 to STN 16 is parallel middle body = 105.2 m.

Φ1 = 27o, Φ2 = 24o (buttock angles), α = 70o (all values are under allowable limits)
Measured flare angle (ψ) = tan-1[tan(Φ2)/sin(α)] = 45

45
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

FAIRED OFFSETS Station Spacing=13.15m waterline Spacing=2m


stn/wl 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 lwl 9 10 11 MDK
-1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 8.91 10.09 10.86
-0.5 - - - - - - - - - - 7.8 9.84 11.45 12.7 13.47 14
0 - - - - - - - - - 11.65 13.39 13.7 14.21 14.94 15.51 16.01
0.5 - - - - - - - - - 13.44 14.44 14.7 15.12 15.69 16.26 16.74
1 - 2.34 3.3 4.15 4.88 6.06 7.23 10.65 13.79 15.39 16.45 16.76 17.16 17.78 18.27 18.7
1.5 1.56 4.09 5.62 7.06 8.41 10.69 12.57 14.43 15.97 17.01 17.78 18.08 18.51 19.02 19.46 19.9
2 3.74 6.75 8.93 10.42 11.73 13.86 15.4 16.72 17.86 18.77 19.41 19.61 19.88 20.26 20.61 20.91
3 7.79 12.06 14.07 15.5 16.62 18.27 19.3 20.14 20.84 21.23 21.55 21.67 21.86 22.13 22.38 22.62
4 11.71 15.89 17.88 19.31 20.34 21.68 22.45 22.94 23.23 23.4 23.51 23.51 23.6 23.69 23.69 23.85
5 14.66 18.19 19.99 21.09 21.89 22.93 23.49 23.76 23.91 24.06 24.16 24.19 24.23 24.35 24.35 24.35
6 16.97 20.06 21.58 22.51 23.08 23.72 24.05 24.16 24.16 24.21 24.28 24.3 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35
7 18.37 21.23 22.6 23.31 23.72 23.73 24.08 24.26 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35
8 to 16 19.02 22.27 23.3 23.84 24.15 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35
17 18.33 21.32 22.45 22.99 23.32 23.7 23.91 24.06 24.91 24.29 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35 24.35
18 14.82 17.5 18.81 19.63 20.16 20.73 21.03 21.26 21.51 21.82 22.22 22.4 22.72 23.25 23.81 24.3
18.5 10.84 13.56 14.98 15.95 16.64 17.45 17.84 18.09 18.3 18.58 19.19 19.25 19.78 20.68 21.66 22.58
19 5.96 9.4 10.62 11.58 12.3 12.99 13.11 13.11 13.34 13.88 14.71 15.67 15.67 16.67 17.81 18.8
19.5 1.81 5.27 6.55 7.35 7.86 8.32 8.14 7.56 7.1 7.2 7.88 8.25 8.94 10.17 11.52 12.75
20 0 1.36 2.55 3.39 3.9 4.15 3.57 2.48 1.48 0.69 0.11 0 0.29 1.7 3.55 5.23
Half Breadth ordinates (m)

Table 3.3

46
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

3.2 BONJEANS AND HYDROSTATIC CURVES


3.2.1. Bonjean Calculations.

Bonjean calculation is calculation of sectional area and moment of each


station up to each waterline about keel. This enables the calculation of displacement,
LCB and VCB for any waterline for even keel.

The uses of Bonjean are:


1) Hydrostatic calculations
2) For floodable length calculations.
3) Launching calculations
4) Longitudinal strength calculations.

The calculations are done by MS-excel 2007 using Simpson’s and


trapezoidal rules of integration. The results are given in the table 3.4 (area table) and
table 3.5 (moment table).it has been checked with the help of SPAN software.

47
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

BONJEAN AREAS Station Spacing=13.15m Waterline Spacing=2m


wl/stn 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 lwl 9 10 11 MDK
-1 - - - - - - - - - - - - 0.00 11.88 49.88 86.75
-0.5 - - - - - - - - - 0.00 10.40 25.1 50.50 98.80 151.14 199.49
0 - - - - - - - - 0.00 29.35 79.99 100.39 135.25 193.55 254.45 309.92
0.5 - - - - - - - - 0.00 35.03 90.93 106.5 150.13 211.75 275.65 333.73
1 0 2.80 8.44 15.93 24.96 47.69 73.43 108.53 158.25 216.80 280.65 305.54 347.93 417.81 489.91 554.98
1.5 0 5.98 15.69 28.40 43.87 82.51 128.86 183.04 243.87 310.13 379.59 406.51 452.32 527.38 604.34 673.61
2 0 10.60 26.45 45.86 68.01 119.53 178.10 242.43 311.62 385.01 461.42 490.68 540.06 620.34 702.08 775.16
3 0 20.51 46.73 76.41 108.53 178.55 253.86 332.69 414.79 499.00 584.54 616.96 671.39 759.37 848.39 927.59
4 0 28.28 62.10 99.42 139.07 223.39 311.75 402.61 495.01 588.29 682.13 717.41 776.35 870.93 965.69 1049.36
5 0 33.29 71.61 112.79 155.77 245.59 338.57 433.13 528.49 624.41 720.90 757.15 817.65 914.81 1012.21 1097.92
6 0 37.48 79.19 123.40 168.99 262.79 358.34 454.90 551.47 648.25 745.18 781.63 842.49 939.89 1037.29 1123.00
7 0 39.98 83.93 129.94 176.97 271.53 367.26 463.94 561.22 658.62 756.02 792.54 853.42 950.82 1048.22 1133.93
8to16 0 41.94 87.60 134.82 182.81 279.94 377.34 474.74 572.14 669.54 766.94 803.46 864.34 961.74 1059.14 1144.85
17 0 40.14 84.04 129.55 175.86 268.03 365.23 459.23 558.65 656.55 753.87 790.4 851.27 948.67 1046.07 1131.79
18 0 32.71 69.09 107.62 147.41 229.34 312.89 397.49 483.00 569.65 657.68 691.14 747.54 839.48 933.60 1018.27
18.5 0 24.78 53.37 84.40 116.99 184.99 256.03 327.52 400.69 474.01 549.77 578.66 627.51 708.43 793.11 870.97
19 0 16.09 36.12 58.40 82.28 133.08 185.44 237.80 290.63 344.93 402.05 424.38 462.79 527.47 596.43 660.86
19.5 0 7.74 19.63 33.62 48.83 81.40 114.54 145.99 175.18 203.53 233.55 245.63 267.08 305.30 348.68 391.40
20 0 1.41 5.33 11.38 18.67 34.61 50.76 62.49 70.72 74.61 76.52 76.48 76.50 80.48 90.98 106.43
Table 3.4
Sectional Areas in m2

48
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

BONJEAN MOMENTS Station Spacing=13.15m Waterline Spacing=2m


wl/stn 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 lwl 9 10 11 MDK
-1 - - - - - - - - - - - 0.00 237.60 1037.96 1882.78
-0.5 - - - - - - - - - 0.00 166.40 401.4 850.47 1770.67 2871.35 3978.35
0 - - - - - - - - 0.00 393.45 1155.52 1492.7 2094.57 3203.73 4483.77 5753.82
0.5 - - - - - - - - 0.00 471.65 1311.57 1674 2317.63 3489.55 4832.59 6162.20
1 0 1.82 10.64 29.28 61.25 174.59 358.32 673.55 1224.08 1985.39 2944.77 3352.2 4088.24 5417.20 6932.28 8421.68
1.5 0 3.16 18.40 49.98 104.80 301.00 625.81 1115.24 1785.01 2647.24 3689.92 4142.9 4926.23 6353.39 7970.43 9556.09
2 0 5.31 29.91 78.27 156.45 415.60 826.80 1406.48 2168.56 3122.83 4269.89 4748.9 5606.64 7132.72 8849.96 10522.39
3 0 10.94 50.92 125.02 238.00 588.59 1117.15 1826.75 2730.59 3825.33 5108.93 5639.6 6585.20 8257.36 10127.28 11939.75
4 0 14.91 66.21 159.48 298.77 721.25 1340.48 2158.43 3175.09 4387.81 5795.52 6373.2 7397.20 9194.40 11184.36 13098.99
5 0 17.16 75.16 178.08 328.91 778.36 1429.97 2280.84 3330.29 4577.00 6024.75 6618.2 7669.29 9515.57 11560.97 13522.06
6 0 19.33 82.27 192.82 352.67 822.95 1491.33 2360.97 3422.96 4681.27 6135.17 6732 7789.48 9640.08 11685.48 13646.57
7 0 20.50 86.75 201.80 366.61 838.73 1509.33 2379.45 3449.65 4715.85 6176.85 6774.9 7832.65 9683.25 11728.65 13689.74
8to16 0 21.73 90.45 208.52 376.64 862.57 1544.37 2420.97 3492.37 4758.57 6219.57 6817.6 7875.37 9725.97 11771.37 13732.46
17 0 20.65 86.79 200.58 362.83 810.23 1500.64 2340.79 3437.44 4709.24 6169.12 6767.2 7824.92 9675.52 11720.92 13682.01
18 0 16.85 71.75 168.10 307.63 717.12 1302.83 2063.71 3005.17 4131.12 5452.59 6000.3 6979.81 8727.73 10705.37 12643.46
18.5 0 12.84 56.13 133.67 248.08 583.07 1085.52 1725.04 2533.41 3484.27 4622.91 5095.7 5943.36 7482.64 9262.88 11045.80
19 0 8.82 39.23 94.89 178.83 431.64 799.95 1269.72 1852.43 2557.37 3416.05 3781.3 4447.80 5678.72 7129.16 8604.93
19.5 0 4.64 22.79 57.79 111.28 272.45 506.27 787.12 1109.89 1476.72 1929.20 2126.6 2498.11 3226.75 4140.43 5119.66
20 0 0.89 7.03 22.18 47.95 119.80 239.63 338.39 433.65 479.05 511.20 509.6 508.28 586.72 810.92 1167.08
Table 3.5
Moments in m^3

49
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

3.2.2 Hydrostatic Calculations

Hydrostatic calculation is mandatory in the design phase of a ship for


various drafts at different trim conditions. Any of hydrostatic particulars can be
estimated with the table or graph obtained from hydrostatic calculation. The
calculations are done with MS-Excel and the results are given in the table 3.5

List of formulae used. (Integration is performed using Simpson’s rule for


port side and then doubled to get the total volume)

AWP = 2/3 h Σ f (A)


h × Σ f (M)
LCF =
Σ f (A)
IL = IФ – AWP x LCF2

IT = (2h/9)Σ f (IT)

AWP × 1.008
TPC =
100
∇ = (h/3) Σ f (∇)

Δ = ∇ x 1.008 x 1.006

KB = (h/3) Σ f (MT)/∇
IT
BMT =

IL
BML =

ΔxBML
MCT1cm =
100 LWL

KM = BM +KB
LCB = (h2/3) Σ f (ML)/∇


CB =
LBP xBxT

A⊗
CM =
BxT

50
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

AWP
CW = LxB

CB
CP = CM

Hydrostatic parameters at designed load water are as below.

∇ = 180,113 m3
Δ = 182,643 t.
KB = 8.73 m
KMT = 20.36 m
KML = 341.5 m
IL = 59988798 m4
IT = 2095122 m4
TPC = 118.81 t
MCT1cm = 2311.14 t-m
LCF = -2.01m (Aft of midship)
LCB = 4.79m (Fwd of midship)
CB = 0.840
CP = 0.852
CW = 0.920
CM = 0.985

The value of CB and Displacement are approximately same and hence the lines
design is satisfactory.

51
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

V Δ LCBФ LCFФ TPC IL IT KB BML KMT MCT1cm CB CW CM CP


WL/PROP (m^3) (t) m (m) (t/cm) (m^4) (m^4) (m) (m) (m) (tm/cm)
0 13.49 75.17 27343723 770144 0.582
0.5 8,416 8,534 12.35 11.51 91.67 35917441 1268909 0.52 4124.76 152.99 1338.45 0.657 0.710 0.861 0.763
1 17,873 18,124 11.52 10.23 98.45 39922567 1504622 1.04 2176.51 85.23 1499.92 0.698 0.763 0.899 0.776
1.5 27,873 28,264 10.88 9.29 102.60 42638410 1652580 1.57 1498.26 60.86 1610.16 0.725 0.795 0.923 0.786
2 38,190 38,726 10.38 8.51 105.42 44609236 1753947 2.09 1148.26 48.02 1690.79 0.745 0.817 0.938 0.794
3 59,350 60,184 9.48 7.35 108.34 46884418 1858004 3.12 780.17 34.43 1785.33 0.772 0.839 0.958 0.806
4 81,195 82,335 8.58 5.72 110.26 48649183 1915912 4.17 594.76 27.76 1861.96 0.792 0.854 0.969 0.818
5 103,218 104,668 7.58 4.08 111.74 50079080 1961168 5.20 483.39 24.20 1923.78 0.806 0.865 0.975 0.827
6 125,759 127,525 6.67 2.56 113.66 52175224 2019406 6.23 414.29 22.29 2008.86 0.818 0.880 0.979 0.836
7 147,867 149,944 6.26 -0.75 116.51 56704169 2045824 7.27 383.44 21.11 2186.09 0.825 0.902 0.982 0.840
8 171,277 173,683 5.15 -1.72 118.16 59028911 2082660 8.33 344.44 20.49 2274.64 0.836 0.915 0.984 0.849
LWL 180,113 182,643 4.79 -2.01 118.81 59988798 2095122 8.73 332.80 20.36 2311.14 0.840 0.920 0.985 0.852
9 195,044 197,784 4.11 -2.53 119.88 61530147 2118420 9.38 315.08 20.24 2369.48 0.846 0.929 0.986 0.858
10 219,419 222,501 3.03 -4.46 122.90 66662641 2161410 10.45 302.71 20.30 2560.97 0.857 0.952 0.987 0.867
11 243,769 247,194 2.30 -4.24 124.23 68593246 2196343 11.50 280.48 20.51 2636.21 0.865 0.962 0.989 0.875
MDK 264,657 268,375 2.16 -3.13 124.66 68960547 2224990 12.41 260.11 20.81 2654.22 0.870 0.966 0.989 0.879

NOTE 1) + means Fwd of midship Table 3.6


2) - ve means aft of midship HYDROSTATIC PROPERTIES

52
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 4
RESISTANCE AND POWERING
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

4. RESISTANCE CALCULATION

4.1 Introduction
The resistance of a ship at a given speed is the force required to tow the
ship at that speed in smooth water, considering no interference from towing ship. The
resistance will be equal to the components of fluid forces acting parallel to the ship
centreline.

The resistance of a DAT can be given by:

Total resistance RT (DAT) = R bare + R bow thrusters + R pod

4.1.2 Resistance Calculation of POD:

R pod can be calculated by using the equation: (from proceedings of 24th


ITTC – Vol. III, Specialist committee on Azimuthing podded propulsion)

Rpod = Rbody + Rfin

Where,

R body = ½ ρV2 S body [C body (1+ k body) + ΔCF body]

R fin = ½ ρV2 S fin [C fin (1+ k fin) + ΔC Ffin]

The parameters of podded propulsion system can be assumed from the


parent ship data. The approximate values are:

S body = 136.4 m2 (approx.)

Diameter of shaft = 1.0 m.

S fin = 8.4 m2 (approx.)

CF body = C fin = 0.001556 (from ITTC-57 line)

ΔCF body = ΔC fin =[105(ks/L)1/3 – 0.64] x 10-3 = 0.00358

(for ks = 0.015 m and L is the length of the ship)

K body = K fin = 0.7 (from VTT, Finland)


The form factor, k, which is defined in pod setup and test location, is given
only as qualitative information of the test results and the hull.

53
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

R body = 24.81 KN

R fin = 1.52 KN

The sum of the separately measured nominal total resistance (bare hull +
pod drag) compared to the directly measured total resistance deviate only
approximately 2 % from each other. Thus it can be concluded that there are no
significant pod - hull interaction despite the rather large sized pod units. (Source:
VTT technical research center of Finland.)

Therefore,

R pod = R body + R fin = 26.33 KN (for V = 15.0 Knots)

For bare hull and bow thrusters resistance calculation, we can follow different
methods of calculating resistance and assume the maximum of all to decide the
powering requirements. The ship stern shape is considered to be normal, and the
bow has a U-shape. Saltwater properties and the speed range are detailed in the
vessel condition section of NAVCAD.

The input parameters for calculating resistance by any of the methods given in
NAVCAD v3.1e.
[X]Bare-hull: Holtrop-1984 method [X]Appendage: Holtrop-1988 method
Technique: Prediction [ ]Wind :
Cf type : ITTC [ ]Seas :
Align to : [ ]Channel :
File : [ ]Barge :
Correlation allow(Ca): 0.00012 [ ]Net :
[X]Roughness: 0.15mm dCa: %-7.5
[X]3-D corr : Form factor(1+k): 1.1307 [ ]Speed dependent correction

---------- Prediction results -----------------------------------------

Vel Fn Rn Cf [Cform] [Cw] Cr Ct


kts
----- ----- ------ -------- -------- -------- -------- --------
10.00 0.100 1.21e9 0.001495 0.000195 0.000963 0.001159 0.002774
11.00 0.109 1.33e9 0.001478 0.000193 0.000942 0.001135 0.002733
12.00 0.119 1.45e9 0.001462 0.000191 0.000927 0.001118 0.002701
13.00 0.129 1.57e9 0.001448 0.000189 0.000923 0.001113 0.002681
14.00 0.139 1.69e9 0.001435 0.000188 0.000935 0.001123 0.002678
15.00 0.149 1.81e9 0.001424 0.000186 0.000970 0.001156 0.002700
16.00 0.159 1.93e9 0.001413 0.000185 0.001035 0.001220 0.002753
17.00 0.169 2.05e9 0.001403 0.000183 0.001138 0.001322 0.002844
18.00 0.179 2.18e9 0.001393 0.000182 0.001294 0.001476 0.002989
19.00 0.189 2.30e9 0.001384 0.000181 0.001503 0.001684 0.003188

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Vel Rw/W Rr/W Rbare/W Rw Rr Rbare PEbare


kts kN kN kN kW
----- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------
10.00 0.00014 0.00017 0.00041 257.59 309.86 741.88 3816.6
11.00 0.00017 0.00021 0.00049 304.81 367.32 884.46 5005.1
12.00 0.00020 0.00024 0.00058 357.14 430.76 1040.21 6421.6
13.00 0.00023 0.00028 0.00068 417.35 502.91 1211.80 8104.2
14.00 0.00027 0.00033 0.00078 490.33 588.68 1404.08 10112.5
15.00 0.00033 0.00039 0.00091 583.82 695.79 1624.72 12537.4
16.00 0.00040 0.00047 0.00105 708.83 835.25 1884.68 15513.0
17.00 0.00049 0.00057 0.00123 879.95 1021.64 2198.50 19227.1
18.00 0.00063 0.00071 0.00145 1121.08 1278.86 2590.03 23983.7
19.00 0.00081 0.00091 0.00172 1451.57 1626.25 3078.59 30091.5

Vel Rapp Rwind Rseas Rchan Rother Rtotal PEtotal


kts kN kN kN kN kN kN kW
----- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------
10.00 5.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 747.49 3845.4
11.00 6.76 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 891.22 5043.3
12.00 8.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1048.23 6471.1
13.00 9.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1221.18 8167.0
14.00 10.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1414.94 10190.7
15.00 12.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1637.15 12633.3
16.00 14.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1898.79 15629.1
17.00 15.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2214.40 19366.1
18.00 17.79 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2607.82 24148.4
19.00 19.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3098.37 30284.8

Condition data

Water type: Custom


Mass density: 1008 kg/m3
Kinematic visc: 1.16e-06 m2/s

---------- Hull data --------------------------------------------------

Primary: Secondary:
Length between PP: 263.000 m Trim by stern: 0.000 m
WL aft of FP: 0.000 m LCB aft of FP: 126.820 m
Length on WL: 272.500 m Bulb ext fwd FP: 6.150 m
Max beam on WL: 48.700 m Bulb area at FP: 42.000 m2
Draft at mid WL: 16.750 m Bulb ctr abv BL: 6.150 m
Displacement bare: 182642.0 t Transom area: 15.000 m2
Max area coef(Cx): 0.985 Half ent angle: 52.000 deg
Waterplane coef: 0.920 Stern shapes: U-shape
Wetted surface: 20052.0 m2 Bow shape: Normal
Loading: Load draft

Parameters: Holtrop-1984 method


Fn(Lwl) [0.10..0.80] 0.10*
Fn-high [0.10..0.80] 0.19
Cp(Lwl) [0.55..0.85] 0.83
Lwl/Bwl [3.90..14.90] 5.60
Bwl/T [2.10..4.00] 2.91

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Appendages
Total wetted surface (ex. thruster):
Rudders: 0.000 m2 Drag coefficient: 0.000
Shaft brackets: 0.000 .................. 0.000
Skeg: 0.000 .................. 0.000
Strut bossing: 0.000 .................. 0.000
Hull bossing: 0.000 .................. 0.000
Exposed shafts: 0.000 .................. 0.000
Stabilizer fins: 0.000 .................. 0.000
Dome: 0.000 .................. 0.000
Bilge keels: 60.000 .................. 1.400
Bow thruster diam: 2.500 m .................. 0.007

Application: Resistance 7 Feb 08 19:25 Page 3


Hull type : Displacement File name: untitled.nc3
Description:

---------- Environment data -------------------------------------------

Wind: Seas:
Wind speed: 60.000 kts Sig. wave height: 0.000 m
Angle off bow: 30.000 deg Modal wave period: 0.000 sec
Tran hull area: 0.000 m2
VCE above WL: 0.000 m Channel:
Tran superst area: 0.000 m2 Channel width: 0.000 m
VCE above WL: 0.000 m Channel depth: 0.000 m
Total longl area: 0.000 m2 Side slope: 0.000 deg
VCE above WL: 0.000 m Wetted hull girth: 0.000 m
Wind speed: Free stream
Arrangement: Tanker/Bulk

Symbols and values


Vel Ship speed
Fn Froude number
Rn Reynolds number
Cf Frictional resistance coefficient
[Cform] Viscous form resistance coefficient
[Cw] Wave-making resistance coefficient
Cr Residuary resistance coefficient
Ct Bare-hull resistance coefficient

Rw/W Wave-making resist-displ merit ratio


Rr/W Residuary resist-displ merit ratio
Rbare/W Bare-hull resist-displ merit ratio
Rw Wave-making resistance component
Rr Residuary resistance component
Rbare Bare-hull resistance
PEbare Bare-hull effective power

Rapp Additional appendage resistance


Rwind Additional wind resistance
Rseas Additional sea-state resistance
Rchan Additional channel resistance
Rother Other added resistance
Rtotal Total vessel resistance
PEtotal Total effective power
* Exceeds speed parameter

56
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

BSRA METHOD
The bare hull resistance and the resistance of bow thrusters of the vessel is
calculated by using the software NavCAD v3.1e.
The results are shown below:
Analysis parameters
[X]Bare-hull: BSRA series [X]Appendage: Holtrop-1988 method
Technique: Prediction [ ]Wind :
Cf type : ITTC [ ]Seas :
Align to : [ ]Channel :
File : [ ]Barge :
Correlation allow(Ca): 0.00012 [ ]Net :
[X]Roughness: 0.15mm dCa: %-7.5
[X]3-D corr : Form factor(1+k): 1.1307 [ ]Speed dependent correction

Prediction results
Vel Fn Rn Cf [Cform] [Cw] Cr Ct
kts
----- ----- ------ -------- -------- -------- -------- --------
10.00* 0.100 1.21e9 0.001495 0.000195 0.000633 0.000829 0.002444
11.00* 0.109 1.33e9 0.001478 0.000193 0.000706 0.000899 0.002497
12.00* 0.119 1.45e9 0.001462 0.000191 0.000760 0.000951 0.002533
13.00* 0.129 1.57e9 0.001448 0.000189 0.000793 0.000982 0.002551
14.00* 0.139 1.69e9 0.001435 0.000188 0.000804 0.000992 0.002547
15.00 0.149 1.81e9 0.001424 0.000186 0.000793 0.000979 0.002523
16.00 0.159 1.93e9 0.001413 0.000185 0.000801 0.000986 0.002519
17.00 0.169 2.05e9 0.001403 0.000183 0.000927 0.001110 0.002632
18.00 0.179 2.18e9 0.001393 0.000182 0.001184 0.001366 0.002879
19.00 0.189 2.30e9 0.001384 0.000181 0.001511 0.001691 0.003196

Vel Rw/W Rr/W Rbare/W Rw Rr Rbare PEbare


kts kN kN kN kW
----- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------
10.00* 0.00009 0.00012 0.00036 169.41 221.68 653.70 3362.9
11.00* 0.00013 0.00016 0.00045 228.55 291.07 808.21 4573.6
12.00* 0.00016 0.00020 0.00054 292.66 366.28 975.73 6023.5
13.00* 0.00020 0.00025 0.00064 358.51 444.07 1152.96 7710.7
14.00* 0.00024 0.00029 0.00075 421.64 519.99 1335.39 9617.8
15.00 0.00027 0.00033 0.00085 477.39 589.37 1518.29 11716.2
16.00 0.00031 0.00038 0.00096 548.76 675.18 1724.61 14195.5
17.00 0.00040 0.00048 0.00114 716.21 857.90 2034.76 17795.1
18.00 0.00057 0.00066 0.00139 1025.93 1183.71 2494.88 23102.6
19.00 0.00081 0.00091 0.00172 1458.54 1633.22 3085.55 30159.6

Vel Rapp Rwind Rseas Rchan Rother Rtotal PEtotal


kts kN kN kN kN kN kN kW
----- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------
10.00* 5.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 659.31 3391.8
11.00* 6.76 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 814.97 4611.8
12.00* 8.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 983.75 6073.0
13.00* 9.38 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1162.34 7773.5
14.00* 10.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1346.24 9695.9
15.00 12.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1530.72 11812.1
16.00 14.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1738.72 14311.6
17.00 15.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2050.66 17934.1
18.00 17.79 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2512.67 23267.3
19.00 19.78 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3105.34 30353.0

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

The above data give resistance of bare hull and the resistance offered by
one bow thrusters
Hence the total resistance, for V =15 Knots (from Holltorp Menon - 1984 Method)
RT (DAT) = Rbare + 2 x Rbow thrusters + Rpod
For V = 15.0 knots (From Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method)
RT (DAT) = 1637.15+ 2 x 12.43+ 26.33 KN
= 1688.34 KN
Total resistance by Guldhammer – Harvald Method:

2 x Rbow
Speed Rbare thrusters Rpod RT (DAT) PE (DAT)
(Knots) (KN) (KN) (KN) (KN) (KW)
10 640.06 11.20 11.70 662.96 3410.25
11 768.90 13.52 14.16 796.58 4507.38
12 909.11 16.04 16.85 942.00 5814.77
13 1069.65 18.76 19.77 1108.18 7410.65
14 1249.57 21.70 22.93 1294.20 9320.32
15 1487.56 24.86 26.33 1538.75 11873.00
16 1801.46 28.22 29.95 1859.63 15305.53
17 2126.36 31.80 33.82 2191.98 19168.44
18 2531.69 35.58 37.91 2605.18 24121.88
Table 4.1
Total resistance Guldhammer – Harvald Method:

25

20

15
P E(MW)
R T(10^5N)
10
RT
PE
5

10 12 14 16 18

Fig 4.1
Graph from Guldhammer- Harvald method of resistance calculation.

58
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Total resistance by Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method:

2 x Rbow
Speed Rbare thrusters Rpod RT (DAT) PE (DAT)
(Knots) (KN) (KN) (KN) (KN) (KW)
10 747.49 11.20 11.70 770.39 3962.89
11 891.22 13.52 14.16 918.90 5199.50
12 1048.23 16.04 16.85 1081.12 6673.54
13 1221.18 18.76 19.77 1259.71 8423.93
14 1414.94 21.70 22.93 1459.57 10511.24
15 1637.15 24.86 26.33 1688.34 13027.23
16 1898.79 28.22 29.95 1956.96 16106.56
17 2214.4 31.80 33.82 2280.02 19938.32
18 2607.82 35.58 37.91 2681.31 24826.79
Table 4.2
Total resistance by Holltrop – Menon 1984 Method:

25

20

15
P E(MW)
R T(10^5N)
10 RT
PE
5

10 12 14 16 18

Fig 4.2
Graph from Holltrop-Menon 1984 method of resistance calculation.

59
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Total resistance by BSRA Method:

2 x Rbow
Speed Rbare thrusters Rpod RT (DAT) PE (DAT)
(Knots) (KN) (KN) (KN) (KN) (KW)
10 653.7 11.20 11.70 676.60 3480.43
11 808.21 13.52 14.16 835.89 4729.80
12 975.73 16.04 16.85 1008.62 6226.01
13 1152.96 18.76 19.77 1191.49 7967.73
14 1335.39 21.70 22.93 1380.02 9938.35
15 1518.29 24.86 26.33 1569.48 12110.11
16 1724.61 28.22 29.95 1782.78 14672.99
17 2034.76 31.80 33.82 2100.38 18367.40
18 2494.88 35.58 37.91 2568.37 23781.05
Table 4.3
Total resistance by BSRA Method

25

20

P E(MW) 15
R T( 1 0 ^ 5 N )
10
RT
PE
5

10 12 14 16 18

Fig 4.3
Graph from BSRA method of resistance calculation.

From these three methods, Holltrop and Menon 1984 have the max value of
resistance.

60
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

4.2 Powering Calculation

4.2.1 Introduction

This deals with the selection of the main engine. The derivation of the
engine power starts from resistance at service speed. A preliminary design of the
podded machinery can be done which would deliver the required thrust. The
selection of the pod is done on the basis of model test results carried out in the
proceedings of 24th ITTC, Vol. – II (Special committee on Podded Propulsion). The
Model tests were carried out for the Ice capable ships Mewis (2001) and Ukon et al
(2003). The main engine is selected according to this parameter. Propeller design is
done with the help of T-J and P-J charts.

Wake fraction (w)


w = 0.55CB-0.20 [36]

= 0.261

Thrust deduction factor (t)


t = 1.25w [36]
= 0 .326
RT = 1688.34KN
An allowance of 25% is provided to get service condition resistance.
RT = 1688.34 *1.25
= 2110.5 KN

Thrust calculation
Required thrust = RT/ (1-t)
= 3131.3 KN

Velocity of advance (VA)

VA = V (1-w)

= 15.0 × 0.5144(1-0.261) m/s

= 5.702 m/s

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Diameter of propeller
D = 2/3 T
= 11.166 m
T = draft
D selected = 7.75 m (twin Azipod propeller)
Td = √T/ρ/ (D × VA)
In this case
Td = (1/7.75× 5.7021) √(1565.65 /1.008)
= 0.89

From Model results: (Model used for Extrapolation)


(24th ITTC - Volume II)

Particulars Ukon et al. TU032 (VTT) Mewis

(AE/AO) 0.55 0.537 0.58


Diameter (mm) 200 200 215.15
Pitch Ratio 0.800 0.850 1.104
Boss Ratio 0.280 0.278 0.276
No. of Blades 4 4 4
Rotation direction Right Right Right

Table 4.4

Values of J, KQ are read off from T-J chart where the Td=0.89 line intersects the
optimum efficiency line for optimizing n. This is done for AE/AO = 0.4, 0.55 and 0.70
Graphs are drawn with J and KQ versus AE/AO .Then the values of J and KQ for AE/AO
= 0.55, 0.537 and 0.58 are found out for z = 4.

AE/A0 J KQ

0.4 0.47 0.0225

0.55 0.565 0.04

0.7 0.515 0.031


Table 4.5
KQ, J values for 4 bladed propellers

62
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Graph to find KQ, J values for 4 bladed propeller

Fig 4.4

Graph to find KQ, J values for 4 bladed propeller

From the above graph:

AE/A0 J KQ

0.537 0.563 0.0398


0.55 0.565 0.04
0.58 0.564 0.0395
Table 4.6
J, KQ Values from the Graph above

63
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

For AE/AO = 0.537; J= 0.563 KQ = 0.0398


J = 0.563
n = VA/J×D = 1.306
PD = 2π×ρ×n3×D5× KQ
= 15698.62 KW
η0 = T× VA /PD
= 0.5686
= 56.86 %

AE/A0 0.537 0.550 0.580


J 0.563 0.565 0.564
KQ 0.0398 0.0400 0.0395
n 1.306 1.302 1.304
PD (KW) 15698.62 15632.98 15508.82
η0(%) 56.86 57.1 57.5
Table 4.7
n, PD and η0 for the models:

The FP propeller with BAR of 0.58 can be selected

4.2.2 Brake power calculation (for ahead running condition)


PD = 15508.82 KW
PB = PD / (η m x η t x η g)
ηm = Efficiency of motor
= 0.96
ηt = Efficiency of transformer [28]
= 0.97
ηg = Efficiency of generator
= 0.96
PB = 15508.82/ (0.96x0.97x0.96)
= 17348.6 KW

64
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

4.2.5 Engine selection

In order to utilize Azipod propulsion system, the ship should have electric
power plants. Generator sets are connected to the main electric switchboard to
distribute electric power for all power consumers onboard, including Azipod
propulsion. In case of diesel electric power plant all the diesel engines can be of the
same type as of the conventional vessel, which minimizes the spare parts
inventories. The number of vulnerable auxiliary systems is reduced to a minimum.

Diesel Engines
Type: 9TM620
Number: 3
Manufacturer: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO. Holland [33]
Rated output: 12,750KW
Rated speed: 428rpm
Consumption of heavy fuel oil: 174G/KWH +5%
Consumption of lube oil: 1.3+0.3G/KWH
Greatest weight/piece: 270T

Generators
Type: HSG 1600 S14
Number: 3
Rated capacity: 15,537 KVA
Cos Factor: 0.8
Frequency: 50 HZ
Rated current: 815A
Rated voltage: 11KV
Greatest weight/piece: 55T
Rated speed: 429 rpm
Rated output: 12.43 MW
Transformers
Number: 2
Type: STROD/BTRD.
Rated voltage: 11KV/121KV
Weight: 58T

Auxiliary engines
Type: SKU CUIN-1400N305, Model 1400 GQKA
Number: 3
Manufacturer: Cummins
Rated output: 1400 kW
Rated capacity: 1400 kW (1750 kVA) 60 Hz or 1166.7 kW (1458.3 kVA) 50 Hz

65
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

The engine is well suited for operation on low-quality fuels and intended to drive
the generator directly without any speed changing device. Normally generators are
running at higher rpm, hence selected engine is medium speed engine using heavy
fuel oil. This engine has been especially designed for such specific purpose only.

Brake power calculation (for ahead running condition)

PB = 19125 KW

ηm = Efficiency of motor
= 0.96
ηt = Efficiency of transformer [28]
= 0.97
ηg = Efficiency of generator
= 0.96
PD = PB x (η m x η t x η g)

PD = 17096.8 KW

4.3 Selection of POD:

Power transmission and steering module is installed to the ship hull at a


convenient phase of ship construction. Pre-fabricated pod including strut and motor
are delivered, installed and connected to the power and steering module separately
on the most suitable phase only just before launching of the ship. The Azipod unit
itself has a flexible design. It can be built for pushing or pulling in open water or in ice
conditions.

PD = 17096.8 KW

Hence from Azipod performance curve, V25 type Azipod can be selected with
special material requirements of Ice class operations.

Pod parameters are as follows


PD = 17096.8 KW
RPM = 110

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Fig 4.5
Power (KW) Vs Propeller speed [28]

Fig 4.6
Azipod main dimension drawing [28]

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

For V25 type (ABB) [Project [28]

A = 13500 mm
B = 7050 mm
C = 6500 mm
D = 7750 mm (Assumed propeller diameter)
E = 1600 mm
F = 3355 mm
G = 4900 mm
H = 550 mm
J = 2500 mm
K = 2600 mm
L = 6445 mm
Tilt angle = 0o to 6o, Selected = 3o

Fig 4.7 [28]

Weight of V25 Standard Azipod = Complete weight excluding propeller +


Weight of AZU (Azipod unit) + Weight of STU (Steering unit) + Weight of SRP (Slip
ring unit) + Weight of CAU (cooling air unit) + Weight of HPY (Hydraulic power unit) +
other ancillaries + weight of propeller [28]
= 315 + 175 + 85 + 4 + 10 + 5 + 8 + 60
= 662 tons

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

4.4 Design of propeller to match the selected pod


PD = 17096.8 KW
RPM = 1.833
VA = 5.7021 m/s
PN = (n/ VA 2) (P/2π × ρ × VA)1/2
PN = 1.833/ (5.702)2 × (17096.8 /2π × 1.008 × 5.702)1/2
= 1.22
Steps to get performance values for Wageningen B-Series propeller using P-J
charts.
a) Find the point of intersection of PN = 1.22 line with the η optimum for PN
constant
b) Read off J, where J = Advance coefficient
c) Increase J by 6 %.
d) At this J’=J(1.06), find the propeller characteristic where J’ meets
e) For PN = 1.22 From J’ we can find the value of KT for given (AE/AO) = 0. 4 ,0.55
and 0.70after
Interpolating the values of J’ and KT from the P-J charts

AE/Ao 0.4 0.55 0.70


J 0.385 0.408 0.43
J' (=J*1.06) 0.408 0.432 0.456
KT 0.158 0.175 0.208
P/D 0.68 0.75 0.77
D 7.635 7.204 6.836
T 1812.4 1591.6 1533.3
AE/Ao(min) 0.476 0.522 0.568
ηO 60.45 53.08 51.14
Table 4.8
Performance values

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Minimum blade area ratio to avoid capitation


2
(A /A ) = [((1.3 + 0.3Z) T) / ((P + ρgh – P ) D )]+ K [Auf’en Keller formula]
E O min atm V
Where K = 0.1 for twin screw propellers
Z = number of blades
h = height of LWL above shaft central line in meters
P = 101.366 kN/m2
atm

P = 1.704 kN/m2
V

h = 8.0 m
D = 7.75 m
K = 0.1 for double screw propellers
3
ρ = 1.008 t/m
2
g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s )

=0.47

Performance curves

1 Kt 1cm=0.001
2 N0 1cm=0.001
1900
T 3 P/D 1cm=0.001
1700 4 Ae/Ao 1cm=0.001
0.8 0.8
1500 5 j* 1cm=0.002
0.7 P/D D 0.7 0.7 6 T 1cm=2KN
0.6 0.6 N0 0.6 0.6
T(KN)

AE/A0
D(m)

0.5 0.5
P/D

no

0.4 0.4
kt

Ae/Ao

0.3 0.3

0.2 J* 0.2
KT
j*

0.1

0.4 .55 .7

Fig 4.8
Performance curves

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Particulars of selected propellers


D : 7.26 m
Z : 4
AE/AO : 0.527
P/D : 0.742
T : 1612.56 KN
ηO : 53.8
Material : Lloyd’s grade Cu 4
Manganese Aluminium Bronze
Type : Wageningen B –series Fixed pitch
Tensile strength N/mm2 minimum: 630N/mm2

Chemical composition of propeller and propeller blade castings

Sn 70-80%,
Pb-6%
Ni-0.05%,
Fe-1.-3%
Al- 5-9%,
Mn-8-20%
Zn -1%

4.5 Determination of ice torque [FSICR]

Dimensions of propellers, shafting and gearing are determined by formulae taking


into account the impact when a propeller blade hits ice. The ensuing load is
hereinafter called the ice torque M.
M = m ‫ ڄ‬D2 ton meters where:
D = diameter of propeller in meters
m = 2.15 for ice class IA Super
= 1.60 (IA)
= 1.33 (IB)
= 1.22 (IC

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

If the propeller is not fully submerged when the ship is in ballast condition,
the ice torque for ice class IA is to be used for ice classes IB and IC.

M = 2.15X7.262
= 113.32 ton meters

The elongation of the material used is not to be less than 19%, preferably
less than 22% for a test piece length = 5 d and the value for the Charpy V-notch test
is not to be less than 2.1 kpm at –10°C.

Width c and thickness t of propeller blade sections are to be determined so that:


a) at the radius 0.25 D/2, for solid propellers

t = 23.85 cm

b) at the radius 0.35 D/2 for FP-propellers

t = 20.31 cm

c) at the radius 0.6 D/2

t = 13.06 cm
Where:
c = length in cm of the expanded cylindrical section of the blade, at the radius in
question
t = the corresponding maximum blade thickness in cm
H = propeller pitch in meters at the radius in question.
= 5.386
(For controllable pitch propellers 0.7 H nominal is to be used.)
Ps = shaft engine output according to 3.1, but expressed in horsepower [hp]
= 22927.18hp
n = propeller revolutions [rpm]
= 110

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

M = ice torque
=113.32 ton meters
Z = number of blades
=4
σ b = tensile strength in kp/mm2 of the material
=31.5kp/mm2

The blade tip thickness t at the radius 1.0 D/2 is to be determined by the following
Formulae:
Ice Class IA Super

t = 43.49 mm

Ice Classes IA, IB and IC

Where D and σb are as defined previously

Other important aspects to be covered are as follow


a) The thickness of other sections is governed by a smooth curve connecting the
above section thicknesses.
b) Where the blade thickness derived is less than the class rule thickness, the latter
is to be used.
c) The thickness of blade edges is not to be less than 50% of the derived tip
thickness t, measured at 1.25 t from the edge. For controllable pitch propellers
this applies only to the leading edge.
d) The strength of mechanisms in the boss of a controllable pitch propeller is to be
1.5 times that of the blade when a load is applied at the radius 0.9 D/2 in the
weakest direction of the blade.

Screw shaft
The diameter of the screw shaft at the aft bearing is not to be less than:

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Where
σb = tensile strength of the blade in kp/mm2 (49.0kp/mm2)
ct2 = value derived =94667.3
σy = yield stress of the shaft in kp/mm2 (31.5kp/mm2)

ds=570.3mm

4.6 Propeller Geometry


PROPELLER OFFSETS
(all dimensions in m)
r/R 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00
Dis from CL TO
TE 0.599 0.684 0.766 0.837 0.901 0.958 0.992 0.965 0.413
Dis from CL TO
LE 0.963 1.080 1.156 1.182 1.151 1.055 0.855 0.520 *
chord length 1.562 1.764 1.922 2.019 2.053 2.013 1.847 1.485 0.413
tmax 0.267 0.236 0.206 0.175 0.144 0.114 0.083 0.052 0.045
LE-Tmax 0.547 0.618 0.673 0.717 0.798 0.892 0.885 0.742 *
Tables 4.9
Propeller geometry

Ordinates for the


back (As distance in meters)
From maximum thickness to trailing From maximum thickness to leading
edge edge
r/R 100 80 60 40 20 20 40 60 80 90 95 100
0.2 * 0.14 0.19 0.23 0.26 0.26 0.25 0.23 0.20 0.17 0.15 *
0.3 * 0.12 0.17 0.21 0.23 0.23 0.22 0.20 0.17 0.15 0.13 *
0.4 * 0.10 0.14 0.18 0.20 0.20 0.19 0.17 0.14 0.12 0.11 *
0.5 * 0.08 0.12 0.15 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.09 *
0.6 * 0.06 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.06 *
0.7 * 0.04 0.08 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.06 0.05 0.04 *
0.8 * 0.03 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.04 0.03 0.02 *
0.9 * 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.01 *
1 * 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.00 *

Tables 4.10

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Ordinates for the face (As distance in meters)


From maximum thickness to From maximum thickness to leading
trailing edge edge
r/R 100 80 60 40 20 20 40 60 80 90 95 100
0.2 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.11
0.3 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.00 0 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.09
0.4 0.04 0.01 0.00 0 0 0 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.07
0.5 0.02 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.05
0.6 0.01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.04
0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00 0.00 0.02
0.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01

Tables 4.11

4.7 Power requirement for Ice operations (Astern running condition):

For Ice breaking speed of 1 m/s (“Icebreaker performance prediction” by Arno


Keinomen, Robin P Brown, Colin R Revill and Ian M Bayly, SNAME [30]

R1 = 0.015CSCHB0.7L0.2T0.1H1.25[1-0.0083(t + 30)][0.63 + 0.00074σF][1 + 0.0018(90 –


ψ)1.6][1 + 0.003(φ – 5)1.5] x 103 KN

Where, CS = Salinity coefficient = 0.85 (for brackish Ice)

CH = Hull condition coefficient = 1.33 (for new steel)

B = Beam of ship = 48.7 m

L = Length of ship at LWL = 272.5 m

T = Designed draft = 16.75 m

H = Thickness of Ice

t = Ice surface air temperature = taken as -10oC (most severe condition)

ψ = flare angle = 65 o

φ = buttock angle = 24o

σF = 270 KPa (for Baltic Ice)

R1 = Level Ice resistance at 1 m/s for rounded type icebreakers

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

= 1154.05 KN (for H = 1.0 m, most severe Ice condition thickness)


Since, R α V2
For Designed Ice speed of 5.0 Knots in 1.0 m thick Ice
R = 1154.05 x VICE2

Required delivered power = R x VICE2 x 0.85 (assume 15% reduction for a DAT)

= 980.93 VICE2

ηH = (1-t)/(1-w)

= 0.912

PE = PT X ηH KW

= (1612.56X5.702X2) X 0.912 (Twin Azipod)

= 16771.3 KW

VICE (maximum) = (PE/980.93)1/3 = 2.576 m/s

VICE (Maximum) = 5.008 Knots


ASTERN SPEED IN KNOTS

8.0
7.0
6.0
5.0
4.0

0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6


THICKNESS OF ICE IN m

Fig 4.9
Ice thickness (HICE) vs. VICE

Hence for minimum Ice speed of 5 Knots is achievable with the selected model of
Pod and the brake power calculation.

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Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 5
FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT
 

 
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5. FINAL GENERAL ARRANGEMENT


5.1. Frame Spacing and Bulkhead Disposition
5.1.1 Introduction

The general Arrangement of a ship can be defined as the assignment of


spaces for all the required functions and equipments, properly coordinated for location
and access.

The requirements that must be met are,


a) Volume requirements
b) Adequate trim and stability
c) Structural integrity
d) Watertight subdivision and integrity
e) Adequate access to spaces.

The volume below deck is subdivided into:


a) Machinery space
b) Cargo spaces
c) Ballast spaces
d) Pump room
e) Slop Tank
5.1.2 Basic Hull Framing

The bottom shell, inner bottom, deck, side shell, inner hull bulkheads and
longitudinal bulkheads are longitudinally framed. Transverse framing is adopted in fore
peak region, aft peak region and machinery space region.

The different regions along with their rule spacing [LRS, Part 3,
and Chapter 5, 6] are given below,
a) Aft Ice breaking region: 500 mm (taken from trends in Russian Ice class 1A ships)

b) Aft of 0.05 L from AP


s = (470 + L / 0.6) = 908 mm (where L = 263 m) or 600 mm, whichever is the
lesser.
Taken s = 600 mm

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

c) Between 0.05 L and 0.15 L from AP


s = (510 + L / 0.6) = 948 mm (where L = 263 m) or 850 mm, whichever is the
lesser.
Taken s = 850 mm

d) Forward of 0.05 L from FP


s = (470 + L / 0.6) = 908 mm (where L = 263 m) or 600 mm, whichever is the
lesser.
Taken s = 600 mm

e) Between 0.05 L & 0.2 L from FP


s = (470 + L / 0.6) = 908 mm (where L = 263 m) or 700 mm, whichever is the
lesser.
Taken s = 700 mm

f) Rest of spaces, s = 850mm is adopted.

The maximum frame spacing as permitted by the rules has been calculated. The
final frame spacing along the length in accordance with the rules is shown in the table.

Region Spacing (mm)


a 500
b 600
c 850
d 600
e 700
Rest o space 850

Table 5.1
Basic Frame Spacing

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Fig 5.1
Basic Frame Spacing

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.1.3 Number and Disposition of Bulkheads

The disposition of transverse bulkheads is to comply with the requirements of


LRS [LRS, Part3, Chapter 3&4], as applicable to ships with machinery located aft.
Minimum number of bulkheads = 9
Number of bulkheads taken = 9

5.1.4 Forward Collision Bulkhead

For ships with bulbous bow [LRS, Part 3, Chapter 3, Section 4] and LL ≥ 200,
the distance of collision bulkhead aft of fore end of LL in m is.
10 – f2 (minimum)
0.08 LL– f2 (maximum)
Where:
LL = load line length, is to be taken as 96% of total length on WL at 85%
of least moulded depth, or as the length from foreside of the stem to the AP on that
WL, if that is greater
f2 = G/2 or 0.015 LL m, whichever is the lesser
G = projection of bulbous bow forward of fore end of LL in m = 4.56 m
Here,
LL = 270.65 m.
G = 4.56 m.
Whence
f2 = 2.28 m.
Minimum distance = 10 – f2 = 7.72 m.
Maximum distance = 0.08 LL – f2 = 19.37 m.

Let’s take distance of fore peak bulkhead at a distance of 11.4 m from FP.

5.1.5 Aft Peak Bulkhead

All ships should have one aft peak bulkhead generally enclosing the stern
tube and the rudderpost. As provided in the parent ship, aft peak bulkhead is provided at
a distance of 12.6 m from AP.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.1.6.1 Length of Engine Room

The length of engine room is determined by the power and size of the engine,
type and whether it is a slow-speed, medium-speed or high-speed engine.
Main engine particulars:
Type: 9TM620
Number: 3
Manufacturer: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO. Holland [33]
Rated output: 12,750KW
Rated speed: 428rpm

Considering the frame spacing and the information from built ships the length
of engine room is fixed as 31.55 m. Length of pump room is 4.25m.

5.1.6.2 Cofferdams

Cofferdams are to be provided at the forward and aft ends of the oil cargo
space. These cofferdams should be at least 760 mm in length and should cover the
whole area of the bulkheads of the cargo space. Pump room has been incorporated as
the aft cofferdam. The fore peak tank forms the forward cofferdam.

5.1.6.3 Slop Tank

According to LRS rule, slop tank should be provided with a minimum capacity
of 3% of cargo carrying capacity.
3% of cargo carrying capacity = 3% of 150000 = 4500 t
Assuming a stowage factor of 1.2, 5400 m3 capacity is required for the slop tank, hence
length of slop tank taken is 5.1m

5.1.7 Length of Cargo Tanks


The structural configuration has been adopted with one centreline longitudinal
bulkhead. For such a configuration the length of the hold [Part 4, Chapter 9] should not
exceed,
10 m or (0.25 bi/B + 0.15) LL m, whichever is the greater.
Where bi = minimum distance from side shell to inner hull of tank
measured inboard at right angles to the center line at
load water line.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Here bi = 3.0 m
LL = load line length, is to be taken as 96% of total length on WL
at 85% of least moulded depth, or as the length from foreside of the stem to AP on
that WL, if that is greater
Therefore, LL = 270.65 m
(0.25 bi / B + 0.15) LL= 44.76 m

According to the above mentioned restrictions the cargo region is divided into ten
holds.(5 port and 5 stbd). For length of cargo tanks see table 5.2.

Component Frame Spacing (mm) Length (m)

Aft ballast tank -39-11 500 13.89


Pod room -11-21 500&600 18.1
A P tank 9-21 600 7.2
Engine room 21-59 600 & 850 31.55
Pump room 59-64 850 4.25
Slop tank 64-70 850 5.1
Cargo oil tank-1 70-114 850 37.4
Cargo oil tank-2 114-164 850 42.5
Cargo oil tank-3 164-209 850 38.25
Cargo oil tank-4 209-259 700&850 41.75

Cargo oil tank-5 259-314 600&700 38.2

Fore peak tank 314 to FE 500&600 19.9

Table 5.2
Division of Compartments

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.2 GENERAL ARRANGEMENT


5.2.1 Introduction

The vessel has been designed as a twin screw diesel-electric driven (Podded
Propulsion machinery) double skin segregated ballast crude oil tanker with machinery
space and all accommodation including Navigation Bridge located aft. The vessel has a
single continuous deck with forecastle deck and five tiers of deckhouse and has a
bulbous bow at the stem and stern.

5.2.2 Hull Structure

The vessel is to be classed under LRS. All steel for hull construction is of ship
building quality High tensile steel (DH32 or DH36) and grade of steel is in accordance
with FSICR as par Ice Navigation requirements.

5.2.3 Framing

Details about major subdivision of cargo and ballast spaces are discussed in
the above table 5.2. Longitudinal framing supported by transverse webs has been
adopted in way of cargo region. Forward and aft ends have been framed transversely.
Adequate changing systems from longitudinal to transverse framing have been provided
to avoid abrupt discontinuities.

Cargo hold region : Longitudinal framing in way of upper deck, side


shell, inner bottom, longitudinal bulkhead and bottom
Forepeak : Longitudinal except at fore part.
Forecastle deck : Longitudinal except at fore part.
Engine room : Longitudinal system in way of upper deck and side shell.
Transverse system in double bottom
Aft peak : Transverse system

5.2.4 Superstructure

External bulkheads and decks of superstructure and deckhouse are of steel


construction. Navigation bridge wings have been extended to the full breadth of the
vessel. The wheel house is constructed in such a way to meet with the requirements to
run the vessel ahead as well as astern. Funnel has sufficient height to prevent smoke
nuisance at bridge wings and accommodation areas.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.2.5 Deck Machinery

Deck machinery has been arranged as shown in the general arrangement


plan. Windlasses, mooring winches and hose handling cranes are of electro-hydraulic
type. Each windlass provided with two declutch cable wire drums and two warping
heads mounted on the shaft. Mooring winches are provided as shown in the general
arrangement plan.

5.2.6 Pumps and Engines


The ballast water is transferred by two electric powered pumps. There are also
four tanks that hold drinking water & washing water .Two fire pump of capacity 300
m3/hr@4 bar running at 200 m3/hr@6.5bar is provided which this can be used as bilge
pump. Emergency fire pump has been provided in fwd .Cargo pump has been provided
in pump room. Power is supplied by following Generators

Type: SKU CUIN-1400N305, Model 1400 GQKA


Number: 3
Manufacture: Cummins
Rated output: 1400 kW
Rated capacity: 1400 kW (1750 KVA) 60 Hz or 1166.7 kW (1458.3 KVA) 50 Hz
Additionally two boiler of capacity 1400 KW has been provided for heating purpose.

5.2.7 Hose Handling Cranes

Hose handling cranes are provided on the upper deck for handling cargo oil
hose. The installed crane has capacity 5-ton with the speed of 15m/minute, and have a
radius of action (maximum 13 m and min 3.9m).additionally one provision crane of
capacity 1-ton has been provided aft in port side near provision store.

5.2.8 Masts and Posts

One unstayed fore mast has been provided as shown in the general
arrangement plan. One unstayed aft mast has been provided, fitted with Navigation
lights; ladder and air horn.

5.2.9 Hatch Covers

One set of cargo oil tank hatch with neoprene rubber gasket has been
provided for each cargo oil tank, fuel oil, bunker tank and slop tank as shown in the
general arrangement plan. The hatches have been fitted at end of tanks. Oil tight or
watertight manholes are provided for access to cargo tanks, double bottom tanks, peak
tanks, cofferdam etc. The hatch is fitted with two vapour controlling valves. The hatch
size should be of sufficient size to insert cargo sampling bottles.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.2.10 Doors

The sizes of doors fitted are of 850 mm wide. Heavy weather tight steel doors
are to be provided at weather-exposed entrances. All doors are provided with stainless
steel and nameplate.

5.2.11 Accommodation Ladders

Two accommodation ladders, one on each side, are provided on the upper deck
as shown in the general arrangement plan. They are of the vertical self-stowing type.
Material - Al alloy
Width - 800 mm
Length - Sufficient to reach 700 mm above WL at an angle of 50o.

5.2.12 Windows
The sizes of windows fitted are:
Windows: 400 x 600 mm in accommodation rooms
600 x 700 mm in public rooms

5.2.13 Guard Rails and Bulwark


Guardrails have been provided in accordance with Lloyd’s Register [Part 3,
Chapter 9]. Stanchions are provided at the boundaries of exposed freeboard. Guardrails
are provided at super structure decks and first tier deckhouse.
Height of Guardrails = 1 m
Distance of first and second rail from bottom = 0.26 m
Distance of second and third rail = 0.44 m
Distance between third and top most rail = 0.30 m
Bulwark of 1.0 m height is provided along the boundary of forecastle deck.

5.2.14 Foam Monitoring Platform

Foam monitoring platforms are provided on the upper deck for the installation
of foam guns.

No. of foam monitoring platforms = 7 (on the main deck)

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.2.15 Accommodation

The design of accommodation covers following aspects:


1. Crew accommodation aft.
2. All bulkheads should be of steel. If in contact with weather they have to be gas tight
and watertight.
3. Bulkheads connecting crew space with store, cargo spaced tanks etc should be
watertight, gastight.
4. Bulkheads connecting two galleys, sanitary space, laundry etc should be gastight
and watertight up to a certain height.
5. Floors to be properly covered.
6. Protection should be provided from following :
a) Protection of crew against injury
b) Protection of crew against weather
c) Insulation from heat and cold
d) Protection from moisture
e) Protection from effluent originating in various compartments
f) Protection from noise.
7. No direct opening between accommodation and stores.
8. Side scuttles can be opened in sleeping rooms, mess rooms, and recreation rooms.
9. Separate sleeping rooms for officers, petty officers, apprentices etc.
10. Mess room should be able to accommodate all officers at the same time.
11. Recreation room should accommodate one third of the officers.

5.2.16 Compliment Estimation


Compliment is estimated as per the Indian regulations, i.e., Maritime Law of India.
GRT = 84919 (Ref capacity calculation)
1) Deck officers including master
For GRT > 1600 – 4 numbers.
Additional 1 or 2 cadets are carried in larger vessels. 3 cadets are carried.
2) Radio Officer
GRT > 500 – 1 number.
3) Deck ratings including petty officers
GRT > 1500 – 10 numbers.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

4) Caterers
For total crew up to 45 – 3 numbers.
5) Engineering officers including electrical engineer
Over 3680 kW – 4 numbers.
Additional 1 or 2 junior engineers are carried in higher-powered vessels
6) Engine ratings including petty officers
Foreign going – 5 numbers.
7) Stewards
For 6 officers - 1 numbers.
For 10-12 officers- 2 numbers.

Deck officers are:


Captain
Chief officer
Second officer
Third officer
Radio officer
Additional 1 or 2 cadets are carried in larger vessels.

Engineering officers are:


Chief engineer
Second engineer
Third engineer
Fourth engineer
Fifth engineer
Electrical engineer

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Rank Deck Part Engine Part Other Part Total

Captain Class 1 1 2 4

Senior Class 1 1 - 2

Junior Class 2 4 1 3

Cadet 2 - 1 2

Petty Officers 1 2 1 3

Leading Crew 1 1 1 4

Crew Class 8 5 7 24

Table 5.3
Compliment List

Grand Total = 42

Single cabin accommodation has been provided for captain and other
officers. And double berth accommodation for seamen. Accommodation for officers and
crew is provided based on minimum area requirements.
The minimum stipulated areas are as follows:
i) Captain and Chief Engineer : 30 m2 + bath 4 m2 or toilet 3 m2
ii) Chief Officer and 2nd Engineer : 14 m2 + toilet 3 m2
iii) Other Officers : 8 m2 + toilet
iv) Captain’s office and Chief Engr’s office :7.5 m2 each
v) Passages and Stairs : 40 % of sum of (i) to (iv)
vi) Petty Officers’ and Crew cabin : 7 m2 single berth cabins
vii) Passages and Stairs : 35 % of (vi)
viii) Wheelhouse : 30 m2
ix) Chart room : 15 m2
x) Radio room : 10.5 m2 (8 + 2.5 m2 / radio officer)
xi) Galley : 28.6 m2 (Area/person served = 0.65)

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

xii) General Stores : 125.4 m2 ( 0.09 m2 / person / day )


xiii) Refrigerated Stores : 56 m2 (0.04 m2 / person / day)
Area in excess of the minimum stipulated area is provided.
The heights of various accommodation tiers are:
A deck tier = 3.2 m
B deck tier = 3.2 m
C deck tier = 3.2 m
D deck tier = 3.2 m
Wheel house = 3.2 m

5.2.17 Anchoring Arrangements


Anchor is selected as per LRS. [Part 3, Chapter 13]
Equipment number = Δ2/3 + 2 B H + A / 10

Where H is the freeboard amidships plus sum of the heights of each tier of
houses, in m

A is the profile area of hull and super structures above the summer load water line,
in m2
B = 48.7 m
Δ = 183376.12 t
H = 25.01m
A = 1843.63+439.92
= 2283.55 m2
E = 5879
From the table 13.7.2 in LRS [Part 3, Chapter 13]
Equipment letter = A*
Anchor type = Commercial standard stockless
No. Of anchors = 2
Mass of anchor, WA = 17800 kg
Total mass of anchor = 17.8 x 2 = 35.6 t
Total length of stud link cable, Lc = 742.5 m
Diameter of stud link cable, dc = 102 mm (special grade of steel)

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

5.2.17.1 Chain Locker


Volume of chain locker = 0.6 Lcdc2 ft3 [5]
Where dc in inches and Lc in fathoms
1 fathom = 1.8288 m
1 inch = 0.0254 m
Lc = 406.04 fathom
dc = 4.0157 inch
Volume required = 108.70 m3

A chain locker of rectangular shape of size 4x6x11 is provided on either side


Width = 4.0 m

Depth = 11m (the depth is inclusive of the height of mud


box.)

5.2.18 Navigation Lights

Navigational lights provided as follows


1) Masthead light - one on forward mast and one on navigational mast;
visibility over an arc of horizon of 225°.
2) Side lights - Red light on port side and green light on starboard. Fitted
on the sides of navigating bridge; visibility over an arc
of horizon of 112.5°.
3) Anchor lights - All round white light at forward mast, visibility over an arc
of horizon of 360°.
4) Stern light - White light at extreme aft having visibility over an arc
of horizon of 225°.
5) NUC light - Red white and red light at aft navigating mast, visibility over an
arc of horizon of360°.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Fig 5.2
Arc of light

5.2.19 Life Saving Appliances


Life saving appliances provided as per SOLAS CHAPTER III.
Lifeboat particulars should satisfy volume requirement for each person:
Volume required per person = 0.283 m3.
Total compliment = 42
Lifeboat chosen has following particulars:
L = 8.5 m
B = 2.97 m
T = 1.25 m
H = 8.58 m
CB = 0.60 [5]

One totally enclosed free fall type, diesel engine driven lifeboats capable
of 55 person’s capacity is provided on aft of the ship. The lifeboats are equipped with
water spray fire protection system. Material of construction is GRP.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Compliance list of life saving appliances


a. Two inflatable life rafts of 25 person’s capacity each is provided on either side of
the ship.
b. One life raft for 6 persons with hydrostatic release is installed on forward upper
deck behind forecastle deck.
c. 55 life jackets have been provided.
d. Eight life buoys are provided, four of which are fitted with self-igniting light
e. 2 life jackets for child have been provided
f. A line throwing apparatus in wheel house is provided.
g. 2 two way portable VHF (CH16) is provided in wheel house.
h. 12 parachute flare has been provided in wheelhouse.
i. 4 EPIRB has been provided in wheelhouse and above deck.
j. 2 SART has been provided in wheel house and adjacent space
k. 4 WT set has been provided.
l. 9 general alarm and P A System has been provided in different location in ships
m. Training manual has been provided in wheel house, galley and other public places
n. Operating instruction booklet is provided in each raft and boat.
o. 9 muster lists has been provided in different public places in ship.
p. 2 OMTL is provided in wheel house.
q. 2 Embarkation ladder with light is provided in aft at MDK.
r. Muster station has been provided at MDK in aft region.
s. 55 immersion suits has been provided
t. TPA has been provided according to approval of administrations

5.2.20 Fire Fighting Systems

Fire fighting systems are to be installed in accordance with SOLAS and fire
fighting rules 1990.compliance list and calculation are as follows.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

SOLAS CHAPTER II-2


Construction – Fire Protection, Fire Detection and Extinction
SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-C (SUPPRESSION OF FIRE)

¾ Fixed fire detection, fire alarm sys, manually operated call points should be
installed.
¾ Fire patrols shall provide an effective means of detecting and locating fire.
¾ Smoke detectors in accommodation spaces.
¾ installation of automatic and remote control systems in engine room
¾ Two-way portable radiotelephone apparatus
¾ Suitable arrangement shall be made to permit the release of smoke, in event of
fire, from protected space.
¾ Ship shall be subdivided by thermal and structural boundaries.
¾ Fire integrity of division shall be maintained at openings and penetrations
¾ Fixed fire fighting system should be installed.
¾ Fire extinguishing appliances should be readily available.
¾ Pipes and fire hydrants should be so placed that it can be easily coupled to fire
hoses, suitable drainage sys should be provided for fire main piping, isolation
valve shall be installed for open deck fire main branch, hydrant should be so
placed that it can be easily accessible and avoid the risk of damage to cargo.
¾ The diameter of the fire main and water service pipes shall be sufficient for the
effective distribution of the maximum required discharge from two-fire pump.
¾ To separate the section of fire main within the machinery space, containing the
fire main pump or pumps from rest of the fire main shall be fitted in easily
accessible position outside machinery space.
¾ Valve for each fire hydrant should be fitted to remove fire hoses.
¾ Isolation valves for tankers.

The following minimum Pressure shall be maintained at all hydrants

¾ Passenger Ships :
4000 GT. and upward 0.40N/mm2.
Under 4000 GT 0.30 N/mm2.

¾ Cargo Ships.
6000 GT and upwards 0.27 N/mm2.
Under 6000 GT 0.25 N/mm2

¾ Max pressure at hydrant should not exceed that at which effective control of fire
hose is demonstrated

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

¾ Ship of 500 gross tonnages and above shall be provided with at least one
international shore connection. Above connection should be used on either side
of the ship.
¾ Fire pumps
¾ Passenger ship 4000 GT and upwards. at least 3 pumps
¾ Passenger ship less than 4000 GT at least 2 pumps
¾ Cargo ship of 1000 GT upwards at least 2 pumps
¾ Cargo ships have less than 1000 GT. at least 2 pumps
¾ Access to emergency fire pumps
¾ No direct access shall be permitted between machinery Space & space
containing emergency fire pump. (Door can be provided with air lock
arrangement with self-closing doors).
¾ Ventilation of emergency fire pump room.
¾ In addition, in cargo ships where other pumps, such as general service
pumps, bilge etc are fitted in a machinery space, arrangement shall be made to
ensure that at least one of these pump should be capable to provide water to fire
main at capacity and pressure required in above table.
¾ Capacity of fire mains
¾ Capable of delivering for fire-fighting purpose at pressure specified above.
¾ Fire hoses and nozzle
¾ Fire hoses shall be non –perishable material approved by administration. fire
hose shall have a length of at least 10m,but not more than 25 m in machinery
space,20 m in other spaces and open decks; and25m for open decks on ships
with max breadth in excess of 30m.
¾ Unless one hose and nozzle is provided for each hydrant in ship, there shall be
complete interchange ability of hose couplings and nozzles.
¾ Number and diameter of fire hoses
¾ Diameter of fire hose shall be to satisfaction to administration.
¾ Cargo ships 1000 GT and upwards fire hoses for every 30m of length of ship and
one spare no case less than five.
¾ Cargo ship less than 1000 GT hoses to be provided to satisfacti to
administration.
¾ Size and type of nozzles
¾ Nozzles standard size 12 mm, 16mm and 19 mm. Dia. Accommodation and
service spaces nozzle size 12mm to be used.
¾ Machinery space and exterior locations nozzle size greater than 19mm. should
not be used. it should obtain maximum possible discharge from two nozzle at
pressure mentioned in table above.
¾ Portable fire extinguisher
¾ It should comply with the requirement of the fire safety system code.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

¾ Arrangements of fire extinguisher


¾ Accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations shall be provided
with portable fire extinguisher of proper type and in sufficient in number to the
satisfaction to administration.
¾ Ship of 1000 gross tonnage and upwards shall carry at least five portable fire
extinguishers. Portable fire extinguishers intended for use in any space shall be
stowed near the entrance to the space.
¾ Carbon dioxide fire extinguisher shall not be placed in accommodations spaces.
¾ In control station and other space containing electrical equipment necessary for
safety of ship, fire extinguisher shall be provided whose extinguishing media is
neither electrically conductive nor harmful to the equipment and appliances.
¾ Fire extinguisher shall be situated ready for use at easily visible place .it should
be provided with device which indicates whether they have been used.
¾ spare charges
¾ Spare charge shall be provided for 100%of the first ten extinguisher and 50%of
the remaining fire extinguisher. Capable of being recharged on board. Not more
than sixty total spare charges are required.
¾ Fixed fire extinguishing systems
¾ Fixed high expansion foam fire extinguishing system should comply the
provisions of the fire safety system code.
¾ Fixed pressure water-spraying fire extinguishing system should comply the
provisions of the fire safety system code.
¾ Fire extinguishing system using halon 1211,1301,and2402 and per fluorocarbon
shall be prohibited.
¾ Steam firefighting system is not permitted by administration in general, but if it
is permitted it shall be used in restricted area and it should complied the
provisions of the fire safety system code
¾ Closing appliances for fixed gas fire extinguishing systems.
¾ Where a fixed fire extinguishing system is used, opening which may admit air to,
or allow gas to escape from, a protected space shall be capable of being closed
from outside the protected space.
¾ Storage room for fire extinguishing media
¾ if it is stored outside a protected space, it should be stored in room behind the
forward collision bulkhead and not to be used for other purpose, entrance should
be preferably from main deck, access doors should open outwards, closings
should be gas tight. can be treated as fire control.
¾ Water pumps for other fire extinguishing system
¾ Pumps, other than those serving the fire main, their source of power and
controls shall be installed outside the space or spaces protected by such
systems and so arranged that fire in space will not put such system out of
action.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

¾ Machinery space containing oil fired boilers or oil fuel units


¾ Space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit.
¾ Machinery space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit shall be provided with
any of the fixed fire extinguishing system
¾ Additional fire extinguishing systems
¾ In each boiler room at least one set of portable foam applicator complying with
the provisions of the fire safety system code.
¾ There shall be at least two portable foam extinguishers in each firing space in
each boiler room
¾ There shall be receptacle containing at least 0.1m3 sand other approved
material in each firing space. an approved portable extinguisher may be
substituted as an alternative..
¾ At least one set of portable foam equipment complying with the provisions of
the fire safety system code. One in each such space at least one 45 liters
capacity or equivalent. Foam extinguisher system.
¾ Machinery space containing internal combustion engine.
¾ Machinery space containing oil fired boiler or oil fuel unit shall be provided with
any of the fixed fire extinguishing system.
¾ Space containing flammable liquid
¾ Paint locker should be protected by: Carbon dioxide system, designed to give a
min volume of free gas equal to 40%of the gross volume, or Dry powder system,
a water spraying or sprinkler sys.
¾ It should be operated from outside the protected space. Flammable liquid locker
shall be protected by an appropriate fire extinguishing arrangements.
¾ Arrangements of fire extinguishing in cargo space.
¾ Fixed deck foam fire extinguishing systems.
¾ Protection of cargo pump room for tanker.
¾ Fire fighter outfits
¾ At least two fire fighter’s outfits should be provided.
¾ Should comply according to FSS Code.
¾ Two spare charges shall be provided for each breathing apparatus.
¾ Storage of fire fighter outfits
¾ Shall be kept ready for use easily accessible position
¾ Structure integrity
¾ The purpose is to maintain structural integrity of the ship, preventing partial loss
or whole collapse of the ship due to strength deterioration by heat.
¾ The hull, structural bulkhead, decks and deckhouse shall be constructed of steel
or other equivalent material.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-D (ESCAPE)

¾ Notification to crew and passenger.


¾ General emergency alarm system should be provided.
¾ Means of Escape.
¾ Stairways and ladders shall be so arrange to provide from all accommodation
spaces service spaces, ready means of escape to embarkation deck. life raft
,life boat.

SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-E (OPERATION REQUIREMENTS)

¾ Operational readiness and maintenance.


¾ Fire protection and fire fighting system shall be maintained ready to use.
¾ Fire protection and fire fighting system shall be properly tested and inspected.
¾ Instructions, onboard training and drills
¾ Fire safety operational booklet should be provided.

SOLAS CHAPTER II-2 PART-G (SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS)

¾ Helicopter facilities
¾ Helideck structure shall be adequate to protect the ship from the fire hazards.
¾ Two dry powder extinguishers having a total capacity of not less than 45 kg.
¾ Carbon dioxide extinguishers of a total capacity of not less than 18 kg or
equivalent.
¾ A suitable foam application system consisting of monitors or foam-making
branch pipes capable of delivering foam to all parts of the helideck in all weather
conditions in which helicopters can operate
¾ NO SMOKING’’ signs shall be displayed at appropriate locations;

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

FIRE PUMP CAPACITY CALCULATIONS

Capacity of fire pump


Q = Cd2 where
C = 5 for ships required to be provided with more than one fire pump (excluding any
emergency fire pump) and C= 2.5 for ships required to be provided with only one fire
pump, and
d = 1+ 0.066 [√ L (B+D)] ⇒ 1+0.066√ 263.07 ( 48.7 +23.76 )] = 10.11
L = length of the ship in meters on the summer load water line from the foreside of the
Stem to the after side of the rudderpost. Where there is no rudderpost, the length is
measured from the foreside of the stem to the axis of the rudderstock if that be the
greater.
B = greatest moulded breadth of the ship in meters and
D = moulded depth of the ship in meters measured to the bulkhead deck amidships
Q = Cd2
= 5 x 10.112 =511.06 m3/hr
Minimum is 40 m3/hr
Provided is 300 m3/hr@4 bar running at 200 m3/hr@6.5bar

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

PRESSURE AT HIGHEST HYDRANT


Pump Pressure at fire main, P1 (6.5bar)(650000N/ m2)
Specific gravity of the sea water (ρ) 1025 kg/m3
Capacity of fire pump, Q 200 m3/hr
Diameter of fire main, d1 0.15 m
Diameter of pipe at hydrant, d2 0.15 m
Cross-sectional area of fire main, A1 0.0177 m2
Cross-sectional area of pipe at hydrant, A2 0.0177 m2
Length of the pipe to hydrant, l 36 m
Velocity of water at fire main, V1 3.139 m/s
Velocity of water at hydrant, V2 = A1.V1 / A2 3.139 m/s
Applying Bernoulli’s equation at fire main and hydrant
P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 = P2 /ρ g + v22 / 2g + H2 + Head losses
A. Loss of Head due to Height (H2 - H1)
Height of fire pump above base line (H1) 6.0 m
Height of highest fire hydrant above base line (H2) 39.78 m
Loss of Head due to Height (H2-H1) 33.78 m
B. Loss of Head due to Friction (4. f. l. v22/ d2. 2g)
Coefficient of friction 0.0033
Loss of head due to friction 1.59m
C. Loss of Head at the exit of Pipe (v22 / 2g)
Loss of Head 0.5 m
D. Loss of Head due to Bends, Valves and Pipe fittings
Loss of Head (considered 5% of loss of Head due to Friction) 0.08
P2 = (P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 – v22 / 2g – H2 – Head losses)X (ρ g)
Pressure at highest hydrant (P2) 288513.76 N/m2
Required Pressure 270000 N/m2
Conclusion: Satisfactory

99
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

PRESSURE AT FARTHEST HYDRANT


Pump Pressure at fire main, P1 (2.75 kg/cm2) 6.5 bar
Specific gravity of the sea water (ρ) 1025 kg/m3
Capacity of fire pump, Q 200 m3/hr
Diameter of fire main, d1 0.15 m
Diameter of pipe at hydrant, d2 0.15 m
Cross-sectional area of fire main, A1 0.0177 m2
Cross-sectional area of pipe at hydrant, A2 0.0177 m2
Length of the pipe to hydrant, l 236 m
Velocity of water at fire main, V1 3.139 m/s
Velocity of water at hydrant, V2 = A1.V1 / A2 3.139 m/s
Applying Bernoulli’s equation at fire main and hydrant
P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 = P2 /ρ g + v22 / 2g + H2 + Head losses
E. Loss of Head due to Height (H2 - H1)
Height of fire pump above base line (H1) 6.0 m
Height of farthest fire hydrant above base line (H2) 20.76 m
Loss of Head due to Height (H2-H1) 14.76 m
F. Loss of Head due to Friction ( 4. f. l. v22/ d2. 2g)
Coefficient of friction 0.0033
Loss of head due to friction 10.43 m
G. Loss of Head at the exit of Pipe (v22 / 2g)
Loss of Head 0.5m
H. Loss of Head due to Bends, Valves and Pipe fittings
Loss of Head (considered 5% of loss of Head due to Friction) 0.52 m
P2 = (P1 /ρ g + v12 / 2g + H1 – v22 / 2g – H2 – Head losses)X (ρ g)
Pressure at farthest hydrant (P2) 386451.9 N/m2
Required Pressure 270000 N/m2
Conclusion: Satisfactory

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

JET THROW CALCULATION

MS (Fire appliances) Rules 1990

Capacity of fire pump = 200 m3/hr

Dia. of nozzle = 19 mm

Cross-sectional area of nozzle = 2.8 x 10-4 m2


Length of the jet throw required = 12 m

Jet velocity = 198.4 m/s

Percentage loss due to nozzling and air resistance = 30%


Net jet velocity = 138.8 m/s

Projectile Angle = 45˚

Velocity require at nozzle for 12 m throw

Using formula R = u2 Sin 2θ / g


Where
u = Velocity at the nozzle
θ = Projectile angle to get maximum range = 45˚
G= (acceleration due to gravity = 9.8 m/s2
R = Horizontal distance reached by the throw = 12 m.
i.e., u = √ R g / Sin 2θ = 10.84 m/s

Velocity of throw required = 10.84 m/s


Available jet Velocity = 138.4 m/s
Conclusion: Satisfactory

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

CARBON DIOXIDE GAS CALCULATION

Gross volume of engine room including pump room 21716.53 m3

40% of Gross volume of engine room including pump room 8686.612 m3

Gross volume of Azipod room 7714 m3

40% Gross volume of Azipod room 3085.6 m3

Addition of air receiver 18 m3

Gross volume for co2 protection 11790.2 m3

Gross volume of co2 required 11790.2 m3

Weight of Co2 required 11790.2 /0.56

=21053 kg
3/
(sp vol =0.56 m kg)
No of bottle of 45.5 kg required 21053/45.5
=463bottles

102
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 6
DETAILED CAPACITY CALCULATION AND
MASS ESTIMATION 

 
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

6. DETAILED CAPACITY CALCULATIONS

The capacity plan is to know the cargo volumes in holds and the disposition of tanks
and their position of centre of gravities. The mass of crew and effects and water
ballast necessary for the design are known. Knowing the density of the various
liquids, the volume required is calculated. The hold capacity can be calculated by
subtracting the sum of the wing tank capacity and double bottom volume from the
total under deck capacity. With the capacity determined, it is possible to calculate the
stowage factor.

6.1 Final estimates of consumables, stores and cargo


Range = 3800 nm
Speed = 15.0 Knot (open water)
= 5.0 Knot (Most severe Ice conditions)
∴Max Hours of travel, H = 760 Hrs (operation in most severe condition)
Hours in port = 48 Hrs
No of officers = 21
No of crew = 23

Volume of heavy fuel oil (VHFO)


Specific fuel consumption, SFC = 182 g / KWh.
(Assumed for a slow speed large bore diesel engine)
Brake power, PB = 38250 KW
Mass of heavy fuel oil, MHFO = SFC × PB × H / 1000000 +20%
20% allowance has been taken into account.
= 6449 t
Volume of HFO, VHFO = MHFO /0.90 = 7154 m3
Volume of diesel oil (VDO)
Auxiliary engines
Type: SKU CUIN-1200N305, Model 1400 GQKA
Number: 3
Manufacturer: Cummins
Rated output: 1400 kW
Rated capacity: 1200 kW (1750 kVA) 60 Hz or 1166.7 kW (1458.3 kVA) 50 Hz
SFC 220 g /KWh
PAUX 4200KW

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Mass of diesel oil, MDO = SFC × PAUX × H/1000000


= 747 t
Volume of diesel oil, VDO = MDO/0.95
= 786 m3
Volume of boiler fuel oil (VBO)
Boiler of capacity 2000KW is selected.
Mass of boiler oil, VBO = SFC × P × H/1000000
SFC = 220 g /KWh
= 355 t
Volume of boiler oil = 355/0.95 = 373 m3
Volume of lubricating oil (VLO)
Mass of lube oil, MLO = 0.03 (MHFO + MDO +MBO)
= 216.6 t
Volume of lube oil = 216.6/0.9 = 241 m3
Volume of fresh water, (VFW)
Consumption of fresh water = 20 litres / person / day
Mass of fresh water, M FW = 29.6 t
Volume of fresh water, VFW = 29.6 m3

Volume of washing water (VWW)


Consumption 120 liters /person/ day for officers
60 liters /person/ day for crew
Mass of washing water, MWW = 131.3 t
Volume of washing water, VWW = 131.3 m3

6.2.1 Capacity Calculation with allocation of Spaces

The capacities of tanks/compartments are determined using the computer


software AutoCAD 2007. The values are found by creating different regions, and the
“mass prop” command. Tables 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4 indicate the moulded capacities
(exclusive of camber volume) of respective tanks/compartments along with their
location and centres of gravity. In all the above tables LCG is measured from AP,
VCG from base line and TCG from the centre line

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

S.No. Item Fr.No. Vol Weight LCG VCG TCG FSM


m^3 (98%vol) m m m tm
1 CH1(P) 70-114 16049.03 13526.12 69.77 13.53 -10.43 15475.16
2 CH1(S) 70-114 16049.03 13526.12 69.77 13.53 10.43 15475.16
3 CH2(P) 114-164 18867.88 15901.85 109.25 13.45 -10.69 18504.95
4 CH2(S) 114-164 18867.88 15901.85 109.25 13.45 10.69 18504.95
5 CH3(P) 164-209 16981.09 14311.66 149.63 13.45 -10.69 16654.46
6 CH3(S) 164-209 16981.09 14311.66 149.63 13.45 10.69 16654.46
7 CH4(P) 209-259 18534.91 15621.22 189.63 13.45 -10.69 18178.39
8 CH4(S) 209-259 18534.91 15621.22 189.63 13.45 10.69 18178.39
9 CH5(P) 259-314 14646.90 12344.41 225.39 13.43 -9.32 13350.11
10 CH5(S) 259-314 14646.90 12344.41 225.39 13.43 9.32 13350.11
11 Slop tank(P) 64-70 2067.29 1722.05 50.99 13.84 -9.86 210.43
12 Slop tank(S) 64-70 2067.29 1722.05 50.99 13.84 9.86 210.43
Total 174294.17 146854.61 164747.01
Table 6.1
Capacity of cargo Tanks

S.No. Item Fr.No. Vol Weight LCG VCG TCG FSM


m^3 (98%vol) m m m tm
1 Aft peak tank(s) AE -16 1039.12 1026.48 -5.63 18.96 -7.26 696.39
2 Aft peak tank(s) AE -16 1039.12 1026.48 -5.63 18.96 7.26 696.39
3 Wing ballast tank1(P) 64-70 302.00 298.33 50.96 12.49 -20.85 12.47
4 Wing ballast tank1(S) 64-70 302.00 298.33 50.96 12.49 20.85 12.47
5 Wing ballast tank2(P) 70-114 2420.00 2390.57 73.20 12.50 -21.18 37.30
6 Wing ballast tank2(S) 70-114 2420.00 2390.57 73.20 12.50 21.18 37.30
7 Wing ballast tank3(P) 114-164 2969.90 2933.79 113.15 12.50 -21.18 47.57
8 Wing ballast tank3(S) 114-164 2969.90 2933.79 113.15 12.50 21.18 47.57
9 Wing ballast tank4(P) 164-209 2672.91 2640.41 153.53 12.50 -21.18 42.81
10 Wing ballast tank4(S) 164-209 2672.91 2640.41 153.53 12.50 21.18 42.81
11 Wing ballast tank5(P) 209-259 2917.49 2882.01 193.53 12.50 -21.18 46.73
12 Wing ballast tank5(S) 209-259 2917.49 2882.01 193.53 12.50 21.18 46.73
13 Wing ballast tank6(P) 259-314 2607.02 2575.32 233.25 13.01 -18.12 41.26
14 Wing ballast tank6(S) 259-314 2607.02 2575.32 233.25 13.01 18.12 41.26
15 Ballast tank 1(P) 131-164 1715.13 1694.27 119.65 1.54 -11.19 3791.36
16 Ballast tank 1(S) 131-164 1715.13 1694.27 119.65 1.54 11.19 3791.36
17 Ballast tank 2(P) 164-209 2584.94 2553.50 153.53 1.54 -11.29 6007.23
18 Ballast tank 2(S) 164-209 2584.94 2553.50 153.53 1.54 11.29 6007.23
19 Ballast tank 3(P) 209-259 2821.47 2787.16 193.53 1.54 -11.29 6556.91
20 Ballast tank 3(S) 209-259 2821.47 2787.16 193.53 1.54 11.29 6556.91
21 Ballast tank 4(P) 259-314 2096.42 2070.92 228.34 1.56 -18.12 4390.36
22 Ballast tank 4(S) 259-314 2096.42 2070.92 228.34 1.56 18.12 4390.36
23 FP tank(P) 314-fe 1274.32 1258.82 257.31 9.14 -3.88 1034.51
24 FP tank(S) 314-fe 1274.32 1258.82 257.31 9.14 3.88 1034.51
Total 50841.42 50223.19 45409.75
Table 6.2
Capacity of Ballast Tanks

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S.No Item Fr .No. Vol weight LCG VCG TCG FSM


(98%(
m^3 vol) m m m tm
1 HFO tank1(P) 21-46 398.36 370.87 23.72 2.28 -5.18 476.06
2 HFO tank1(S) 21-46 398.36 370.87 23.72 2.28 5.18 476.06
3 HFO tank 2(P) 67-70 123.50 114.98 50.05 1.60 -8.21 82.29
4 HFO tank 2(S) 67-70 123.50 114.98 50.05 1.60 8.21 82.29
5 HFO tank3(P) 70-114 2196.6 2045.1 71.64 1.57 -9.91 4654.40
6 HFO tank3(S) 70-114 2196.6 2045.1 71.64 1.57 9.91 4654.40
7 HFO tank4(P) 114-131 857.56 798.39 95.20 1.54 -11.19 1855.66
8 HFO tank4(S) 114-131 857.56 798.39 95.20 1.54 11.19 1855.66
9 Boiler fuel tank1(P) 59-64 189.71 176.62 44.10 1.90 -7.56 350.44
10 Boiler fuel tank1(S) 59-64 189.71 176.62 44.10 1.90 7.56 350.44
11 Diesel oil tank 1(P) 46-59 398.70 371.19 35.90 2.28 -5.18 662.15
12 Diesel oil tank 1(S) 46-59 398.70 371.19 35.90 2.28 5.18 662.15
13 Lo tank(P) 64-67 123.50 108.93 47.47 1.60 -8.21 82.29
14 Lo tank(S) 64-67 123.50 108.93 47.47 1.60 8.21 82.29
15 Waste water tank (P) 9---21 66.22 64.90 8.38 4.00 -2.25 2.86
16 Fresh water tank(S) 9---21 66.22 64.90 8.38 4.00 2.25 2.86
17 Waste water tank (P) 9---21 16.00 15.68 8.38 10.20 -3.10 1.68
18 Fresh water tank(S) 9---21 16.00 15.68 8.38 10.20 3.10 1.68
Total 8740.3 8133.2 16335.64
Table 6.3
Capacity of storage tanks

Description No. Location Volume LCG VCG TCG


Azipod room 1 -11 – 21 7714 5.58 17.75 0
Engine Room 1 21 – 64 21716 30.3 12.47 0
Cofferdam 1 70 – 71 688 53.9 11.67 0
Chain Locker(P&S) 2 314 – 322 528 254.5 21.2 0
Forecastle deck 1 314-349 1093.4 259.07 25.26 0
Deck house 1 21-64 9472 36.89 30.78 0
Total 41211

Table 6.4
Capacity of other tanks/compartments

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6.2.2 GROSS TONNAGE COMPUTATIONS

GROSS TONNAGE (GT) = K1 V

Where K1 = 0.2 + 0.02 log10 (V)

Where K1 = 0.2 + 0.02 log 10 (267133.34) = 0.3087

V = Total volume of all enclosed spaces of the ship in m3 = 275086.9 m3

GROSS TONNAGE (GT) = 84919

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6.2.3 NET TONNAGE COMPUTATIONS

NET TONNAGE (NT) = K2 VC (4 d / 3 D )2 + K3 ( N1 + N2 / 10)


In which formula
a) The factor (4 d / 3 D)2 shall not be taken as greater than unity.
b) The term K2 VC(4 d / 3 D )2 shall not be taken as less than "0.25 GT" ;
c) "NT" should not be taken as less than "0.3 GT"
VC, Total volume of cargo spaces =170160.17m3 (excluding slop tank
volume)
K2 = 0.2 + 0.02 * log10 (Vc) = 0.3046,
D = Moulded depth amidships in metres. D = 23.76 m.
d = Moulded draft amidships, d =16.75 m.
K3 = 1.25 [(GT + 10000) / 10000] = 11.86
N1 = Number of passengers in cabins with not more than 8 berths.
N2 = Number of other passengers.
N 1 + N2 = Total number of passengers the ship is permitted to carry as in the
ship’s Passenger certificates.
When N1 + N2 is less than 13, N1 + N2 shall be taken as zero (no passengers hence
zero)
In the expression for Net Tonnage, K3 (N1 + N2 / 10) = 0
a) Since d = 16.75, the expression (4 d / 3 D )2 =0.8835
b) In the expression for Net Tonnage, K2 VC (4 d / 3 D )2 = 45792.5 > 0.25 GT
∴The term K2VC (4d / 3D) 2 is taken as 45792.5
c) NT = K2VC (4d / 3D) 2 + K3 (N1 + N2/10)
= 45792.5 + 0
= 45792.5 > 0.30 GT (24723.18)
∴Net Tonnage is taken as 45792.5

NET TONNAGE (NT) = 45793

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6.3 Final Mass Estimation


6.3.1 Introduction

At the initial stages of design, dimensions of superstructures and deckhouses


were not known. Lightship mass was calculated by taking rough values or giving
allowance for masses of these quantities. After designing the general arrangement
plan, the lightship mass is estimated more accurately, using actual values wherever
possible and empirical formulae when the actual mass is not known.
6.3.2 Procedure

The light ship mass is split up into various components and their masses are
estimated using empirical formulae and summed up. Mathematically,
ΔLS = ΔSE + ΔWO + ΔEP,
Where,
ΔSE = Steel mass
ΔWO = Wood & outfit mass
ΔEP = Engine plant mass

6.3.3 Steel Mass

ΔSE = Δ7SE [1+ 0.5 (CB0.8 –0.7)] + 840 t (addition for Ice Class 1A, taken
from parent ship)
Δ7SE = KE1.36
K = 0.029 –0.035
E = L (B + T) + 0.85L (D-T) + 250
= 19030.44

E = 1500 – 40000 for tankers


Take K = 0.035
7
Δ
SE = 23126.95
8
CB = Block Coefficient at 0.8D
= CB + (1- CB) (0.8D – T) /3T
= 0.846
ΔSE = 25717.9 t

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6.3.4 Wood and Outfit Mass


ΔOU = Co× L × B + 100 t (approx additional weight for
Helipad and helicopter)
Co =0.24 [35]

= 3173.9t

6.3.5 Engine Plant mass


ΔEP = Weight of Main engine & generator + Weight of
transformer, frequency convertor &MSB + Weight of Pod +
Weight of Auxiliary machinery (3*Cummins Model 1400
GQKA) + Weight of boiler& pump etc
= 975 + 174 + (662*2) + (3 x 60) + 150
= 2803 t
Light ship weight = ΔSE + ΔOU + ΔEP,
= 31694.8 t

6.4 Distribution of Masses to Find Centre of Gravity


LCG is measured from AP and VCG from keel.
6. 4.1 Steel Mass
Steel mass can be divided into mass of superstructure and that of continuous
material.
Volume of superstructure = 9472 m3
∴Mass of superstructure = 0.067 × 9472
= 634.6 t
∴Mass of continuous material = Mass of steel – Mass of super structure
= 25717.9 – 634.6
= 25083.3 t
Mass of superstructure is assumed to act at its centroid
(LCG = 36.89, VCG = 30.78)
(Calculated by AutoCAD Drawing with some geometrical assumptions)

COG of continuous material:


VCG hull = 0.01D (46.6 + 0.135(0.81 – CB) (L/D) 2) + 0.008D(L/B – 6.5), L ≤
120 m

= 0.01D (46.6 + 0.135(0.81 –CB) (L/D) 2), 120 m < L [35]


= 10.96 m

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The longitudinal position of the basic hull weight is assumed to be located at


mid of length over all, as ship is highly strengthened in fwd and aft to meet with
operational requirements.

LCG hull = 125.6 m


LCG = 125.6 m from AP
VCG = 10.96 m from keel

ITEM MASS(t) LCG from AP(m) VCG keel(m)


Super structure 634.6 36.89 30.78
Longitudinal continuous material 25083.3 125.6 10.96
TOTAL 25717.9 123.41 11.45
Table 6.5
Determination of COG of Steel Mass

LCG of Steel mass = 123.41 m


VCG of Steel mass = 11.45 m
6. 4.2 Engine plant mass

The engine plant mass is divided into propeller mass, propeller shaft mass,
main engine mass, & remainder mass

Item Mass (t) LCG(m) VCG(m)


Main engine 975 21.27 7.00
Electric equipment 174 6.30 16.70
Pod and propeller 1324 0.00 7.93
Aux engine 180 33.90 6.50
Boiler and pump 150 34.00 8.00
Total 2803 11.79 8.06

Table 6.6
Determination of COG of machinery

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6. 4.3 Wood and outfit mass

VCG = D + 1.25, L ≤ 125 m


= D + 1.25 + 0.01(L-125), 125 < L ≤ 250 m [35]
= D + 2.50, 250 m < L
= 26.26m

LCG = (25% Wo at LCGM, 37.5% at LCG dh, and 37.5% at amidships) [35]
LCG = 66.09 m

ITEM MASS(t) LCG from AP(m) VCG keel(m)


Steel 25717.9 125.6 11.45
Wood & Outfit 3173.9 66.09 26.26
Engine Plant 2803 11.79 8.06
TOTAL 31694.8 107.46 12.63

Table 6.7
Determination of COG of Light Ship

6.5 Required capacity:


Volume of HFO, = 7154 m3
Volume of diesel oil, = 786 m3
Volume of boiler oil, = 373 m3
Volume of lube oil = 241 m3
Volume of fresh water, = 30 m3
Volume of washing water, = 131 m3
Volume of washing water = 168096 m3

Available capacity
Cargo Capacity = 174294.17 m3
Ballast water Capacity = 50841.42m3
HFO tank Capacity = 7152.1 m3
DFO tank Capacity = 797.4 m3
Boiler fuel tank Capacity = 379.42 m3
LO tank Capacity = 247 m3
Capacity of FW tank = 32 m3
Capacity of washing water tank= 132.44 m3

All the available capacities of tanks is more than the required, hence the design
is satisfactory.

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CHAPTER 7
DETAILED TRIM AND
STABILITY CALCULATIONS
 

 
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7.1 TRANSVERSE STABILITY

For small angles of inclination (heel) of the order of 4 or 5 degrees, the waterlines
before inclination and after inclination intersect at the same point on the vertical
centreline of the vessel, keeping the emerged and immersed volume of water equal.
The center of buoyancy has moved off the vessel’s centerline as the result of
inclination, and the lines along which the resultants of weight and buoyancy act are
separated by a distance, “GZ”, the righting arm. A vertical line through the centre of
buoyancy will intersect the original vertical through the centre of buoyancy, which is
in the vessel’s centreline plane, at a point “M” called the transverse metacentre. For
small angles of inclination, the point “M”, will remain practically stationary with respect
to the vessel’s centreline. The distance “GM", between the vessel’s centre of gravity
‘G’ and M’ when angle of heel is zero degrees, is the transverse metacentric height
(often called “Initial Stability” ) and is used as an index of stability for the preparation
of stability curves. The position of the transverse metacentre varies with the draft.
The transverse met centric position for small angles of inclination above the keel
point “K”, denoted as “KM".
The location of the metacentre has neither to do with the nature nor the distribution of
weights onboard. On the other hand, the vertical centre of gravity position above the
keel point “K”, denoted as “KG”, depends on the nature & distribution of oil, water
etc.
The centre of gravity of a vessel decreases directly when the positioning of weights is
lower and increases when positioning of weights is higher.
The transverse metacentric height is given by the relation:
GM = KMT – KG
If the displacement of the vessel in the light condition is known, the position of centre
of gravity “KG” , can be calculated by taking the vertical moments (weight of the
item * centre of gravity of the item) of all items on board and dividing the sum of these
moments by the total weight, i.e., displacement. Corresponding to this displacement,
the draft is determined and the “KMT" value obtained from the Hydrostatic Curves or
tables.

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The motion of the liquid in a partially filled tank reduces the vessel’s stability
because, as the vessel is inclined, the centre of gravity of the liquid shifts towards
one side. This shift in the liquid causes the vessel’s centre of gravity to move towards
the lower side, reducing the righting arm and thus the stability is adversely affected
by the “free surface effect". The sum of the free surface moments of all liquid items in
tanks, not pressed full, is divided by the displacement of the vessel to obtain the Free
Surface Correction, described in page no. 21, denoted as “GG0 ". The new vertical
centre of gravity is denoted as “G” and its position above keel,”KG "is given by the
simple relation,
KGO =KG + GG0

The transverse metacentric height (corrected) is given by,

G0M = KMT -KG0 = GM - GG0

To maintain positive stability, the transverse metacentre must lie above the centre of
gravity i.e., the metacentric height must always be positive and its value must be able
to comply with statutory requirements.

7.2 LONGITUDINAL STABILITY


The longitudinal stability of a vessel usually poses no problem as the longitudinal
metacentric position is much higher than the center of gravity position The
longitudinal metacentre is similar to the transverse metacentre except that it involves
longitudinal inclinations. Since vessel is usually not symmetrical forward and aft, the
center of buoyancy at various even keel waterlines doesn’t always lie in a fixed
transverse plane, but may move forward and aft with changes in draft. For a given
even keel waterline, the longitudinal metacentre is defined as the intersection of a
vertical line through the center of buoyancy in the even keel position with a vertical
line through the position of the center of buoyancy after the vessel has been inclined
longitudinally through small angles.

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The longitudinal metacentre, like the transverse, is substantially fixed


with respect to the vessel for moderate angles of inclination if there is no abrupt
change in the shape of the vessel in the vicinity of waterline, and its distance above
the vessels center of gravity is called the longitudinal metacentric height.

DRAFTS AND TRIM:

The draft “T”, corresponding to the displacement, obtained from the Hydrostatic
Curves or Tables, is the draft at the longitudinal centre of flotation, denoted as “LCF”.
The longitudinal centre of gravity “LCG” is obtained by dividing the net longitudinal
moment by the displacement. If the longitudinal centre of buoyancy “LCB” position
does not coincide with “LCG” position, the vessel will “trim“, i.e., the draft at the fore
peak of waterline “Tf " and the draft at the aft peak “T a " will not be equal. If the
“LCG” is forward of the “LCB”, the vessel will trim by forward and if the “LCB” is
forward of the “LCG” , the vessel will trim by aft.
The total trim, denoted as “t”, is given by:

t = T a - Tf = ((LCB – LCG) X Displacement ) / (100 X MCT1cm )

Positive “t” implies trim by aft & negative “t” implies trim by forward. The “LCB”,
“LCF”, and “MCT1cm" (moment to change trim by 1cm) are all obtained from the
Hydrostatic Tables

The drafts at the extreme ends of waterline are given by the algebraic relation:
Ta = T + t * LCF / LBP

Tf = T + t * (LCF-LWL) / LBP
The position of “LCG” depends on whether the weights are placed more concentrated
in the forward or aft of the vessel, in which case the vessel will trim by forward or aft,
respectively. Hence, the distribution of cargo, oil, freshwater, etc. must be uniform to
keep the trim as little as possible and towards aft. It must be noted that if it is not
possible to avoid trim, then trim by aft is more recommendable than trim by forward.
In the departure condition the trim, if present, must be, as far as possible, by aft.

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7.3 WEATHER CRITERION ACCORDING TO IMO RES. A 749 (18)


The ability of a ship to withstand the combined effects of beam wind & rolling should
be demonstrated for each standard condition of loading.
The ship is subjected to a steady wind pressure acting perpendicular to the ship’s
centreline which results in a steady wind heeling lever (lw1)
1. From the resultant angle of equilibrium (θ0), the ship is assumed to roll owing to
wave action to an angle of roll (θ1) to windward.
2. The ship is then subjected to a gust wind pressure which results in a gust wind
heeling lever (lw2)
3. Under these circumstances, area “ b” should be greater than or equal to area “a”.
4. Free surface effect should be accounted for in the standard conditions of loading.

θ θ

Fig 7.1
Weather criteria curves

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The angles are defined as follows:


θ0 = Angle of heel under action of steady wind.
θ1 = Angle of roll to windward due to wave action
θ2= Angle of down flooding ( θf ) or 50 degrees or θc , whichever is less
θf= Angle of heel at which openings in the hull, superstructures or
deckhouses which cannot be closed watertight,
θc= Angle of second intercept between wind heeling lever ( lw2 ) and GZ
curves.
The wind heeling levers lw1 and lw2 are constant values at all angles of inclinations
and should be calculated as follows:

lw1 = P * A * Z / (1000 * g * Δ (m)


lw2 = 1.5 * lw1
Where:
P= 504 N/m2
A= Projected lateral area of the portion of the ship above waterline in m2.
Z= Vertical distance from the centre of the projected lateral area (A) to the
centre of underwater lateral area or approximately to a point at one half
the draft in metres.
Δ= Displacement of the ship in tonnes.
g= Acceleration due to gravity (g = 9.81 m/s2)

The angle of roll (θ1) should be calculated as follows


θ1= 109 * k * X1 * X2 * √(r * s) (degrees)
Where,
X1, X2, k & s are factors given in tables 7.1 below.
k is a factor depending on type of bilge construction.
r = 0.73 + 0.6 OG/d
OG = distance between centre of gravity and the waterline in metres (+ ve if center
of gravity is above WL, -ve, if it is below)
d= mean draught of the ship (m)

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Rolling period T = 2CB / √ GM (s)


Where
C= 0.373 + 0.023 (B/d) - 0.043 (L / 100).
The symbols in the above tables and formula for the rolling period are defined as
follows:
L= waterline length of the ship (m)
B= moulded breadth of the ship (m)
d= mean moulded draft of the ship (m)
CB = block coefficient
Ak= total overall area of bilge keels, or area of the lateral projection of the
bar keel, or sum of these areas (m2)
GM= metacentric height corrected for free surface effect (m)

Values of factor X1
B/d ≤ 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 ≥ 3.5
X1 1.00 0.98 0.96 0.95 0.93 0.91 0.90 0.88 0.86 0.82 0.80

Values of factor X2
Cb ≤ 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 ≥ 0.70
X2 0.75 0.82 0.89 0.95 0.97 1.00

Values of factor k
Ak × 100 / L × B 0.00 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 ≥ 4.00
K 1.00 0.98 0.95 0.88 0.79 0.74 0.72 0.70

Values of factor s
T ≤ 6.00 7.00 8.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 ≥ 20.00
S 0.100 0.098 0.093 0.065 0.053 0.044 0.038 0.035
(Intermediate values in tables should be obtained by linear interpolation)

Table 7.1
Table for X1, X2, K and s

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VCG Above
Draft Wind area
Base line Half Draft
m m2 m m
2 6126 14.12 13.12
4 5604 15.16 13.16
6 5086 16.2 13.2
8 4574 17.23 13.23
10 4064 18.26 13.26
12 3553 19.3 13.3
14 3024 20.4 13.4
16 2485 21.58 13.58
18 1935 22.87 13.87
20 1381 24.42 14.42

Table 7.2
WINDAGE AREA TABLE

DOWNFLOODING ANGLE, DECK IMMERSION & DRAFT PARTICULARS


Draft(m) Deck Immersion(Deg) Down Flooding(Deg)
2 42 65
4 39 63
6 36 60
8 33 58
10 29 55
12 26 52
14 22 47
16 28 43
18 23 37
20 9 30

Table 7.3

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7.3 Hydrostatic table for trimmed condition

Hydrostatic properties(trim=-2m Fwd)


(Tables 7.4)

Draft Disp LCB KB(m) LCF(m) TPC KMT MCT1cm


(m) (t) (m) (m) (m) (t) (m) (tm)
2.5 24468.24 155.004 1.525 142.971 101.345 66.928 1548.395
3 29593.65 152.858 1.777 142.279 103.101 57.897 1597.984
3.5 34798.1 151.223 2.032 141.586 104.508 51.156 1639.369
4 40065.6 149.917 2.287 141.007 105.645 45.91 1674.926
4.5 45386.27 148.841 2.543 140.504 106.625 41.744 1708.454
5 50751.13 147.94 2.799 140.13 107.416 38.367 1735.657
5.5 56152.38 147.167 3.055 139.679 108.093 35.629 1757.739
6 61586.52 146.486 3.311 139.215 108.729 33.374 1779.278
6.5 67052.07 145.875 3.567 138.769 109.34 31.502 1800.326
7 72545.2 145.323 3.823 138.423 109.821 29.882 1816.731
7.5 78060.64 144.823 4.08 138.056 110.244 28.509 1830.302
8 83596.86 144.362 4.336 137.69 110.655 27.34 1843.58
8.5 89153.5 143.935 4.592 137.335 111.048 26.331 1857.01
9 94728.45 143.537 4.848 136.995 111.415 25.441 1870.65
9.5 100324.2 143.163 5.104 136.686 111.89 24.72 1888.178
10 105948 142.813 5.36 136.435 112.516 24.178 1907.989
10.5 111604.2 142.483 5.617 136.19 113.164 23.727 1927.81
11 117291.7 142.173 5.875 135.993 113.77 23.329 1946.383
11.5 123008.3 141.881 6.133 135.739 114.267 22.923 1963.325
12 128741.8 141.599 6.391 135.356 114.476 22.44 1976.977
12.5 134483.4 141.324 6.649 134.973 114.622 21.993 1990.494
13 140231.6 141.056 6.906 134.64 114.724 21.591 2002.334
13.5 145994.6 140.791 7.163 133.896 115.379 21.275 2046.421
14 151806.6 140.506 7.422 132.798 116.548 21.066 2116.947
14.5 157680 140.198 7.682 131.643 117.819 20.926 2191.395
15 163615.7 139.868 7.943 130.786 118.827 20.813 2249.991
15.5 169583 139.544 8.205 130.536 119.27 20.679 2273.857
16 175572.6 139.232 8.468 130.301 119.735 20.57 2299.595
16.5 181586.6 138.933 8.73 130.075 120.224 20.488 2326.966
17 187624.7 138.644 8.992 129.871 120.698 20.424 2354.047
17.5 193686.4 138.367 9.255 129.721 121.166 20.379 2380.585

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Hydrostatic properties(trim=-1.5 m for'd)


(Tables 7.5)

Draft Disp LCB KB(m) LCF(m) TPCI KMT MCT1cm


(m) (t) (m) (m) (m) (t) (m) (tm)
3.25 31599.62 149.628 1.859 141.599 103.949 55.241 1625.639
3.75 36842.45 148.443 2.116 141.023 105.196 49.079 1662.71
4.25 42142.74 147.475 2.374 140.481 106.255 44.269 1697.086
4.75 47490.26 146.664 2.631 140.099 107.089 40.369 1726.188
5.25 52877.73 145.978 2.889 139.75 107.868 37.276 1752.775
5.75 58301.68 145.378 3.146 139.298 108.538 34.747 1774.643
6.25 63757.94 144.838 3.404 138.839 109.165 32.651 1795.957
6.75 69243.34 144.347 3.661 138.479 109.678 30.852 1813.709
7.25 74752.78 143.903 3.918 138.154 110.144 29.336 1829.361
7.75 80284.26 143.494 4.175 137.789 110.563 28.049 1842.715
8.25 85836.49 143.113 4.432 137.421 110.97 26.948 1856.126
8.75 91407.94 142.756 4.689 137.079 111.336 25.973 1869.536
9.25 96998.39 142.418 4.945 136.709 111.73 25.138 1884.785
9.75 997714.5 142.097 5.202 136.407 112.24 24.475 1903.077
10.25 108252.9 141.794 5.459 136.158 112.889 23.98 1923.026
10.75 113927 141.508 5.717 135.945 113.498 23.544 1941.562
11.25 119630.9 141.238 5.975 135.752 114.098 23.171 1959.88
11.75 125363.1 140.982 6.234 135.467 114.539 22.762 1976.069
12.25 131108.8 140.731 6.493 135.081 114.702 22.283 1989.626
12.75 136861.4 140.486 6.751 134.73 114.812 21.849 2001.721
13.25 142624.7 140.241 7.008 133.977 115.285 21.468 2037.257
13.75 148428.5 139.974 7.267 132.832 116.339 21.191 2106.034
14.25 154291.1 139.681 7.527 131.681 117.596 21.026 2180.104
14.75 160217.1 139.364 7.789 130.731 118.686 20.903 2243.462
15.25 166177.2 139.05 8.052 130.48 119.13 20.756 2267.105
15.75 172159.9 138.747 8.314 130.221 119.578 20.633 2291.442
16.25 178165.3 138.456 8.577 129.977 120.048 20.535 2317.666
16.75 184194.9 138.174 8.839 129.761 120.524 20.459 2344.74
17.25 190247.1 137.904 9.102 129.588 120.969 20.401 2369.932
17.75 196322.3 137.644 9.365 129.444 121.43 20.363 2396.183

121
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=-1.0 m for'd)


(Tables 7.6)

Draft Disp LCB KB(m) LCF(m) TPCI KMT MCT1cm


(m) (t) (m) (m) (m) (t) (m) (tm)
3 28421.75 147.703 1.688 141.508 103.22 60.071 1606.082
3.5 33633.71 146.702 1.947 141.019 104.677 52.758 1650.095
4 38911.13 145.895 2.207 140.479 105.854 47.195 1685.187
4.5 44240.76 145.214 2.466 140.051 106.745 42.681 1715.841
5 49611.11 144.637 2.724 139.715 107.537 39.112 1743.032
5.5 55021.22 144.136 2.983 139.372 108.322 36.277 1769.846
6 60467.59 143.687 3.242 138.921 108.978 33.931 1791.422
6.5 65944.84 143.273 3.5 138.526 109.527 31.936 1810.312
7 71446.74 142.895 3.758 138.207 109.999 30.244 1826.247
7.5 76972.29 142.547 4.016 137.888 110.465 28.828 1841.844
8 82520 142.222 4.273 137.52 110.885 27.62 1855.36
8.5 88087.75 141.913 4.531 137.166 111.26 26.559 1868.589
9 93674.54 141.619 4.788 136.793 111.652 25.64 1883.746
9.5 99281.05 141.336 5.045 136.417 112.052 24.854 1899.278
10 104910.4 141.064 5.303 136.129 112.607 24.256 1918.131
10.5 110571 140.805 5.561 135.905 113.232 23.784 1937.132
11 116261.6 140.56 5.819 135.707 113.826 23.373 1955.1
11.5 121982.2 140.328 6.078 135.509 114.428 23.024 1973.509
12 127729.2 140.105 6.337 135.19 114.784 22.599 1988.805
12.5 133486.3 139.885 6.596 134.826 114.905 22.13 2001.421
13 139252.7 139.664 6.854 134.147 115.305 21.714 2032.291
13.5 145054.7 139.419 7.113 132.903 116.214 21.363 2096.204
14 150907.7 139.143 7.374 131.72 117.375 21.139 2168.875
14.5 156823.7 138.841 7.636 130.679 118.547 21.005 2237.159
15 162776.9 138.538 7.899 130.426 118.989 20.84 2260.644
15.5 168752.5 138.246 8.161 130.166 119.44 20.706 2284.753
16 174750.9 137.964 8.424 129.899 119.892 20.593 2309.569
16.5 180772.2 137.691 8.687 129.657 120.355 20.503 2335.796
17 186816 137.428 8.95 129.48 120.794 20.432 2360.686
17.5 192881.8 137.176 9.213 129.31 121.235 20.383 2385.606

122
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=-0.5 m for'd)


(Tables 7.7)

Draft Disp LCB KB(m) LCF(m) TPCI KMT MCT1cm


(m) (t) (m) (m) (m) (t) (m) (tm)
3.25 30444.82 144.624 1.781 140.874 104.008 57.082 1631.835
3.75 35692.51 144.044 2.042 140.482 105.37 50.538 1672.785
4.25 41002.5 143.549 2.303 140.002 106.404 45.382 1705.515
4.75 46355.65 143.12 2.563 139.666 107.194 41.223 1732.636
5.25 51748.71 142.743 2.822 139.332 107.987 37.965 1759.905
5.75 57181.39 142.403 3.081 138.998 108.776 35.362 1786.779
6.25 62649.86 142.086 3.341 138.576 109.379 33.152 1806.995
6.75 68144.41 141.79 3.599 138.254 109.849 31.257 1822.89
7.25 73662.38 141.513 3.858 137.938 110.319 29.68 1838.718
7.75 79203.98 141.252 4.116 137.619 110.79 28.356 1854.52
8.25 84767.76 141.002 4.374 137.258 111.189 27.205 1867.958
8.75 90350.84 140.759 4.632 136.88 111.575 26.193 1882.802
9.25 95953.56 140.521 4.89 136.503 111.974 25.33 1898.221
9.75 101576.5 140.288 5.148 136.123 112.378 24.591 1913.928
10.25 107223.6 140.061 5.406 135.864 112.966 24.05 1932.737
10.75 112901 139.845 5.664 135.667 113.56 23.598 1950.614
11.25 118608.3 139.639 5.923 135.466 114.159 23.215 1968.819
11.75 124345.6 139.442 6.182 135.267 114.761 22.891 1987.147
12.25 130106.2 139.25 6.442 134.922 115.001 22.436 2001.181
12.75 135875.9 139.056 6.701 134.313 115.337 21.982 2028.095
13.25 141679.1 138.837 6.961 133.082 116.229 21.597 2091.036
13.75 147529.2 138.583 7.222 131.779 117.203 21.285 2158.241
14.25 153435.3 138.298 7.484 130.629 118.41 21.119 2230.903
14.75 159381.7 138.007 7.747 130.374 118.851 20.936 2254.333
15.25 165350.4 137.726 8.01 130.113 119.301 20.785 2278.334
15.75 171341.8 137.456 8.273 129.845 119.759 20.663 2302.92
16.25 177356.3 137.193 8.536 129.574 120.208 20.558 2328.059
16.75 183392 136.939 8.799 129.376 120.625 20.472 2351.746
17.25 189449.3 136.694 9.063 129.201 121.064 20.41 2376.56
17.75 195528.7 136.459 9.326 129.03 121.503 20.369 2401.516

123
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(Even keel condition)


(Tables 7.8)

Draft Disp LCB KB LCF(m) TPCI KMT MCT1cm


(m) (t) (m) (m) (m) (t) (m) (tm)
3 27279.53 142.111 1.62 140.721 103.33 62.414 1613.25
3.5 32493.33 141.856 1.881 140.331 104.697 54.362 1654.319
4 37775.54 141.616 2.143 139.953 106.062 48.566 1695.229
4.5 43111.65 141.39 2.404 139.618 106.85 43.672 1722.266
5 48487.52 141.174 2.664 139.282 107.645 39.899 1749.545
5.5 53903.09 140.967 2.924 138.952 108.437 36.918 1776.63
6 59358.37 140.767 3.183 138.626 109.231 34.521 1803.726
6.5 64845.38 140.572 3.443 138.303 109.702 32.392 1819.625
7 70355.94 140.382 3.702 137.984 110.17 30.629 1835.36
7.5 75890.09 140.195 3.961 137.668 110.642 29.157 1851.225
8 81447.98 140.012 4.219 137.35 111.118 27.917 1867.294
8.5 87027.59 139.829 4.478 136.972 111.506 26.803 1882.211
9 92626.64 139.645 4.736 136.591 111.897 25.854 1897.268
9.5 98245.7 139.46 4.994 136.208 112.3 25.042 1912.955
10 103885 139.273 5.252 135.828 112.707 24.346 1928.631
10.5 109549.3 139.089 5.511 135.627 113.294 23.849 1946.179
11 115243.1 138.913 5.77 135.425 113.893 23.426 1964.328
11.5 120967.1 138.744 6.029 135.225 114.493 23.069 1982.568
12 126721.3 138.579 6.289 135.021 115.098 22.768 2001.059
12.5 132494.7 138.415 6.548 134.475 115.374 22.274 2024.188
13 138299 138.225 6.809 133.262 116.248 21.852 2086.143
13.5 144150.1 137.997 7.07 131.962 117.216 21.507 2153.103
14 150051.9 137.733 7.333 130.581 118.275 21.246 2224.796
14.5 155991.5 137.455 7.596 130.323 118.714 21.043 2248.117
15 161953.5 137.188 7.86 130.061 119.164 20.875 2272.053
15.5 167938.2 136.929 8.123 129.792 119.621 20.736 2296.582
16 173946 136.678 8.387 129.515 120.087 20.626 2321.736
16.5 179975.3 136.435 8.65 129.293 120.481 20.523 2344.106
17 186025 136.199 8.913 129.095 120.896 20.446 2367.689
17.5 192095.3 135.972 9.177 128.922 121.335 20.393 2392.556
18 198188.9 135.752 9.44 128.745 121.777 20.36 2417.764

124
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=0.5m aft)


(Tables 7.9)

Draft Disp LCB KB LCF(m) TPCI KMT MCT1cm


(m) (t) (m) (m) (m) (t) (m) (tm)
3.25 29317.84 139.24 1.725 140.172 104.018 59.026 1635.527
3.75 34566.14 139.353 1.987 139.795 105.385 51.967 1676.506
4.25 39878.98 139.394 2.248 139.565 106.505 46.541 1711.708
4.75 45237.7 139.395 2.509 139.232 107.303 42.13 1739.176
5.25 50636.16 139.36 2.769 138.902 108.095 38.695 1766.251
5.75 56074.25 139.299 3.029 138.575 108.889 35.961 1793.301
6.25 61549.88 139.224 3.289 138.348 109.55 33.664 1816.155
6.75 67053.02 139.139 3.548 138.033 110.023 31.688 1832.157
7.25 72579.7 139.043 3.807 137.715 110.492 30.046 1847.861
7.75 78130.05 138.937 4.066 137.396 110.968 28.671 1863.918
8.25 83704.41 138.823 4.325 137.062 111.433 27.475 1881.491
8.75 89299.99 138.701 4.584 136.684 111.826 26.43 1896.656
9.25 94915.28 138.57 4.842 136.296 112.226 25.538 1912.089
9.75 100550.7 138.432 5.101 135.915 112.629 24.773 1927.712
10.25 106205.9 138.289 5.359 135.593 113.034 24.127 1942.05
10.75 111886.8 138.147 5.618 135.386 113.628 23.662 1959.898
11.25 117597.3 138.008 5.877 135.184 114.227 23.268 1978.072
11.75 123338.2 137.871 6.137 134.981 114.832 22.936 1996.541
12.25 129108.8 137.737 6.397 134.634 115.421 22.591 2020.912
12.75 134914.4 137.579 6.658 133.441 116.269 22.13 2081.269
13.25 140766.4 137.38 6.92 132.145 117.233 21.749 2148.172
13.75 146668.8 137.142 7.183 130.77 118.284 21.456 2219.585
14.25 152606.4 136.883 7.447 130.277 118.581 21.164 2242.066
14.75 158561.4 136.63 7.711 130.011 119.026 20.976 2265.786
15.25 164539.1 136.384 7.974 129.741 119.483 20.821 2290.255
15.75 170539.9 136.146 8.238 129.465 119.948 20.695 2315.341
16.25 176562.9 135.914 8.502 129.235 120.36 20.586 2337.833
16.75 182605.9 135.689 8.765 129.013 120.753 20.493 2360.189
17.25 188668.7 135.471 9.029 128.816 121.167 20.425 2383.695
17.75 194753.4 135.261 9.293 128.639 121.61 20.381 2408.884

125
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=1.0m aft)

(Tables 7.10)
Draft Disp LCB KB LCF(m) TPCI KMT MCT1cm
(m) (t) (m) (m) (m) (t) (m) (tm)
3.5 31380.52 136.674 1.836 139.631 104.705 56.076 1657.579
4 36661.96 137.078 2.097 139.359 105.968 49.754 1694.931
4.5 41999.22 137.356 2.357 139.174 106.954 44.726 1728.454
5 47380.45 137.545 2.617 138.851 107.753 40.734 1755.864
5.5 52801.48 137.662 2.877 138.525 108.546 37.597 1782.888
6 58261.31 137.729 3.137 138.269 109.263 35.036 1807.122
6.5 63753.55 137.767 3.397 138.072 109.867 32.873 1828.488
7 69272.72 137.779 3.656 137.764 110.345 31.037 1844.639
7.5 74815.65 137.766 3.915 137.442 110.819 29.505 1860.609
8 80382.83 137.732 4.174 137.1 111.306 28.203 1878.286
8.5 85973.32 137.68 4.433 136.772 111.751 27.064 1895.788
9 91585.11 137.613 4.692 136.389 112.154 26.082 1911.476
9.5 97216.93 137.531 4.951 136.003 112.554 25.243 1926.882
10 102868.3 137.437 5.209 135.651 112.925 24.513 1941.152
10.5 108538.8 137.335 5.468 135.352 113.368 23.924 1955.836
11 114236.2 137.231 5.727 135.145 113.963 23.49 1973.688
11.5 119963.7 137.127 5.987 134.941 114.565 23.122 1991.999
12 125721.5 137.022 6.247 134.667 115.226 22.801 2014.88
12.5 131525 136.897 6.508 133.626 116.298 22.433 2076.806
13 137378 136.73 6.77 132.327 117.25 22.013 2143.237
13.5 143281.1 136.521 7.034 130.96 118.294 21.685 2214.39
14 149222.5 136.285 7.299 130.359 118.63 21.356 2241.542
14.5 155174.4 136.049 7.563 129.966 118.895 21.089 2259.871
15 161145.2 135.819 7.827 129.691 119.347 20.916 2284.013
15.5 167139.1 135.594 8.091 129.414 119.812 20.773 2309.023
16 173155.6 135.375 8.354 129.179 120.236 20.653 2331.857
16.5 179192.6 135.163 8.618 128.955 120.634 20.551 2354.064
17 185249.3 134.956 8.882 128.735 121.025 20.468 2376.282
17.5 191325.8 134.755 9.146 128.533 121.443 20.41 2400.047
18 197424.1 134.56 9.41 128.358 121.88 20.371 2425.301

126
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=1.5m aft)


(Tables 7.11)

Draft Disp LCB KB LCF(m) TPCI KMT MCT1cm


(m) (t) (m) (m) (m) (t) (m) (tm)
3.25 28222.31 133.461 1.692 139.318 103.856 60.911 1632.914
3.75 33466.98 134.364 1.951 139.145 105.344 53.459 1677.285
4.25 38776.08 135.007 2.211 138.976 106.452 47.655 1711.875
4.75 44136.33 135.479 2.47 138.788 107.402 43.092 1744.97
5.25 49540.18 135.823 2.73 138.473 108.204 39.467 1772.498
5.75 54983.43 136.07 2.989 138.185 108.96 36.573 1797.969
6.25 60460.91 136.253 3.248 137.999 109.594 34.158 1819.576
6.75 65969.39 136.39 3.508 137.8 110.185 32.142 1840.747
7.25 71504.73 136.487 3.767 137.491 110.672 30.434 1857.435
7.75 77064.52 136.547 4.026 137.14 111.172 29 1875.07
8.25 82648.5 136.576 4.285 136.813 111.628 27.752 1892.594
8.75 88255.15 136.581 4.544 136.475 112.077 26.681 1910.549
9.25 93883.38 136.563 4.802 136.095 112.484 25.759 1926.354
9.75 99531.35 136.526 5.061 135.729 112.865 24.964 1940.795
10.25 105197.5 136.474 5.32 135.393 113.218 24.267 1954.554
10.75 110883.7 136.411 5.579 135.111 113.704 23.736 1969.638
11.25 116598 136.342 5.838 134.903 114.301 23.331 1987.597
11.75 122342.2 136.269 6.098 134.661 114.933 22.98 2008.307
12.25 128132.7 136.177 6.359 133.723 116.165 22.671 2069.978
12.75 133985 136.045 6.622 132.518 117.276 22.301 2138.809
13.25 139888.8 135.867 6.887 131.147 118.306 21.935 2209.282
13.75 145834 135.657 7.152 130.457 118.727 21.585 2241.527
14.25 151789.4 135.445 7.416 130.03 118.904 21.257 2258.887
14.75 157756.3 135.232 7.681 129.647 119.218 21.023 2278.215
15.25 163743.6 135.023 7.945 129.363 119.676 20.863 2302.818
15.75 169753.3 134.818 8.209 129.121 120.106 20.728 2325.884
16.25 175783.9 134.619 8.473 128.898 120.516 20.615 2348.289
16.75 181834.7 134.425 8.737 128.678 120.908 20.522 2370.23
17.25 187904.9 134.235 9 128.452 121.303 20.449 2392.699
17.75 193995.4 134.05 9.264 128.25 121.717 20.397 2416.523

127
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Hydrostatic properties(trim=2.0m aft)


(Tables 7.12)

Draft Disp LCB KB LCF(m) TPCI KMT MCT1cm


(m) (t) (m) (m) (m) (t) (m) (tm)
3.5 30298.54 131.147 1.813 138.819 104.549 57.756 1653.89
4 35573.57 132.279 2.07 138.744 105.872 51.019 1694.255
4.5 40907.19 133.113 2.328 138.598 106.917 45.754 1728.601
5 46290.19 133.74 2.586 138.406 107.849 41.618 1761.352
5.5 51716.49 134.214 2.845 138.111 108.642 38.307 1788.486
6 57178.69 134.577 3.104 137.914 109.295 35.581 1810.456
6.5 62672.77 134.861 3.362 137.73 109.92 33.344 1831.959
7 68197.34 135.085 3.621 137.522 110.509 31.467 1853.327
7.5 73749.46 135.257 3.88 137.189 111.026 29.876 1871.753
8 79326.65 135.38 4.139 136.851 111.499 28.506 1889.44
8.5 84926.93 135.466 4.397 136.517 111.956 27.332 1907.394
9 90549.97 135.521 4.656 136.179 112.405 26.326 1925.303
9.5 96194.42 135.549 4.915 135.814 112.803 25.456 1940.59
10 101857.5 135.554 5.174 135.47 113.154 24.692 1954.286
10.5 107538.3 135.541 5.433 135.138 113.527 24.046 1967.992
11 113240.9 135.513 5.692 134.87 114.042 23.563 1983.52
11.5 118972 135.477 5.951 134.65 114.647 23.18 2002.292
12 124746.7 135.42 6.212 133.75 115.857 22.847 2061.301
12.5 130587.9 135.321 6.475 132.648 117.197 22.552 2132.689
13 136491.8 135.178 6.74 131.345 118.329 22.209 2204.787
13.5 142440.5 134.997 7.006 130.557 118.824 21.834 2241.474
14 148400.7 134.81 7.271 130.129 118.995 21.474 2258.94
14.5 154370 134.621 7.536 129.696 119.2 21.173 2276.829
15 160352.9 134.43 7.8 129.32 119.549 20.964 2297.119
15.5 166356 134.241 8.064 129.065 119.977 20.813 2319.959
16 172380.2 134.056 8.328 128.839 120.389 20.686 2342.378
16.5 178424.5 133.875 8.592 128.623 120.79 20.582 2364.449
17 184489.1 133.699 8.856 128.395 121.187 20.499 2386.75
17.5 190573.4 133.526 9.12 128.169 121.581 20.433 2409.34
18 196678.1 133.356 9.384 127.939 122.015 20.388 2435.023

128
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.4 CROSS CURVES (KN) TABLES

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES


Trim= -2m (Aft)
Disp(t) 5o 10o 15o 20o 30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o
25000 4.88 9.28 12.20 13.92 15.97 16.88 17.10 17.35 16.65 15.14
40000 4.034 7.801 10.69 12.67 15.16 16.54 17.219 17.36 16.6 15.02
55000 3.192 6.32 9.189 11.41 14.35 16.19 17.335 17.38 16.5 14.91
70000 2.698 5.394 8.035 10.37 13.69 15.93 17.114 17.12 16.3 14.74
85000 2.385 4.797 7.195 9.486 13.14 15.63 16.704 16.72 15.9 14.54
100000 2.184 4.387 6.596 8.792 12.68 15.18 16.205 16.27 15.6 14.32
115000 2.05 4.099 6.171 8.271 12.25 14.64 15.654 15.78 15.2 14.11
130000 1.952 3.9 5.876 7.89 11.76 14.04 15.071 15.28 14.9 13.89
145000 1.882 3.768 5.673 7.616 11.22 13.4 14.466 14.78 14.5 13.69
160000 1.83 3.677 5.535 7.428 10.65 12.72 13.845 14.27 14.1 13.49
175000 1.799 3.613 5.447 7.253 10.07 12.02 13.208 13.76 13.8 13.29
190000 1.783 3.575 5.388 7.008 9.498 11.32 12.557 13.23 13.4 13.09

Tables 7.13

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES


Trim= -1.5m (Aft)
Disp(t) 5o 10o 15o 20o 30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o
25000 4.88 9.28 12.19 13.91 15.97 16.88 17.10 17.35 16.65 15.14
40000 4.036 7.803 10.69 12.66 15.16 16.54 17.219 17.36 16.6 15.03
55000 3.194 6.323 9.191 11.42 14.35 16.19 17.336 17.38 16.5 14.91
70000 2.7 5.397 8.039 10.37 13.7 15.93 17.117 17.12 16.3 14.74
85000 2.387 4.8 7.2 9.491 13.15 15.63 16.71 16.73 16 14.54
100000 2.185 4.391 6.601 8.798 12.68 15.19 16.212 16.27 15.6 14.33
115000 2.052 4.102 6.176 8.277 12.26 14.65 15.662 15.78 15.2 14.11
130000 1.953 3.904 5.881 7.895 11.77 14.05 15.079 15.29 14.9 13.9
145000 1.885 3.771 5.677 7.621 11.23 13.41 14.475 14.79 14.5 13.69
160000 1.832 3.679 5.538 7.432 10.66 12.73 13.855 14.28 14.1 13.49
175000 1.8 3.615 5.449 7.26 10.09 12.03 13.22 13.77 13.8 13.3
190000 1.783 3.576 5.392 7.018 9.511 11.34 12.571 13.24 13.4 13.1

Tables 7.14

129
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES


Trim= -1.0 m (Aft)
Disp(t) 5o 10o 15o 20o 30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o
25000 4.88 9.28 12.19 13.91 15.96 16.87 17.10 17.35 16.65 15.14
40000 4.037 7.805 10.69 12.66 15.16 16.53 17.219 17.37 16.6 15.03
55000 3.196 6.326 9.193 11.42 14.35 16.2 17.336 17.39 16.5 14.92
70000 2.701 5.4 8.042 10.37 13.7 15.93 17.12 17.13 16.3 14.75
85000 2.388 4.802 7.204 9.496 13.15 15.64 16.715 16.74 16 14.55
100000 2.185 4.394 6.605 8.804 12.68 15.19 16.219 16.28 15.6 14.33
115000 2.053 4.105 6.181 8.283 12.26 14.66 15.669 15.79 15.2 14.12
130000 1.954 3.907 5.886 7.9 11.78 14.06 15.087 15.3 14.9 13.9
145000 1.887 3.773 5.681 7.625 11.24 13.42 14.484 14.8 14.5 13.7
160000 1.833 3.681 5.541 7.436 10.67 12.74 13.865 14.29 14.1 13.5
175000 1.8 3.616 5.45 7.267 10.1 12.05 13.232 13.78 13.8 13.3
190000 1.783 3.576 5.395 7.027 9.523 11.35 12.585 13.25 13.4 13.11

Tables 7.15

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES


Trim= -0.5m (Aft)
Disp(t) 5o 10o 15o 20o 30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o
25000 4.88 9.28 12.18 13.90 15.96 16.87 17.10 17.34 16.66 15.15
40000 4.038 7.807 10.69 12.66 15.15 16.53 17.218 17.37 16.6 15.03
55000 3.197 6.33 9.194 11.42 14.35 16.2 17.335 17.39 16.5 14.92
70000 2.703 5.404 8.047 10.38 13.7 15.93 17.122 17.13 16.3 14.75
85000 2.39 4.806 7.209 9.501 13.16 15.64 16.72 16.74 16 14.55
100000 2.187 4.397 6.61 8.811 12.69 15.2 16.225 16.28 15.6 14.34
115000 2.054 4.108 6.185 8.291 12.27 14.67 15.675 15.8 15.2 14.12
130000 1.956 3.911 5.89 7.907 11.79 14.07 15.094 15.3 14.9 13.91
145000 1.889 3.777 5.685 7.631 11.25 13.43 14.492 14.8 14.5 13.7
160000 1.834 3.685 5.544 7.44 10.68 12.75 13.874 14.3 14.1 13.5
175000 1.8 3.618 5.453 7.274 10.11 12.06 13.243 13.79 13.8 13.31
190000 1.783 3.576 5.397 7.035 9.533 11.36 12.598 13.27 13.4 13.12

Tables 7.16

130
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES


Trim= 0 m (Even keel)
Disp(t) 5o 10o 15o 20o 30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o
25000 4.88 9.29 12.18 13.90 15.96 16.87 17.10 17.34 16.66 15.15
40000 4.04 7.809 10.69 12.66 15.15 16.53 17.219 17.37 16.6 15.04
55000 3.199 6.332 9.195 11.42 14.35 16.2 17.336 17.39 16.5 14.93
70000 2.705 5.406 8.05 10.38 13.7 15.93 17.125 17.13 16.3 14.76
85000 2.392 4.808 7.214 9.505 13.16 15.64 16.725 16.75 16 14.56
100000 2.188 4.4 6.615 8.817 12.69 15.2 16.23 16.29 15.6 14.35
115000 2.055 4.112 6.191 8.297 12.28 14.67 15.682 15.8 15.2 14.13
130000 1.959 3.916 5.896 7.913 11.8 14.08 15.101 15.31 14.9 13.91
145000 1.891 3.78 5.689 7.636 11.26 13.44 14.499 14.81 14.5 13.71
160000 1.836 3.687 5.547 7.444 10.69 12.76 13.882 14.3 14.2 13.51
175000 1.801 3.621 5.455 7.28 10.12 12.07 13.253 13.79 13.8 13.31
190000 1.784 3.577 5.398 7.042 9.543 11.38 12.61 13.28 13.4 13.12

Tables 7.17

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES


Trim= 0.5 m (For’d)
Disp(t) 5o 10o 15o 20o 30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o
25000 4.88 9.29 12.18 13.89 15.95 16.86 17.10 17.34 16.66 15.15
40000 4.042 7.81 10.69 12.65 15.15 16.53 17.218 17.37 16.6 15.04
55000 3.201 6.335 9.197 11.42 14.35 16.2 17.334 17.39 16.5 14.93
70000 2.706 5.409 8.054 10.38 13.7 15.94 17.126 17.14 16.3 14.76
85000 2.394 4.811 7.219 9.51 13.16 15.64 16.728 16.75 16 14.56
100000 2.19 4.403 6.62 8.823 12.7 15.21 16.235 16.29 15.6 14.35
115000 2.056 4.116 6.197 8.304 12.28 14.68 15.687 15.81 15.3 14.13
130000 1.961 3.919 5.901 7.919 11.8 14.08 15.107 15.31 14.9 13.92
145000 1.893 3.783 5.694 7.642 11.27 13.44 14.505 14.81 14.5 13.71
160000 1.838 3.689 5.551 7.449 10.7 12.77 13.889 14.31 14.2 13.51
175000 1.802 3.623 5.457 7.283 10.13 12.08 13.261 13.8 13.8 13.32
190000 1.784 3.578 5.4 7.047 9.552 11.39 12.62 13.28 13.4 13.13

Tables 7.18

131
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES


Trim= 1.0 m (For’d)
Disp(t) 5o 10o 15o 20o 30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o
25000 4.88 9.29 12.17 13.88 15.94 16.86 17.10 17.34 16.66 15.15
40000 4.043 7.812 10.68 12.65 15.15 16.53 17.218 17.36 16.6 15.04
55000 3.202 6.338 9.198 11.41 14.35 16.19 17.333 17.39 16.5 14.93
70000 2.708 5.413 8.057 10.38 13.7 15.94 17.128 17.14 16.3 14.76
85000 2.396 4.814 7.224 9.515 13.16 15.65 16.732 16.75 16 14.57
100000 2.191 4.407 6.626 8.83 12.7 15.21 16.239 16.3 15.6 14.35
115000 2.058 4.12 6.204 8.312 12.28 14.68 15.692 15.81 15.3 14.14
130000 1.964 3.923 5.907 7.927 11.81 14.09 15.112 15.32 14.9 13.92
145000 1.895 3.787 5.699 7.648 11.28 13.45 14.511 14.82 14.5 13.71
160000 1.84 3.692 5.555 7.455 10.71 12.78 13.896 14.32 14.2 13.52
175000 1.803 3.625 5.46 7.287 10.13 12.09 13.268 13.81 13.8 13.32
190000 1.785 3.58 5.402 7.051 9.559 11.39 12.629 13.29 13.4 13.13

Tables 7.19

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES


Trim= 1.5 m (For’d)
Disp(t) 5o 10o 15o 20o 30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o
25000 4.89 9.29 12.16 13.88 15.94 16.85 17.11 17.34 16.66 15.16
40000 4.044 7.813 10.68 12.65 15.14 16.52 17.218 17.36 16.6 15.05
55000 3.203 6.34 9.198 11.41 14.35 16.19 17.331 17.39 16.5 14.94
70000 2.71 5.416 8.06 10.39 13.71 15.94 17.129 17.14 16.3 14.77
85000 2.398 4.817 7.228 9.52 13.17 15.65 16.735 16.76 16 14.57
100000 2.192 4.41 6.631 8.836 12.71 15.22 16.243 16.3 15.6 14.36
115000 2.059 4.124 6.21 8.319 12.29 14.69 15.696 15.82 15.3 14.14
130000 1.966 3.927 5.913 7.934 11.82 14.09 15.117 15.32 14.9 13.92
145000 1.897 3.79 5.704 7.654 11.28 13.45 14.517 14.82 14.5 13.72
160000 1.841 3.694 5.559 7.46 10.72 12.78 13.903 14.32 14.2 13.52
175000 1.804 3.627 5.463 7.29 10.14 12.09 13.275 13.82 13.8 13.33
190000 1.785 3.582 5.403 7.055 9.565 11.4 12.638 13.3 13.5 13.14

Tables 7.20

132
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY(KN) TABLES


Trim= 2.0 m (For’d)
Disp(t) 5o 10o 15o 20o 30o 40o 50o 60o 70o 80o
25000 4.89 9.29 12.16 13.87 15.93 16.85 17.11 17.33 16.66 15.16
40000 4.046 7.814 10.68 12.64 15.14 16.52 17.218 17.36 16.6 15.05
55000 3.206 6.343 9.198 11.41 14.35 16.19 17.329 17.39 16.5 14.94
70000 2.712 5.419 8.064 10.39 13.71 15.94 17.129 17.14 16.3 14.77
85000 2.399 4.82 7.233 9.524 13.17 15.65 16.737 16.76 16 14.57
100000 2.194 4.413 6.637 8.844 12.71 15.22 16.247 16.3 15.6 14.36
115000 2.059 4.129 6.216 8.326 12.29 14.69 15.7 15.82 15.3 14.14
130000 1.969 3.932 5.919 7.941 11.82 14.1 15.121 15.33 14.9 13.93
145000 1.9 3.794 5.709 7.661 11.29 13.46 14.521 14.83 14.5 13.72
160000 1.843 3.697 5.563 7.464 10.72 12.79 13.907 14.33 14.2 13.53
175000 1.806 3.629 5.466 7.292 10.15 12.1 13.281 13.82 13.8 13.33
190000 1.786 3.584 5.404 7.056 9.57 11.41 12.645 13.31 13.5 13.14

Tables 7.21

133
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

17.5 60
50
40
70
30

15 80

20

12.5
15

10.

KN (m) 10

7.5

5.0 5

2.5

25000 40000 55000 70000 85000 100000 115000 130000 145000 160000 175000 190000

DISP (t)

Fig 7.2
CROSS CURVES (EVEN KEEL CONDITION)

134
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.5 COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP

1) The area under the righting lever (GZ) curve shall not be less than 0.055
m-radians upto an angle of heel of 30°.

30

i.e ∫ GZ dθ = 0.055 m-rad.


0

But for an angle of θ, righting lever is given by


GZ = KN – KG Sinθ

30


0
(KN – KG Sinθ) dθ = 0.055

30 30


0
KN dθ - ∫
0
KG Sinθ dθ = 0.055

30 30


0
KN dθ - KG ∫
0
KG Sinθ dθ = 0.055

30

KG = ∫ KN dθ − 0.055
0
30

∫ Sinθ dθ
0
30

KG1 = ∫ KN dθ − 0.055
0
m Condition (1)

1 – Cos30
(2) The area under the righting lever (GZ) curve shall not be less than 0.09
m-radians to an angle of either 40° or an angle of (θf) (Flooding angle) if that be
less

40

∫ GZ
0
dθ = 0.09 m – radians (assuming Flooding angle (θf) is more than

40°)
Similarly as above, we can arrive at
40

KG2 = ∫ KN ∂θ − 0.09 m Condition (2)


0

1 – Cos40

135
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP


The area under the righting lever (GZ) curve shall not be less than 0.03 m-radians
between the angles of heel of 30° and 40° or between 30 and (θf) degrees, if it is less
than 40 degrees

Assuming (θf) (Flooding angle) is more than 40°


40

KG3 = ∫ KN dθ − 0.03
30
m Condition (3)

Cos30 – Cos40

4) The maximum righting lever (GZ) shall be at least 0.2 metre at an angle of heel
equal to or greater than 30°

i.e. GZ at 30° = 0.20m

KG4 = KN30 – 0.20 Condition (4)


Sin30

5) Maximum righting lever (GZ) should occur at an angle exceeding 30° but not
less than 25° (say maximum righting lever (GZ) occur at 25°)

∂ (GZ) 25 =0
∂θ
∂ (KN – KG Sinθ) 25 =0
∂θ
∂ KN 25 – KG ∂ Sinθ) 25 =0
∂θ ∂θ
KG = ∂ KN 1
∂θ Cos25
KG5 = KN30 – KN20 1 Condition (5)
10 * π Cos25
180

6) The initial metacentric height shall be not less than 0.15 metre

GM = 0.15 m

KMT - KG = 0.15 m

KG6 = KMT – 0.15 m

136
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP


DISP KMT KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM – 2.0m (For’d)
25000 66.23 41.39 35.69 28.11 31.54 12.96 66.08 12.96 53.27
40000 46.13 36.99 32.78 27.21 29.92 15.76 45.98 15.76 30.37
5500 52.59 32.58 29.88 26.31 28.29 18.54 52.44 18.54 34.05
70000 30.74 29.37 27.74 25.60 26.99 21.03 30.59 21.03 9.71
8500 40.98 26.91 26.07 25.00 25.89 23.13 40.83 23.13 17.85
100000 24.83 25.12 24.75 24.30 24.95 24.55 24.68 24.30 0.53
115000 23.53 23.70 23.64 23.60 24.10 25.15 23.38 23.38 0.15
130000 22.40 22.58 22.61 22.70 23.12 24.48 22.25 22.25 0.15
145000 21.37 21.76 21.63 21.50 22.04 22.78 21.22 21.22 0.15
160000 20.90 21.09 20.73 20.30 20.90 20.37 20.75 20.30 0.60
175000 20.60 20.41 19.83 19.10 19.75 17.83 20.45 17.83 2.77
190000 20.41 19.74 18.94 17.90 18.60 15.74 20.26 15.74 4.67

Tables 7.22

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP


DISP KMT KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 1.5m (For’d)
25000 65.72 41.39 35.69 28.11 31.54 13.02 65.57 13.02 52.70
40000 46.41 36.99 32.78 27.21 29.91 15.77 46.26 15.77 30.64
5500 36.43 32.58 29.92 26.41 28.29 18.54 36.28 18.54 17.89
70000 30.75 29.37 27.74 25.60 26.99 21.02 30.60 21.02 9.73
8500 27.21 26.98 26.07 24.90 25.90 23.12 27.06 23.12 4.09
100000 25.14 25.12 24.75 24.30 24.96 24.54 24.99 24.30 0.84
115000 23.51 23.70 23.64 23.60 24.11 25.16 23.36 23.36 0.15
130000 22.43 22.65 22.61 22.60 23.14 24.50 22.28 22.28 0.15
145000 21.39 21.76 21.67 21.60 22.06 22.82 21.24 21.24 0.15
160000 20.93 21.09 20.73 20.30 20.92 20.42 20.78 20.30 0.63
175000 20.60 20.49 19.83 19.00 19.77 17.87 20.45 17.87 2.73
190000 20.41 19.74 18.98 18.00 18.62 15.76 20.26 15.76 4.65

Tables 7.23

137
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP


DISP KMT KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 1.0 m (For’d)
25000 66.87 41.39 35.69 28.11 31.52 12.96 66.72 12.96 53.91
40000 46.46 36.99 32.78 27.21 29.91 15.77 46.31 15.77 30.69
5500 36.44 32.58 29.92 26.41 28.30 18.54 36.29 18.54 17.90
70000 30.81 29.37 27.74 25.60 26.99 21.01 30.66 21.01 9.80
8500 27.24 26.98 26.07 24.90 25.90 23.11 27.09 23.11 4.13
100000 24.84 25.12 24.75 24.30 24.97 24.52 24.69 24.30 0.54
115000 23.51 23.70 23.68 23.70 24.13 25.16 23.36 23.36 0.15
130000 22.47 22.65 22.65 22.70 23.16 24.53 22.32 22.32 0.15
145000 21.41 21.76 21.67 21.60 22.08 22.85 21.26 21.26 0.15
160000 20.94 21.09 20.77 20.40 20.95 20.47 20.79 20.40 0.54
175000 20.61 20.49 19.88 19.10 19.80 17.90 20.46 17.90 2.71
190000 20.41 19.82 18.98 17.90 18.65 15.78 20.26 15.78 4.63

Tables 7.24

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP


DISP KMT KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 0.5m (For’d)
25000 66.54 41.39 35.65 28.01 31.52 13.02 66.39 13.02 53.52
40000 46.57 36.99 32.78 27.21 29.91 15.77 46.42 15.77 30.80
5500 36.55 32.58 29.92 26.41 28.30 18.54 36.40 18.54 18.01
70000 30.84 29.37 27.78 25.70 27.00 21.01 30.69 21.01 9.83
8500 27.25 26.98 26.12 25.00 25.91 23.10 27.10 23.10 4.15
100000 24.87 25.12 24.79 24.40 24.98 24.51 24.72 24.40 0.47
115000 23.50 23.77 23.68 23.60 24.14 25.15 23.35 23.35 0.15
130000 22.50 22.65 22.65 22.70 23.18 24.54 22.35 22.35 0.15
145000 21.46 21.83 21.71 21.60 22.10 22.88 21.31 21.31 0.15
160000 20.94 21.09 20.77 20.40 20.97 20.51 20.79 20.40 0.54
175000 20.62 20.49 19.88 19.10 19.82 17.92 20.47 17.92 2.70
190000 20.41 19.82 19.02 18.00 18.67 15.79 20.26 15.79 4.62

Tables 7.25

138
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP


DISP KMT KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 0 m
25000 67.35 41.39 35.65 28.01 31.52 13.02 67.20 13.02 54.33
40000 46.73 36.99 32.78 27.21 29.90 15.78 46.58 15.78 30.95
5500 36.57 32.58 29.92 26.41 28.30 18.54 36.42 18.54 18.03
70000 30.86 29.45 27.78 25.60 27.00 21.01 30.71 21.01 9.85
8500 27.30 26.98 26.12 25.00 25.92 23.09 27.15 23.09 4.21
100000 24.89 25.19 24.79 24.30 24.98 24.50 24.74 24.30 0.59
115000 23.49 23.77 23.68 23.60 24.15 25.15 23.34 23.34 0.15
130000 22.55 22.65 22.70 22.80 23.19 24.55 22.40 22.40 0.15
145000 21.50 21.83 21.71 21.60 22.12 22.90 21.35 21.35 0.15
160000 20.95 21.16 20.77 20.30 20.99 20.55 20.80 20.30 0.65
175000 20.62 20.49 19.92 19.20 19.84 17.94 20.47 17.94 2.68
190000 20.42 19.82 19.02 18.00 18.69 15.81 20.27 15.81 4.61

Tables 7.26

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP


DISP KMT KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 0.5 m (Aft )
25000 67.11 41.39 35.65 28.01 31.50 13.02 66.96 13.02 54.09
40000 46.64 36.99 32.78 27.21 29.90 15.78 46.49 15.78 30.86
5500 36.65 32.58 29.92 26.41 28.30 18.54 36.50 18.54 18.11
70000 30.93 29.45 27.78 25.60 27.01 21.01 30.78 21.01 9.92
8500 27.32 26.98 26.12 25.00 25.92 23.08 27.17 23.08 4.24
100000 24.92 25.19 24.79 24.30 24.99 24.49 24.77 24.30 0.62
115000 23.49 23.77 23.72 23.70 24.16 25.14 23.34 23.34 0.15
130000 22.58 22.73 22.70 22.70 23.21 24.56 22.43 22.43 0.15
145000 21.58 21.83 21.71 21.60 22.14 22.92 21.43 21.43 0.15
160000 20.96 21.16 20.82 20.40 21.01 20.57 20.81 20.40 0.56
175000 20.63 20.49 19.92 19.20 19.85 17.98 20.48 17.98 2.65
190000 20.42 19.82 19.02 18.00 18.70 15.84 20.27 15.84 4.58

Tables 7.27

139
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP


DISP KMT KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 1.0 m (Aft )
25000 66.60 41.31 35.65 28.11 31.48 13.02 66.45 13.02 53.58
40000 46.81 36.99 32.78 27.21 29.89 15.78 46.66 15.78 31.03
5500 36.71 32.58 29.92 26.41 28.30 18.54 36.56 18.54 18.17
70000 30.94 29.45 27.78 25.60 27.01 21.00 30.79 21.00 9.94
8500 27.36 27.06 26.12 24.90 25.93 23.07 27.21 23.07 4.29
100000 24.95 25.19 24.79 24.30 25.00 24.48 24.80 24.30 0.65
115000 23.48 23.77 23.72 23.70 24.17 25.12 23.33 23.33 0.15
130000 22.57 22.73 22.70 22.70 23.22 24.55 22.42 22.42 0.15
145000 21.63 21.83 21.76 21.70 22.15 22.93 21.48 21.48 0.15
160000 20.97 21.16 20.82 20.40 21.02 20.58 20.82 20.40 0.57
175000 20.64 20.56 19.92 19.10 19.87 18.00 20.49 18.00 2.64
190000 20.43 19.82 19.06 18.10 18.72 15.85 20.28 15.85 4.58

Tables 7.28

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP


DISP KMT KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 1.5m (Aft )
25000 67.57 41.31 35.65 28.11 31.48 13.02 67.42 13.02 54.55
40000 46.80 36.99 32.78 27.21 29.88 15.79 46.65 15.79 31.01
5500 36.72 32.58 29.92 26.41 28.29 18.55 36.57 18.55 18.17
70000 31.02 29.45 27.78 25.60 27.01 20.99 30.87 20.99 10.03
8500 27.39 27.06 26.16 25.00 25.93 23.06 27.24 23.06 4.33
100000 24.97 25.19 24.83 24.40 25.01 24.46 24.82 24.40 0.57
115000 23.49 23.85 23.72 23.60 24.18 25.10 23.34 23.34 0.15
130000 22.60 22.73 22.74 22.80 23.23 24.55 22.45 22.45 0.15
145000 21.68 21.91 21.76 21.60 22.16 22.94 21.53 21.53 0.15
160000 20.99 21.16 20.82 20.40 21.03 20.59 20.84 20.40 0.59
175000 20.65 20.56 19.96 19.20 19.88 18.02 20.50 18.02 2.63
190000 20.44 19.82 19.06 18.10 18.73 15.87 20.29 15.87 4.57

Tables 7.29

140
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

COMPUTATIONS OF IMO ENVELOP


DISP KMT KG1 KG2 KG3 KG4 KG5 KG6 KGmax GMmin
TRIM - 2.0 m (Aft )
25000 67.12 41.31 35.61 28.01 31.46 13.02 66.97 13.02 54.10
40000 46.86 36.99 32.74 27.11 29.88 15.80 46.71 15.80 31.06
5500 36.82 32.66 29.92 26.31 28.29 18.55 36.67 18.55 18.27
70000 31.06 29.45 27.78 25.60 27.01 20.99 30.91 20.99 10.07
8500 27.41 27.06 26.16 25.00 25.94 23.05 27.26 23.05 4.36
100000 25.02 25.19 24.83 24.40 25.02 24.43 24.87 24.40 0.62
115000 23.49 23.85 23.72 23.60 24.18 25.07 23.34 23.34 0.15
130000 22.62 22.80 22.74 22.70 23.24 24.54 22.47 22.47 0.15
145000 21.73 21.91 21.76 21.60 22.18 22.93 21.58 21.58 0.15
160000 21.01 21.16 20.86 20.50 21.05 20.60 20.86 20.50 0.51
175000 20.66 20.56 19.96 19.20 19.89 18.04 20.51 18.04 2.62
190000 20.45 19.89 19.06 18.00 18.74 15.89 20.30 15.89 4.56

Tables 7.30

141
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.6 STEP BY STEP GUIDE TO THE TRIM AND STABILITY CALCULATIONS

Step - 1 Identify the loading condition and associated deadweight items and the
centres of gravity (KG & LCG).

Step - 2 Displacement for this condition along with the vertical (KG) and
longitudinal (LCG) centre of gravity is given by the sum of deadweight
items and the Lightship weight

Step - 3 Determine the LCB, T, & LCF from the hydrostatics tables and above
parameters w.r.t to the corresponding trim.
Step - 4 From the above graphs read off the trim at which LCB = LCG and also
the corresponding LCF & T. This is the trim at which the ship will float in
equilibrium. Cross check the displacement & LCB at this trim & draft
and continue the iteration till sufficient accuracy of results are obtained
satisfying the conditions -Total Weight of the ship = Displacement and
LCG=LCB .
Step - 5 From the trim obtained by the above calculate the draft forward and
draft aft.
Step-6 Metacentric Height (GM) is given by the difference between KMt &KG
and expressed as GM = KMt – KG(m).
Step-7 Applying Free Surface correction for partially filled tanks to get the
final GM
G0 M = GM – GG0. .
Step – 8 The GM obtained through the above calculations should satisfy the
maximum permissible KG min permissible GM as specified by the IMO
criteria for intact stability.
Step – 9 The metacentric height calculated above is valid for smaller angles of
heel. For larger angles of heel the righting lever (GZ) is to be
considered.

142
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

Step – 10 From the GZ values obtained for the different angles of heel plot a
curve of Angle of Heel versus GZ. From this curve calculate the areas
under different angles to satisfy the IMO intact stability criteria
Step – 11 Finally, the weather criteria as per IMO requirements is to be found
satisfactory for different loading conditions.

7.7 TANK POSITIONS AND CAPACITIES

S.No. Item Fr.No. Weight LCG VCG TCG FSM


(98%vol) m m m tm
1 CH1(P) 70-114 13526.12 69.77 13.53 -10.43 15475.16
2 CH1(S) 70-114 13526.12 69.77 13.53 10.43 15475.16
3 CH2(P) 114-164 15901.85 109.25 13.45 -10.69 18504.95
4 CH2(S) 114-164 15901.85 109.25 13.45 10.69 18504.95
5 CH3(P) 164-209 14311.66 149.63 13.45 -10.69 16654.46
6 CH3(S) 164-209 14311.66 149.63 13.45 10.69 16654.46
7 CH4(P) 209-259 15621.22 189.63 13.45 -10.69 18178.39
8 CH4(S) 209-259 15621.22 189.63 13.45 10.69 18178.39
9 CH5(P) 259-314 12344.41 225.39 13.43 -9.32 13350.11
10 CH5(S) 259-314 12344.41 225.39 13.43 9.32 13350.11
11 Slop tank(P) 64-70 1722.05 50.99 13.84 -9.86 210.43
12 Slop tank(S) 64-70 1722.05 50.99 13.84 9.86 210.43

Tables 7.31

Determination of COG of Cargo holds

143
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

S.No. Item Fr.No. Weight LCG VCG TCG FSM


(98%vol) m m m tm
1 Aft peak tank(s) AE -16 1026.48 -5.63 18.96 -7.26 696.39
2 Aft peak tank(s) AE -16 1026.48 -5.63 18.96 7.26 696.39
3 Wing ballast tank1(P) 64-70 298.33 50.96 12.49 -20.85 12.47
4 Wing ballast tank1(S) 64-70 298.33 50.96 12.49 20.85 12.47
5 Wing ballast tank2(P) 70-114 2390.57 73.20 12.50 -21.18 37.30
6 Wing ballast tank2(S) 70-114 2390.57 73.20 12.50 21.18 37.30
7 Wing ballast tank3(P) 114-164 2933.79 113.15 12.50 -21.18 47.57
8 Wing ballast tank3(S) 114-164 2933.79 113.15 12.50 21.18 47.57
9 Wing ballast tank4(P) 164-209 2640.41 153.53 12.50 -21.18 42.81
10 Wing ballast tank4(S) 164-209 2640.41 153.53 12.50 21.18 42.81
11 Wing ballast tank5(P) 209-259 2882.01 193.53 12.50 -21.18 46.73
12 Wing ballast tank5(S) 209-259 2882.01 193.53 12.50 21.18 46.73
13 Wing ballast tank6(P) 259-314 2575.32 233.25 13.01 -18.12 41.26
14 Wing ballast tank6(S) 259-314 2575.32 233.25 13.01 18.12 41.26
15 Ballast tank 1(P) 131-164 1694.27 119.65 1.54 -11.19 3791.36
16 Ballast tank 1(S) 131-164 1694.27 119.65 1.54 11.19 3791.36
17 Ballast tank 2(P) 164-209 2553.50 153.53 1.54 -11.29 6007.23
18 Ballast tank 2(S) 164-209 2553.50 153.53 1.54 11.29 6007.23
19 Ballast tank 3(P) 209-259 2787.16 193.53 1.54 -11.29 6556.91
20 Ballast tank 3(S) 209-259 2787.16 193.53 1.54 11.29 6556.91
21 Ballast tank 4(P) 259-314 2070.92 228.34 1.56 -18.12 4390.36
22 Ballast tank 4(S) 259-314 2070.92 228.34 1.56 18.12 4390.36
23 FP tank(P) 314-fe 1258.82 257.31 9.14 -3.88 1034.51
24 FP tank(S) 314-fe 1258.82 257.31 9.14 3.88 1034.51

Tables 7.32

Determination of COG of ballast tank

144
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

S.No Item Fr.No. Weight LCG VCG TCG FSM


(98%vol) m m m tm
1 HFO tank1(P) 21-46 370.87 23.72 2.28 -5.18 476.06
2 HFO tank1(S) 21-46 370.87 23.72 2.28 5.18 476.06
3 HFO tank 2(P) 67-70 114.98 50.05 1.60 -8.21 82.29
4 HFO tank 2(S) 67-70 114.98 50.05 1.60 8.21 82.29
5 HFO tank3(P) 70-114 2045.06 71.64 1.57 -9.91 4654.40
6 HFO tank3(S) 70-114 2045.06 71.64 1.57 9.91 4654.40
7 HFO tank4(P) 114-131 798.39 95.20 1.54 -11.19 1855.6
8 HFO tank4(S) 114-131 798.39 95.20 1.54 11.19 1855.6
9 Boiler fuel tank1(P) 59-64 176.62 44.10 1.90 -7.56 350.44
10 Boiler fuel tank1(S) 59-64 176.62 44.10 1.90 7.56 350.44
11 Diesel oil tank 1(P) 46-59 371.19 35.90 2.28 -5.18 662.15
12 Diesel oil tank 1(S) 46-59 371.19 35.90 2.28 5.18 662.15
13 LO tank(P) 64-67 108.93 47.47 1.60 -8.21 82.29
14 LO tank(s) 64-67 108.93 47.47 1.60 8.21 82.29
15 Waste water tank (P) 9---21 64.90 8.38 4.00 -2.25 2.86
16 Waste water tank(S) 9---21 64.90 8.38 4.00 2.25 2.86
17 Fresh water tank (P) 9---21 15.68 8.38 10.20 3.10 1.68
18 Fresh water tank(S) 9---21 15.68 8.38 10.20 3.10 1.68

Tables 7.33
Determination of COG of Consumable.

145
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

7.8 DETAILED TRIM AND STABILITY CALCULATIONS

According to IMO A 749, a ship has to be examined for the following four loading
conditions.
1) Ship in the fully loaded departure condition, with cargo homogeneously
distributed throughout all cargo spaces and with full stores and cargo.
2) Ship in the fully loaded arrival condition, with cargo homogeneously distributed
throughout all cargo spaces and with 10 % stores.
3) Ship in ballast departure condition, without cargo but with full stores and fuel.
4) Ship in ballast arrival condition, without cargo and with 10 % stores and fuel
remaining.

Trim calculations are based upon capacity and longitudinal position of


centre of gravity. Apart from conditions stated above, the following conditions in
MARPOL also have to be satisfied.
1) The moulded draught amidships(dm) in meters (without taking into consideration
any ship’s deformation) shall not be less than:
dm = 2.0 + 0.02L;
dm = 6.58 m
2) The draughts at the forward and after perpendiculars shall correspond to those
determined by the draught amidships (dm), in association with the trim by the
stern of not greater than 0.015L.

146
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION - 1
FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION
SL.NO ITEM WEIGHT LCG L.MOM VCG V.MOM FSM
t m tm m tm tm
1 Crew &effects 5.76 36.89 212.49 30.78 177.29 0.00
2 Provision store 9.97 36.89 367.79 28.00 279.16 0.00
3 CH1(P) 13526.12 69.77 943717.31 13.53 183008.39 15475.16
4 CH1(S) 13526.12 69.77 943717.31 13.53 183008.39 15475.16
5 CH2(P) 15901.85 109.25 1737276.57 13.45 213879.82 18504.95
6 CH2(S) 15901.85 109.25 1737276.57 13.45 213879.82 18504.95
7 CH3(P) 14311.66 149.63 2141453.77 13.45 192491.83 16654.46
8 CH3(S) 14311.66 149.63 2141453.77 13.45 192491.83 16654.46
9 CH4(P) 15621.22 189.63 2962252.76 13.45 210105.47 18178.39
10 CH4(S) 15621.22 189.63 2962252.76 13.45 210105.47 18178.39
11 CH5(P) 12344.41 225.39 2782305.71 13.4 165785.38 13350.11
12 CH5(S) 12344.41 225.39 2782305.71 13.4 165785.38 13350.11
13 HFO tank1(p) 370.87 23.72 8797.11 2.28 845.60 476.06
14 HFO tank1(s) 370.87 23.72 8797.11 2.28 845.60 476.06
15 HFO tank2(p) 114.98 50.05 5754.67 1.60 184.52 82.29
16 HFO tank2(s) 114.98 50.05 5754.67 1.60 184.52 82.29
17 HFO tank 3(p) 2045.06 71.64 146509.43 1.57 3213.03 4654.40
18 HFO tank 3(s) 2045.06 71.64 146509.43 1.57 3213.03 4654.40
19 HFO tank4(p) 798.39 95.20 76006.57 1.54 1232.13 1855.66
20 HFO tank4(s) 798.39 95.20 76006.57 1.54 1232.13 1855.66
21 Boiler fuel tank1(P) 176.62 44.10 7789.65 1.90 334.73 350.44
22 Boiler fuel tank1(S) 176.62 44.10 7789.65 1.90 334.73 350.44
23 Diesel oil tank 1(P) 332.12 35.90 11923.00 2.28 757.24 662.15
24 Diesel oil tank 1(S) 332.12 35.90 11923.00 2.28 757.24 662.15
25 LO tank(P) 108.93 47.47 5170.76 1.60 174.81 82.29
26 LO tank(s) 108.93 47.47 5170.76 1.60 174.81 82.29
27 Waste water tank (P) 64.90 8.38 543.62 4.00 259.58 2.86
28 Waste water tank (S) 64.90 8.38 543.62 4.00 259.58 2.86
29 Fresh water tank(P) 15.68 8.38 131.35 10.2 159.94 1.68
30 Fresh water tank(S) 15.68 8.38 131.40 10.2 159.94 1.68
31 Aft peak tank(P) 400.00 -5.63 -2253.72 18.96 7584.76 696.39
32 Aft peak tank(S) 400.00 -5.63 -2253.72 18.96 7584.76 696.39
33 Ice load 395.2 146.37 57845.42 24.39 9638.93 0.00
TOTAL 152676.52 142.22 21713182.87 12.90 1970129.8 182054.57

147
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION -1
FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION

DEADWEIGHT 152676.52 142.22 21713182.87 12.90 1970129.84 182054.57


LIGHTSHIP WEIGHT 31694.80 107.46 3405923.21 12.63 400305.32 0.00
DISPLACEMENT 184371.32 136.24 25119106.08 12.86 2370435.16 182054.57

DISPLACEMENT 184371.32 t
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG) 12.86 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (LCG) 136.24 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (LCB) 136.24 m
FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS 1.90 cm
CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT 16.86 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF) 129.14 m
MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm (MCT1cm) 2361.41 tm
METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT) 20.47 m
BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT) 16.87 m
BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD) 16.85 m
DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS 16.87 m
DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS 16.85 m
TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GMT) GMT = KMT - KG 7.61 m
FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION (GG0) GG0 = FSM/DISP 0.99 m
CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT) G0MT = GMT - GG0 6.62 m
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH FSM
(KG0) KG0 = KG + GG0 13.85 m
G0Z = KN - KG0 *
RIGHTING ARM LEVER (G0Z) SIN(θ) m

148
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION -1
FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION

ANGLE (°) 5° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60°


SIN(θ) 0.09 0.17 0.34 0.5 0.64 0.77 0.87
KN (m) 1.79 3.59 7.14 9.78 11.66 12.88 13.49
G0Z (m) 0.55 1.25 2.45 2.89 2.83 2.26 1.49

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300 0.90 m radians


0
AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40 1.39 m radians
0 0
AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40 0.49 m radians
MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z) 2.92 m
ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS 33.60 degrees
PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A) 2247.40 m2
COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF DRAFT (Z) 13.71 m
STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1) 0.01 m
GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2) 0.02 m
ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0) 0.16 degrees
ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1) 18.66 degrees
GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc) 75.20 degrees
ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2) 40.41 degrees
ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf) 40.41 degrees
ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd) 25.84 degrees
NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING ARM "a" 0.38 m radians
NET AREA ABOVE GUST WIND HEELING ARM "b" 1.42 m radians

149
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION -1
FULLY LOADED DEPARURE CONDITION

4.8

4.4

4.0

3.6
RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

3.2

2.8

2.4

2.0

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

θ
5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 θ 80
θ
ANGLEOFHEEL(deg)

Fig 7.3

150
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION-2
FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE)
SL.NO ITEM WEIGHT LCG L.MOM VCG V.MOM FSM
t m tm m tm tm
1 Crew &effects 5.76 36.89 212.49 30.78 177.29 0.00
2 Provision store 4.90 36.89 180.76 28.00 137.20 0.00
3 CH1(P) 13526.12 69.77 943717.31 13.53 183008.39 15475.16
4 CH1(S) 13526.12 69.77 943717.31 13.53 183008.39 15475.16
5 CH2(P) 15901.85 109.25 1737276.57 13.45 213879.82 18504.95
6 CH2(S) 15901.85 109.25 1737276.57 13.45 213879.82 18504.95
7 CH3(P) 14311.66 149.63 2141453.77 13.45 192491.83 16654.46
8 CH3(S) 14311.66 149.63 2141453.77 13.45 192491.83 16654.46
9 CH4(P) 15621.22 189.63 2962252.76 13.45 210105.47 18178.39
10 CH4(S) 15621.22 189.63 2962252.76 13.45 210105.47 18178.39
11 CH5(P) 12344.41 225.39 2782305.71 13.43 165785.38 13350.11
12 CH5(S) 12344.41 225.39 2782305.71 13.43 165785.38 13350.11
13 Slop tank(P) 861.00 50.99 43902.02 13.84 11916.24 210.43
14 Slop tank(S) 861.00 50.99 43902.02 13.84 11916.24 210.43
15 HFO tank1(P) 185.44 23.72 4398.56 2.28 422.80 476.06
16 HFO tank1(S) 185.44 23.72 4398.56 2.28 422.80 476.06
17 HFO tank2(P) 57.49 50.05 2877.34 1.60 92.26 82.29
18 HFO tank2(S) 57.49 50.05 2877.34 1.60 92.26 82.29
19 HFO tank 3(P) 1022.53 71.64 73254.71 1.57 1606.52 4654.40
20 HFO tank 3(S) 1022.53 71.64 73254.71 1.57 1606.52 4654.40
21 HFO tank4(P) 399.19 95.20 38003.29 1.54 616.06 1855.66
22 HFO tank4(S) 399.19 95.20 38003.29 1.54 616.06 1855.66
23 Boiler fuel tank1(P) 88.31 44.10 3894.82 1.90 167.36 350.44
24 Boiler fuel tank1(S) 88.31 44.10 3894.82 1.90 167.36 350.44
25 Diesel oil tank 1(P) 166.06 35.90 5961.55 2.28 378.62 662.15
26 Diesel oil tank 1(S) 166.06 35.90 5961.55 2.28 378.62 662.15
27 Lo tank(P) 54.46 47.47 2585.38 1.60 87.40 82.29
28 Lo tank(S) 54.46 47.47 2585.38 1.60 87.40 82.29
29 Waste water tank (P) 32.45 8.38 271.81 4.00 129.79 2.86
30 Waste water tank (S) 32.45 8.38 271.81 4.00 129.79 2.86
31 Fresh water tank(P) 7.84 8.38 65.67 10.20 79.97 1.68
32 Fresh water tank(S) 7.84 8.38 65.70 10.20 79.97 1.68
33 Aft peak tank(P) 825.00 -5.63 -4648.30 18.96 15643.56 696.39
34 Aft peak tank(S) 825.00 -5.63 -4648.30 18.96 15643.56 696.39
35 Ice load 395.2 146.37 57845.42 24.39 9638.93 0.00
TOTAL 151215.91 142.40 21533384.64 13.24 2002776.36 182475.43

151
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION-2
FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE)

DEADWEIGHT 151215.91 142.40 21533384.64 13.24 2002776.36 182475.43


LIGHTSHIP WEIGHT 31694.80 107.46 3405923.21 12.63 400305.32 0.00
DISPLACEMENT 182910.71 136.35 24939307.85 13.14 2403081.68 182475.43

DISPLACEMENT 182910.71 t
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG) 13.14 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (LCG) 136.35 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (LCB) 136.35 m
FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS -2.30 cm
CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT 16.74 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF) 129.21 m
MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm (MCT1cm) 2355.33 tm
METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT) 20.49 m
BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT) 16.73 m
BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD) 16.75 m
DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS 16.73 m
DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS 16.75 m
TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GMT) 7.35 m
FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION (GG0) 1.00 m
CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT) 6.35 m
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH FSM (KG0) 14.14 m
G0Z = KN - KG0 *
RIGHTING ARM LEVER (G0Z) SIN(θ) m

ANGLE (°) 5° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60°


SIN(θ) 0.09 0.17 0.34 0.5 0.64 0.77 0.87
KN (m) 1.79 3.60 7.17 9.85 11.74 12.95 13.55
G0Z (m) 0.52 1.19 2.36 2.77 2.68 2.05 1.23

152
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION-2
FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE)

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300 0.88 m radians


0
AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40 1.35 m radians
0 0
AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40 0.47 m radians
MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z) 2.79 m
ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS 33.15 degrees
PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A) 2280.95 m2
COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF
DRAFT (Z) 13.69 m
STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1) 0.01 m
GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2) 0.02 m
ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0) 0.16 degrees
ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1) 18.82 degrees
GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc) 72.80 degrees
ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2) 40.78 degrees
ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf) 40.78 degrees
ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd) 26.15 degrees
NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING
ARM "a" 0.36 m radians
NET AREAABOVE GUST WIND HEELING
ARM "b" 1.36 m radians

153
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION-2
FULLY LOADED ARRIVAL CONDITION (50% STORE)

4.8

4.4

4.0

3.6
RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

3.2

2.8

2.4

2.0

1.6

1.2

0.8

0.4

θ θ
5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

θ
ANGLEOFHEEL(deg)

Fig 7.4

154
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION - 3
BALLAST DEPARTURE CONDITION (50% STORE)
SL.NO ITEM WEIGHT LCG L.MOM VCG V.MOM FSM
t m tm m tm tm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Crew &effects 5.76 36.89 212.49 30.78 177.29 0.00
2 Provision store 4.90 36.89 180.76 28.00 137.20 0.00
3 HFO tank1(p) 185.44 23.72 4398.56 2.28 422.80 476.06
4 HFO tank1(s) 185.44 23.72 4398.56 2.28 422.80 476.06
5 HFO tank2(p) 57.49 50.05 2877.34 1.60 92.26 82.29
6 HFO tank2(s) 57.49 50.05 2877.34 1.60 92.26 82.29
7 HFO tank 3(p) 1022.53 71.64 73254.71 1.57 1606.52 4654.40
8 HFO tank 3(s) 1022.53 71.64 73254.71 1.57 1606.52 4654.40
9 HFO tank4(p) 399.19 95.20 38003.29 1.54 616.06 1855.66
10 HFO tank4(s) 399.19 95.20 38003.29 1.54 616.06 1855.66
11 Boiler fuel tank1(P) 88.31 44.10 3894.82 1.90 167.36 350.44
12 Boiler fuel tank1(S) 88.31 44.10 3894.82 1.90 167.36 350.44
13 Diesel oil tank 1(P) 166.06 35.90 5961.55 2.28 378.62 662.15
14 Diesel oil tank 1(S) 166.06 35.90 5961.55 2.28 378.62 662.15
15 Lo tank(P) 54.46 47.47 2585.38 1.60 87.40 82.29
16 Lo tank(s) 54.46 47.47 2585.38 1.60 87.40 82.29
17 Waste water tank (P) 32.45 8.38 271.81 4.00 129.79 2.86
18 Waste water tank (S) 32.45 8.38 271.81 4.00 129.79 2.86
19 Fresh water tank(P) 7.84 8.38 65.67 10.20 79.97 1.68
20 Fresh water tank(S) 7.84 8.38 65.70 10.20 79.97 1.68
21 Aft peak tank(P) 300.00 -5.63 -1690.29 18.96 5688.57 696.39
22 Aft peak tank(s) 300.00 -5.63 -1690.29 18.96 5688.57 696.39
23 Wing ballast tank1(P) 298.33 50.96 15203.46 12.49 3724.64 12.47
24 Wing ballast tank1(S) 298.33 50.96 15203.46 12.49 3724.64 12.47
25 Wing ballast tank2(P) 2390.57 73.20 174989.93 12.50 29882.16 37.30
26 Wing ballast tank2(S) 2390.57 73.20 174989.93 12.50 29882.16 37.30
27 Wing ballast tank3(P) 2933.79 113.15 331957.89 12.50 36672.33 47.57
28 Wing ballast tank3(S) 2933.79 113.15 331957.89 12.50 36672.33 47.57
29 Wing ballast tank4(P) 2640.41 153.53 405368.55 12.50 33005.09 42.81
30 Wing ballast tank4(S) 2640.41 153.53 405368.55 12.50 33005.09 42.81
31 Wing ballast tank5(P) 2882.01 193.53 557741.63 12.50 36025.17 46.73
32 Wing ballast tank5(S) 2882.01 193.53 557741.63 12.50 36025.17 46.73
33 Wing ballast tank6(P) 2575.32 233.25 600695.03 13.01 33498.24 41.26
34 Wing ballast tank6(S) 2575.32 233.25 600695.03 13.01 33498.24 41.26
35 Ballast tank 1(P) 1694.27 119.65 202719.89 1.54 2614.72 3791.36

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

36 Ballast tank 1(S) 1694.27 119.65 202719.89 1.54 2614.72 3791.36


37 Ballast tank 2(P) 2553.50 153.53 392026.42 1.54 3932.39 6007.23
38 Ballast tank 2(S) 2553.50 153.53 392026.42 1.54 3932.39 6007.23
39 Ballast tank 3(P) 2787.16 193.53 539384.36 1.54 4292.22 6556.91
40 Ballast tank 3(S) 2787.16 193.53 539384.36 1.54 4292.22 6556.91
41 ballast tank 4(P) 2070.92 228.34 472882.25 1.56 3232.91 4390.36
42 Ballast tank 4(S) 2070.92 228.34 472882.25 1.56 3232.91 4390.36
43 FP tank(P) 1258.82 257.31 323902.48 9.14 11508.25 1034.51
44 FP tank(S) 1258.82 257.31 323902.48 9.14 11508.25 1034.51
45 Slop tank(P) 861.00 50.99 43902.02 13.84 11916.24 210.43
46 Slop tank(S) 861.00 50.99 43902.02 13.84 11916.24 210.43
47 Ice load 395.2 146.37 57845.42 24.39 9638.93 0.00
TOTAL 54925.62 153.64 8439032.20 8.18 449100.84 62166.26

DEADWEIGHT 54925.62 153.64 8439032.20 8.18 449100.84 62166.26


LIGHTSHIP
WEIGHT 31694.80 107.46 3405923.21 12.63 400305.32 0.00
DISPLACEMENT 86620.42 136.75 11844955.41 9.81 849406.16 62166.26

DISPLACEMENT 86620.42 t
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG) 9.81 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY
(LCG) 136.75 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY
(LCB) 136.75 m
FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS 142.30 cm
CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT 8.60 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION
(LCF) 136.60 m
MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm
(MCT1cm) 1906.03 tm
METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT) 26.88 m
BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT) 9.31 m
BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD) 7.89 m
DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS 9.31 m
DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS 7.89 m
TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT
(GMT) GMT = KMT - KG 17.07 m
FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION
(GG0) GG0 = FSM/DISP 0.72 m
CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT) G0MT = GMT - GG0 16.35 m
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH
FSM (KG0) KG0 = KG + GG0 10.53 m

156
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LOADING CONDITION – 3
BALLAST DEPARTURE CONDITION (50% STORE)

ANGLE (°) 5° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60°


SIN(θ) 0.09 0.17 0.34 0.5 0.64 0.77 0.87
KN (m) 2.38 4.77 9.45 13.12 15.60 16.68 16.71
G0Z (m) 1.43 2.98 5.87 7.86 8.86 8.57 7.55

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300 2.25 m radians


0
AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40 3.72 m radians
0 0
AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40 1.47 m radians
MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z) 8.94 m
ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS 41.33 degrees
PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A) 4421.77 m2
COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF
DRAFT (Z) 13.24 m
STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1) 0.03 m
GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2) 0.05 m
ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0) 0.21 degrees
ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1) 17.48 degrees
GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc) 99.06 degrees
ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2) 50.00 degrees
ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf) 57.11 degrees
ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd) 31.81 degrees
NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING
ARM "a" 0.80 m radians
NET AREA ABOVE GUST WIND HEELING
ARM "b" 5.19 m radians

157
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION – 3
BALLAST DEPARTURE CONDITION (50% STORE)

9.6

8.8

8.0

7.2
RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

6.4

5.6

4.8

4.0

3.2

2.4

1.6

0.8

θ θ
5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

θ
ANGLEOFHEEL(deg)

Fig 7.5

158
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION - 4

BALLAST ARRIVAL CONDITION (10% STORE)


SL.NO ITEM WEIGHT LCG L.MOM VCG V.MOM FSM
t m tm m tm tm
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Crew &effects 5.76 36.89 212.49 30.78 177.29 0.00
2 Provision store 0.98 36.89 36.15 28.00 27.44 0.00
3 HFO tank1(p) 37.09 23.72 879.71 2.28 84.56 476.06
4 HFO tank1(s) 37.09 23.72 879.71 2.28 84.56 476.06
5 HFO tank2(p) 11.50 50.05 575.47 1.60 18.45 82.29
6 HFO tank2(s) 11.50 50.05 575.47 1.60 18.45 82.29
7 HFO tank 3(p) 204.51 71.64 14650.94 1.57 321.30 4654.40
8 HFO tank 3(s) 204.51 71.64 14650.94 1.57 321.30 4654.40
9 HFO tank4(p) 79.84 95.20 7600.66 1.54 123.21 1855.66
10 HFO tank4(s) 79.84 95.20 7600.66 1.54 123.21 1855.66
11 Boiler fuel tank1(P) 17.66 44.10 778.96 1.90 33.47 350.44
12 Boiler fuel tank1(S) 17.66 44.10 778.96 1.90 33.47 350.44
13 Diesel oil tank 1(P) 33.21 35.90 1192.24 2.28 75.72 662.15
14 Diesel oil tank 1(S) 33.21 35.90 1192.24 2.28 75.72 662.15
15 Lo tank(P) 10.89 47.47 517.08 1.60 17.48 82.29
16 Lo tank(s) 10.89 47.47 517.08 1.60 17.48 82.29
17 Waste water tank (P) 6.49 8.38 54.36 4.00 25.96 2.86
18 Waste water tank (S) 6.49 8.38 54.36 4.00 25.96 2.86
19 Fresh water tank(P) 1.57 8.38 13.13 10.20 15.99 1.68
20 Fresh water tank(S) 1.57 8.38 13.14 10.20 15.99 1.68
21 Aft peak tank(P) 600.00 -5.63 -3380.58 18.96 11377.13 696.39
22 Aft peak tank(s) 600.00 -5.63 -3380.58 18.96 11377.13 696.39
23 Wing ballast tank1(P) 298.33 50.96 15203.46 12.49 3724.64 12.47
24 Wing ballast tank1(S) 298.33 50.96 15203.46 12.49 3724.64 12.47
25 Wing ballast tank2(P) 2390.57 73.20 174989.93 12.50 29882.16 37.30
26 Wing ballast tank2(S) 2390.57 73.20 174989.93 12.50 29882.16 37.30
27 Wing ballast tank3(P) 2933.79 113.15 331957.89 12.50 36672.33 47.57
28 Wing ballast tank3(S) 2933.79 113.15 331957.89 12.50 36672.33 47.57
29 Wing ballast tank4(P) 2640.41 153.53 405368.55 12.50 33005.09 42.81
30 Wing ballast tank4(S) 2640.41 153.53 405368.55 12.50 33005.09 42.81
31 Wing ballast tank5(P) 2882.01 193.53 557741.63 12.50 36025.17 46.73
32 Wing ballast tank5(S) 2882.01 193.53 557741.63 12.50 36025.17 46.73
33 Wing ballast tank6(P) 2575.32 233.25 600695.03 13.01 33498.24 41.26
34 Wing ballast tank6(S) 2575.32 233.25 600695.03 13.01 33498.24 41.26
35 Ballast tank 1(P) 1694.27 119.65 202719.89 1.54 2614.72 3791.36

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“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

36 Ballast tank 1(S) 1694.27 119.65 202719.89 1.54 2614.72 3791.36


37 Ballast tank 2(P) 2553.50 153.53 392026.42 1.54 3932.39 6007.23
38 Ballast tank 2(S) 2553.50 153.53 392026.42 1.54 3932.39 6007.23
39 Ballast tank 3(P) 2787.16 193.53 539384.36 1.54 4292.22 6556.91
40 Ballast tank 3(S) 2787.16 193.53 539384.36 1.54 4292.22 6556.91

41 Ballast tank 4(P) 2070.92 228.34 472882.25 1.56 3232.91 4390.36


42 Ballast tank 4(S) 2070.92 228.34 472882.25 1.56 3232.91 4390.36
43 FP tank(P) 1258.82 257.31 323902.48 9.14 11508.25 1034.51
44 FP tank(S) 1258.82 257.31 323902.48 9.14 11508.25 1034.51
45 Slop tank(P) 1722.00 50.99 87804.04 13.84 23832.48 210.43
46 Slop tank(S) 1722.00 50.99 87804.04 13.84 23832.48 210.43
47 Ice load 395.2 146.37 57845.42 24.39 9638.93 0.00
TOTAL 54021.66 153.89 8313209.87 8.86 478471.40 62166.26

DEADWEIGHT 54021.66 153.89 8313209.87 8.86 478471.40 62166.26


LIGHTSHIP
WEIGHT 31694.80 107.46 3405923.21 12.63 400305.32 0.00
DISPLACEMENT 85716.46 136.72 11719133.08 10.25 878776.72 62166.26

DISPLACEMENT 85716.46 t
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (KG/VCG) 10.25 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY (LCG) 136.72 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF BUOYANCY (LCB) 136.72 m
FROM HYDROSTATICS THE TRIM IS 143.60 cm
CORRESPONDING MEAN DRAFT 8.52 m
LONGITUDINAL CENTRE OF FLOTATION (LCF) 136.63 m
MOMENT TO CHANGE TRIM BY 1cm (MCT1cm) 1902.31 tm
METACENTRIC RADIUS (KMT) 27.11 m
BASELINE DRAFT AFT (TAFT) 9.24 m
BASELINE DRAFT FORD (TFORD) 7.80 m
DRAFT AFT AT DRAFT MARKS 9.24 m
DRAFT FOR'D AT DRAFT MARKS 7.80 m
TRANSVERSE METACENTRIC HEIGHT (GMT) GMT = KMT - KG 16.86 m
FREE SURFACE (FSM) CORRECTION (GG0) GG0 = FSM/DISP 0.73 m
CORRECTED METACENTRE (G0MT) G0MT = GMT - GG0 16.13 m
VERTICAL CENTRE OF GRAVITY WITH FSM (KG0) KG0 = KG + GG0 10.98 m
RIGHTING ARM LEVER (G0Z) G0Z = KN - KG0 * SIN(θ) m

160
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION – 4
BALLAST ARRIVAL CONDITION (10% STORE)

ANGLE (°) 5° 10° 20° 30° 40° 50° 60° 70


SIN(θ) 0.09 0.17 0.34 0.5 0.64 0.77 0.87 0.94
KN (m) 2.39 4.80 9.49 13.15 15.63 16.72 16.74 15.97
G0Z (m) 1.40 2.93 5.76 7.66 8.60 8.27 7.19 5.65

AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 300 2.21 m radians


0
AREA UNDER CURVE UPTO 40 3.63 m radians
0 0
AREA UNDER CURVE BETWEEN 30 & 40 1.42 m radians
MAXIMUM RIGHTING LEVER (G0Z) 8.66 m
ANGLE AT WHICH MAX G0Z OCCURS 41.64 degrees
PROJECTED LATERAL WINDAGE AREA (A) 4441.91 m2
COG OF WINDAGE AREA ABOVE HALF DRAFT
(Z) 13.24 m
STEADY WIND HEELING LEVER (lw1) 0.04 m
GUST WIND HEELING LEVER (lw2) 0.06 m
ANGLE OF HEEL DUE TO WIND (θ0) 0.21 degrees
ANGLE OF ROLL (θ1) 22.74 degrees
GUST WIND LEVER 2ND INTERCEPT (θc) 100.15 degrees
ADOPTED UPPER LIMIT FOR AREA (b) (θ2) 50.00 degrees
ANGLE OF DOWNFLOODING (θf) 57.22 degrees
ANGLE OF DECK EDGE IMMERSION (θd) 31.96 degrees
NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING ARM "a" 1.33 m radians
NET AREA BELOW GUST WIND HEELING ARM "b" 5.06 m radians

161
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

LOADING CONDITION – 4
BALLAST ARRIVAL CONDITION (10% STORE)

9.6

8.8

8.0

7.2
RIGHTING LEVER GZ (m)

6.4

5.6

4.8

4.0

3.2

2.4

1.6

0.8

θ θ
5 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

θ
ANGLEOFHEEL(deg)

Fig 7.6

162
“Department of Ship Technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA$SB), Batch – XXIX”

SUMMARY RESULTS OF ALL LOADING CONDITIONS


(Tables 7.34)
SL.
NO DESCRIPTION UNIT LOADING CONDITIONS
LC - 1 LC - 2 LC - 3 LC - 4
1 Lighship weight t 31694.80 31694.80 31694.80 31694.80
2 Deadweight t 152676.52 151215.91 54925.62 54021.66
3 Displacement t 184371.32 182910.71 86620.42 85716.46
4 VCG m 12.86 13.14 9.81 10.25
5 LCG m 136.24 136.35 136.75 136.72
6 LCB m 136.24 136.35 136.75 136.72
7 Trim cm 1.90 -2.30 142.30 143.60
8 Mean Draft (T) m 16.86 16.74 8.60 8.52
9 LCF m 129.14 129.21 136.60 136.63
10 MCT1cm t.m 2361.41 2355.33 1906.03 1902.31
11 KMT m 20.47 20.49 26.88 27.11
12 GMT m 7.61 7.35 17.07 16.86
13 GG0 m 0.99 1.00 0.72 0.73
14 G 0 MT m 6.62 6.35 16.35 16.13
m
15 Area upto 300 rad 0.90 0.88 2.25 2.21
m
0
16 Area upto 40 rad 1.39 1.35 3.72 3.63
m
17 Area between 300 & 400 rad 0.49 0.47 1.47 1.42
18 Max G0Z m 2.92 2.79 8.94 8.66
19 Angle at max G0Z deg 33.60 33.15 41.33 41.64
2
20 Windage Area (A) m 2247.40 2280.95 4421.77 4441.91
21 COG of windage area (Z) m 13.71 13.69 13.24 13.24
Steady wind heeling lever
22 (lw1) m 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.04
23 Gust wind heeling lever (lw2) m 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.06
24 Angle of heel due to wind (θ0) deg 0.16 0.16 0.21 0.21
25 Angle of roll (θ1) deg 18.66 18.82 17.48 22.74
26 Gust wind 2nd intercept (θc) deg 75.20 72.80 99.06 100.15
27 Adopted upper limit (θ2) deg 40.41 40.78 50.00 50.00
28 Angle of downflooding (θf) deg 40.41 40.78 57.11 57.22
29 Angle of deck immersion (θd) deg 25.84 26.15 31.81 31.96
m
30 Area "a" rad 0.38 0.36 0.80 1.33
m
31 Area "b" rad 1.42 1.36 5.19 5.06

163
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 8
MIDSHIP SECTION DESIGN
 

 
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

MIDSHIP SECTION

8.1 INTRODUCTION

Midship section design is in accordance with Ice class Rules given by


Finnish Maritime Administration, Sept 2003 and the rules for classification of ships
given by Lloyd’s Registrar of Shipping July 2002. Fig. 8.1 is a typical midship section
of a double skin ice class tanker.

Figure 8.1

Typical midship section of a double skin Ice class Tanker

8.1.1. Definitions
(1) L : Rule length, in m, is the distance, in meters, on the summer load water
line from the forward side of the stem to the after side of the rudderpost
or to the center of the rudder stock, if there is no rudder post. L is neither
to be less than 96% nor to be greater than 97% of the extreme length on
the summer load water line.
97% of extreme length of LWL = 264.39 m
(2) B : Breadth at amidships or greatest breadth, in meters.
B = 48.7 m

(3) D : Depth is measured, in meters, at the middle of the length L, from top of
the keel to top of the deck beam at side on the uppermost continuous deck.
D = 23.76 m
(4) T : T is the Maximum Ice Class draught of the ship, in m = 16.75 m
(5) LPP : Distance in m on the summer LWL from foreside of the stem to after side
of rudder post, or to the centre of the Podded unit, if there is no rudder
post.
LPP = 263.00 m

164
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

(6) LPAR = Length of parallel midship body, in m (approx. 105.2 m)


(7) CB : Block coefficient at draught T corresponding to summer
waterline, based on rule length L and moulded breadth B.
CB = 0.84
(8) hG = Ice thickness, in m, defined in the table given by FSICR
(9) h = 0.35 m
(10) Awf = Area of the waterline of the bow in m2.
Awf = 3841 m2
(11) α = Angle of the waterline at B/4 = 70°
(12) φ1 = Rake of the Ice breaking stern at the centreline = 24.2°
(13) φ2 = Rake of the Ice breaking stern at B/4 = 24.5°
(14) DP = Diameter of propeller = 7260 mm
(15) HM = Thickness of the brash ice in mid channel, in m = 1.0 m
(16) HB = Thickness of the brash ice layer displaced by the stern
(17) ReH = Minimum yield stress, in N/mm2, of the material defined
(18) LWL = Load Waterline, at fully loaded condition.
(19) BWL = Ballast Waterline at Ballast condition.
(20) b : The width of plating supported by the primary member or secondary
member.
(21) be : The effective width, in m, of end brackets.
(22) bI : The minimum distance from side shell to the inner hull or outer
longitudinal bulkhead measured inboard at right angles to the centre
line at summer load water line, in m.
(23) le : Effective length, in m, of the primary or secondary member, measured
between effective span points.
(24) ds : The distance, in m, between the cargo tank boundary and the moulded
line of the side shell plating.
(25) db : The distance, in m, between the bottom of the cargo tanks and the
moulded line of the bottom shell plating measured at right angles to the
bottom shell plating.
(26) k : Higher tensile steel factors. For HT steels (Lloyd’s AH32, DH32 &
EH32), k = 0.78
(27) s : Spacing in mm of ordinary stiffeners or primary support as applicable.
(28) S : Overall span of frame, in m
(29) t : Thickness of plating, in mm.
(30) Z : Section modulus, in cm3, of the primary or secondary member, in
association with an effective width of attached plating.
(31) RB : Bilge radius, in mm.

165
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(32) FD,FB : Local scantling reduction factor above neutral axis and below neutral axis
respectively. FD = 0.67, for plating and 0.75, for longitudinals
FB = 0.67, for plating and 0.75, for longitudinals
(33) dDB : Rule depth of center girder, in mm
(34) SS : Span of the vertical web, in m
(35) tW : Thickness of web, in mm
(36) tB : Thickness of end bracket plating, in mm

8.1.2 Class Notation

Vessel is designed to be classed as ✠+100A1 Baltic service Ice class 1A Super


Double Hull Oil Tanker ESP.’ ESP means Enhanced Survey Program. This is for Ice
navigating tanker having integral cargo tanks for carriage of crude oil. Where the
length of the ship is greater than 190m, the scantlings of the primary supporting
structure are to be assessed by direct calculation and the Ship Right notations
Structural Design Assessment (SDA), Fatigue Design Assessment (FDA) and
Construction Monitory (CM) are mandatory.

8.1.3 Cargo Tank Boundary Requirements


Minimum double side width (ds)
ds = 0.5 + (dwt/20,000) or ds = 2.0 m
Whichever is lesser But ds should not be less than 1 m.
ds = 0.5 + (150000/20,000) = 8.0 m
Double side width is taken as 3.0 m to get the required ballast volume.
∴ ds = 3.0 m

Minimum double bottom depth (dB)


dB = B/15 or dB = 2.0 m
Whichever is lesser
dB = 48.76/15 = 3.25 m
A double bottom height of 3.0 m is provided to get the required ballast volume.
∴ dB = 3.0 m
Structural configuration adopted has a single centreline longitudinal bulkhead.
For length of cargo tanks and tank boundaries. [Refer General Arrangement Plan]

166
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.1.4 Type of Framing System [LRS Part 4, Chapter 9, Section 1.3.10, 1.3.11]

The bottom shell, inner bottom and deck are longitudinally framed (for L >
75m). The side shell, inner hull bulkheads and long bulkheads are also longitudinally
framed (L > 150m). When the side shell in long framed, the inner hull bulkhead is
also to be framed longitudinally. Primary members are defined as girders, floors,
transverses and other supporting members.

8.2 LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH


8.2.1 Minimum Hull Section Modulus [LRS Part 3, Chapter 4, Section 5]

The hull midship section modulus about the transverse neutral axis, at the
deck or keel is to be not less than
Z min = f1KL C1L2B (CB + 0.7) x 10-6 m3
f1= Ship’s service factor, specially considered depending upon
the service restriction and in any event should not be less than
0.5 For unrestricted sea going service f1 = 1.0
∴f1 taken as 1 and KL = 0.78 (Grade DH32/EH32)
C1 = 10.75 – [(300-L)/100] 1.5 for 90<L<300m
= 10.537
CB = Block Coefficient = 0.84
∴ Z min = 43.09 m3

8.2.2 Hull Envelope Plating

1. Deck plating
2. Sheer strake and shell
plating above Ice
strengthened region.
3. Ice strengthened shell
4. Side shell below ice
strengthening
5. Bilge
6. Bottom shell
7. Keel

Fig. 8.2
Itemization of parts

167
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For longitudinally framed system the web structure:

Fig 8.3

Framing system

8.2.3 Minimum require Power


(R CH / 1000)3 / 2
P = Ke [kW] ;
DP

Propeller type or CP or electric or FP


machinery hydraulic propeller
propulsion machinery
1 propeller 2.03 2.26
2 propellers 1.44 1.60
3 propellers 1.18 1.31

Table 8.1
Values of Ka
Ke = 1.60
RCH is the resistance in Newton of the ship in a channel with brash ice and a
consolidated layer:

R CH = C1 + C 2 + C 3C μ (H F + H M ) (B + C ψ H F ) + C 4 L PAR H 2F + C5 ⎜ 2 ⎟ wf
2 ⎛ LT ⎞ A
⎝B ⎠ L
Cμ = 0.15cosϕ2 + sinψsinα = 0.546
Cμ is to be taken equal or larger than 0.45

C ψ = 0.047 ⋅ψ − 2.115, and C ψ = 0 if ψ ≤ 45°

168
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⎛ tanϕ 2 ⎞ o
ψ = arctan ⎜ ⎟ = 30.17
⎝ sinα ⎠
C ψ = 25.89

HF = 0.26 + (HMB) 0.5 = 7.2 m

HM = 1.0 for ice classes IA and IA Super


= 0.8 for ice class IB
= 0.6 for ice class IC
HM = 1.0

C1 and C2 take into account a consolidated upper layer of the brash ice and are to be
taken as zero for ice classes IA, IB and IC.
Given:
C3 = 845 kg/ (m2s2)
C4 = 42 kg/ (m2s2)
C5 = 825 kg/s2
3
⎛ LT ⎞
5 ≤ ⎜ 2 ⎟ ≤ 20
⎝B ⎠
P = 21.2 MW (approx)

8.2.4 Ice load


Height of load area
An ice-strengthened ship is assumed to operate in open sea conditions
corresponding to a level ice thickness not exceeding ho. The design height (h) of the
area actually under ice pressure at any particular point of time is, however, assumed
to be only a fraction of the ice thickness. The values for ho and h are given in the
following table.
.
Ice Class ho [m] h [m]
IA Super
Ice Class ho1.0
[m] h0.35
[m]
IA IA
Super 0.8
1.0 0.30
0.35
IB
IA 0.6
0.8 0.25
0.30
IC
IB 0.4
0.6 0.22
0.25
IC 0.4 0.22

Table 8.2
Values of ho and h
8.2.5 Ice pressure

The design ice pressure is determined by the formula:


p = cd · c1 · ca · po [MPa], where

169
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

cd = a factor which takes account of the influence of the size and engine output of
the ship.

It is calculated by the formula:


a⋅k + b
cd =
1000

Δ⋅P
k=
1000

a and b are given in the following table:

.
Region
Forward Midship & Aft
k ≤ 12 k > 12 k ≤ 12 k > 12
a 30 6 8 2
b 230 518 214 286

Table 8.3

Values of a and b

Δ = the displacement of the ship at maximum ice class draught [t] = 183376.12 t
P = the actual continuous engine output of the ship [kW] 38250 KW
K = 83.75
a =2
b = 286
c1 = a factor which takes account of the probability that the design ice pressure
occurs in a certain region of the hull for the ice class in question.

The value of c1 is given in the following table:


Ice Class Region
Forward Midship Aft
IA Super 1.0 1.0 0.75
IA 1.0 0.85 0.65
IB 1.0 0.70 0.45
IC 1.0 0.50 0.25

Table 8.4
Values of c1

170
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

c1 = 1
ca = a factor which takes account of the probability that the full length of the area
under consideration will be under pressure at the same time. It is calculated by the
formula:
47 - 5 l a
ca = ; maximum 1.0 ; minimum 0.6
44

la shall be taken as follows:

.
Structure Type of framing la [m] la [m] Ca [m] P
Shell Transverse Frame spacing 0.35 1.028 2.612
Longitudinal 2 ⋅ frame spacing 0.7 0.989 2.511
Frames Transverse Frame spacing 0.35 1.028 2.612
Longitudinal Span of frame 4.25 0.585 1.486
Ice stringer Span of stringer 4.25 0.585 1.486
Web frame 2 ⋅ web frame spacing 8.5 0.102 0.260

Table 8.5
Values of la

po = the nominal ice pressure; the value 5.6 Mpa shall be used.

8.3 Calculations for Ice strengthened part

8.3.1 Vertical extension of Ice Belt

The vertical extension of the ice belt shall be as follows:


Ice Belt is from 7.00 m to 17.35 m above d ship’s depth from keel.

Ice Class Above LWL Below BWL


[m] [m]
IA Super 0.6 0.75
IA 0.5 0.6
IB 0.4 0.5
IC 0.4 0.5

Table 8.6
Extension of Ice strengthening at midship

171
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8.3.2 Plate thickness in the ice belt

For transverse framing the thickness of the shell plating shall be determined by the

f1 ⋅ p PL
t = 667 s + t c [mm]
σy

For longitudinal framing the thickness of the shell plating shall be determined by the
formula:

p PL
t = 667 s + t c [mm ]
f 2 ⋅σ y

S = the frame spacing [m]


pPL = 0.75 p [MPa]
p = 1.88
4.2
f1 = 1.3 − ; maximum 1.0
(h/s + 1.8) 2
= 0.764

0.4
f2 = 0.6 + ; when h/s ≤ 1
(h/s)

f2 = 1.4 - 0.4 (h/s); when 1≤ h/s < 1.8


= 1.0
h = 0.35
σy = yield stress of the material [N/mm2]
σy = 235 N/mm2 for normal-strength hull structural steel
σy = 315 N/mm2 or higher for high-strength hull structural steel

If steels with different yield stress are used, the actual values may be substituted for
the above ones if accepted by the classification society.

tc = increment for abrasion and corrosion [mm]; normally tc shall be 2 mm


t = 20.05 mm
Taken t = 24 mm

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Ice Class Region Above LWL Below BWL


Ice Class Region [m]LWL
Above [m]BWL
Below
From stem [m] [m]
To double
to 0.3L
From stem 1.2 bottom
To doubleor
abaft it
to 0.3L 1.2 below
bottom or of
top
abaft it floorstop of
below
IA Super floors
IA Super Abaft 0.3L
from
Abaft 0.3L 1.2 1.6
stem
from 1.2 1.6
stem
midship 1.2 1.6
aft
midship 1.2 1.2
1.6
From
aft stem 1.2 1.2
to 0.3L
From stem 1.0 1.6
abaft
to 0.3Lit 1.0 1.6
IA, IB, IC abaft it
Abaft
IA, IB, IC
0.3L
Abaftfrom 1.0 1.3
stemfrom
0.3L 1.0 1.3
stem
Midship 1.0 1.3
Aft
Midship 1.0 1.0
1.3
Aft 1.0 1.0

Table 8.7
Vertical extension of ice strengthening

The vertical extension of the ice strengthening of the framing shall be at least as
Vertical extension of ice strengthening in framing is from 5.41 m to 18.55 m.

8.3.3 Transverse frames

Section modulus

The section modulus of a main or intermediate transverse frame shall be calculated

Z=
p⋅s⋅h ⋅l 6
mt ⋅σ y
[ ]
10 cm 3

by the formula:
p = ice pressure
s = frame spacing [m]
h = height of load area
l = span of the frame [m]

173
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

7 mo
mt =
7 - 5h/l
σy = yield stress [N/mm2]
mo = values are given in the following table:

Table 8.8
Values of mo
Z = 580.4 cm3

8.3.4 Longitudinal frames

The section modulus of a longitudinal frame shall be calculated by the formula:

f3 ⋅f 4 ⋅ p ⋅ h ⋅l 2 6
Z=
m ⋅σ y
[
10 cm 3 ]

174
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The shear area of a longitudinal frame shall be:

3 ⋅f3 ⋅ p⋅ h ⋅l 4
A=
2σ y
[
10 cm 2 ]
This formula is valid only if the longitudinal frame is attached to supporting structure
by brackets
f3 = factor which takes account of the load distribution to adjacent frames
f3 = (1 - 0.2 h/s) = 0.8.
f4 = factor which takes account of the concentration of load to the point of
support,
f4 = 0.6
p = ice pressure
h = height of load area
s = frame spacing [m]
l = span of frame [m]
m = boundary condition factor; m = 13.3 for a continuous beam; where the
boundary conditions deviate significantly from those of a continuous beam,
e.g. in an end field, a smaller boundary factor may be required.
σy = yield stress

Z = 1076.5 cm3

A = 48.62 cm2

Scantling selected 330x15 HB


Z = 1100 cm3
A = 65.9 cm2

8.3.5 Stringers within the ice belt

The section modulus of a stringer situated within the ice belt (see 4.3.1) shall be
calculated by the formula:
Z= 5
f ⋅p ⋅ h ⋅l2 6
m ⋅σ y
[ ]
10 cm 3

The shear area shall be:

A=
2σ y
[ ]
3 ⋅ f5 ⋅ p ⋅ h ⋅ l 4
10 cm 2

175
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The product p ⋅ h shall not be taken as less than 0.30.


f5 = factor which takes account of the distribution of load to the transverse
frames; to be taken as 0.9
σy = yield stress
Z = 2153 cm3
A = 53.34 cm2
Wing tank girder has been provided in place of stringer.
8.3.6 Load on Web frames in Ice Belt

The load transferred to a web frame from an ice stringer or from longitudinal framing
shall be calculated by the formula:

F = p ⋅ h ⋅ S [MN]

The product p ⋅ h shall not be taken as less than 0.30


S = distance between web frames [m]

F = 0.76 MN

8.4 Dimensions of non Ice strengthened parts:


8.4.1 Deck plating: [FSICR]

t = 20 mm

For Lloyd’s grade DH32, and for Russian Ice class LU4 or FMA Ice class 1A.

8.4.2 Sheer strake: [FSICR]

t = 20 mm

For Lloyd’s grade EH32, and for Russian Ice class LU4 or FMA Ice class 1A.

8.4.3 Side shell below Ice strengthening:

The greatest of the following is to be taken:

t = 0.001s (0.059L1 + 7) √ FB/kL


= 11.81 mm

176
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

But not less than


t = 0.0042 s√ hT1k
s = spacing of shell longitudinals = 700 mm

hT1 = T + Cw m but need not be taken greater than 1.36T


hT1 = 23.12
Cw = a wave head, in meters, 7.71 x 10–2Le–0,0044L
Cw = 6.37

∴t = 12.48 mm
Selected t = 20 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32)
8.4.4 Bottom shell and bilge


hT2k
t = 0.0052s 1.8-FB
hT2 = T + 0.5CW m but need not be taken greater than 1.2T
= 19.93
FB = 0.67 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
k = 0.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴t = 10.27 mm
Selected t = 18 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32)
8.4.5 Keel Plating

Keel plating should not be less than thickness of bottom shell + 2 mm


∴t = 20 mm,
But need not exceed t = 25 √ k = 22.08 mm
Selected t = 22 mm

Width of keel plate is to be not less than 70B mm, but need not exceed
1800 mm and is to be not less than 750 mm. (LRS part 4, chapter1, and table 1.5.1)
70B = 3409 mm
Selected w = 1800 mm

8.4.6 Inner bottom Plating


t = t0 / √ 2-FB

t0 = 0.005s√ kh1
s = spacing of inner bottom longitudinal = 700mm
k = 0.78

177
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

h = distance in m, from the plate in consideration to the highest


point of the tank, excluding hatchway.
R = 0.354
b1 = B/2 = 24.35 m
h1 = 0.72 (h+Rb1)
= 21.15
t0 = 14.22 mm
t = 12.33 mm Selected = 14 mm (Lloyd’s Grade DH32)

8.5 Hull Framing [LRS Part 4, Chapter 9, Section 5]


8.5.1 Bottom Longitudinals

The section modulus of bottom longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to
be less than greater of the following:
a) Z = 0.056kh1sle2F1FS cm3
K = 0.78 (Refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
h1 = (h0 + D1/8), but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m or
(0.00L1 + 0.7) m, whichever is greater & need not be
taken greater than (0.75 D + D1/8), for bottom longitudinals.
= 19.82m
h0 = distance in m, from the midpoint of span of stiffener to
highest point of tank, excluding hatchway.
= 22 m
D1 = 16 m (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
s = spacing of bottom longitudinals = 700 mm
le = effective span of longitudinals which are
assumed to be supported by web frames spaced at 5s,
where s is the basic frame spacing in midship region
(850 mm ) not to be taken less than 1.5 m in double bottom
and 2.5 m else where.
le = 4.25 m
F1 = Dc1/(25D-20h)
= 0.133
c1 = 75/(225 – 150FB), at base line of ship.
FB = 0.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴c1 = 0.667

178
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

h = distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters


= 23.76 m
D = 23.76 m (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴F1 = 0.133
FS = 1, at upper deck at side and at the base line.
∴Z = 1459.5 cm3
b) Z = 0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3
k = 0.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
h3 = 75D+Rb1
b1 = 24.35 m
R = (0.45+0.1 L/B)(0.54 – L/1270) = 0. 354
D1 = 16 m
h3 = 26.44 m
F2 = Dc2/ (3.18D-2.18h) = 0.785
c2 = 165/ (345-180FB)
s = 700 mm
le = 4.25 m
∴Z = 1044.8 cm3
Greater of the two is to be taken, i.e. Z = 1459.5 cm3
Selected 400 x 18 HB
Z (Avail) = 1250 cm3
8.5.2 Deck Longitudinals (LRS, Part 4, Chapter 9.5.3.1)

The modulus of bottom longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to be less
than greater of the following:
a) Z = 0.056kh1sl2eF1FS cm3
k = 0.78 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
h1 = (h0 + D1/8), but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m.
h0 = 0 ( for deck longitudinals)
D1 = 16
(h0 + D1/8) = 2
L1 = 190
L1/56 = 3.39
0.01L1 +0.7 = 2.6

179
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

∴h1 = L1/56 = 3.39


s = 700 mm
le = 4.25m
F1 = Dc1 / (4D + 20h)
h = 0 (for deck longitudinals)
c1 = 60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck
FD = 0.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴ c1 = 0.595
∴F1 = 0.148
Fs = 1, at upper deck at side and at baseline of ship
∴Z = 277.06 cm3
b) Z = 0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3
R = 0.354
bi = B/2 = 24.35 m
h3 = h0 + Rb1 = 8.62 m
s = 700 mm
le = 4.25m
F2 = Dc2 / (D + 2.18h)
c2 = 165 / (345 – 180FD)
FD = 0.75 (refer ‘DEFINITIONS’)
∴c2 = 1.0
∴F2 = 1.0
∴Z = 433.5 cm3
Greatest of the two is to be taken, i.e. Z = 433.5 cm3
250 x 12 HB section is selected
Z available = 500 cm3

8.5.3 Side Shell Longitudinals (LRS Part 4, Chapter 9. 5.3.1)

From standardization point of view the side shell is divided into longitudinal fields as
shown in fig 8.4. Design of the longitudinals for each field is done using the
information for the lowest longitudinal in each field.
8.5.4 Inner hull and CL bulkhead longitudinals
The modulus of side shell longitudinals within the cargo tank region is not to
be less than greater of the following:
a) Z = 0.056kh1sle2F1Fs cm3
b) Z = 0.0051kh3sle2F2 cm3

180
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Where,
h1 = (h0 + D1/8), but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m or
0.01L1 +0.7 m whichever is the greater.
s = 700 mm
le = 4.25 m
k = 0.78
FD = 0.75
D1 = 16
L1 = 190 m
L1/56 = 3.39
h = distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters
h3 = h0 + Rb1
For side longitudinals above D/2,
F1 = Dc1 / (4D + 20h)
F2 = Dc2 / (D + 2.18h)
For side longitudinals below D/2,
F1 = Dc1/(25D-20h)
F2 = Dc2/(3.18D-2.18h)

c1 = 60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck


= 1.0 at D/2
= 75/ (225 – 150FB), at base line of ship
c2 = 165/ (345 – 180FB) at deck
= 1.0 at D/2
= 165/ (345 – 180FD) at baseline of ship

181
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Fig 8.4
Side shell regions

ITEM REG 1 REG 2


ho 5.21 20.76
D1 16 16
h1= h0+D1/8 7.21 22.76
h3 13.83 29.38
F1 0.113 0.0777
F2 0.702 0.5468
Fs 1 1
a) Z 450.405 976.925
b) Z 488.61 808.12
Taken Z (cm3) 488.61 976.92
Section HB HB
Scantling 260 x 11 340 x 13
Z 488.61 976.92
i ( 3)
f kZ(available) 500 1000

Table 8.9

Determination of scantlings of side shell longitudinals

182
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.6 Inner Hull, Inner Bottom and Longitudinal Bulkheads


(LRS Part 4, Chapter 9, Section 6)

The inner hull, inner bottom and longitudinal bulkheads are longitudinally
framed.
The symbols used in this section are defined as follows:
b1 = the greatest distance in meters, from the centre of the plate panel
or midpoint of the stiffener span, to the corners at top of the tank
on either side.
c1 = 60 / (225 – 165FD) at deck
= 1.0 at D/2
= 75/(225 – 150FB), at base line of ship
c2 = 165/(345 – 180FB) at deck
= 1.0 at D/2
= 165/(345 – 180FD) at baseline of ship
h = load height, in meters measured vertically as follows:
(a) for bulkhead plating the distance from a point one third of the height of the
plate panel above its lower edge to the highest point of the tank, excluding
hatchway
(b) for bulkhead stiffeners or corrugations, the distance from the midpoint of span
of the stiffener or corrugation to the highest point of the tank, excluding
hatchway
h1 = (h + D1/8), but not less than 0.72 (h + Rb1)
h2 = (h + D1/8), in meters, but in no case be taken less than L1/56 m
or
(0.01L1 + 0.7) m, whichever is greater
h3 = distance of longitudinal below deck at side, in meters, but is not
to be less than 0
h4 = h + Rb1
h5 = h2 but is not to be less than 0.55h4
t0 = 0.005s √kh1
t1 = t0(0.84 + 0.16(tm/t0)2)
tm = minimum value of t0 within 0.4D each side of mid depth of
bulkhead

183
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.6.1 Inner Hull Longitudinal Bulkhead Plating

For the determination of scantlings of longitudinal bulkhead plating and


inner hull plating’s areas follows. (Refer fig 8.4)

ITEM Region 1 Region 2 ice belt


h 5.41 19.09 15.35
D1 16 16 16

h1 10.101 21.09 17.35


h2 7.41 21.09 17.35
h4 14.029 27.7099 23.96
h5 7.7164 21.09 17.35
t0 9.824 14.195 12.875
t1 10.952 13.7928 12.875
taken 12 14 13

Table 8.10

Determination of Inner Hull and Longitudinal Bulkhead Plating

8.6.2 CL Longitudinal Bulk Head Longitudinals and Inner Hull Longitudinals

Inner hull and longitudinal bulkheads are to be longitudinally framed. The modulus
of longitudinals is not to be less than greater of the following:
(a) Z = 0.056kh2sl2eF1 cm3
(b) Z = 0.0051kh4sl2eF2 cm3

The inner hull and bulkhead plating is divided into various strakes for the
determination of center line bulkhead longitudinals and inner hull longitudinals.
s = 700 mm
le = 4.25m

184
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

.
ITEM Region 1 Region 2 Between 1 & 2
b1 5.41 19.09 15.35
h1 24.35 24.35 24.35
h2 16 16 16
h3 10.10 21.09 17.35
h4 7.41 21.09 17.35
c1 6.5 17 13.5
c2 14.03 27.71 23.97
F1 0.7 0.7 1
F2 0.87 0.87 1
Z1 456.380 912.923 751.030
Z2 405.448 435.494 692.703
Taken Z
(cm3) 456.380 912.923 751.030
Section HB HB HB
Scantling 250 X 13 325 X 17 325 X 12

Table.8.11

Determination of scantlings of CL longitudinal bulkhead


longitudinal and inner hull longitudinal

8.6.3 Inner Bottom Plating and Longitudinals

The inner bottom is to be longitudinally framed and the inner bottom plating
thickness is to be
t = t0 / √ 2-FB
t0 = 0.005s√ kh1
s = spacing of inner bottom longitudinal = 700mm
k = 0.78
h = distance in m, from the plate in consideration to the highest
point of the tank, excluding hatchway = 20.76 m
R = 0.354 (refer previous sections)
b1 = B/2 = 24.35 m
h1 = 0.72 (h+Rb1)
= 21.15
t0 = 14.21 mm
t = 12.32 mm
Selected = 14 mm

185
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The modulus of longitudinals is not to be less than greater of the following:


(a) Z = 0.056kh2sl2eF1 cm3
h = 19.38 m
D1 = 16 m
h2 = h + D1 / 8 = 22.76 m
F1 = 0.078
∴Z = 985.2 cm3
(b) Z = 0.0051kh4sl2eF2 cm3
h4 = h + Rb1 = 27.709m
F2 = 0.316
∴Z = 440.67 cm3

Selected Z = 985.2 cm3.

Selected HB 330 x 13

Z available = 1000 cm3

8.7 Primary Members Supporting the Hull Longitudinal Framing


8.7.1 Centre girder (LRS Part 4, Section 9.3.3)
(a) Minimum depth of centre girder
dDB = 28B + 205√ T mm
dDB = 2202.6 mm
dDB = 3000 mm
Given 3.0 m.
(b) Minimum thickness of centre girder (LRS, Part 4.9.3.4)
t = (0.008 dDB + 1) √ k
= 22.07 mm
Given thickness = 22 mm
8.7.2 Floors and Side Girders
t = (0.007dDB + 1) √ k
= 19.43 mm
But not to exceed 12√ k = 10.6 mm
Given thickness = 10.6 mm
∴t = 16 mm

186
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.7.3 Deck Transverses (LRS Part 4.10.2.8)


Section modulus of deck transverses is not to be less than
Z = 53.75 (0.0269sL + 0.8) (ST + 1.83) k cm3
s = 4.25 m
L = 229.8 m
ST = span of transverse
= 8.116 m
∴Z = 12871.3 cm3

Taken T section 1500 X 14 +600 X 20 is selected.

8.7.4 Vertical web on centreline longitudinal bulkhead


Section modulus of vertical web is to be not less than
Z = K3shsSs2k (sm3)
K3 = 1.88,
s = 4.25
hs = distance between the lower span point of the vertical web
and the moulded deckline at centreline, in meters
= 20 m
Ss = span of vertical web, in meters, and is to be measured
between end span points.
= 12.75 m
∴Z = 18476.0 cm3

Taken T section 1250x 12+ 500x 18


8.8 Primary Members End Connections [LRS Part 3, Chapter 10,
Section 3]
The following relations govern the scantlings of bracket:
(a + b) ≥ 2l
a ≥ 0.8 l
b ≥ 0.8 l

l = 90 2
√ (14 +Z√ Z) -1 mm

187
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.8.1 Bracket connecting deck transverse and inner hull

l = 90 2√ (14 +Z√ Z) -1 mm

Z = 12871.3 cm3

l = 90 {2 (√12871.3 / [14 + √ 12871.3]) – 1}


= 1718.8 mm
a ≥ 0.8l = 1375 mm
b ≥ 0.8l = 1375 mm
Given a = 2300 mm and b = 2000 mm
t = thickness of web itself = 25 mm
Flange breadth to be not less than
bf = 40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm, but not less than 50mm
= 40 (1 + 12871.3 / 1000)
= 554 mm
Taken 750 mm

8.8.2 Bracket connecting deck transverse and center line bulkhead web

l = 90{ 2
√ (14 +Z√ Z) - 1} mm

Z = 14602 cm3
l = 90 {2 (√14602/ [14 + √ 14602]) – 1}
= 1783.1 mm
a ≥ 0.8l = 1426.5 mm
b ≥ 0.8l = 1426.5 mm
Given a = 2400 mm and b = 2000 mm
t = thickness of web itself = 25 mm
Flange breadth to be not less than
bf = 40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm, but not less than 50mm
= 40 (1 + 14602/ 1000)
= 624.08 mm
Taken 750 mm

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

8.8.3 Bracket connecting centre line vertical web and inner bottom plating

l = 90{ 2
√ (14 +Z√ Z) - 1} mm

Z = 14602cm3
l = 90 {2 (√14602/ [14 + √ 14602]) – 1}
= 1783.1 mm
a ≥ 0.8l = 1426.5 mm
b ≥ 0.8l = 1426.5 mm
Given a = 2400 mm and b = 2000 mm
t = thickness of web itself = 25 mm
Flange breadth to be not less than
bf = 40 (1 + Z / 1000) mm, but not less than 50mm
= 40 (1 + 14602/ 1000)
= 624.08 mm
Taken 750 m

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Table 8.12

Section Modulus Calculation

AREA L 2 *A Iown
ITEMS L (m) t(m) NO (m2) LEVER A*L (m4) (m4)
Deck Plate 23.5 0.02 2 0.94 23.76 22.334 530.6653 1.57E-05

Sheerstrake Plate 3 0.02 2 0.12 22.26 2.6712 59.46091 0.045

Above IceBelt Plate 2.5 0.02 2 0.1 19.51 1.951 38.06401 0.026042

Ice Belt Plate 12.5 0.024 2 0.6 12 7.2 86.4 3.90625

Below Ice Belt Plate 3 0.02 2 0.12 4.26 0.5112 2.177712 0.045

Bottom Shell Plate 19 0.02 2 0.76 0.01 0.0076 0.000076 1.27E-05

Bottom Bilge Plate 6 0.02 2 0.24 1.25 0.3 0.375 0.36

Keel Plate 1.8 0.022 1 0.0396 0.011 0.0004 4.79E-06 1.6E-06

Margin Plate 4 0.014 2 0.112 4.5 0.504 2.268 0.074667

Inn Bot Plate 18.35 0.014 2 0.5138 3 1.5414 4.6242 4.2E-06

Centre Girder 3 0.022 1 0.066 1.5 0.099 0.1485 0.0495

Side Girder 3 0.015 6 0.27 1.5 0.405 0.6075 0.03375

CL bhd reg 1 5 0.012 3 0.18 21.26 3.8268 81.35777 0.125

CL bhd reg Bb/w 1 &2 13 0.013 1 0.169 12.26 2.0719 25.40198 2.380083

CL bhd reg 2 2.76 0.014 1 0.03864 4.38 0.1692 0.741285 0.024529

IB hull plate reg 1 5 0.012 2 0.12 21.26 2.5512 54.23851 0.125


IB hull plate reg b/w
1&2 13 0.013 2 0.338 12.26 4.1439 50.80397 2.380083

IB hull plate reg 2 2.76 0.014 2 0.07728 4.38 0.3385 1.48257 0.024529

Wing Tank Girder 1 3 0.012 2 0.072 6 0.432 2.592 4.32E-07

Wing Tank Girder 2 3 0.012 2 0.072 9 0.648 5.832 4.32E-07

Wing Tank Girder 3 3 0.012 2 0.072 12 0.864 10.368 4.32E-07

Wing Tank Girder 4 3 0.012 2 0.072 15 1.08 16.2 4.32E-07

Wing Tank Girder 5 3 0.012 2 0.072 18 1.296 23.328 4.32E-07

Wing Tank Girder 6 3 0.012 2 0.072 21 1.512 31.752 4.32E-07


250 x
Deck Longitudinals 12 68 0.26316 23.6 6.2106 146.5696

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Inner Hull Long 1 250 x 13 2 0.0084 23.06 0.1937 4.466814


2 250 x 13 2 0.0084 22.36 0.1878 4.199745
3 250 x 13 2 0.0084 21.66 0.1819 3.940907
4 250 x 13 2 0.0084 20.96 0.1761 3.690301
5 250 x 13 2 0.0084 20.26 0.1702 3.447928
6 250 x 13 2 0.0084 19.56 0.1643 3.213786
7 250 x 13 2 0.0084 18.86 0.1584 2.987877
8 325 x 12 2 0.0108 18.51 0.1999 3.700297
9 325 x 12 2 0.0108 18.16 0.1961 3.561684
10 325 x 12 2 0.0108 17.81 0.1923 3.425718
11 325 x 12 2 0.0108 17.46 0.1886 3.292397
12 325 x 12 2 0.0108 17.11 0.1848 3.161723
13 325 x 12 2 0.0108 16.76 0.181 3.033694
14 325 x 12 2 0.0108 16.41 0.1772 2.908311
15 325 x 12 2 0.0108 16.06 0.1734 2.785575
16 325 x 12 2 0.0108 15.71 0.1697 2.665484
17 325 x 12 2 0.0108 15.36 0.1659 2.54804
18 325 x 12 2 0.0108 15.01 0.1621 2.433241
19 325 x 12 2 0.0108 14.66 0.1583 2.321088
20 325 x 12 2 0.0108 14.31 0.1545 2.211582
21 325 x 12 2 0.0108 13.96 0.1508 2.104721
22 325 x 12 2 0.0108 13.61 0.147 2.000507
23 325 x 12 2 0.0108 13.26 0.1432 1.898938
24 325 x 12 2 0.0108 12.91 0.1394 1.800015
25 325 x 12 2 0.0108 12.56 0.1356 1.703739
26 325 x 12 2 0.0108 12.21 0.1319 1.610108
27 325 x 12 2 0.0108 11.86 0.1281 1.519124
28 325 x 12 2 0.0108 11.51 0.1243 1.430785
29 325 x 12 2 0.0108 11.16 0.1205 1.345092
30 325 x 12 2 0.0108 10.81 0.1167 1.262046
31 325 x 12 2 0.0108 10.46 0.113 1.181645
32 325 x 12 2 0.0108 10.11 0.1092 1.103891
33 325 x 12 2 0.0108 9.76 0.1054 1.028782
34 325 x 12 2 0.0108 9.41 0.1016 0.956319
35 325 x 12 2 0.0108 9.06 0.0978 0.886503

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

36 325 x 12 2 0.0108 8.71 0.0941 0.819332


37 325 x 12 2 0.0108 8.36 0.0903 0.754808
38 325 x 12 2 0.0108 8.01 0.0865 0.692929
39 325 x 12 2 0.0108 7.66 0.0827 0.633696
40 325 x 12 2 0.0108 7.31 0.0789 0.57711
41 325 x 12 2 0.0108 6.96 0.0752 0.523169
42 325 x 12 2 0.0108 6.61 0.0714 0.471875
43 325 x 12 2 0.0108 6.26 0.0676 0.423226
44 325 x 17 2 0.0134 5.76 0.0772 0.44458
45 325 x 17 2 0.0134 5.26 0.0705 0.370746
46 325 x 17 2 0.0134 4.76 0.0638 0.303612
47 325 x 17 2 0.0134 4.26 0.0571 0.243178
48 325 x 17 2 0.0134 3.76 0.0504 0.189444

Bottom
400 x 18 64 0.64 0.2 0.128 0.0256
Longitudinals
Inner Bottom
330 x 13 50 0.32 2.85 0.912 2.5992
Longls
Side
1 250 x 13 2 0.0084 23.06 0.1937 4.466814
longitudinals
2 250 x 13 2 0.0084 22.36 0.1878 4.199745
3 250 x 13 2 0.0084 21.66 0.1819 3.940907
4 250 x 13 2 0.0084 20.96 0.1761 3.690301
5 250 x 13 2 0.0084 20.26 0.1702 3.447928
6 250 x 13 2 0.0084 19.56 0.1643 3.213786
7 250 x 13 2 0.0084 18.86 0.1584 2.987877
8 330 x 15 2 0.0132 18.51 0.2443 4.522585
9 330 x 15 2 0.0132 18.16 0.2397 4.35317
10 330 x 15 2 0.0132 17.81 0.2351 4.186989
11 330 x 15 2 0.0132 17.46 0.2305 4.024041
12 330 x 15 2 0.0132 17.11 0.2259 3.864328
13 330 x 15 2 0.0132 16.76 0.2212 3.707848
14 330 x 15 2 0.0132 16.41 0.2166 3.554603
15 330 x 15 2 0.0132 16.06 0.212 3.404592
16 330 x 15 2 0.0132 15.71 0.2074 3.257814
17 330 x 15 2 0.0132 15.36 0.2028 3.114271
18 330 x 15 2 0.0132 15.01 0.1981 2.973961
19 330 x 15 2 0.0132 14.66 0.1935 2.836886

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

20 330 x 15 2 0.0132 14.31 0.1889 2.703045


21 330 x 15 2 0.0132 13.96 0.1843 2.572437
22 330 x 15 2 0.0132 13.61 0.1797 2.445064
23 330 x 15 2 0.0132 13.26 0.175 2.320924
24 330 x 15 2 0.0132 12.91 0.1704 2.200019
25 330 x 15 2 0.0132 12.56 0.1658 2.082348
26 330 x 15 2 0.0132 12.21 0.1612 1.96791
27 330 x 15 2 0.0132 11.86 0.1566 1.856707
28 330 x 15 2 0.0132 11.51 0.1519 1.748737
29 330 x 15 2 0.0132 11.16 0.1473 1.644002
30 330 x 15 2 0.0132 10.81 0.1427 1.542501
31 330 x 15 2 0.0132 10.46 0.1381 1.444233
32 330 x 15 2 0.0132 10.11 0.1335 1.3492
33 330 x 15 2 0.0132 9.76 0.1288 1.2574
34 330 x 15 2 0.0132 9.41 0.1242 1.168835
35 330 x 15 2 0.0132 9.06 0.1196 1.083504
36 330 x 15 2 0.0132 8.71 0.115 1.001406
37 330 x 15 2 0.0132 8.36 0.1104 0.922543
38 330 x 15 2 0.0132 8.01 0.1057 0.846913
39 330 x 15 2 0.0132 7.66 0.1011 0.774518
40 330 x 15 2 0.0132 7.31 0.0965 0.705357
41 330 x 15 2 0.0132 6.96 0.0919 0.639429
42 330 x 15 2 0.0132 6.61 0.0873 0.576736
43 330 x 15 2 0.0132 6.26 0.0826 0.517276
44 340 x 13 2 0.012 5.56 0.0667 0.370963
45 340 x 13 2 0.012 4.86 0.0583 0.283435
46 340 x 13 2 0.012 4.16 0.0499 0.207667
47 340 x 13 2 0.012 3.46 0.0415 0.143659
48 340 x 13 2 0.012 2.76 0.0331 0.091411
49 340 x 13 2 0.012 2.06 0.0247 0.050923
50 340 x 13 2 0.012 1.36 0.0163 0.022195
51 340 x 13 2 0.012 0.66 0.0079 0.005227
CL Longl Bulkhead
1 250 x 13 1 0.0042 23.06 0.0969 2.233407
2 250 x 13 1 0.0042 22.36 0.0939 2.099872

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

3 250 x 13 1 0.0042 21.66 0.091 1.970454


4 250 x 13 1 0.0042 20.96 0.088 1.845151
5 250 x 13 1 0.0042 20.26 0.0851 1.723964
6 250 x 13 1 0.0042 19.56 0.0822 1.606893
7 250 x 13 1 0.0042 18.86 0.0792 1.493938
8 325 x 12 1 0.0054 18.16 0.0981 1.780842
9 325 x 12 1 0.0054 17.46 0.0943 1.646199
10 325 x 12 1 0.0054 16.76 0.0905 1.516847
11 325 x 12 1 0.0054 16.06 0.0867 1.392787
12 325 x 12 1 0.0054 15.36 0.0829 1.27402
13 325 x 12 1 0.0054 14.66 0.0792 1.160544
14 325 x 12 1 0.0054 13.96 0.0754 1.052361
15 325 x 12 1 0.0054 13.26 0.0716 0.949469
16 325 x 12 1 0.0054 12.56 0.0678 0.851869
17 325 x 12 1 0.0054 11.86 0.064 0.759562
18 325 x 12 1 0.0054 11.16 0.0603 0.672546
19 325 x 12 1 0.0054 10.46 0.0565 0.590823
20 325 x 12 1 0.0054 9.76 0.0527 0.514391
21 325 x 12 1 0.0054 9.06 0.0489 0.443251
22 325 x 12 1 0.0054 8.36 0.0451 0.377404
23 325 x 12 1 0.0054 7.66 0.0414 0.316848
24 325 x 12 1 0.0054 6.96 0.0376 0.261585
25 325 x 12 1 0.0054 6.26 0.0338 0.211613
26 325 x 17 1 0.0067 5.56 0.0373 0.207121
27 325 x 17 1 0.0067 4.86 0.0326 0.158251
28 325 x 17 1 0.0067 4.16 0.0279 0.115948
29 325 x 17 1 0.0067 3.46 0.0232 0.08021
Total 30 7.75748 10.2374 79.416 1405.963 9.599469

Height of NA =10.237 m

I ref =1415.56 m4
I NA =602.54 m4

Z deck = 44.44 m3
Z keel = 58.85 m3
Z Req = 43.31m3
Here ZDECK and ZKEEL are getting more than the minimum section modulus required.
So the design is satisfactory.

194
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 9
OUTLINE SPECIFICATION
 

 
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

9. OUTLINE SPECIFICATION

9.1. General
9.1.1. Main Particulars
LOA - 290.5 m
LBP - 263.0 m
B (mld) - 48.7 m
D (mld) - 23.76 m
T (mld) - 16.75 m
Ice draft (fully loaded) - 16.86 m
CB - 0.840
Dead weight - 150,000 t
Speed - 15.0 Knots
Total Complement - 42
Range - 3800 nautical mile

9.1.2. Purpose

This double acting type double hull tanker is required to transport crude oil
from Belokamenka vessel (Murmansk, Russia) to Rotterdam (Netherlands)

9.1.3. Description

The vessel is a twin screw, podded type propulsion, longitudinally framed,


double hull vessel having a main deck, fore castle, superstructure and engine casing
(aft), cranes etc. Main deck is the freeboard deck. The ship has nine watertight
transverse bulkheads. A double bottom is arranged from the fore peak bulkhead to the
aft peak bulkhead. The double bottom height is 3.0 m. Engine room and accommodation
is arranged aft. Two deck cranes of 5t capacity are fitted on either side of the ship to
facilitate easy cargo handling hose. Additionally one provision crane of capacity 1 tonne
has been provided aft in port side.

There are ten holds to carry crude oil. The double bottom tanks beneath
these holds and the wing tanks at the sides are used to carry ballast water. Towards the
aft of cargo hold, a slop tank is provided to carry the sludge, which remains after the
pumping out of cargo. Pump room is provided in between the slop tank and the engine
room. A heavy fuel oil tank is provided in the forward region of the engine room.
Forepeak tank is used for ballasting. Forepeak accommodates the chain locker also.
Azipod room has been provided in aft region.

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9.1.4. Classification

The ships are classified under Lloyds Register of Shipping and FSICR.
Class notation: ✠+100A1double hull oil tanker Baltic service Ice class 1A Super.

9.1.5 Capacities
Cargo Capacity = 174294.17 m3
Ballast water Capacity = 50841.42m3
HFO tank Capacity = 7152.1 m3
DFO tank Capacity = 797.4 m3
Boiler fuel tank Capacity = 379.42 m3
LO tank Capacity = 247 m3
Capacity of FW tank = 32 m3
Capacity of Waste water tank= 132.44 m3

9.1.6 Compliment
Captain Class : 4
Senior Class : 2
Junior Class : 3
Cadet : 2
Petty Officers : 3
Leading crew : 4
Crew Class : 24
TOTAL : 42

9.2 Hull

The ship is made of Higher tensile steel (DH32 and DH36) and is of all
welded construction. The wing tanks and double bottom constitute the double hull of the
ship.

9.3 Life Saving Appliances

Life Saving Appliances


Life saving appliances provided as per SOLAS requirements.
Lifeboat particulars to be satisfied are:

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Volume required per person = 0.283 m3.


Total compliment = 42
Lifeboat chosen has following particulars:
L = 8.5 m
B = 2.97 m
T = 1.25 m
H = 8.58 m
CB = 0.60

One totally enclosed free fall type, diesel engine driven lifeboats each
capable of 55 persons capacity is provided on aft of the ship. The lifeboats are equipped
with water spray fire protection system. Material of construction is GRP.

COMPLIANCE LIST
a. Two inflatable life rafts of 25 person’s capacity each is provided on either side of
the ship.
b. One life raft for 6 persons with hydrostatic release is installed on forward upper
deck behind forecastle deck.
c. 55 life jackets have been provided.
d. Eight life buoys are provided, four of which are fitted with self-igniting light
e. 2 life jackets for child have been provided
f. A line throwing apparatus in wheel house is provided.
g. 2 two way portable VHF (CH16) is provided in wheel house.
h. 12 parachute flare has been provided in wheelhouse.
i. 4 EPIRB has been provided in wheelhouse and above deck.
j. 2 SART has been provided in wheel house and adjacent space
k. 4 WT set has been provided.
l. 9 general alarm and P A System has been provided in different location in ships
m. Training manual has been provided in wheel house, galley and other public places
n. Operating instruction booklet is provided in each raft and boat.
o. 9 muster lists has been provided in different public places in ship.
p. 2 OMTL is provided in wheel house.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

q. 2 Embarkation ladder with light is provided in aft at MDK.


r. Muster station has been provided at MDK in aft region.
s. 55 immersion suits has been provided
t. TPA has been provided according to approval of administrations

9.4 Fire Extinguishing Appliances

Fire fighting systems are to be installed in accordance with SOLAS rules.


Cargo oil tank deck spaces - Foam fire extinguishing system.
Engine room and pump room - CO2 fire extinguishing system.
Accommodation spaces, open deck
engine room and pump room - Water hydrant system.
Galley - Portable DCP fire extinguishers
Paint store - Portable foam type fire extinguishers.

9.5 Ventilation and Air-conditioning

Mechanical ventilation is to be arranged for galley, provision store (dry),


laundry, sanitary spaces, and pantries. Conditioned air to be supplied to all cabins as
well as to the wheelhouse (spot cooling). Air conditioning installations to comprise an
automatically controlled air-handling unit with filter, steam heater, cooler, and de-
humidifier. One refrigerating plant, comprising one compressor with condenser etc for
supply by a single duct system is provided. Outlets are to enable individual control of air.
Engine room is to have mechanical ventilation. E.R control room is to have separate air
conditioning unit.

9.6 Navigation and communication equipments

Wheel house is fitted with the following equipment:-


¾ Magnetic compass.
¾ Engine control and telegraphs.
¾ Revolution indicators.
¾ Steering wheel.
¾ Chart table with drawer for charts and navigational publication
¾ Voice pipes communication system.
¾ Locker with locking arrangement for navigational instruments.
¾ Navigational radar.
¾ Pod angle indicators.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Navigational lights:
The ship has the following lights used for navigation.
¾ One masthead light forward.
¾ One masthead light aft.
¾ Two side lights (green is starboard side, red in port side).
¾ One stern light (white).
¾ Two anchor lights (white).
¾ Four all round lights (white).
¾ 3 NUC light (red white and red)

9.7 Propulsion

The vessel will be propelled by twin Azipod propeller driven by 3 generators


directly coupled to 3 diesel engines separately.
Diesel Engines
Type: 9TM620
Number: 3
Manufacturer: STORK WARTSILA DIESEL CO. Holland
Rated output: 12,750KW
Rated speed: 428rpm
Consumption of heavy fuel oil: 174G/KWH +5%
Consumption of lube oil: 1.3+0.3G/KWH
Greatest weight/piece: 270T
Generators
Type: HSG 1600 S14
Number: 3
Rated capacity: 15,537 KVA
Cos Factor: 0.8
Frequency: 50 HZ
Rated current: 815A
Rated voltage: 11KV
Greatest weight/piece: 55T
Rated speed: 429 rpm
Manufacturer: ABB, FINLAND
Rated output: 12.43 MW
Transformers
Number: 2
Type: STROD/BTRD.
Manufacturer: TAKAOKA ENGINEERING CO. LTD JAPAN
Rated voltage: 11KV/121KV
Weight: 58T

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

Auxiliary engines
Type: SKU CUIN-1400N305, Model 1400 GQKA
Number: 3
Manufacture: Cummins
Rated output: 1400 kW
Rated capacity: 1400 kW (1750 kVA) 60 Hz or 1166.7 kW (1458.3 kVA) 50 Hz

Propeller Particulars
Type : Wageningen –B series
D : 7.26 m
Z : 4
AE/AO : 0.527
P/D : 0.742
T : 1612.56 KN
ηO : 53.8
Material : Lloyd’s grade Cu 4
Manganese Aluminium Bronze
Tensile strength: 630 N/mm2

9.8 Anchoring Arrangement


Anchor type = Commercial standard stockless
No. Of anchors = 2
Mass of anchor, WA = 17800 kg
Total length of stud link cable, Lc = 742.5 m
Diameter of stud link cable, dc = 102 mm (special grade of steel)

200
Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”  

CHAPTER 10
DESIGN SUMMARY
AND CONCLUSION 
 

 
“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

10. DESIGN SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The entire project work done till preliminary design stage. Technical
aspects were only considered and that too only up to the level of obtaining data from
available literature. Economic aspects were not given due importance in all the places.
In the real case importance is given to economic as well as technical aspects.

The design of a ice class tanker is highly dependent on the owner’s


requirement routes and market trend. Draft restriction of the loading and unloading ports
should be given due importance. The cargo compositions will very much influence the
design. Crude oil with density ranging from 0.8 to 0.9 is available in Russia.

Hull form was designed using BSRA Charts, while aft has been designed
using aft hull form of ice class tanker .The arrangement of the holds has been made to
distribute the cargo evenly in its holds so as to reduce the cargo handling time.
Maximum length of cargo holds, as specified by Lloyd’s Register of Shipping

The structural arrangement is made so as to obtain the maximum


unobstructed space below the deck. The longitudinal in wing tank bulkhead protrude into
wing tank so that it does not affect the crude oil stowage.

The general arrangement has been done keeping in mind all the major
characteristics required for an ice class tanker.
The tanker has been examined for intact stability in all loading conditions
and meets the IMO A.749 Righting Energy Criteria with a margin of safety. While doing
the trim and the stability calculations, various centres of gravity are found using various
empirical formulae. This may not be the actual centre of gravity and this can be
calculated only after a detailed mass estimation for which the data is unavailable. Ice
load has been considered according to IMO resolution.
The structural configuration of the double-bottom hull and cargo tanks results in
an effective design that satisfies the owners’ requirements. The scantlings of the
structural members are within accepted industry producibility limits. The stress
distribution of the structure, although it requires further analysis, predicts a successful
design. It is based on a parent hull form design that has good sea keeping abilities while
allowing for 150,000 ton Dwt tank carrying capacity. A bulbous bow has been utilized to
reduce wave making and viscous drag as well as increasing fuel efficiency while moving
aft and forward.
The propulsion system within the ice class tanker incorporates a medium -speed
diesel engine with diesel electric Podded propulsion for its cost efficiency, proven
technology, and maintainability. The system also includes a four-blade fixed pitch
propeller due to its optimal efficiency and minimal fuel rate.

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“Department of Ship technology, CUSAT, B.Tech (NA&SB), Batch – XXIX”

The engine, in conjunction with the propeller, produces ample power to propel the
ship efficiently and effectively. The propulsion system satisfies the requirements for
endurance speed and range. Cargo systems utilize the most advanced equipment
available for safe and efficient cargo handling. The cargo piping serves alternative pairs
of tanks and is cross-connected for redundancy, allowing any tank to be serviced by any
cargo pump. The cargo pumps facilitate the timely loading and unloading of the cargo.
To eliminate the possibility of deck spills, the cargo is offloaded through discharge
headers that run through the cargo tanks.
The ballast water system is completely segregated from the cargo system to
prevent contamination of either system. The ballast water exchange system on the ship
requires less operation and maintenance of auxiliary equipment. This system will meet
future ballast water exchange requirements. Ballast pumps supply the means for
ballasting the ship to ensure stability during the offloading procedures and unloaded
voyages.
COW systems ensure the maximum cargo holding capacity and remove crude oil
debris from the tanks. IGS is necessary for safe storage of cargo while in route and
meets all requirements. Oil monitoring systems are utilized to ensure that water-oil
mixtures are not discharged into the sea.
The design incorporates the efficient use of five decks. Central stairs and
elevator, and various exterior entrances allow crew members to move freely through the
entire deckhouse. Crew accommodations include individual staterooms, galleys, mess
areas, and various rooms to provide an excellent crew living environment. The
navigation deck provides outstanding visibility of the ship and surroundings, exceeding
the visibility requirements.
Designed ship has 6.0 meter double side width and a 3.0 meter double bottom
height to provide the most protection against collision and grounding. This also provides
easy access to the tanks for inspection and maintenance which increases overall ship
safety and life. All fuel tanks lube oil tanks, and waste oil tanks are contained within the
3.0 meter double side and 3.0 meter double bottom.
The machinery space design optimizes the space arrangements of various
components of cargo, propulsion, and electrical equipment. The majority of the
equipment surrounds the main engine. Components are positioned to work efficiently in
performing their duty. Pumps interacting with cargo, ballast, and supply tanks are
positioned within close proximity to their respective tanks. Other components are
effectively positioned to provide control of propulsion and electrical systems. All
equipment in the machinery space performs together in an efficient manner to meet the
owner’s requirements.
As far as preliminary design is concerned, camber has not been considered, but
there is need to provide camber in order to avoid accumulation of ice on deck.
Capacity of all tanks has been calculated using AUTOCAD. it can be optimized
using 3-D modeling software. Camber volume also has to be incorporated.

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