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LINSA VOICE JOIN THE DREAM One of the greatest speeches that have changed the world for

good was delive red by Martin Luther King (Jnr.). This man had the audacity to dream of a better future for America, and though he did not live to see it fulfilled, it eventual ly became a reality. This single act should awaken in us the need to dream big a nd have the required drive to see it come true. The world has experience so much change as a result of dreams by men who foun d purpose, by pursuing visions created by inspiration and passion. The nation is deeply in need of change which will only come, when concern Nigerians especiall y Christians wakes to realize that it is our responsibility to illuminate even t he darkest part of this nation and the world at large. The light given to us (The body of Christ) by God serves as solution to the p roblem of mankind, Just like Martin Luther King (Jnr.), i also have a dream that one day, Nigeria will no longer be known as a corrupt nation; that the basic ne eds of life such as food, shelter and clothe will not be a luxury to the common man. I have a dream that Nigeria will become one of the most industrialized and developed nations in Africa producing great inventors and scientist. I have a dr eam that government body would, as the police and other government parastatals, not have to collect bribe and politicians will not dare to loot public funds. I have a dream that Nigeria would have one of the most stable economies in the wor ld. I have a dream that other nations from Europe, Asia, America among others wo uld labour to have their visa to Nigeria granted. It is my greatest dream that N igeria ones again will take its place as the giant of Africa; setting the trail for others to follow. I believe in this dream, I believe in Nigeria. Let us join hands to make this dream a reality through collective efforts, rejection of corrupt practices and taking giant stride for change and development. It is our responsibility as the light of the world to make this vision (dream) a reality. OKEIDESAN, Ochuko Ex-President, LINSA 07038327875 BECOMING A DAD How difficult it is to become a Dad. Oh, you might think it's not. It is in f act a natural thing, a moment when two make one. But I am speaking about the act of filling the shoes, playing the part, becoming a "Dad." They had arrived at the beach just minutes after Marianne and I had just sett led down. I was under the umbrella, she was already greased up and ready to face the sun. Off to our right this young couple arrived loaded with all the equipme nt necessary to feed and protect their newborn. I learned later that the child w as just 6 months old. Mum carried the child, Dad carried everything else. Both had an important role to play, for this was their first time ever at the beach a s "family." It is a new beginning, a ritual of sorts, for they are creating memo ries for a lifetime. Dad is claiming his place today like all the father's befor e him. In the next few minutes he will either successfully accomplish his assign ed task of setting up this family beach site or fail miserably under pressure. I t sets the pace for all future attempts at becoming the man both his wife and ch ild hope for. But his wife isn't going to make it easy: "You brought that?" she asks; "Why in God's name did you bring that stupid cabana thing, you should have brought the umbrella". "This will be better for the child, it will keep the wi nd from her and protect her from the sun," he said. I could almost hear him grun ting, you know like a proud manly man. "It will not! The wind is blowing so hard , it will pick her up and take her away," she replies. He whimpers, slightly wou nded. "Well, I'll take her down by the water, you set that thing up. You brought it," she continues. He growls beneath his breath. I sat watching him, wanting d esperately to run over and help him. I wanted to save this young guy from defeat

. But this is what life is made of, this moment in time and moments gathered and collected for years to come. So I sat watching him. He fought valiantly, lookin g up periodically to see where wife and daughter was sitting. He was meeting his challenge. I looked down at the beach and saw them approaching. "Come on buddy! You can do it!" I cheered in my heart. He did it! Mother and child stared in aw e and amazement. He awaited his accolades from his wife but all he got was: "You didn't put her blanket in there, that surface will be too hot! In my heart I was booing her. I growled. She turned and stared at me sensing my attempt at unifyi ng in spirit with him. My upper lip curled defiantly, but I retreated. In my min d he was successful. In her soul she knew she had married the right guy. But it is not in her nature to acknowledge that so early on. Then it all came rushing b ack to me. I watched as he walked down to the shore line. He turned to look at t hem several times. He stood there now a father, in earlier times perhaps they wa lked this beach hand in hand as lovers. Now, as a new family, those precious mom ents have given way to reality. They have responsibilities for each other and fo r their child. He walks along looking lonely and lost. She lays nearby the baby torn between what once was and what is now. They take turns as she now heads dow n to the waters edge alone and longing for what was and what is. Having been the re myself, my mind fast forwards seeing them both in future times. The scene as I see it: They have returned to this beautiful resort by the sea every year now. It has become a part of the family tradition. Dad has now made his mark and suc cessfully played the role of father for about two decades. This time his daughte r is walking on the beach by his side, holding his hand saying: "Daddy, We've be en coming here now since I was a baby. You have given me a lifetime of memories here,". "I can remember the first time we brought you here," he tells her. "Dadd y, when I was away at school I missed being with you a few summers. I want you t o know it wasn't easy," she says. "It just wasn't the same without you honey," h e says with tears in his eyes. "But I know it is a part of life. You are growing up. One day you'll meet a man who will take you from us for good. He will have to be a special man," Dad says. "Daddy, he is," she says as she stops and holds both his hands. "What?" replies Dad. "Daddy, that's why I wanted to be here this year for this vacation. You have given me so many wonderful memories. I wanted to give you one," she says. Then bowing her head for a moment and then glancing up to look him directly in his eyes she says, "Daddy, John has asked me to marry him. I said yes." He pauses for a moment. Then embracing her, they spin around as they hug a hug of joy. Back to today, this moment in time... Who knows. Perha ps years from now this wet-behind-the-ears father I see before me will one walk this same beach with his grandchild. He's struggling with what he needs to do ne xt and I have already seen his future. How? I walked this beach before with my c hildren. For now I am in limbo between Dad and Grandpa. In the meantime Marianne and I cherish these few days together alone, waiting desperately to play the pa rt and walk hand in hand with my grandchild. Perhaps I will be here the day he i s walking with his daughter. Should I warn him it all comes too soon? No, that's a part of "Becoming Dad," too. Excuse me. The cabana he put together just blew away. He forgot to fasten it down. Grow!!!!!!! "I believe in You!" Written by Bob Perks edited by Ichide Aghogho Anatomy(200L) THE CONQUERORS ATTITUDE Even the impossible can become possible, because I believe so. The toughest c hallenges can be won because I am a fighting man. There is fire burning in my he art because Im after a prize. Anything farfetched can be achieved...yes; it can b e done because in truth I believe I am the right one. But thats no surprise becau se there is fire burning in my heart. Anything unlikely can be overcome in an ho ur of darkness even though there exist someone who think the situation is hopele ss, but my spirit never dies cos of the fire in my heart. My heart is ablaze with the flame of triumph; my soul alight with this fire of success. An eternal infe

rno rages within me and when you peep into my heart, you will see the fire burni ng within. I must have faith in myself when no one else does; work hard because that is the main pinnacle to my success; have confidence in myself no matter the obstacles or hardship that comes my way, for I will definitely reach my final d estination. In order to prepare for my future as well as succeed in life, I must learn to live in the now, any failure or downfall is a stepping stone to a grea ter height in life. The past is gone but I will learn by it and cherish its mem ories, look forward and apply what I have learnt because our everyday life is an experience and a lesson. One of the most precious things in life is to feel loved, so I will love peop le around me and that will make them feel special, reciprocate people s love and learn to love even those I feel do not love me. EGBUCHULEM, Chinedu Moses Linguistics (200 level) 07060701894 GRATITUDE Gratitude, thanksgiving, or appreciation is a positive emotion or attitude in acknowledgement of a benefit that one has received or will receive. Gratitude i s an emotion that occurs after people receive help, depending on how they interp ret the situation. Specifically, gratitude is experienced if people perceive the help they receive as valuable to them, costly to their benefactor, and given by the benefactor with benevolent intentions (rather than with ulterior motives). Gratitude is not the same as indebtedness. While both emotions occur followin g help, indebtedness occurs when a person perceives that they are under an oblig ation to make some repayment of compensation for an aid. The emotions lead to di fferent actions; indebtedness motivates the recipients of the aid to avoid the p erson who has helped them, whereas gratitude motivates the recipient to seek out their benefactor and to improve their relationship with them. Gratitude may also serve to reinforce future prosaic behaviour in benefactors . For example, one experiment shows that customers of a jewery store who were ca lled and thanked showed a subsequent 70% increase in purchases. In comparison, c ustomers who were thanked and told about a sale showed only 30% increase in purc hases, and customers who were not called at all did not show increase. In anothe r study, regular patrons of a restaurant gave bigger tips when servers wrote Than k you on their cheques. The link between spirituality and gratitude has recently become a popular sub ject of study. While these two characteristics are certainly not dependent on ea ch other, studies have found that spirituality is capable of enhancing a persons ability to be grateful and therefore, those who regularly attend religious servi ces or engage in religious activities are more likely to have a greater sense of gratitude in all areas of life. Gratitude is viewed as a prized human propensit y in the Christian, Buddhist, Islamic, Jewish and Hindu traditions. Worship with gratitude to God is a common theme in such religions and therefore, the concept of gratitude permeates religious texts, teachings and traditions. For this reas on, it is one of the most common emotions that religious aim to provoke and main tain in followers and as a universal religious sentiment. Gratitude has been said to mould and shape the entire Christian life. The Chr istian Reformist, Martin Luther (of Germany), referred to gratitude as The basic Christian attitude, and today it is still referred to as the heart of the gospel. A s each Christian believes they were created by a personal God, they are strongly encouraged to praise and give gratitude to their creator. In Christian gratitud e, God is seen as the selfless giver of all good things and because of this, the re is a great sense of indebtedness that enables Christians to share a common bo nd, shaping all aspects of a followers life. Gratitude in Christianity is an ackn owledgement of Gods generosity that inspires Christian to shape their own thought s and actions around such ideals. Instead of simply a sentimental feeling, Chris tian gratitude is regarded as a virtue that shapes not only emotions and thought but actions and deeds as well.

Finally, gratitude unlocks the door to greatness. In life, theres so much to b e grateful for- be grateful for the life that you have, the food on your table, the clothes you have to wear, the roof thats over your head because a lot of peop le desire to have all these but to no avail. In whatever situation you find your self, be grateful. UWAGWU, Obiageli Fiona Linguistics (200 level) 08063807212 WORKING WITH DIFFICULT PEOPLE Every day of our lives, we interact with people, some with difficult backgrou nd and culture but the certainty is that there must be a cordial relationship ex isting, for us to achieve our individual goals. The question that comes to mind then is: How do we cope with those difficult people especially those that attack , envy or snoop us? THE ATTACKERS Their Character: They attack your personality while arguing on issues; twist eve rything you say; loose out your ideas etc. How they make you feel: You feel as if you are hurt or as someone who lost his o r her credibility. Your thought: Deep down in your heart, you think that maybe, its your fault, you dont understand him/her, Nobody wants to think always with you etc Attacker s thought: Ill make sure that the whole group see how incompetent he is a nd bring him down Strategies to work with an Attacker: To handle an attacker, you must maintain a high level of professionalism, Develop a game plan to guard yourself, Question t he attacker without snooping to his/her level, Direct discussions by moving emph asis away from individuals to issues, Talk to the attacker privately and ask how s/he wants to solve your/a problem, Handle the conflict with direct-clear-face to face solution. THE ENVIERS Character: They are resentful, jealous, want your praises, dont like your opinion on any matter, feel pompous & arrogant towards you etc. Your thought:I have done my best, everyone said so except him/her, S/he is kind of self centred, I can feel his /her hostility and envy. These are some of the thought you will have. Enviers thought: Some of the stuffs in an enviers thought are: Why do they all l ike him?, If I was given the assignment, I would have done it better, Its because s/h e has friends or someone who give him/her opportunity and support etc. Strategies to work with an Envier: In order to work effectively with an envier, you must protect yourself (& if possible, help your colleague/envier think more positively, Encourage the envier, Help him/her to define personal goal and devel op his own special skills and enterprise- This will raise his sense of self wort h, Keep your talks on a high and friendly level- Never get into arguments especi ally with others present, Disarm him/her with an honest compliment, Express admi ration for whatever he does well, Talk about his/her interest etc. THE SNOOPS Character: They are unduly inquisitive- prying where its none of their business, s/he seldom realizes that their actions are offensive- Their curiosity must be s atisfied. Strategies to work with a Snooper: Give them the benefit of doubt, be politely r ude, you dont have to answer everyones question-pass them off with a smile. Conclusion: Always realize that you are dealing with people that have different reaction/opinion to different situation/issue. Dealing with each person as situa tion demands means that you must learn to be humble (for two wrong cannot make a right), never attack anyone in public (you may loose) and above all, have a win

ning attitude. OMODON, Jessica .B Linguistics (Graduate) 08064558890 ...ON THE BRINK OF EXTINCTION A language disappears somewhere in the world every two weeks (Linda 1991:20) Out of the about 512 indigenous languages spoken in Nigeria, about 75% are prese ntly grappling with survival, they are currently at the very edge (brink) of goi ng into extinction. Egbokhare (2004:13) quoting Bradley .D and Bradley .M (2002: xi) said: There is a grin prediction that in the next fifty to one hundred years, Ninety percent of the languages of Africa will be extinct. This if allowed to h appen will be a tragedy given the huge information base and folk wisdom that wil l perish. It touches on our identity and our continued existence as a people. The question that comes to mind then is what can led to this and what it can lead t o. One major cause of this is language shift. Vic Webb and Kembo Sure (2001:40) defines language shift as a Process in which speakers of one language begins to u se a second language for more and more functions until they eventually use only the second language. The multilingual/multicultural nature of Nigeria led to the introduction of pidgin as a lingua franca. Though the Nigeria pidgin is supposed to be a language of inter-ethnic communication, it is now being used for both i nter-ethnic and intra-ethnic communication such that it has even acquired a numb er of native speakers: Nigeria pidgin may soon become the most widely spoken lang uage in Nigeria (Faraclas 1996:1) Because of the multi-lingua nature of Nigeria, languages have contact with ne ighbouring language, As a result, such language is bound to experience some sort of changes which may cause it to go into extinction with the passage of time. Inter Marriage is also a cause of this. There is the tendency for spouses fro m different ethnic background to resort to the English Language (Which is the ma jor threat to Nigeria languages) or Nigeria pidgin as a medium of communicating with their children. Nigeria Language Policy divides Nigeria into two classes of citizens whom Egb okhare (2001:15) quoting Bamghose (1990), calls the class of the advantaged and t herefore included, and the class of the disadvantage and therefore excluded. This policy of dividing the languages into major (advantaged) minor (disadvantaged) makes speakers of the minority to look at their language with disdain since it is n ot socio-politically and economically viable. In addition, the stagnate nature of our indigenous language is also a major c ause, the speech repertoire of our language need changes and improvement in othe r to account for the rapid changes and development that characterises this age. Other possible cause includes: Living in Diaspora, Higher Education etc. The effect of language extinction includes the disintegration of the unity of its users (The language of a people is the main symbol of the people as an ethnic n ationality. Once the language which binds a people dies, the basics of their uni ty and group identity will be undermined), destruction of the precious practices of the people and their traditional practices, such as the knowledge of traditi onal medicinal plants which is essential to health, folktales/folklore which pro mote unity among families and beyond etc. CONCLUSION We can actually avoid the pathetic effects of language extinction if and only if the language users take a bold step to save their language. According to Bam ghose (1992:29): When all is said and done, the fate of an endangered language ma y well be in the hands of the owners of the language themselves and in their wil l to make it survive. EKIUGBO, O. Philip Linguistics (400 Level)

07062851103 THE POWER OF CHOICE I want to begin by saying to you that success is achievable, it does not matt er how many times you have failed or was rejected, abandoned, forsaken, despised or whatever, You can rise from the ashes of mediocrity and self degradation tod ay! It is a matter of choice, decide today that you will make the right choices i n life, decide that you will do the right thing that will help you to succeed in your academics, finances, family, relationship etc. With the power of right choice, you can turn around the outcome of a bad sit uation to result in a positive conclusion. The choices you make everyday will de termine the outcome of your life and future. I sincerely believe that no problem is impossible to be solved. No question is too difficult to be answered. There is an answer to every question in life. Can man fly a bird? The Wright brothers answered that question by giving us t he aeroplane. Can man move at extra-ordinary speed and cover distances in a few minutes? It has been answered when Henry Ford began producing his ford cars Can Siamese twins be separated? That used to be a very tough medical question but it has been answered since Dr, Ben Carson and his team of determined doctor s carried out the first successful operation of separating Siamese twins since t he 70s. So many impossible questions that has been given possible answers in life! Wh at is your own question? There is an answer you can proffer if only you can beli eve in yourself and believe also in your creator, dont allow the world to push yo u around. Dear, never bend your heads but raise it high. Les Brown once said: Shoot for the moon; even if you miss, you will land among stars. There is never an excuse f or failing, its your choice. MARIS M Linguistics (200 level) THERE IS A GIANT IN YOU There is a giant in the inside of you, waiting to be unleashed to the world, waiting to conquer territories, waiting to achieve great strides that generation to come would not forget in a haste. There is more to you than meets the eye, there is more to you than you reali ze. You carry on the inside of you a landmine that could revolutionalize DELSU, Nigeria, Africa and the world at large. Do not let the limitation of your circumstances, skin, age, background etc cr ipple the giant that is in you. Do away with limitation in your mind, be the lig ht in the darkness, be the agent of change in your sphere of influence. Never forget who you are- the workmanship of God, created in Christ Jesus, a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a peculiar person, called out to show forth the glory of God. Never forget who lives on the inside of you, walk in the consciousness of who you are in Christ Jesus. There is a giant in y ou Egom Onyinye Linguistics (200 Level) SERMON: PARTAKER OF HIS DIVINE NATURE His divine power has given us everything that required for life and godliness, through the knowledge of Him who called us by His own glory and goodness. By th ese He has given us very great and precious promises, so that through them you m

ay share in the divine nature, escaping the corruption that is in the world beca use of evil desires (II Peter 1:3-4. HCSB) The powers of the all-sufficient God has given EVERYTHING required to live fu lfilled life Spiritually, Academically, Financially and otherwise, to all Christ ians. One thing that however comes to my mind whenever I take a time-out to pond er on the above scripture above scriptural passage, is the fact that some Christ ians will be partakers of this everything while others will be Observers. A Partaker is somebody or something that takes part, participate or have a fi rst-hand taste/experience of something, activity, event etc while an Observer is somebody who though witnessed (hear or see) something, activity, event etc but does not have a taste of it (see II Kings 7) It is Gods desire for us to witness and partake in all the goodies and package s He has for His children. The big question now is how can I be a Partaker? Your level of intimacy with the owner of what you want to partake of. It is not p ssible to partake of something when you dont have a personal rapport/intimate rel ationship with the owner, hence you must work on, and improve daily on your rela tionship with God (the owner). Having a basic knowledge of what you want to partake in: The level of your under standing of what you desire to partake in is a key quality that determines the l evel to which you will partake in such a thing. You must therefore seek to know and understand, in full measure, what is the breadth and length and depth and th e height of His divine nature (i.e. the living expression of what God is and how He functions. Heb. 11:3). Make appriopriate moves: Nothing on earth moves until you make move. Though you know the owner as well as have a knowledge of what you want to partake in, you m ust however make moves/carry out appropriate Acts (Actions that Command Testimon ies and Surprises) either through prayers (backed up with fasting), Praising God , Reading/Study, Giving/Tithing etc. Know this: that which you do first will det ermines what God will do next in your life. CONCLUSION: Scripture speaking in Romans 8:32 says: He did not even spare His son own son , but offered Him up for us all; how will He not also with Him grant us everythi ng (HCSB). The same God that delivered His own son up for us while we were yet si nners, has also given us everything we need to live a fulfilled life, apply the above principle and you will testify of the goodness of God. See ya at the top. EKIUGBO, Oghenesuowho Philip Ex-President, Baptist Student Fellowship DELSU-Abraka. (07062851103) POEMS THE MANS DEATH It is a fact that the man had died But what could actually cause it? Could it be an Accident? Was it rather an attack? Of what nature? People said it was witchcraft Some said it was a robbery attack Others said it was an ailment Still some believed it was Gods handiwork Poor him! If death was a sleep We would wake him to tell us the cause But since it is a deeper sleep And though the good and the bad will also die The truth remains: the creator remembers him!

GBEGBAJE, Esere Mercy Linguistics (100 level) LETS BE THE CHANGE Everyone desires a change In all of lifes facet Our forefathers have toiled for it Sowing seeds and now has gone Our parents have done their parts Now, we must be the CHANGE! Rising all day, each of us Lets be the change we desire With humility, kindness and sincerity Saying NO to wrong things Even YES to right ones Brooding over ideas that will bring progress Then we can be the Change we need Lets learn to LOVE! cos it performs miracles, hatred doesnt Above all, lets trust the Almighty God Whose thought towards us are good And who can enable us be the CHANGE! OKOGHA, Peace Linguistics (200 level)

LIFE IMPACT Sometimes in life, you meet people Some create meaning for living Some bring out the spark in you Some want to affect your life for good Some want to eat you alive! Someone stretches out His hands For you to hold and have your confidence back And this someone is Jesus Christ You may not know Christ value for you But He is still the everlasting messiah He will always rescue His own fro death. YOUNG, Oghenekevwe Linguistics (200 level) THE REAL EVEREST Have you ever head of Evarest? Do you remember insurmountable everest that n o one could climb for years until a man who learnt never to put the word impossi ble in his life s guilding principles. Edmund Hilary they call him...yes, he was the first man to climb insurmountable everest. The funny thing is that when thi s man was asked it feels like setting a world record and what gave him such fait h that the mountain could be conquered, his answer was It is not the mountain we conquer but ourselves. Dear, think about this, you are the real everest. What is that which seems in surmountable in your life? -your ability of making it in all facet of your life,

it is possible. Believe in yourself, shun fear, work on yourself, coquer your f ears, conquer yourself; then you can do it...yes, it is achievable. EGBUCHULEM, Chinedu Moses Linguistics (200 level) 07060701894

LANGUAGES OF THE WORLD/LANGUAGE CLASSIFICATION (Encarta 2009) Estimates of the number of languages spoken in the world today vary depending on where the dividing line between language and dialect is drawn. For instance, li nguists disagree over whether Chinese should be considered a single language bec ause of its speakers shared cultural and literary tradition, or whether it shou ld be considered several different languages because of the mutual unintelligibi lity of, for example, the Mandarin spoken in Beijing and the Cantonese spoken in Hong Kong (see Chinese Language). If mutual intelligibility is the basic criter ion, current estimates indicate that there are about 6,000 languages spoken in t he world today. However, many languages with a smaller number of speakers are in danger of being replaced by languages with large numbers of speakers. In fact, some scholars believe that perhaps 90 percent of the languages spoken in the 199 0s will be extinct or doomed to extinction by the end of the 21st century. The 1 0 most widely spoken languages, with approximate numbers of native speakers, are as follows: Chinese, 1.2 billion; Arabic, 422 million; Hindi, 366 million; Engl ish, 341 million; Spanish, 322 to 358 million; Bengali, 207 million; Portuguese, 176 million; Russian, 167 million; Japanese, 125 million; German, 100 million. If second-language speakers are included in these figures, English is the second most widely spoken language, with 508 million speakers. Linguists classify languages using two main classification systems: typo logical and genetic. A typological classification system organizes languages acc ording to the similarities and differences in their structures. Languages that s hare the same structure belong to the same type, while languages with different structures belong to different types. For example, despite the great differences between the two languages in other respects, Mandarin Chinese and English belon g to the same type, grouped by word-order typology. Both languages have a basic word order of subject-verb-object. A genetic classification of languages divides them into families on the basis of their historical development: A group of languages that descend historically fr om the same common ancestor form a language family. For example, the Romance lan guages form a language family because they all descended from the Latin language . Latin, in turn, belongs to a larger language family, Indo-European, the ancest or language of which is called Proto-Indo-European. Some genetic groupings are u niversally accepted. However, because documents attesting to the form of most an cestor languages, including Proto-Indo-European, have not survived, much controv ersy surrounds the more wide-ranging genetic groupings. A conservative survey of the world s language families are as follows: AFRICA: Africa language families are: Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo, a nd Khoisan, although the genetic unity of Nilo-Saharan and Khoisan is still disp uted. Afro-Asiatic languages occupy most of North Africa and also large parts of southwestern Asia. The Niger-Congo family covers most of sub-Saharan Africa and includes such widely spoken West African languages as Yoruba and Fulfulde, as w ell as the Bantu languages of eastern and southern Africa, which include Swahili and Zulu. The Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken mainly in eastern Africa, in an area between those covered by the Afro-Asiatic and the Niger-Congo languages. T he best-known Nilo-Saharan language is Masai, spoken by the Masai people in Keny a and Tanzania. The Khoisan languages are spoken in the southwestern corner of A frica and include the Nama language (formerly called Hottentot).

EUROPE: Europe language families are: Indo-European, Uralic etc. Indo-European L anguages, the most widely spoken family of languages in the world, contains the following subfamilies: Albanian, Armenian, Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Greek, Indo -Iranian, Italic (including the Romance languages), Slavic, and two extinct subf amilies, Anatolian (including Hittite) and Tocharian. About 1.6 billion people s peak Indo-European languages today. Uralic languages sub-families includes Samoy edic, Finno-Ugric etc. Europe also has one language isolate (a language not know n to be related to any other language): Basque, which is spoken in the Pyrenees. ASIA: Asia language families includes the Indo-Aryan sub-branch of Indo-European , Dravidian, Austro-Asiatic, Afro-Asiatic etc AMERICA: North America has such language families as Inuit (Eskimalent), Na-Den, Algonquian, Iroquorian, Siouan, Uto-Aztecan, Mayan etc while South Americas major families are Carib, Arawak, Macro-G and Tupian. RECONSTRUCTING LANGUAGES Linguistic reconstruction is the recovery of the stages of a language that exist ed prior to those found in written documents. Using a number of languages that a re genetically related, linguists try to reconstruct at least certain aspects of the languages common ancestor, called the protolanguage. Linguists theorize th at those features that are the same among the protolanguage s descendant languag es, or those features that differ but can be traced to a common origin, can be c onsidered features of the ancestor language. Nineteenth-century linguistic scien ce made significant progress in reconstructing the Proto-Indo-European language. While many details of this reconstruction remain controversial, in general ling uists have gained a good conception of Proto-Indo-European s phonology, morpholo gy, and vocabulary. However, due to the range of syntactic variation among Proto -Indo-European s descendant languages, linguists have found syntactic reconstruc tion more problematic. NIGERIA LANGUAGES The number of languages currently estimated and catalogued in Nigeria is 521. Th is number includes 510 living languages, two second languages without native spe akers and 9 extinct languages. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak mor e than one language. The official language of Nigeria, English, the former colon ial language, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country. Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own langu ages, English, being the official language, is widely used for education, busine ss transactions and for official purposes. Here is a complete list of 528 langua ges spoken Nigeria, including some that have no native speaker. Below is a list of languages spoken in Nigeria: 1. Abanyom 2. Abon 3. Abua 4. Abureni 5. Acipa, Eastern 6. Acipa, Western 7. Aduge 8. Afade 9. Agatu 10. Agoi 11. Agwagwune 12. hn 13. Ajawa 14. Ake 15. Akpa

16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75.

Akpes Akuku Akum Alago Alege Alumu-Tesu Ambo Amo Anaang nc Arabic, Shuwa Arigidi Ashe Asu Atsam Auyokawa Awak Ayere Ayu Baan Baangi Baatonum Bacama Bada Bade Bakpinka Bali Bangwinji Barikanchi Basa Basa-Gumna Basa-Gurmana Bassa-Kontagora Bata Batu Bauchi Beele Begbere-Ejar Bekwarra Bena Berom Bete Bete-Bendi Bile Bina Biseni Bitare Boga Boghom Boko Bokobaru Bokyi Bole Bo-Rukul Bu Bukwen Bumaji Burak Bura-Pabir Bure

76. Buru 77. Busa 78. Cakfem-Mushere 79. Cara 80. Cen 81. Centm 82. Che 83. Cibak 84. Cinda-Regi-Tiyal 85. Cineni 86. Cishingini 87. Ciwogai 88. C lela 89. Como Karim 90. Cori 91. Daba 92. Dadiya 93. Dass 94. Daza 95. Defaka 96. Degema 97. Dendi 98. Deno 99. Dera 100. Dghwede 101. Dibo 102. Dijim-Bwilim 103. Diri 104. Dirim 105. Doka 106. Doko-Uyanga 107. Dong 108. Duguri 109. Duhwa 110. Dulbu 111. Dungu 112. Duwai 113. Dza 114. Dzodinka 115. Ebira 116. Ebughu 117. Edo 118. Efai 119. Efik 120. Efutop 121. Eggon 122. Ehueun 123. Ejagham 124. Ekajuk 125. Eki 126. Ekit 127. Ekpeye 128. Eleme 129. Eloyi 130. Emai-Iuleha-Ora 131. Engenni 132. English 133. Enwan 134. Enwan 135. Epie

136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144. 145. 146. 147. 148. 149. 150. 151. 152. 153. 154. 155. 156. 157. 158. 159. 160. 161. 162. 163. 164. 165. 166. 167. 168. 169. 170. 171. 172. 173. 174. 175. 176. 177. 178. 179. 180. 181. 182. 183. 184. 185. 186. 187. 188. 189. 190. 191. 192. 193. 194. 195.

Eruwa Esan Esimbi Etebi Eten Etkywan Etulo Evant Fali Fali of Baissa Fam Firan Fulfulde, Adamawa Fulfulde, Benin-Togo Fulfulde, Nigerian Fum Fungwa Fyam Fyer Gaa Ga anda Gade Galambu Gamo-Ningi Ganang Gbagyi Gbari Gbaya, Northwest Gbiri-Niragu Geji Gengle Gera Geruma Ghotuo Gibanawa Giiwo Glavda Goemai Gokana Gude Gudu Guduf-Gava Gun Gupa-Abawa Gurmana Guruntum-Mbaaru Gvoko Gwa Gwamhi-Wuri Gwandara Gyem Hasha Hausa Hausa Sign Language Hide Holma Hne Horom Huba Hungworo

196. 197. 198. 199. 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. 209. 210. 211. 212. 213. 214. 215. 216. 217. 218. 219. 220. 221. 222. 223. 224. 225. 226. 227. 228. 229. 230. 231. 232. 233. 234. 235. 236. 237. 238. 239. 240. 241. 242. 243. 244. 245. 246. 247. 248. 249. 250. 251. 252. 253. 254. 255.

Hun-Saare Hwana Hya Hyam Ibani Ibibio Ibilo Ibino Ibuoro Iceve-Maci Idere Idesa Idoma Idon Idun Igala Igbo Igede Iguta Igwe Ihievbe Ija-Zuba Ijo, Southeast Ika Iko Ikpeshi Iku-Gora-Ankwa Ikulu Ikwere Ilue Irigwe Isekiri Isoko Ito Itu Mbon Uzo Ivbie North-Okpela-Arhe Iyayu Iyive Izere Izi-Ezaa-Ikwo-Mgbo Izon Izora Janji Jara Jarawa Jere Jiba Jibu Jilbe Jimi Jiru Jju Jorto Ju Jukun Takum Kaan Kadara Kagoma Kaivi Kakanda

256. 257. 258. 259. 260. 261. 262. 263. 264. 265. 266. 267. 268. 269. 270. 271. 272. 273. 274. 275. 276. 277. 278. 279. 280. 281. 282. 283. 284. 285. 286. 287. 288. 289. 290. 291. 292. 293. 294. 295. 296. 297. 298. 299. 300. 301. 302. 303. 304. 305. 306. 307. 308. 309. 310. 311. 312. 313. 314. 315.

Kakihum Kalabari Kam Kamantan Kami Kamo Kamwe Kaningkom-Nindem Kanufi Kanuri Kanuri, Central Kanuri, Manga Kapya Karekare Kariya Khana Kholok Kinuku Kiong Kir-Balar Kirike Koenoem Kofa Kofyar Kohumono Koma Kono Korop Kpan Kpasam Kpati Kubi Kudu-Camo Kugama Kugbo Kukele Kulere Kulung Kumba Kupa Kurama Kushi Kutep Kutto Kuturmi Kwa Kwaami Kwak Kyak Kyenga Labir Laka Lala-Roba Lamang Lame Lamja-Dengsa-Tola Lamnso Laru Leelau Legbo

316. 317. 318. 319. 320. 321. 322. 323. 324. 325. 326. 327. 328. 329. 330. 331. 332. 333. 334. 335. 336. 337. 338. 339. 340. 341. 342. 343. 344. 345. 346. 347. 348. 349. 350. 351. 352. 353. 354. 355. 356. 357. 358. 359. 360. 361. 362. 363. 364. 365. 366. 367. 368. 369. 370. 371. 372. 373. 374. 375.

Lemoro Lenyima Lere Leyigha Lijili Limbum Lokaa Longuda Loo Lopa Lubila Lufu Luri Maaka Mada Mafa Mghd Mak Mala Mama Mambila, Nigeria Mangas Marghi Central Marghi South Mashi Mawa Mbe Mbembe, Cross River Mbembe, Tigon Mboi Mbongno Mbula-Bwazza Mburku Mingang Doso Miship Miya Mom Jango Montol Moo Mumuye Mundat Mvanip Mwaghavul Nde-Gbite Nde-Nsele-Nta Ndoe Ndoola Ndun Ndunda Ngamo Ngas Nggwahyi Ngizim Ngwaba Nigerian Sign Language Ningye Ninzo Njerep Nkari Nkem-Nkum

376. 377. 378. 379. 380. 381. 382. 383. 384. 385. 386. 387. 388. 389. 390. 391. 392. 393. 394. 395. 396. 397. 398. 399. 400. 401. 402. 403. 404. 405. 406. 407. 408. 409. 410. 411. 412. 413. 414. 415. 416. 417. 418. 419. 420. 421. 422. 423. 424. 425. 426. 427. 428. 429. 430. 431. 432. 433. 434. 435.

Nkoroo Nkukoli Nnam Nshi Numana-Nunku-Gbantu-Numbu Nungu Nupe-Nupe-Tako Nyam Nyeng Nyong Nzanyi Obanliku Obolo Obulom O chi chi Odual Odut Ogbah Ogbia Ogbogolo Ogbronuagum Okobo Okodia Oko-Eni-Osayen Okpamheri Okpe Okpe Oloma Olulumo-Ikom Oring Oro Oruma Ososo Otank Pa a Panawa Pangseng Pe Peere Pero Pidgin, Nigerian Piti Piya-Kwonci Polci Pongu Psikye Putai Putukwam Pyapun Rang Reshe Rogo Ron Ruma Samba Daka Samba Leko Sambe Sanga Sasaru Saya

436. 437. 438. 439. 440. 441. 442. 443. 444. 445. 446. 447. 448. 449. 450. 451. 452. 453. 454. 455. 456. 457. 458. 459. 460. 461. 462. 463. 464. 465. 466. 467. 468. 469. 470. 471. 472. 473. 474. 475. 476. 477. 478. 479. 480. 481. 482. 483. 484. 485. 486. 487. 488. 489. 490. 491. 492. 493. 494. 495.

Sha Shakara Shall-Zwall Shamang Shama-Sambuga Shanga Shau Sheni Shiki Shoo-Minda-Nye Shuwa-Zamani Siri Somyev Sorko Sukur Sur Surubu Tal Tala Tamajaq, Tawallammat Tambas Tangale Tanjijili Tarok Tedaga Tee Teme Tera Teshenawa Tha Tita Tiv Toro Tsikimba Tsishingini Tso Tsuvadi Tula Tumi Tunzuii Tyap Ubaghara Ubang Uda Uhami Ukaan Ukpe-Bayobiri Ukpet-Ehom Ukue Ukwa Ukwuani-Aboh-Ndoni Ulukwumi Umon Uneme Uokha Urhobo Usaghade ut-Ma in Uvbie Uzekwe

496. 497. 498. 499. 500. 501. 502. 503. 504. 505. 506. 507. 508. 509. 510. 511. 512. 513. 514. 515. 516. 517. 518. 519. 520. 521. 522. 523. 524. 525. 526. 527. 528.

Vaghat-Ya-Bijim-Legeri Vemgo-Mabas Viti Vono Voro Vute Waja Waka Wandala Wannu Wapan Wpha Warji Wom Yace Yala Yamba Yangkam Yedina Yekhee Yendang Yeskwa Yiwom Yoruba Yukuben Zangwal Zari Zarma Zeem Zhire Ziriya Zizilivakan Zumbun

HISTORY OF LINGUIST: Leonard Bloomfield (1887-1949), American linguist and founder of structural ling uistics (see Linguistics: Descriptive and Structural Linguistics). Born in Chica go, Bloomfield graduated with a bachelor s degree from Harvard in 1906 and recei ved his doctorate from the University of Chicago in 1909. In 1917 he extensively researched Tagalog and other Austronesian languages, and in the 1920s he worked on grouping Native American languages. He played a key role in the founding of the Linguistic Society of America in 1924. Bloomfield is best known for his comm itment to linguistics as an independent science and his insistence on using scie ntific procedures. Early in his career he was influenced by behaviorism, a schoo l of psychology based on the objective study of behavior. He based his work, esp ecially his approach to meaning, on behavioristic principles. His major work, La nguage (1933) is regarded as the classic text of structural linguistics, also ca lled structuralism. The book synthesized the theory and practice of linguistic a nalysis. Noam Chomsky, born in 1928, American linguist, educator, and political activist. Chomsky is the founder of transformational-generative grammar, a system that re volutionized modern linguistics. Avram Noah Chomsky was born and raised in Phila delphia, Pennsylvania, and was educated at the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned a Ph.D. degree in linguistics in 1955 under the direction of American linguist Zellig Harris. While still a graduate student, Chomsky held an appoint ment from 1951 to 1955 as a junior fellow at Harvard University. He joined the f

aculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1955 to teach Frenc h and German. In 1976 he became Institute Professor of Linguistics at MIT. Choms ky created and established a new field of linguistics, generative grammar, based on a theory he worked on during the 1950s. In 1957 he published this theory, ca lled transformational-generative grammar, in his book Syntactic Structures. Chom sky made a distinction between the innate, often unconscious knowledge people ha ve of their own language and the way in which they use the language in reality. The former, which he termed competence, enables people to generate all possible grammatical sentences. The latter, which he called performance, is the transform ation of this competence into everyday speech. Prior to Chomsky, most theories a bout the structure of language described performance; they were transformational grammars. Chomsky proposed that linguistic theory also should explain the menta l processes that underlie the use of languagein other words, the nature of langua ge itself, or generative grammar. Chomsky placed linguistics at the core of stud ies of the mind. He claimed that linguistic theory must account for universal si milarities between all languages and for the fact that children are able to lear n language fluently at an early age in spite of insufficient data that has no sy stematic logic. His contribution to the cognitive sciencesfields that seek to und erstand how we think, learn, and perceiveemerges from this claim. Of equal import ance were Chomskys arguments that a serious theory of mental processes should rep lace empiricism, the belief that experience is the source of knowledge, as the d ominant model in American science. Chomsky wrote on politics early in his life b ut began to publish more on the subject during the 1960s in response to United S tates policies in Southeast Asia. He deliberately scaled back his work on lingui stics to dedicate more time to writing about the role of the media and academic communities in manufacturing the consent of the general public for U.S. policies. Chomsky also addressed the effects of U.S. foreign policy, and he felt that inte llectuals have a responsibility to use scientific method in criticizing governme nt policies that they find immoral and to develop practical strategies to combat these policies. Chomskys linguistic publications, in addition to Syntactic Structures, include As pects of the Theory of Syntax (1965), Language and Mind (1968; enlarged edition, 1972), and Language and Thought (1992). His political writings include American Power and the New Mandarins (1967); Peace in the Middle East (1974); The Fatefu l Triangle: The United States, Israel and the Palestinians (1983; updated editio n, 1999); Deterring Democracy (1991); Hegemony or Survival: Americas Quest for Gl obal Dominance (2003); and Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (2006). Hegemony or Survival hit the top of the Amazon.com bestseller list in 2006 after Venezuelan president Hugo Chvez, during a visit to the United States, recommended that Americans read it. Roman Osipovich Jakobson (1896-1983), a leading linguist of the 20th century, wa s born in Moscow but moved to Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1920. There he helped to found the Prague Linguistic Circle in 1926 and became its vice-president. In 19 39, with Czechoslovakia threatened by Nazi Germany, Jakobson moved first to Denm ark, then to Norway, and finally to Sweden, in 1940. He moved to the United Stat es in 1941 and began teaching in New York City. He was a professor at Harvard Un iversity from 1949 to 1967, and at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) f rom 1957 to 1967. Jakobson was president of the Linguistic Society of America in 1956. He received two prizes for his work: the International Prize for Philolog y and Linguistics in 1980, and the Hegel Prize in 1982. Jakobson was influential in the development of an approach to the study of language style that later bec ame known as linguistic stylistics. His best-known work deals with structural ph onology, the formal patterns of sound in a language. Jakobson s distinctive feat ure theory is often regarded as his greatest insight. This theory claims that di stinctive features, such as tongue height and lip rounding, are important factor s to take into account when carrying out a phonological analysis. Jakobson belie ved that distinctive features reveal more about how sounds of a language are org anized than do segmentsthat is, discrete units such as vowels or consonants. Jakobson also contributed to the understanding of the acquisition of phonology i

n children, aphasia (inability to speak or understand language), and Slavic ling uistics. His major works are Kindersprache, Aphasie und allgemeine Lautgesetze ( 1941, translated as Child Language. Aphasia and Phonological Universals, 1968), Fundamentals of Language (1956), The Sound Shape of Language (1979), and his eig ht-volume Selected Writings (1962-1985) Edward Sapir (1884-1939), American linguist and anthropologist, was born in Laue nburg, Pomerania, and brought to the United States at age five. He studied lingu istics and anthropology at Columbia University with the noted anthropologist and ethnologist Franz Boas and received his Ph.D. degree in 1909. As a research ass ociate at the University of California from 1907 to 1908, Sapir recorded and app lied the rigorous analytic methods of Indo-European and Semitic studies to sever al western Native American languages, including Yana, Takelma, and Wishram. Afte r a brief term at the University of Pennsylvania, he became chief of anthropolog y for the Geological Survey of Canada from 1910 to 1925, where his research cent ered upon the Nootka and Athapaskan native languages of western North America. L ater investigations conducted by Sapir included language studies of Navaho, Hupa , and Ute, as well as a series of broad comparative studies. During his career S apir served terms as president of the Linguistic Society of America and the Amer ican Anthropological Association. Sapirs observations of the cultural characteris tics of each group were supported by his studies of their languages. His Time Pe rspective in Aboriginal American Culture (1916) used linguistic data in an origi nal way for purposes of historical reconstruction. Sapir demonstrated his profou nd grasp of comparative data in his paper Central and North American Languages ( 1929), in which he used linguistic relationships to consolidate the majority of the commonly recognized 75 language stocks into six major superfamilies. Sapirs i nterests extended to European languages and Indo-European phonology (the linguis tic study of sound) as well as to speculations on international languages. In La nguage (1921) Sapir showed that each language is characterized by fundamental pa tterns. The variant sounds, words, and grammatical relationships of a language c onform to these fundamental patterns, and this patterning in a parent tongue aff ects parallel development in daughter languages; this idea is known as the drift concept. While on the faculties of the University of Chicago from 1925 to 1931 and Yale University from 1931 to 1939, Sapir shifted his interest from structura l analysis of language to its psychological aspects. As chairman of the Division of Anthropology and Psychology for the National Research Council from 1934 to 1 935, he fostered important language-psychological investigations. In Sapir s vie w, language, culture, and personality are a fused whole. Language is a symbolic guide to behavior because experience is interpreted largely by language habits and most obviously demonstrated in the relationships between language and thoug ht. A long series of articles and a seminar at Yale University titled The Impact of Culture on Personality directed anthropological attention to the individual within that individuals cultural milieu and also had a marked effect on psychoana lytic theory. I HAVE A DREAM Martin Luther King, Jr. Standing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., on August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered what is regarded today as one of the g reatest speeches in American history.. I am happy to join with you today in what will go down in history as the greates t demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation. Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipati on Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to m illions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice . It came as a joyous daybreak to end the long night of their captivity. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free. One hundred years late

r, the life of the Negro is still sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. One hundred years later, the Negro lives on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. On e hundred years later, the Negro is still languished in the corners of American society and finds himself an exile in his own land. And so we ve come here today to dramatize a shameful condition. In a sense we ve come to our nation s capita l to cash a check. When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent wor ds of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a promissory note to which every American was to fall heir. This note was a promis e that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the un alienable Rights of Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. It is obvious today that America has defaulted on this promissory note, insofar as her citize ns of color are concerned. Instead of honoring this sacred obligation, America h as given the Negro people a bad check, a check which has come back marked insuf ficient funds. But we refuse to believe that the bank of justice is bankrupt. We refuse to beli eve that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation. And so, we ve come to cash this check, a check that will give us upon d emand the riches of freedom and the security of justice. We have also come to th is hallowed spot to remind America of the fierce urgency of Now. This is no time to engage in the luxury of cooling off or to take the tranquilizing drug of gra dualism. Now is the time to make real the promises of democracy. Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path of racial justice. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quick sands of racia l injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. Now is the time to make justice a reality for all of God s children. It would be fatal for the nation to overlook the urgency of the moment. This sweltering summer of the Negro s legitimate disc ontent will not pass until there is an invigorating autumn of freedom and equali ty. Nineteen sixty-three is not an end, but a beginning. And those who hope that the Negro needed to blow off steam and will now be content will have a rude awa kening if the nation returns to business as usual. And there will be neither res t nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. The whirlwinds of revolt will continue to shake the foundations of our nation un til the bright day of justice emerges. But there is something that I must say to my people, who stand on the warm threshold which leads into the palace of justi ce: In the process of gaining our rightful place, we must not be guilty of wrong ful deeds. Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from th e cup of bitterness and hatred. We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to dege nerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic hei ghts of meeting physical force with soul force. The marvelous new militancy whic h has engulfed the Negro community must not lead us to a distrust of all white p eople, for many of our white brothers, as evidenced by their presence here today , have come to realize that their destiny is tied up with our destiny. And they have come to realize that their freedom is inextricably bound to our freedom. We cannot walk alone. And as we walk, we must make the pledge that we shall always march ahead. We can not turn back. There are those who are asking the devotees of civil rights, Whe n will you be satisfied? We can never be satisfied as long as the Negro is the victim of the unspeakable horrors of police brutality. We can never be satisfied as long as our bodies, heavy with the fatigue of travel, cannot gain lodging in the motels of the highways and the hotels of the cities. We cannot be satisfied as long as a Negro in Mississippi cannot vote and a Negro in New York believes he has nothing for which to vote. No, no, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice rolls down like waters, and righteousness like a mig hty stream. I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great tri als and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And so me of you have come from areas where your questquest for freedom left you battere d by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. Y ou have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith

that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alaba ma, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situ ation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow in the valley of despair, I say to you today, my friends. And so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the tru e meaning of its creed: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men a re created equal. I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit do wn together at the table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the st ate of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering wi th the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and just ice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their c haracter. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, wi th its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the word s of interposition and nullification one day right there in Alabama little bla ck boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and wh ite girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today! I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, and every hill and mountain shall be made lo w, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made stra ight; and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all flesh shall see it to gether. This is our hope, and this is the faith that I go back to the South wit h. With this faith, we will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a ston e of hope. With this faith, we will be able to transform the jangling discords o f our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith, we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day . And this will be the daythis will be the day when all of God s children will be able to sing with new meaning: My country tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fathers died, land of the Pilgrim s pride, From every mountainside , let freedom ring! And if America is to be a great nation, this must become tru e. And so let freedom ring from the prodigious hilltops of New Hampshire. Let fr eedom ring from the mighty mountains of New York. Let freedom ring from the heightening Alleghenies of Pennsylvania. Let freedom r ing from the snow-capped Rockies of Colorado. Let freedom ring from the curvaceo us slopes of California. But not only that: Let freedom ring from Stone Mountain of Georgia. Let freedom ring from Lookout Mountain of Tennessee. Let freedom ri ng from every hill and molehill of Mississippi. From every mountainside, let fre edom ring. And when this happens, when we allow freedom ring, when we let it rin g from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God s children, black men and white men , Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and s ing in the words of the old Negro spiritual: Free at last! free at last! Thank G od Almighty, we are free at last! CORONATION OF ELIZABETH II The coronation ceremony of Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Br itain and Northern Ireland, was held on June 2, 1953, in Westminster Abbey. Eliz abeth II succeeded to the throne after the death of her father, King George VI. Traditionally, the Archbishop of Canterbury, the highest official of the Church of England, presides over the coronation ceremony. The ceremony is divided into five parts: the entry, recognition, and royal oath; the consecration of the mona rch; the investiture with the royal robes and crown; the enthronement; and, fina lly, the service of Holy Communion.

EDITORIAL CREW EJIRO Esiri DAPHNE Omonemu EMUOBOSA Onoriose RHODA Chokor STAFF Prof. (Mrs) R. Aziza Prof. Jeff Mokobiah Dr. Biakolor Dr. E.E Ogini Dr. Njosi J. Mr. E.U Tonukari (Ph.d in-view) Dr. (Mrs) R. Mebiteghan Mr. Don Utulu (Ph.d in-view) Mr Emeka Ifieseh (Ph.d in-view) Mrs Obikudo (Ph.d in-view) Mrs M. Obadan Mr. Godwin Ivworin Mrs. E. Alleh Chief. Akanigha Mr. Arierieren Mr. Moses Darah Mr. Lucky Ejobee EXECUTIVE DIRECTORY OFFICE NAME LEVEL PHONE President PHILIP Ekiugbo Vice-President MARY Chukwuka Secretary MAVIS Izomo Financial Sec. JOSEPH Imeba Asst. Fin. Sec. CALEB Ivworin Treasurer BRIDGET Egwuli Social Director WEALTH Igoru Asst. Soc. Dir. EMMA 300 Librarian EMUOBOR Kafene Asst. Lib. ESTHER 300 PRO MARTHA Akawe 400 BEHOLD, OUR FINALIST S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 NAME PHONE BIRTHDAY ABADA, Odezi 08060874337 June 21 AJAMAJA, Efe Jenifer 08063319133 AKAWE, Ifeanyi Martha 07067137799 June 21 AKPOTU, Isabella 08062118728 Oct. 26 AKPOVESO, Leroy 08063470621 AKUMABOR, Nneka 08161333138 April 7 ANTHONY Christopher 08137057429 BAGBE, Yetunde 08069095205 Nov. 22 BALOGUN, Wasiu 08064622646 BOZI, Sophia 08067868609 April 23 CHUKWUKA, Mary 08066716748 Feb. 3 EDU, Oghenetega Pleasure 08067663305 Aug. 14 400 07062851103 400 08066716748 300 07063047492 300 08066690551 200 08135115831 300 07039047361 400 07068494557 08030740059 400 08162929884 07034669585 07067137799

13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

EIGBULUESE, Joy 08067283969 Dec. 5 EKIUGBO, Osuowho Philip 07062851103 April 22 ESIRI, Ejiro Emmanuel 08067532244 Nov. 20 IGORU, Ebruphiyor Wealth 07068494557 Aug. 21 IKANONE, Endurance 07038119899 July 18 ITODI, Abigail July 18 KAFENE, Zelia Emuobor 08162929884 April 20 OBAROAKPO, Shirley 07035388442 March 23 ODOMETA, Onome 07065978520 OJUMOR, Ogheneyome 07030410933 Nov. 27 OKOCHA, Philomena 08067589749 March 7 OKOH, Isioma Gift 08067869240 Aug. 6 OMOKRI, Jane 07034722078 July 23 OMONI, Avwerosuo Evans 07039806823 Sept. 19 OMOSEVWERHA, Erhi Collins 08135811155 April 12 OTASOWIE, Osareniye 08034252075 TONBRAPADE, Preye Clifford 08137172797 VUEVU, Oghenetega 07063047469 July 25

WHY SHOULD HE CHOOSE ME It is common place knowledge that ladies will generally get worried if guys are not attracted to them. 1. KNOWYOUR HEART AND MIND: Take time to develop positive personality trait s, to make your mind over on important matters, and to reach some of your goals. Guys like it when ladies seems to have the inner conviction that she is a perso n on her own right; guys like it when you have reached some of your goals as a l ady; guys like it when you dont agree with everything they say. i.e. have your ow n opinion. 2. DEVELOP RESPECT FOR OTHERS: Survey shows that 70% of men value respect m ore than love. Just as you have a need to be loved, the guys have a deep desire to be respected; they think that their opinion matters so much especially to the girls they like: To them, the most important thing at the start of a relationsh ip, love might develop later; and that if a girl can show them respect, that gir l can definitely love them. 3. DRESS MODESTLY/MAINTAIN GOOD HYGIENE: The way you dress is like a loudsp eaker that broadcast your inner thoughts and attitudes hence people address you the way you dress. No guy will be attracted to a girl who is sloppily dressed an d dirty. Are you the type of girl that walks naked in the street in the name of fashion? Do you go to bed without bath after a long and stressful day under the hot sun? Are you the type that reuses cloths youve won before without washing the m? Are you the type that goes to the beach, get your hair soaked and leave it wi thout drying it out? If you have any dirty trait in you, then you are already ch asing guys away because guys like ladies that dresses decently, cares for hair/b ody, smell pleasantly and a soothing tone of voice. 4. DONT FLIRT: It has been notice that ladies have the ability to exert trem endous influence on guys. If you test the power you have on every boy you meet, you will likely gain a reputation as a flirt. Guys dont like a lady that glances at every passing male or quickly switch their focus to whichever guy who gives h er attention, no matter what. 5. DONT BE CLINGY: If you are just getting to know a young man, you dont have the right to expect a high level of accountability from him nor him from you. I f you are hasty in demanding his attention especially in this environment of stu dy, you may destroy your friendship. Guys dont li8ke ladies that want to know eve rything and every move they make. Guys dont like it when a lady wont allow them to spend time with his male friends. CONCLUSION: It is necessary that as a lady, you do everything possible to mainta in and care for your external and internal beauty. When you dont value yourself a

nd the standard you try to live by, you are likely going to attract guys who do nt value you and your standard either. ITODI, Abigail Linguistics (400level) MOTIVATIONAL QUOTES *One definition of insanity is to believe that you can keep doing what youve been doing and get different result. *It pays to plan ahead, It wasnt raining when Noah built the ark. *The richest soil, uncultivated produces the rankest weeds *Our strength is seen in the things we stand for, our weakness is seen in the th ings we fall for. *We judge ourselves by what we feel capable of doing, others judge us by what we have done. *It takes less time to do a thing right than to explain why you did it wrong. *Learning what you cannot do is more important than knowing what you can do. *Where there is no hope in the future, there is no power in the present *When someone puts a limit on what you will do, that person has put a limit on w hat you can do. *It is the set of the sail, not the direction of the wind that determines which way we should go.

FOR THE RECORDS STAKEHOLDERS AND THE STAKE THEY HOLD: THE LINSA STORY Investors, shareholder, backer, sponsor, participant, patron, interested party Whether a company is high tech or low tech, operating in an age-old industry or one of the newer service or knowledge ones...its success will depend, more than anything else, on the satisfaction of the needs and desires of each unique stake holder. WE GO CALABAR LAST YEAR!!! PRESIDENT S DESK It is with mixed feelings that I put pen to paper to write this thought provokin g address. Special thanks to God Almighty for giving me the privilege to serve i n this capacity and for His grace that saw us through in this journey. WHAT WE HAD IN MIND One source of joy in my six opportunities of being a leader, is working with gre at minds, who, in their constructive criticism, logical reasoning, critical anal ysis and philosophical reasoning has made us birth wonderful visions. Our 11-man team, despite our individual busy schedule (yesbusy schedule), and con straining ourselves to the finance at our disposal, birthed the following vision: A welco me party, A 4-days excursion to Abuja for Academic and Social purpose, Productio n of a magazine as an incentive, a 3-day LINSA week (day 1 is novelty football m

atch, day 2 is a seminar on After DELSU: What Next? and a debate between the boys and girls in 100 level, while day three is a dinner party or a prom) among othe rs. But lo! Our vision was but a day dream. At the edge of bringing to reality o ur visions, the powers that be struck; well, no qualmsyeahno cause for alarm THE STAKEHOLDERS AND THE STAKE THEY HOLD The Supreme Student Senate placed a suspension on the leadership of the Associat ion for collecting seven hundred naira as dues: AFTER DELSU, WHAT NEXT? APPRECIATION Special thanks to our HOD, Prof. Jiff Mokobiah for his innovation and good works in the department, Our staff adviser, Mr E. Ifieseh- you are a gift to LINSA, M y Predecessor, Linguist Okeidesan Ochuko, All lecturers, Non-Academic staff and all cheerful LINSALITES, not forgetting those who betrayed us (Excos, Members a nd non-members), we owe you no grudge, to be frank with you, Ive been praying to God almost on a daily basis not to pay you back in the future when I have the op portunity to do so. WHAT I LEARNT My dad (Capt. A.U. Ekiugbo) made me to appreciate the fact that it will be fooli sh of me if I dont learn from the mistakes of others and more foolish of me if I dont learn from my own mistakes. It is on this template that I sat down to ponder on my experiences to learn some moral lessons, some of which includes: I must b e watchful so my enemies do not outwit me, I must test and try all friends to kn ow the once that are trustworthy because some of them are traitors and spy, I mu st not undermine the powers of my opponent, I must learn to punish all forms of misdeeds, etc It is common place knowledge that life does not end within the four walls of DE LSU emyes, there is life after DELSU.