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# Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers

Chapter Outline'

6.1 Introduction Half-Wave Controlled

6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3

**6.4 Full-Wave Controlled Bridge Rectlfiers
**

Rectifiers

6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 With a Resistive Load With an Inductive (RL) Load With a Freewheeling Diode

6.2

With !iesistive Load With an Inductive (RL) Load With a Freewheeling Diode

6.3,

**6.5 Half-Controlled or Sernlcorrtrolled
**

Bridge Rectifiers 6.6 Dual Converters Problems Equations

**Full-Wave Controlled Rectifiers
**

~.3.1 6.3.3

Center-Tap

6.3.2. With an Inductive

**With a Resistive Load
**

(RL) l.oad

6j

6.S

With a Freewheeling

Diode

learning Objectives

After completing

II

this 'chapter; the studentshould beebleto-

describe with the help of waveforms the operation of a half-wave controlled rectifier with resistive and inductive loads . describe with the help of waveforms the operatlonof a full-wavecor1trolled center-tap rectifier with resistive and inductive loads describe with the help of waveforms the operatic:m of a full-wave controlled

brldqe.rectlfler

inductive loads

fill

with resistive and

II

discuss the 'advantages and disadvantages of a center-tap converter versus ~ brldqe.converter . describe the operation of a halfcontrolled bridge rectlfier describe the cperetlenofa.dual converter

III

.'

II

fill

150

t

6.2 Half-WaveControlled Rectifiers

151

. Introduction

To. build a controlled rectifier or a phase-controlled rectfjUn; the diodes in the rectifier circuit in Chapter 5 are replaced by SCRs.These circuits produce avanable DC output voltage whose magnitude is varied by phase control, that is, by controlling the .duratlon of the conduction period by varying the point at which a gate signal is applied to the SCR. . Unlike a diode, an SCR will not automatically conduct when the anode-tocathode voltage becomes positive-a gate pulse must be provided. If we adiust the delay time of the gate pulse, and if this process is done repeatedly, then til; rectifiers output, can be controlled. This process is called phase control. .... Controlled rectifiers, or' converters, as they are generally called, broody classified into. full-controlled and half-controlled types. The full-controlled or two-quadrant type uses SCRs as the rectifying devices. The DC CUrrent lsunldl.rectlonal, but the DC voltage may have either polarity. With one polarity, the flow of power' is 'from the :AC source to the DC load=-thjs is called rectification, With a reversal of the ,DC voltage by the load, the flow of power is from the DC source to the AC supply, this process is called inversion. If we replace half of the SCRs'with diodes, the circuit is classified as a halfcontrolled, of. semiconverter circuit. Such a circUit alsoallows the avera.ge~lJe of the DC output voltage to be varied by phase control of !;he,SCR. HoweVer, the polarity of the DC 'output voltage and the direction of Current cannot change, that is, the flow of power is from the AC source to the DC load Converters' of this type are also called one-quadrant conuerters. . 'Conti:'ol1e{J'reC!ifi~rs provide DC power. for' variousappltcatfons, such .as pc motor speed control, battery charging; and" nigh-voltage DC· transmlssion, Phase control suited, for frequencies less than 400 Hz, typically 60 Hz. .The main' .drawback of phase control is radio frequency interference (RFI) The chopped . half-sine '~...ave 'produces strong harmonics that interfere with radio, televlslon.iand 'other communication equipment. . . . In-this chapterwe wi!l study controlled rectifiers, ranging 'from the simplest configuration, the half-wave rectifier (which is seldom used-in powerelectronlcs 'applications because afme, high ripple voltage. content ofits output), to the center-tap anc' the bridge rectifier circuit. •

are

is'

**18b- Half-WaveControliedRectifiers
**

'6.2.1 With a ResiStive Load

Figure 6.1(a}shows a half-w~ve controlled rectifier circuit wi~ a resistive load Duringthe positive half-cycle of the supply voltage, the SCR IS forward-biased and will conduct if a trigger pulse is applied to the gate. If the SCR turns o~.a~ lo, 10acJcurr~t 'flows and the output voltage Vo will be the same as,~J,,~r;~ ...'

152

CHAPTEIt 6 Single~Phase Controlled

Rectifiers,

voltage. At time t 1t, the current falls naturally to zero, since the SCR is reverse-biased. During the negative half-cycle, the SCR blocks the flow of currem, and no voltage is applied to the load. The SCR stays off until the gate signal is applied again at (to + 2n). The period from 0 to to in Figure 6.1(bl represents the time in the positive half-cycle when the SCR is off. This angle (measured in degrees) is called the firfng angle or delay angle (a). The SCR· conducts from 10 to 1tj this angle is called the conductio" angle (9). The average or DC value of the load voltage is given by

v.>la'·,Il.1

=

=

_~ ..... ;,,,",iC_l_~--,-co..;_s--,,-a;:...)

21t

6.1

+~------~-D~~------~

A K G

ACsupply

Vs

(a)

(XI I I. I I I

I

I

I

I

(b)

Figure 6.1 Half-wave controlled

rectlfler (a) drcult (b) voltaqeand

.current w.etorms

3 These equations tell us 'that the magnitude of the output voltage is controlled by the firing angle. acts like a diode rectifier.""120 30 "60 <. b) a = 45° ..2'.) .voltage v. . a function '9f a' kno wn as.. is v.The maximum output voltage.". n LO ':'- "". the circuit. the control characteristic of the rectifi~r' and. = RMS 1 = v'2 v. the a-yerage output current is ..6:2 Half-Wave Coritrolled RKtifiers_153 where Vm = maximumvalue of theACsource.2 The RMS value of the load current is given by IRMs'= (!m) [1. =' VmCl +Vcosa)/2 /1t2.: laiO + cos 2 1t 0. and vice versa -. 'VcJo:: Vn/1i. £ + _Sin_2_a_]1/2 2' . Increasing . The normalized ave~ge voltage is = = V.reCtifier v.. 21J: 1t 6.. V. If the load resistance is 10' Q. value of the AC source voltage Similarly.. .a 120 V source. occurs when ex 0°. find the load voltage and power to the load for the following delay angles.for a haIf-wave . is shown in :FigU~ 0. a) a = 0° . m 1t =1 + cos a 6.· do. o(avg. Therefore.) - = Vm(l + cos a) 21tR 6. ae) 150 180° Exa~ple 6._ .2. :.) o(avg.. This is the same voltage as for a half-wave diode circuit. Control characterlstk. • 0 . Figure 6.K.1 A half-wave controlled rectifier is supplied from. O~.4 -. as.5 ""90 o . if the SCR is fired at a. Iv. . 0.ex by firing the SCR later in the cyclelowers the voltage." .

) - '-/0 . Example 6. VoCavlI.-'!. • we get 27t _ 170 (1 + cos45°) .17./R= 46.be varied from zero to a maximum of 293 W. oCavg. . = vm = \121/5= " ..22/10:::.9iv pi.g..3'W e) IX = 180".If the delay angle IX is 30°. 45°. the power can .=6. a) For IX= 0°.e) the f) 'the g) the .)::: 0V PL=OW Therefore. d) For IX :::._'.2W 1350.. 60 Hz source is supply ing a resistive load of 10 n. angle ' ripple frequency power factor. we get l~. (l + cos IX) .00+ cos 0°) .1 V PL= 73.) 27t PL = V~~vKjR:.0 /10 2 = 293 W :.154 CHAPTER6 Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers c) IX ~ 90° d) IX = 135° e) IX = 180° "Solution peak load'volt~ge .' 1.' we get.90°. 27. VoCavg.414 • 129 27t = 170 V average load voltage = -.) ::: J. find: 'a) the b) the c) 'the d) the .:: b) For IX:::. :=)4 V.=-~liV . :::.414·/t50.'62V W PL':: ~avg. we get VoCayg.'h) the maximum load current average load voltage average load current RMSload curr~nt power supplied to the load conduction.) :.2 A half-wave controlled rectifier connected to a 150 V."'V~·= Vz:~ == 1. 213 c) For a. Solution peak load-voltage ". V 54. we get ' Vb<av.

21t = (21.. _ 30 + sin 60] 180 e) power-supplied to the loads= li.cos u a=cos· Now... " s:. 1 + cos a ---=~<:.':Xavg.60 Hz ..:: Vm(1.IS .52(10) ~ 1094 W f) conduction angle e =.3 A C.) .:: Vm m 155 R = 212 = 21' 2 A 10 a) .= Vs· IR.:.V:.: (212) (1 ' b) average load voltage.2) =10..:: (21.: e 6. g) ripple frequency 15()6 fr ='inpursupply h) frequency =. . . . v:m -1' -1 ' {21t. 2 11: = -21t + cos 30°) 6 = 3V c) average load current d) RMS load current IRMs = = (Im)(1 2 +11:cos a) . e 211: . 21t " Rearranging.1094= 0 6C) 1575' '.6.a = 180° . == 150· 10S=-1575VA PF = p= S . m -1 } . v'n (1 = v~ . + cos a)= 2 1t Vo(avg.2)(12+1tcOS 30°) = 6.2 HCllf-WaveControlled Rectifiers a) maximum load current ' 1 . Calculate the firing angle necessary todeBve'r'150W"ofpower to a 10 Qload: v: o(aVR·) _ v~ll + cos 'a) ..5 A V 1[1.\ls R= 10.) J[ 2- 1-~'+ Si~ !a] .) 21t Vo(avg:) . .30° = · .+ cos ' . 180° .o(avg:) V.3 Solution A half-wave controlled rectifier is connected to' a 120 V source.

) = p.170 38. I • Figure 6. When the applied voltage becomes negative..156 CHAPTER 6 Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers and Pa. and . • ---i~~--~~------+-~ (b) __--~~ I _.7 V Therefore ct = 64.3 Half-wave rectifier with anRL load (alcircuit (b) waveforms forvoltage~rid. • • "5 • + . .3(a).1} -1 6. the inductor is . The curI ~ . I I I (a) ---t~I~--~~~----~~----~--~w I I .vg. = V~a . • R= 150· 10 ~ 1500 Vd.·g.I I I. However.) g R • ·V~avg.vg:) = Vi560 = 38.storing energy in it! magnetic field. If the SCR is triggered at 'a firing argle of c. the energy stored in the magnetic field of the inductor h returned and maintains a forward-decaying 'current through the load.2 With an Inductive (RL) load A half-wave rectifier with aload consisting of Rand L is' shown in Figure 6. .. The volt age across the load (vJ is positive.7 ..current . the SCR is reverse tiased..2.. the load current increases slowly.50 {21t = cos. since the inductance in the load forces the current to lag the voltage..

2 Half-WaveControlledRectiflefS 157 rent continues. to flow until P (called the advanceansle).'-~-+I----+-l:-:. I (b) ff9!J1'8 6.. . a freewheeling diode is used as spawn in Figu~ 6.cos 21t. _ o(avg. ...and . When the load voltage tends to reverse. when the soirums off. voltage across the inductor then changes polarity. L + .·the average output voltage becomes less than it would be with a purely resistive load. Asa result. the FWD becomes forward-biased and turns on._-t----~ rot I I I I.10 I I I 1 I Yo k - a . the Vs 3it fill -vril 110 It!!.6. they contain a sighlficant amount of ripples. The SCR then becomes reverse-biased and turns off. riegaQve. Therefore. The waveforiIlS for output voltage and current are-shown in 'Pigure6.. 6. The averageload voltage is given by: v.3 With a Freewh~eling Diode To cut off the pe_gative portlori ofthe Instantaneousoutjnit voltage and smooth the output current ripple..) - Vm(cosa .S 6. .2.4. .: I» .wlthFWD (a) circuit (b) waveforms . . I I I 1 lr1 • rot "'n --I-_.:.3 (b).the vohage across the load becomes.4 Rtload.The.

6 6. and it. ' 6.1 With a Resistive load Figure 6.ss= 1m[1 _ a.1.-.zero.) follows theInput voltage. . .5 shows the basic arrangement of a single-phase. wheels between the load and the diode. Figure 6.1 and . StR1"isnied again at (2n + a.).The output voltage again follows the input voltage. Th~ output voltage (Llc. and current waveforms.-(l~_+.wm. The current through SCR2 becomes zero 'at' 2n. Note that the current continues (0 flo" in the load after the SCR is turned off.158 CHAPTER6 Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers current that was flowing from the source to the load through the SCR now free.).CR1is.. and the cycle repeats... samewaveformas the load voltage.3 Full-Wave Controlled Center-Tap Rectifiers 6.6. Phase control of both the positive and the negative halves of theAC supply is now possible. VO<avg.' rectifiers. Figure 6. S. center-rap controllec rectifier with a resistive load.1:u. ".. Ifweapply thegatesignal atn. During the negative half-cYCle.1: . . . given by Equation6. thus increasing the DC voltage and-reducing the" ripple compared' to those of half-wave. The average value of the output.5 Full-wave center-tap controlled rectifier circuit 'Sc~.. ' During the .voltage is given cgain by Equation. SCRI turns on.positive half-cycle of the input voltage...+~Sih2 ~]~ ... rums off. SCR.) = _V. ' . At n.6 shows the resulting voltage .3. . "'. The average value of the load voltage is' twice that. irturns' off naturally.c~Os::. The load current Go= vo/R)has the..is fired at '(" " . K· 21t ' .(n ~ ex). and SCRz at (3n + a. when the current throughSCRi becomes. due to the energy stored in the inductor The output voltage is the same as in-a c~rcuit with a resistive load.forward-biased. " .~.'SCRz is forward-biased.a~) 6.

180°. o "" '"' 6.. and the load voltage folloWs.). SCR2 now conducts for '1800 from (1t + ex) to (21t + 'ex) and supplies power to the load . since the supply voltage immediately appears across it and applies a reverse bias.2. = . The normalized average outputvoltage is: iJ' = 'n=· . SCR1 now turns off. With.6.". and its negative maximum when a . The average value of the load voltage.an InduCtive (RL) load Figure 6. . At (1t + a.Vm cos ex 1t 2 6.' ~CRl~qnduCts for from q to (i+ ex)..the input voltage. SCRi' is fired.6 Full wave center-tap rectifier waveforms with a resistive load 159 "s \. zero when (X = 90°. is given by iso- Vo(avg) .e.)' Vdo· = cos a . Vo(avg.8 The output voltage Is at its maximum when a 0°.3 Full-Wave Controlled Center-Tap Red:ifiers Fi9~re·6.1 ~hQWS thewaveformsfor voltage-and current. present at all times).3. assuming a :highly 'inductive load 'so that the load current is continuous (i.

-o.. }Mti~U operation o <. o " f':. 120 150 . I tpciauon 1 Inverter .. .- -."" --- . . <. I 90 I so . rs -i.5 l- :-- - .31t' I . .figure 6.8 Control characteristic center-tap rectifier for a 1. .0 0. .' --.7 FuJI wave center-tap rectifier waveforms with an RLload ---f--~--~~-I __~~~---+~~ . '" -.---. .160 CHAPTER 6 Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers Figure 6. I I I I f .• ..o 1---.... «I . .

the 'scurce :v.{50. the positive half-cycle of the source voltage. AC source. blasedand SCR~ is reverse-biased. increase the firing angle ex to 90<:. .)). assuming a highly inductive load.12.oltage i-s.The current to the load is supplied in tum DY SCR1and SCR2.: due. center-tap rec- b) 45° ·90° d) 135° c) e) 180° Solution (3.8. which contains the voltage and current waveforms with' a= 45°. for: example. .·When a::: 135°. The SCRs remain. the AC source to as DC load. SCR1 is forward. This is possible. as shown in Figure 6.Satl waveform) . The voltage across the load is VS' The application of a gate pulse with a zero firing-delay angle-results in anoutput similar to that of an uncontrolled rectifier . load current can flow only if there is a negative source of voltage at the OC load side.becomes zero. d) If we increase the firingangle a beyond 9()0. b) . in conduation for 180° (Figure to ~m ' . The voltage across the load is tis.In Figure .CRs still remtmS ln conduction for lEW shown.load for the following a) 0° the operation of a full-wave firing angles: . to the highly Inducnve nature of the load.6. witha firing angle of 0°.. 'each conducting for 180°.The load current still flow in each SCR for !flOC in its original direction..) Figure 6. so' there is no transfer of power from.6.~sourcevoltageIn the negative dlrectiori' (see the t. the power supplied to the DC load decreases.: the In summary. This circuit acts like an int)et1~. . the : average DC voltage (VO<3Vg. The RMS output voltage is given by of ex) is shownIn Vci<RMS):::.10. becoming zero when a::: 90°.the average DC voltage reaches its maximum negative value.SCR2 will conduct up to this point. but the load voltage has changed polarity-The power nowflows from the DC loop to the.3 Full-Wave Controlled Center-Tap Rectifiers 161 Fig- The' control characteristic (the plot of Vn as a function ure 6.If we increase the firing angle.' as the firing angle is increased from 0 to 9Cr'. If ·$CRi is .11..4 Explain with the help of waveforms tifier with RI. c) If we. theaverage OC output voltage decreases as shown in Figure 6. During the negative half-cycle. SCR2 is reverse-biased loti turnsoff.9 showsthe waveforms for voltage and current. the two S. VsO!MS) 6.triggered at . Each SCR conducts for 180° and supplies current to the load for this period.. SCR2 is forward-biased and SCR1 is reverse-biased. the average DC voltage . 180°.10 Example 6. The off SCRis subjected' to twice th. 'e) If we h-Icre:tse the firingangle a. is negative.negarjye.<:onditions. During. WlJen seR1 turns-on. in a DC motor under regenerative . even though.. However. .

I I I I I I I I I : VO(I..) -rI I I ---+----~~~---+------~....10 Voltage and current waveforms for ex.. I I I I I 1 I is (Ii.. I 1 ----~~--~_.1 1 I : VO(a.~ Voltage and current waveforms for a = O' Figure 6. I . rot I I I I. - ~----~~----~~----~~~ :J1t I I .16J CHAPTER Single-Phase Controlled.~--------~'II 1 I r --------r--I I I I· -.-+----'--j----TI .vm -2V m " I I I I I -:. I I .. I I I I I '1 I ... _------+'I I -------.--~ I I I I' I I I --4-___. -r-' .t--iSCRt 1------1 I I I I . Figure 6..~~ I I I I ~--------~. 45° . . I I I' I iSCRl fJ)I 'I I I I I I I I I (J)I I I . Rectifi~rs 6 ". I I I -2V m ... +--------~I I I 1 1 1 I 1 I .!..~ " I ~~~~~~~--~i---~. -.--L---~_+'~:-~~-t'--~~ 2it+(x I I..

. I : ----~----La-.. : ! '' --- - -- __ .I : I I I I I'SCRI If -'I' .J __ · I I I .r' .rD· V SCR1 ~-4----~---7..I-[r-~~~~: .--. I . w~ I --~r_----~~------~~'------~~~~rot n+a 2x+a : . i i --r'---'--'-'--~~--. ~' I I r--.-2Vm " .. I ·_L_ I -2V Jim .-+~'~--..-. --~~~--~-1-----~'_~~--~--~l~~~ " I I ~~... _·-I.n' ..'_'-"'. --_j ! is ." f'_S_C_R_~oth.90· Figure 6.11 Voltage and current waveforms for IX ..----~--~~r.----r---~--~~--~~~~ I:.I J I. : ---~---------~. 10: I : : I Figure 6.. . I ..L I I_" .--- '.. \ ' . : . mt . I i~~~~:""" __ ·-ll__ ...-: ....-T----.. _~ __ ...~'----L2-n--+-a~'---·~~ ~ . l±F-~ : .' __ .12 Voltage and current waveforms for IX= 135° .· '.

. firing angles: a) a> 0 b) a <900 c)a> 90 0 d) a < 180° 0 Solution a. the direction of power flow and the operating mode (rectifying or Inversionlof the center-tap converter circuit with the following. power' flow is from the AC source to the DC load.13 Voltage and current waveforms for a = 180· Example 6. Figure 6. In this moue.164 CHAPTER 6 Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers.5 Show. the average output voltage is positive and the converter operates in the rectifying mode.b) For firing angles in the range 0° < Cl< 90°. the power t~ the load is positive. that is.

the load' voltage is' clamped to zero vc:>ltsA nearly constant 'oa? .__--'------'---(b) rot s 6. Inthis mode.3. Thus. . FWD becomes forward-biased.powedlowis from theDf.14 !r·tap rectifier with RL load and FWD (a) circuit (b)yoltage and current fu~ .3 ..that is.d) For' firing angles "in the 'range 90~ -:< ex < 180°.the load voltage tends to go negative.6. ---I_.7~ As .1.. ith W Di~e in Figure A freewheeling diode connected across the Inductive loadCas shown . .AC source. . and' starts conducting. .4) .__-__. CD -f~wh~ling 6.-. the power to the load is p.egative.. the output voltage is nega'live arid the converteroperates In-the inversion mode. load to fue'.l.modlfies the voltage and current waveforms of Figure 6.e. the.

is given by: 10 = _.3. Figure 6. + S1.) - "..Vm n+ cos a) '1\1.The'averag~.-:''11:a..shown in._ 1t Vm (1 +'cos .:i. in' pairs with a delay -angle of a.166 CHAPTER 6 .). 1tR ". Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit .15 shows a full-Wave~ontrPlled bridge rectifier circuit with a resi: load: In this circuit. RMS =~ V2 .::z.:Rsare off. v (1+ cos a) a r:I.y'.15· .4 Full·WaveControlred Bridge Rectifiers 6.4. The aVI v. the current :through the FWD(D).) - . Therefore.I)C output voltage can be controlle-d zero to its maxllllru:npositive value by varying the firing angle.artq~tof the full-wave center-tap circuit cussed Section6. 1t . The ave value ofthe DC voltage.Vm(1 + cos a. diagonally OPJ?<:?~ltepairS of SCRs turn onand off toge The circuitoperation ~s si.I1fil.py}hefreewheeling age load voltage is given by. The SCRs are controlled and fire. as . w]: the S<.) 1t and ]. is in " 9<avg. o(.\~.diode carries the load current during the delay period a.1".avg. Single·Pha~e ControlledRlKtifiers' current is mafntaine.16. lor..q)a. 6. current through the' diode.. The freewheeling. 1tl 6 R 6..Figure 6. a.'0 '211: 2« Cl.1 In Circuits With a Resistive load Figure 6. The and voltage waveforms become full-wave.

16 ..-----~----.----..4 Full-Wave Controlled Brj~ge Rectifiers gure6. 1 1 I· _ 1 1 1 1 I .. ...6.1 __ r I "":' __ 1 1 11 1 1 __ L-J_--~~~I----~~----~----~~ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . +v m .' aveforms of the bridge ctifier with a resistive load 167 til 1 1 I I· • Ilt+1l 1 L I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I· __h-~~~~~--~~~~~--~'~ ·6 .

.6 A .the firing angle a is 30°. the power supplied to the load the ripple' frequency g) the power factor o Solution Vm =V2(150) = 21.: (212Xl + cos 30Q)... .. • = (Vrn? (1 + cos 30°) =12. twice.c_o_s_o. [1.) R 1 _ Vro + cos a.~) . from Equations 6.. "'<>(avg.. b) the average load current c)t!lemaximum load current d) the RMS load current e).168 CHAPTER6 Single-:Phase Controlled Rectifiers The average values for' voltage and current are again. .] Example 6.) - 6.: and .~•. d) RMS load current kMs == = 14. Vro(1 + cos 7t.82(10) == 2182W e) power supplied to the load::: .2.J? = 14.) '::: _v.O_+_.) _ - 1t cos a.load voltage . find: a). = 126 Y 7t. 1. the' average . ..) TC o(avg. 1.2" a) average load voltage» b) average load current .in 1t 2n. Vo(~vg.. ik.+ s. R7t a. those bftl half-wave case.J The RMS value of the load current is given by i RMS ~~ V2 J. tt.. .). and 6.6 The full-wave bridge rectifier shown in Figure 6..1. If. c) maximum load current 1m = Xm.15 is supplied from a 150 source with a load resistance of 10 n. == 212 R 10 == 21 2 A .ruL. 2a] 6.8 A -&iJ[ . Therefore.. + s~:a] . n lro (1 + (1 6.

conduct. one pair of SCRs is conducting at all times. increase. .2182 =-s =2220 .(cos cos-B) If the load induct:ihce . current is said to be continuous. which means .. . 11" SCR! and SCRz at an instant when is > 0 (between exand (n + gives The «» . The average value ofthe . = Therefore Vscn1 = -Va.8 .18. 11ie current inaintains conduction in. + "0 When the Inductance is small 01' the delay angle c. Figure 6. Controlled Bridge Rectifiers f) ripple frequency 169 .4 Full-Wave.14.r. as. or decrease in current.output voltage is: '~k Vo(avg.is assumed to be large or exbecomes small.zero and it flows continuously.neither pair Qf. the DC output current reaches-zero everyhalfcycleat (x + ~). as shown in Figure 6. Therefore. ~ tSau Here.19. SCRs is on. shownIn.~. the SCR e ven after ·the voltage across the SCR has reversed.98 6. = 0.' (t - -:. the load current cannot reach' . ~ 2 . is kept large.the addition of an inductive load. . and therefore the current is sa'id tobe discontinuous. SCR1 and SC~.17 Bridge rectifier with an RL ' load . ppose an. .tls= tScRl.4.= V. sen FIgure 6. o keeps con': ducting even though the voltage may have falien to zero. input supply frequency g)S= = 2 • 60 = UO Hz Vs PF '!' IRMs= 150 ·. P.:' . tkRl 0 since SCR1 is conducting. During the positivehalf-cycle. that SCR2 is reverse-biased. The load current tends [()keep flowing since the inductor induces a voltage that acts' to •.). . During' this 'period. Applying KVL around the loop containing. Therefore.2 With an Inductive (RL) load Figure 6. = 2220 VA .17 shows the bridge rectifier with .

!iotl + Vo -I.. ·1- ...SCR1and:SC~ . Therefore.i31 .4 .Interval from ex ton).. . and SCItt gives t. .:: Va (daring the." . ii> .. . Va:.R4 Again. IJ)I r: ii' i4 is Figure 6. tS(..19 WavefQrm of bridge rectifier with L »> R Applying KVLaround the-loop containing tis =: Us> . .seR1r the load.r . I .17() CHAPTER6 ·Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers V SCR1 Col io .are conducting and have zero voltage across them...3 il' . . . Figure 6.18 Waveform· of bridge rectifier witl1· small lriductive load . '2. .. .

20 ' Control characteristic for a bridge rectifier. . ..22 .).4 Full-Wave Controlled Bridge R~jflers 171 During thenegatlve half-cycle. plot o/. . 6.) ~~(RMS) ::. [heRMS value of the supply voltage if the output current is continuous: .. to the road. to t-~ ~ tt-.Vm •.The control bbaraaertstic.. Therefore. ..The normalized voltage VP".:: .. receive agate signal. . 6. through SCR1 and SC~. VO(RMS) RMS v.19 The output voltage is constant. although some of the quantities change sign: Now. SCR(avg...:.6. (a .20:· ' >'. from it to (n: + a).180 .. !o<avg. SCR2 and SC~ are triggered. ISCR(avg.6.. SCR2 and SCR3 are forv vard-blased and' will tum on when they. 30 60 90 ~ ~ -r-. < 0.. t'2)(v') 11:. and equals. 150 Inverter operation . 1& 2 cos..:. a.5 ... Load current still flows in me same path ..y Vdo=~os' a. it R . At (n: + a). . -1. ..m.) - ' . < O.v. V. \Ii .20 so .. SCR3 •are triggered. the source 'voltage v..0 r t1-' _\ \ 1\ -0.Y. theload voltage is negative v. these equations reduce to those for the dlodecase: I.. until SCR2 and. Rectifier operation. independent of the firing angle.. ~ cos a For a·=O" (no phase control).. .21 The' average current is still. .) =: -.\as a function of a) Is.5 t- \. since va is negative. Theaverage value of this output voltage varies wiihee e= Vo(~vg. = -vf = l'S(RMS) 6. Figure 6.shownin Figure 6. Vo(avg'/'R.= 'VO<:ivg... . . ~ ~ 0... The preceding equations do not change form..°0 E___ . which supplies a voltage Va :=. -~ a(") 120 .

RlO :::. This means that from 90 to 180°. (208Xcos 1t = 115 v Vo(avg. find the firing angle c.load current .112 CHAPTER Single-Phase controlled 6 Rectifiers Note that when a becomes larger than sx)o.7 A full-wave controlled rectifier with an inductive load is ~onr:iected to a 230 V source.. Vo(avg. the' resistive portion of the load Is equal to 10'0. Example 6. a) the average load voltage .. .the process is called tuo-quadrant operation and theconverter is 'called a full converter. the maxlmumload . = 1.5 !l. .. Ifthedelay angle a is 30°. Vm cos a 1t 30) b) average load current "OI.8 Afull-wave controlled rectifier with an inductive load is connectedto a 120 V source. If the voltage across the load is 200 V. power flows from the DC load side to the AC source side and the circuit. operates as an inverter.) = 1.'.5..) . .Jolution ~~:: v'2 (120) :: 208 V a) average load voltage Vo(avg.A.the average value of output voltage becomes negative.96 a= 15°' (j. - 115 = 11.avgJ T. . 200= 1. .currenr d)the RMS. Example 6. When rectification and inversion are obtained from one converrer.cos = '0. (Yz • 230) 1t .) = 2 n Vrn cos a cos a .' b) the average loadcurrent c) . The resistive portion of the load is equal to 0. find . e) the average current in-each sc~ the power supplied to the 10~d g) the form Factor h) the ripple Factor D the rectifier efficiency o . =.19. Solution From Equation 6.

' . To illustrate..i) rectifier efficiency rj = V1.' 'Pigure 6. is connected across the load.19 are now replaced by Vo = 0. SCR3.3 = Vo(avg/Vo(RMS) = 115/120 = 0:96" 6. the average SCR current is = "2 10(a"8')= 5.22.52(10) ::::-1323 W = 120/115= 1. this. A- n power supplied to the load Ff:::.With. the load current freewheels through D and the SCRcurrents and source current.5 A e) Since the SCRs in bridge conduct on alternate half-cycles.Therefore. . are zero.4 Full-Wave "ControlledBridge Rectifiers 173 c) maximum load current average load current =11.: l«RMS!Vo(aVg.g) . Figure 6. SCR2 and.21 shows the bridge rectifier circuit with the additlon of a freewheeling diode (D). around path thatcontainstS.3 .I Freewheeling Diode If a diode.042.21 .04 h) ripple factor RF== ~ .fier because the dlode prevents negativevaluesofq.5 A d) RMSJoad current = average load current= 11.letusapplyKvl.:.uhenegatlve portions ofvo in Figure 6.R1 and SCI4. Thediod~ provides an.me path through diode Do .~CRh VOl arid SC~: the vs = ~i + vo+ tScR4 ..6.1 = 0. extra path for the flow of load current.) = l~s R= 11.form factor 1 . the circuit can operat~ only as a recti. from appearing across the load. Three paths are now possible: :S<. as shown in Figure 6.and. During this interval. Full-wave bridge"reCtifier with FWD + Negative values of Vo will forward-bias· D and provide zero voltage across the load.(5 .4.

' :. This voltage is never negative.. 6.. o("vg. ' tJsctu Thismeans + tScR4 < 0 that SCR1 and SCRt in series are reverse-biased and turn-off.~. . .. thereforetransfers to the freewheellng diode.21 31t I I I ~ I For the negative. that for the resistive load case. The f~heellng diode's maximum current is the sameasthe muiMWn value of the lOad current. . Therefore. = . is zero for the remaining time. The 'average load voltage is the same as in Equation 6. . . the I'WD is on and Va= O.13. portion when v.) '.24 'The average value of the outputvoltage can be 'varied from 0 to 2 Vrr/1t as ex Increases from 0 to 1t.~. v. 'The average current in the FWD is given by: .. SCRi' and SCR3 are' 'already . 1S. "" Irxavs. negative. -The load c-urrent.off since v. The load voltage waveform Is the same as..~V&)(?-) .) _ Vm(l + cos - 0:) 1t 6.< O. while it.114 CHAPTER 6 Singl~-PhaseControlied Figure 6. . The current in the FWD is the same as 'the load current from 0 to' a and from n: to (1i + a).22 Rectifiers Voltage and current waveforms for Figure 6.

4) 180 . . the average SCR current is = 0- 30°)::: (12..4) (16050)-~ A 5. = (208) n =124 V (1 + cos 30) .4 A e) Since the SCRsin the' bridge conduct on alternate half-cycles for (180 150°.5 Half-Controlled or SemicontrolledBridge Rectifiers 175 Example 6.4 A 10" ".The . they remove power from the DC load and return' it to the ACsource. find . they. o(a'g.42(10)= g) From Equation 6. In the inversion mode.) R = .• b}.) 1538. In the rectifying' mode.average load current == v:. 3 f) power supplied to the load = l~MsR = 12.4 A d) ru. c) maximum load current = average load current == 12. 1.sourcevoltage is. o(avg. (30) = 2.W . 120 V and the resistive portion of the load is IOn .6. = (12. the power supplied totheload g)' the average current in' the FWD Solution ~.' 124 = 12.lS load current average load current = 12. .2 .25. IO(avg..9 A full-wave bridge rectifier with a freewheeling diode supplies anRL load .) -:-. supply 'powerfromthe AC source to the DC load. + cos a) 7t. .5 Half-Controlled or Semlcontrolled Bridge Rectifiers Full or two-quadrant converters can operate with both positive and negative average DC load voltages. . a) the average load voltage b) the average load current c) the maximum load current d) the RMS load current e) the average current" in each $CR • f).~=V2 (120) ::: Z08V a) average load voltage v. .06 A . If the/delay anglen« 30°. .- Vro (1 .

.. . . j j 0. . f SCR..'. + '0 il- l. iD4 .. . . .24 I' ~ iSCR1 isciU i03 .176 CHAPTER6 SinglE!-Phase Controlled RE!ctifiers Figure 6.23 Full-wave semicontroiled bridqe rectifier circuit ·s· OJ 10I. . Waveform fora semicontrolled bridge rectifier with an inductive load Fi9ure~. . .

bridge rectifier with FWD (a) circuit (b) waveform .SCR2 is triggered. " will " I I I I a h' 11' ~i.6.basicsemicontrolled bridge circuit is . At e1t + a). :1FIgure 6 25 [}: Setnicontrolied . Its' operation is the same-as that of a fully controlled bridge rectifier with a resistive load. These circuits are called one-quadrant Or semicontrolled bridge rectifiers. When the source voltage is positive.23. SCR2 turns off and thecycle repeats. ' This is 'accomplished in . A .bridge rectifiers by replacing half of..showrr ill Figure 6.to n). SCR1 aria D4'are forward-biased. The load voltage is the same as the 'input voltage during thlsperiodIn. current flow through D4. An alternative method of obtaining one-quadrant operation in bridge rectifiers is to connecta.freewheeling diodeacrfss the output terminals of the rectifier.SCRswith diodes. the .5 Half-Controlled orSemicontrolled Bridge Rectifier 177 There are various applications that 'require power flow only from the AC source to theDeload and therefore are operated in only the rectifying mode. and SCllI: SCR1 turns off at1t when the source reverses. causing current to flow through D3 and the load. the load. At time 21t. If we trigger SeRial d.

10 Draw the outputvoltage waveform for a full-wave semlcontrolled the one shown in Figure 6. : With an inductive load. SCR1becomes reverse-biased at 1t.across the load is zero until SCRI is turned on at 45°.. During the. and the waveform of the output voltage becomes the same as with a pure resistive toad. SCR1 and D4 are conducting..~ V. the FWD will clamp the neg-. the voltage is the same as that ofa full converter with F\VD: VO<avg.1. interval 11: to (r.25). and durl. +tX) and through SCRz and D4 during the Interval Zn to (211:. to (n + 0:).26 If the circuit in Figure 6. == 45° c) ex = 90° Solution a) ex =. SCR2 and D~ are. =.current will flow throughout the entu. ' . the FWD becomes forward-biased and begins . and 03' When SCRzis turned on at (n + 45°).uring the perif>d wien the load current is freewheeling. Similarly.t + 0:).) V.:. D. The load current will rreewheel through SCR.111erefbre. During the positive half-cycle... = -..:<1 + cos ex) 6. As a result.\.to zero as the firing angle is varied from 0 to 180°. negative half-cycle (even if the gate signal is "removed) and therefore the circuit . as shown in Figure 6..24. SCR1 turns off and the load current flows through SCR2 and D3 until '$CR2 and D3 are reverse-biased. Ti eoutpur voltage is the same as (hat of a diode bridge rectifier (Figure 6. The average value of the output voltage is given by Equation 6.e control.23 for the following delay angles: a) ex = 0° ' rectifier ' like b) a. The average output voltage can therefore be varied from its maximum positive value . During the negative half-cycle.ntalns a highly inductive load the load. conducting. and D.1iJ1 . that is. At this point. alive voltage excursions to zero.positive half-cycle. no .2. SCR1 _maintain conduction until SCR2 is turned on. . the negative portion of the output voltage is cut off.} during the.7 Example 6.mel + cos ex) 7t .0°. commutation (current transfer) occurs every halfcycle to bypass the load current through the diode. The current freewheels through SCR1.g the negative half-cycle.. .. during (he internal 1t. the voltage .118 CHAPTER6 Single-Phase Controlled Rect1fh . 6. b) ex == 45°. the output voltage becomes zero.26(a»). SCR2 remains in conduction and the loadcurrenr freewheels through SCR2 an~ D .to conduct _ '>..~.:..3 me load voltage tends to reverse. The load current freewheels through the FWD.+ a). current IS supplied from theACsource. . If a freewheeling diode is used (Figure 6. Vo(av8') . If we assume an inductive lead.'. The load current flows through SCR1 and J4• and the source voltage is applied to the load. during the interval 21t to C::.3 .24.

.27. that of .. .. shown..::o 90°.the path that includeS the two diodes. (c) Both SCRs remain in conduction for 180~... and. . in Figure 6...waveform.' .. 'Therefore.. . . .26(b)" shows the output voltage . The freewheeling current is limited' [0 . .' .. the period of conduction/of the diodes increases."s oo (b).:. 4~o (see = Figure' 6. Dl and D.~t: ' .26 ~ Outputvoltage waveforms for (a) a = 0·..26(c»).' .. circuit configuration is. (c) «=90· (b) a = 45°.. in series..' . Figure 6. An alternative.. . c) ex. Figure 6. The operation is exactly the same as in the case when 0:. . ...

' '.28 SCR Semicontrolled bridge converter. Tue waveforms are the R same as.diode bridge to give full-wave voltage wtput. but can also have a positive current and a reverse voltage.29 to form a dual converter. one direction. Full or twoquadrant converters can opt-rare with positive polarity of output voltage and current.6 Dual Converters It should benoted that the semiconverter or-one-quadrant cc nverter discussed in the previous section allow.. Here. Semicontr. Power is therefore positive. The SC.the'AC -input voltageIs-rectified by the .of the semicontrolled bridge converter i~ shown in. Figure 6. an alternative Circuit configuration Figure 6~27 + Another possible arrange men: . Figure 6.olled bridge converter. Two-full converters can be connected back to back as shown in Figure 6.24. A dual converter or four-quadrant. The dualconverter provides Virtually instantaneous reversal of current through the ..28. DC load. supply to' the.rowc~ now is from the AC.24. one pr-iarity of output voltage and current. that b.180 CHAPTER6 Single-Phase Contr. Thus a semiconverter can operate only in the rectifying mode. alternative arrangement 6. s now block for a full 180°. converter can operate as a rectifier or as an inverter with current flow in both directions.olled Rectifiers the SCRs decreases.1be output is then controlled by the SCR The FWD allows the flow of current through the load during the time [he SCR is off. only'. Full' converters can therefore operate as rectifiers or as inverters With current flow in. The average output .iri Figure 6.oltage is the same as in Equation -6.

6.2 A half-wave~o~trolled rectifier (figure 6.~ :6.29 Dual converters + "s '. Also plot the control characteristic in Figure 6. loadcurrent. the reverse direction. Figure.7 ~len)S .0°) Vn -----j do YO(avg.One-converter causes the load 'current.I WIt (l- = Vdo = ' Yr'.calculare V~X:avg. ~~------------------~~--~~--~------~------~------~------~ ~~ Problems J~r '6. 181 Ioad .( Vo(avg. . find. (c) an inductive load with a firi.)and tabulate 6.'" ..ng angle of 0° (d) an inductive load with a firing lingle of 90° . a:" l?Q~ '.30. (a) the power supplied to the load (b) the maximum SCR current (c) the average SCR current Cd) the SCR maximum reverse voltage A half-wave 'controlled rectifier with a resistive load is fed from.'.3 the results in Table 6. (a) areslsttve load with a firing angle of 45° (b) a resistive load with a firing angle oL135° .1(a) supplied from a 120 V source is used to control the power to a 15 n load.1.) v.1 Draw the waveforms for load voltage.a 45 V AC source.6. Table 6-1 I. If the delay angle . while the other converter causes the flow of load current in. For the given delay angles.:' h . .to flow in 9n~direction. and voltage across the SCR fora half-wave controlled rectifier for the following cases: .is 75°.

If it isused to charge a 12 V battery having an internal resistance of 0..6 (b) 600 (c).6. 90 (d) .. voltage.1 find ' .30 Plot of Vn VS. (l . find theaverageoutput voltage for the . 182 CHAPTER6 Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers Figure 6. calculate Vo(avg.the following cases: (a) a.a semndary _ voltage of'120 V (center-tap to line). resistive load with a firing angle of 600 ' (b) a resistive load with a firing angle of IF (c) an inductive krad 'with a firing angle' of 10C" A full-wave center·..7 .~-aye~nter-tap rectifier for . and voltage across the two SCRs for a fuIl-. 6.:i-d. .' :".ay angles.} .!:::::.4 A full-wave center-tap rectifieris fed from a transformer with .. each ~ '. plot the control characteristic in ~~ 6. "'i.:· ~r witha-reslsdve !00i. If the load Inductance is much greater than the l~ad resistance..ltirxling) AC .followlng firing angles: (a) 450 0 6.source. Table 6-2 .31.:::.: grr--en .1350 Draw the wavdonris for load..(a) the firing angle necessary! to produce acharging current of 10 :\ (b) the average SCR current (c) the PIV rating of the SCR - - n.5 A full-wave center-tap rectifier is fed from a 120 V source. For d:ii. •load current..:me ~the results irl T~~ ::'.1. 6.d ~ ·fed fronl a 90 V (45 V on.

8 A full-wave rectifier (Figure 6.Joad·wilh a fimJIg 3I1IfIJL-:t:2r . qJasbte Vo(avaJ and tabulate the results in Table 6-3~ Also plot the control characteristic in Figure 6.b) the 5CR maximum voltage (c) the power supplied to the load 6.advantages and disadv:anttges ci a center-tap converter~ a bJidBe converter. A fuII. find tal ~ SCR ~ge current • I. and voltage at.12G V '~ 'ptovi:de:i' a'-OC voltage of 90 V..-waYe brJdse rectifier wiIh a 9 . angle a (b) the value of the load resistor R (c) the SCR maximum current (d:) the :'.15) fed from a 200 V source supplies 'average current of.. If the firing angle is 30°.l5) connected to 'a ..~-cne tiring angle a is 6QO. find: outPut .DgW:e 6.6..n:t3:ximum voltage (a.'Pi·. 2fJ Q.angles. 10 A. 6. find (a) the average power delivered to the load (b) the average SCR current (c) the SCR'current (d) the sea peak reverse 'voltage (e) the value of the load resistance an maximum 6..-=PF.7 Figure 6..delay .is l.12 Draw the waveforms for load voltage.:n A ~ ZZII V ~..Joad current..6.AC source.a 'The load resistance ~.t05S the .. w±!iJe the Joadindnca ..21) ~ conne:t1'f'd 'Jb..9 Discuss tbe-."w: k:Qd is fed from a 4S V ..32.)~fuing fxidge rectifier with an·FWD i.lf1he power suppliedro the kIaid: is·1 KW. SCRs fora full-wave bridge teCtifier fot the following C3SeS: (a) a resistive bad wilha fiII:iog:Jlllllf!ltd ~ (b) a resistive.HA ~ bridge rectifier (Figure 6. 6.31 Plot of Vn Y5 a Problems 183 6. For tlte given' .. ' .13.

(c) the power supplied to the load ~'5 & full-wave bridge rectifier with. find (a). maximum voltage .t4A full-wave bridge rectifier with211. the SCR average current '.) 0 0 30· 60· gOo 120°' 150 0 180· v.--e is 10 0..d) power supplied to the 103(1 me me 6. find: (a) the average load cuaent the SCR' a~ entRst the FWD a¥tCii(¢ CUIrteJSt 1be SOl ma:x:inium :reveDIIi: ~ (e') die a'etage power suppftii to Ibe load (b) (e) (d) .32 Plot of Vn vs a 6.'.>m FWD (Figure 6. find \AJ ~ SCR maximum currera ''. If the fu-:i:t:Ig: angle (t is 30°.21) isconnecred to..:r) SCR. If the firing angle (l = 120°.184 CHAPTER 6 Single-Phase TabJe6-3 Controlled Rectifiers a Vo(aIIg. The average curre:ot supplied to the load is 20 A. if t±:l:e ..21) is ..17.fWD (Figure 6.a lOB V source..connecred to .. (0) theSCR maximum voltage . The average vobge across the load is 1()o V. a I2D V source.16 In the circuit in Figure 6. tS is a source of 230 V and R is 100.) the firing angle Cl \. Fig-we 6.::::siS"ua.

and a . " -. The source voltage Is 220 V ¥lgle is 45°.6.v ll. ~'" 185 "'120V source with a resistive load Rof the average value of the load voltage. .nf!~es. four-quadrant.2g> I 15f1' I 180" a &. .ji~sI4jt 10 n If the .Ue..) and tabulate the p1c?~the.te Vo(avs. Vn VS a..r.33. converter. 6.24 Briefly 'expJaift the operation ot"a one-quadrant. semiconrrolled converters 6. calcul. Table 6-4 . find the averi~qq(~ea across the load.18' Repeat.~- a Figure 6.33 Plot of. a ~ . I i ] i 0" 30" I 1 flY' 'I 90" I J.7 Problems 6. LUi! I ! ! AI.cQntrol characteristic in Figure 6.17 A bridge rec:ti.19 A bridge and the a resistive load is fed from a 45 V QelaYf:a.

9 6.13 6.6 Slnglft·Phase .'1 i 'i 186 CHAPTER. 2lt . 6. IR}. . ex ::i: VS(RMS) V o(avg. V.: o(avlJ.16 1 " _ Vm(I o(. Vn/lt RMS 11) =1 :+- cos a ' 2 6.1 '.) _.. • I ..Controlled Rectifiers 6..: = Vm(1 + cos a)/27i n . J ::(!m.) - ~m(1+ cos ex) It R 6.) .4 6.) - 2.. 2..+ si~ 2a]lIi .8 Equations v.2 v.\IS = 1 Vz [.' V _ o(~vg.) - _ Vm(t Vm(l + cos a) 2 11) 6..7 6. o(avg..Jl2 It .-SI-·~-2-a-] . Vm cos a It.\f1_'a.11 6.cos ~) .Vg~) - + cos a) ~=~~'.t R' ..S 6. .: ofavg.) - _ Yu/l + cos ex) It 6. ' . Iv.- _-~-+-. v..8 6. o(avg.. :: V. .ls=Im Vo(avg.12 I[) = ---"''"'---::.[ 1. .~ Vm(cos·tt. . .sin 2 a]ll2 2x' .-'--'''''':''''':= 2 v~(1 + cos a)a 1t R v. =~=cos Vdo VO(RMS) .15 6.Y do . 1t ex 1t 2 + sin2lt aJI2 ..) .- _ Vm(I + cos a) 1t 6.- ex..14 IR. l + cos a).1 L_ "'O(avg. It + .6 v.10 = -.

Vm(1 + cos ex)· . 6.. m cos a =VS(RMS) .-Io(avg.) =.' cos 13) .avg. O(avg.23 6. 6.25 .)(a) it ". J.. SCR(RMS) - V'i Vo(avg.) . .x..x ~ cos ex ..22 6.. - (2)(Vm) R . =-:<1+cos . v.. 6. TT Yo(avg.26 6. I.ISCR(avg) T· = xR _ ISCR(avg.19 v.8 Equation ··VO<avg. . V. Vo<RMs)== ~ T_ .6. ex) .) = .27 Vo(avg.rem (1 . -.). .) = ~(cos:a- 187 6..18 6.) .= 2 1r: V.. v.. + coso) .. Vo(avg. ..20 'O(.) - .24 6.21 6.)= . V2 .