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General Library Terms and Definitions
AACR2: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, second edition; the rules used for describing and entering library materials in catalogs. Abstract: A brief summary of a work, which tells enough to allow a reader to decide whether or not it has the information sought; in many cases, it also contains keywords and/or terms used to index the work so that it can be retrieved. Acquisitions : Activities related to obtaining library materials through purchase, exchange, or gift. Annotation : A note which accompanies an entry in a bibliography, which tells what the item is about. It differs from an abstract in that it need not necessarily be a summary of the contents. It can be objective, evaluative, or promotional, depending on the purpose of the bibliography. Barcode Number - the code and the 14-digit number appearing on the beginning or end papers of a book. The barcode is used to charge, discharge, and renew books on the online computer system. Bibliographic access: The whole apparatus of access to records of all kinds (textual, numerical, visual, musical, oral resources, etc. in all kinds of storage media (books, journals, microform, computer storage, disks, Web-based, hypertext, etc. This includes identifying documents, locating documents, and providing physical access to material. Bibliography A list of items such as books, documents, articles, videos, etc. arranged in a logical order and having something in common such as the author or producer, a subject, or the geographic region. Books, scholarly articles, term papers, etc. often include bibliographies listing the information sources on which they are based. A bibliography usually contains identifying information, for example title, author, publisher, date and place of publications of a book, so that the reader can locate the item. Book Return: A place to return books borrowed from the library. The book return is a box located outside the library, near the door of the library, or near the circulation desk. Book Sorting Machine: is a RFID based equipment will sort the books according to the user specified setting for shelving. Bound periodicals are back issues which have been sent to the bindery, covered with a binding, and placed in the stacks. Records for periodical titles are labeled as serials in the Cornell Library Catalog. Some periodicals are now available through the Library Gateway. They are generally called electronic journals or e-journals. See also the next entry, Serials.
Bulk Updates – upload database / modified records in bulk from one database to VTLS database in one go. Call Number: A call number is a combination of letters and numbers that is given to each item held in the library. The letters and numbers assigned to the work describe its subject matter and serves as its address on the shelf. Catalog A list of items such as books, periodicals, maps and/or videos arranged in a defined order. The list usually records, describes and indexes the resources of a collection, a library or a group of libraries. Circulation Desk: The circulation desk is the place to charge (check out), return, or renew books. Circulation staff can also help patrons locate items that cannot be found. Items requested through interlibrary loan and Borrow Direct are delivered to circulation desks and patrons can pick them up from these locations. Course reserve items are also available at circulation desks. Overdue fines are paid at this desk, too. Classification: is a process of assigning unique number to each resource for proper shelving and retrieval. Copyright: Copyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the country to the authors of "original works of authorship," including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. Current periodicals are those, which have recently arrived and are usually kept in loose binders, or on open shelves. Library Process Acquisition: is a process of purchasing books, CDs, magazines, etc for the library collection. Article Indexing: is a process of entering different articles/ published in leading magazine specific to the library. Cataloguing: is a process of processing / data entry / classifying the purchased books, CDs, magazine for the users of the library. The resources (books, CDs, magazine, etc) displayed on the shelves are after the cataloguing process. Circulation: is a process where the library resources where given to its members for a specific period. Fine collections for late return, member security, etc are maintained in the Circulation desk. Circulation desk is similar to Public Relation section of any company. Check-in: process of users returning the resources at the circulation counter. Check-out: process of library issuing / given the resources to it’s users. Serial Control: is a process of acquiring and managing magazine/journals/periodicals for the library. Stock Taking: is a process of stocking checking the library collection, annually, bi-annual, once in two, three or five years. A report is submitted to Library in charge for further action.
Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) Devised by Melvil Dewey in 1876. Probably the most widely used classification system in the world today. Digital library: Collection of texts, images, etc., encoded so as to be stored, retrieved, and read by computer.
Digital printing: Printing from digitized information, rather than hot metal, or photographic printing. Document Delivery: A service that allows you to borrow materials from libraries through your own library. Documentation: Systematic collection, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially scientific or technical. In the context of computers, the manual that explains hardware and software operation. In the context of information science history, "documentation" was the nomenclature prior to the 1960s. Drop Box: is a RFID based circulation system, where user drop resources in a box placed at particular area, it check the RFID tag and the USER tag and check-out (return) the resources from the user’s account, it’s online updated to central library database. User also gets a return receipt also. E-Journal (Electronic Journal) A Periodical that is available in an electronic or computerized form such as on the Web or on CD-ROM. An abbreviated term for electronic journal. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is a set of standards for structuring information that is to be electronically exchanged between and within businesses, organizations, government entities and other groups Extended Bibliography Services (XBS) content such as Book Covers, Table of Contents, Summary, Reviews, Author Notes etc. are displayed WebOPAC with the Bibliographic record. FTP File Transfer Protocol makes it possible to send data contained in files between computers. Full text database: A full text database is a resource that provides access to the complete text of an item. In a full text periodical resource, both the bibliographic descriptions and the articles themselves will be available. An example of this type of resource is ProQuest Direct. Full-text Article: A full text database is an electronic resource that provides access to the complete article, along with the citation. the article may be displayed in various formats including HTML, PDF, JPEG, JIF, etc. Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records -- or FRBR, is a conceptual entityrelationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogues and bibliographic databases from a user’s perspective. It represents a more holistic approach to retrieval and access as the relationships between the entities provide links to navigate through the hierarchy of relationships. The model is significant because it is separate from specific cataloguing standards such as AACR2 or International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD) Glossary : An alphabetical list of technical terms within a subject field, including definitions. A glossary may also be a list of unusual or obsolete terms.
Hold (Reservation) : A library user may place a hold on a book charged out to another person; this ensures that the person placing the hold will be next in line to receive the book when the book is returned. Interlibrary Loan: Interlibrary loan is a form of resource sharing among libraries nation- and world-wide. When a book or other item needed by a Cornell user is checked out, unavailable for some other reason, or not owned by the library, a patron may request that it be borrowed from another library by submitting an interlibrary loan request form. Interlibrary loan requests can be initiated at any reference desk on campus or by using the Interlibrary Loan form that can be found in the Services section of the Library Gateway. ISBD International Standard Bibliographic Description: An internationally agreed on standard format for representing bibliographic information. ISBN: International Standard Book Number. A unique 10-digit code assigned to a specific edition of a book before it is published. ISO 2709 is an ISO standard for bibliographic descriptions, entitled Format for Bibliographic Information Interchange on Magnetic Tape. ISR Information storage and retrieval. ISSN: International Standard Serial Number. A unique 8-digit code assigned to the specific title of a serial/journals/magazine/periodicals. Journal: Although the terms periodical, journal, serial, and magazine have slightly different definitions, they are often used interchangeably. They are published on a regular basis (weekly, monthly, annually, etc.) and contain articles written by various authors. A journal contains peerreviewed articles written by scholars while a magazine contains more popular articles often written by journalists. The terms periodical and serial are more generic and refer to all types of these materials. Keyword Searching: Most online catalogs and bibliographic databases include an option that allows the user to search by keyword(s). In this type of search, users enter a significant word or words that describe the research topic, and the catalog or database retrieves all records where the search terms appear whether they appear in the title field, abstract field, subject heading field, contents field, notes field, etc. LCC The Library of Congress Classification system. Library Reserve Rooms: In academic settings when sets of selected readings are placed in separate areas or delivered throughout separate systems, the SIC1 can be used as a data collection element. It could also be used as the link between items and retrieval systems. (Issuing resources for few hours can be done via VTLS) Loan Period: The amount of time a patron may borrow a book or other item from the library. The time varies depending on the type of material borrowed and the status of the borrower.
Magazine - a periodical publication for general interest such as news, current events, and popular material. See Journal Manuscript : The strictest meaning refers to a document of any kind that is handwritten. The term may also refer to the handwritten or typescript copy of the text of a music or literary composition before it is printed for publication. MARC 21 is a result of the combination of the United States and Canadian MARC formats (USMARC and CAN/MARC). MARC21 is based on the ANSI standard Z39.2, which allows users of different software products to communicate with each other and to exchange data. MARC 21 was designed to redefine the original MARC record format for the 21st century and to make it more accessible to the international community. MARC 21 has formats for the following five types of data: Bibliographic Format, Authority Format, Holdings Format, Community Format, and Classification Data Format. Currently MARC 21 has been implemented successfully by The British Library, the European Institutions and the major library institutions in the United States, and Canada. MARC 856: Field 856 contains the information needed to locate and access an electronic resource, and may be included whether the bibliographic record is based on that resource or a version thereof or a related resource. MARC Machine-Readable Cataloging: A system in which cataloging records are prepared in a format that enables the computer to recognize the elements and manipulate them for various purposes. Metadata: metadata’ is structured data about data, information that describes other information. For example, if a Web page has an author, a title, a date of creation and a unique Internet address, these elements constitute metadata about the page. Metadata is an Internet- age term for information that librarians traditionally have put into catalogs and it commonly refers to descriptive information about Web resources. Eg Dublin Core Metadata, MARC 21. Mirror Database – same copy of the library database in different location around the campus, region, etc Newspaper: A periodical issued at regular, frequent intervals containing news, opinions, advertisements, and other items of current interest. NISO National Standards Organization, a subgroup of ANSI, which prepares technical standards of importance to libraries and publishers, e.g., romanization of various alphabets, criteria for indexes, rules for serials holdings statements, book numbering, etc. See Z39.2, for example. VTLS’s CEO Mr. Vinod Chachra is a voting member of NISO. Not Charged: If a library item is not checked-out, the online catalog will indicate that the status of the item is Not Charged. This means that the item is available in its call number location in the library. Notation Numerals, letters, and/or other symbols used to represent the main and subordinate divisions of a classification scheme. See also Mixed notation; Pure notation.
Online catalog : A Catalog in electronic (machine-readable) format and able to be accessed online. Also known as an ONLINE PUBLIC ACCESS COMPUTER (OPAC). OPAC (Online Public Access Catalogue) is online catalogue of library collection, which authorized users can see and put their reservation request (see also WEB OPAC) Pamphlet: A printed work of less than 50 pages. Patron Info: A link available through the library catalog that allows Cornell patrons to view their library account information charged items, pending requests, and fines or fees owed. Accessing Patron Info requires the user to enter their Cornell ID number and last name. Patron Info is also accessible via the link View your account or renew a book on the Library Gateway. Peer-Reviewed Journal: A peer reviewed journal consists of articles that have been reviewed by a panel of subject experts before they are approved for publication. Peer Reviewed journals are also known as refereed or scholarly journals. Periodical : A publication that is produced at regular intervals, or "periodically", under the same title and is intended to appear indefinitely. Generally, the frequency is more often than annually such as weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc. Periodical Holdings List : An alphabetical list of periodicals owned by the Boise State University Albertsons Library. Each title entry indicates what years of the periodical the library owns, and where they are located. Periodical Index - an access tool that locates and lists articles which have appeared in journals, magazines, or newspapers that is organized by subject. A periodical index lists the author, title, name of periodical, volume, pages and date of publication. Some indexes supply abstracts that summarize the content of articles. Both indexes and abstracts are located in the reference department and are available by using print volumes, CD-ROMs, the Internet, or an online database. Periodical Indexes and Abstracts: Periodical indexes list articles which have appeared in journals, magazines, or newspapers. They list author, title, name of periodical, volume, pages and date of publication. Abstracts are indexes that also contain summaries of the content of the article. Both indexes and abstracts are found in reference departments. They may be in print form, on a CD-ROM terminal, or available in the Library Gateway. Rack : Shelf or shelves used for displaying books, magazines, periodicals or other library materials Rare Books: Books that are valued for the significance of their contents, their scarcity, their imprint or date of publication, their physical characteristics or condition, or their associations (signed or annotated by a famous author, for instance). Ready reference Provision of quick answers to factual questions, using standard sources such as dictionaries, almanacs, and directories.
Recall : Library users may place recalls on books charged out to other people. The people to whom the materials are charged are notified by mail that another library user wants the book. Recalled books must be returned within a short period of time, usually a week. Reference Desk: When a person has a question about how to find specific information or how to use library services and resources, assistance can be obtained from a reference librarian at the reference desk. Professional librarians and reference assistants staff reference desks to assist patrons with their questions. Reference librarian: Reference librarians are specialists in the field of information retrieval. Generally they have a Masters degree in library science, and may have other graduate degrees as well. Reference librarians work in public services answering questions posed by library patrons at the reference desk, by telephone, via e-mail, or through an online chat session. They also provide instruction on the use of library resources and information technology. Reference service Providing answers to users' questions, in person or by telephone. Renewal - an extension of the loan period for material that has been previously checked out. Renewals can be made in person at the circulation desk or by phone. Reserve Reading - a selection of specific books, periodical articles, and other materials that a faculty member has set aside for all students to read for a particular course. These materials are usually kept together in one area of the library and circulate only for short periods of time. Reserve materials can be located using ZipLink--see the RESERVE Lists" selection--or ask at the circulation desk. Each library has its own reserve system. RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) – Magnetic security tags used to manage the circulation, stock and theft of resources in a library. Self-Check Station: Bar-code reading machines for patrons to check out materials themselves, rather than checking materials out at the circulation desk. Self-check stations are available at Olin and Hotel School libraries. A Cornell ID card is required to use self-check. A receipt is printed indicating when the materials are due back at the library. Serial Control : The journals or the periodicals are the most difficult media for handling for a library. Since the journals do not have any specific periodicity and have many issues like the change of frequency , change of name , non receipt of issues and many more LBSUITE handles all this using the serial control module effectively. Serial: A library term for periodicals. Although the terms periodical, journal, serial, and magazine have slightly different definitions, they are often used interchangeably. They are published on a regular basis (weekly, monthly, annually, etc.) and contain articles written by various authors. A journal contains peer-reviewed articles written by scholars while a magazine contains more popular articles often written by journalists. The terms periodical and serial are more generic and refer to all types of these materials. Shelving: is a process of shelving the books return at the circulation counter to the book racks/shelves.
SIP2 (Standard Interchange Protocol), standard protocol for data transfers between library automation devices such as self-check machine and library circulation systems. It facilitates the exchange of patron information and/or library material information. Mainly used in the RFID Technology. Stacks - the sections or areas of the library where the collection is stored. Books and periodicals are arranged on shelves in the stacks and grouped by call numbers. Subject Headings - a word or groups of words that are assigned to books, articles, and other materials in order to indicate the subject matter and to group or organize similar materials by topic. As an important element of effective research, subject headings are needed to determine the correct headings as indexed within a specific database or catalog. Trade Journal A Periodical that publishes news and other items of interest for a particular trade or industry. UNICODE – to support different international and national languages by the software. User can change to desired language by simply selecting the option. Universal Decimal Classification System devised by Henri LaFontaine and Paul Otlet in 1905. Based on the 5th edition of the Dewey Decimal Classification, it has since gone its own way. Look here for a partial breakdown of the UDC schedules. Vertical File A collection of materials such as pamphlets, newspaper clippings, brochures, or pictures, which because of their shape and often their ephemeral nature, are filed in drawers or cabinets for easy reference. Virtual library Access to electronic information in a variety of remote locations through a local online catalog or other gateway, such as the Internet. WEB OPAC – (WEB based Online Public Access Catalogue) VTLS provide an interactive web based OPAC (Library website) where user search the Library database (see OPAC) Z39.50 Protocol used for search and retrieval of information in database from one library or between different libraries
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