Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)


Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

quite similar to English.двадцать один 22 .шестьсот 700 .двадцать два 23 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.двести 300 .двадцать три 24 .двенадцать 13 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.11 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.пятьсот 600 .девятьсот .семнадцать 18 .четырнадцать 15 .восемьсот 900 .четыреста 500 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).одиннадцать 12 .восемнадцать 19 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.девяносто 100 .тринадцать 14 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.сорок 50 .восемьдесят 90 .триста 400 .сто 200 .семьдесят 80 .семьсот 800 . Here are some examples: 20 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.пятнадцать 16 .тридцать 40 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".двадцать 21 .шестнадцать 17 .пятьдесят 60 . 30 .шестьдесят 70 .

The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.007 2. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .008 2.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") . .345 23. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".000. You should always say this after someone thanks you.000 . Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. after somebody says thank-you.миллиард For example: 131 .564 2. 0 .1.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".000 . you can basically forget the "уй".994 1. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct. 456 219 9. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. Yes and No.Yes Нет ("nyet") .000 1.000 .сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.тысяча 1.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.No Saying Hello. Да ("da") .миллион 1.000.812 Please and Thank-You.000.

but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.My name is . Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . There are also two words for saying good-bye. If somebody says Привет to you. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. Introducing Yourself. There are two forms of this word. You should just learn the whole phrase.Bye (Informal.. except for the question mark.Pleased to meet you. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . However. ("min-ya za-voot") .Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. Меня зовут .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") ..How are things? Хорошо спасибо . You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. and should only be used with friends.Bad Saying Good-Bye.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") .. You may also hear people say Пока. put a real questioning expression on your face. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . If all else fails. Привет is also commonly used with friends. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . you may need the following phrases. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. slang) You should generally use до свидания. but we suggest you only use it with friends. not the individual words. Вы говорите по-английски? .Do you (formal) speak Russian? . the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.Good-bye. In order to introduce yourself..Good/Well thank-you Плохо . there is no difference between the question and the statement. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? .

where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.Tell me please.Coca-Cola Лимонад .Vodka Пиво .Я говорю по-английски .Coffee Чай .I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Cake Водка .Tell me please. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Tell me please.Lemonade Сок .I understand Я не понимаю . где ближайшее кафе? .Milk Кока-Кола . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . . Скажите.Wine Вода .Beer Вино . где кафе? .Water . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.. пожалуйста.. где бар? .Tell me please. you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. Скажите.. пожалуйста.Juice Борщ . пожалуйста.. where is a cafe? Скажите..Soup Торт .Menu Кофе .Russian beetroot soup Суп . You could ask people with the following phrases.. Скажите.Tea Молоко . пожалуйста.I speak Russian Я понимаю .

.Give me please.. you will generally get straight vodka.. Examples: Дайте. .... чай.What is it? Это кофе. ..? . пожалуйста. it is tea.....? If you want to ask someone if they have something.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . это чай. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. это кофе.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .. you can use the following phrase.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . it is gramatically unusual).Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. .. when you order vodka in russia.Excuse me..Please give me tea. Дайте. кофе с молоком .. . Do you have. Что это? . You can use it to ask the price of something.It is coffee.. Дайте.What do you want? Я хочу . What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are.Be careful..Please give me coffee with milk. . Сколько стоит? .How much is it?. У вас есть . Дайте. пожалуйста.What? Что вы хотите? . Дайте. (Just learn the whole phrase.Do you have .Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. . пожалуйста ..Please give me coffee. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .. кофе .No. is it coffee? Нет.I want. пожалуйста. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. Простите. пожалуйста. . or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .

eat. Пожалуйста . Pronouns are words that can replace names." по-русски? . Скажите...How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . In the sentence "I love him".. you. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian.You (formal.. and the object is "him".What does ". It (f) Оно . "love" is the verb. Как сказать ".He. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence... walk. Here are some useful phrases." mean in English? Where is the toilet..How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . Где Туалет . or plural) ....She.Tell me please. her. For example: I.It (n) Мы .. he.21 rubles. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".How do you say ". they are things you can do. him. For example: run." in Russian? Что значит ".We Вы ..You (informal) Он . How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. The subject is "I". love." на английском? . Definitions Verbs are action words. she.) Я-I Ты . it. It (m) Она .Сколько? ..? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.. want.. (Known as the nominative case.

and once you get the hang of it.He. She. Они работают . Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. Just remember that unlike English. dictionary form) Я работаю . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть").Они .Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). You should memorise these pronouns.To work. работать . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. It works. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . (Known as the accusative case) Меня .Me Тебя . it is not too difficult. "ете" or "ют").I work Ты работаешь . "ешь". This happens a little in English. Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. (infinitive. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". or plural) Их . Она. and add the appropriate ending ("ю". but not as much.You (informal) Его .You work Он.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". It is the most common.Us Вас . and the second conjugation.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". "ет". he works). It (m. (Example: I work.You work. Оно работает . dictionary form) . (There are also some irregular verbs).Her.To understand.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). Мы работаем . and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. (infinitive. "I am working" and "I do work".You (formal.We work Вы работаете .n) Еѐ .Him. It (f) Нас . Both these patterns are quite similar.They work.("yevo") . "ем".

We know.I don't understand. Знать . dictionary form) Я знаю .They understand.He. Она.He. Он не понимает . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. (infinitive.We understand. Он.I know. Мы знаем . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . (infinitive. Вы понимаете .Do you know? Ты понимаешь? .He doesn't understand. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. It understands Мы понимаем . It Speaks. говорить . The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат").He. It knows.I understand. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). dictionary form) Я говорю .You know. Ты знаешь . For example: Я не знаю .They know.I speak.You understand. Она.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. Они понимают . Мы говорим . Я не понимаю . . Ты говоришь . Оно знает . Remember. Она. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. She.Я понимаю . Вы знаете . Оно понимает .I don't know. She. Он.To speak. Ты понимаешь . this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).You speak.To know. Они знают . She. which replace "ить". Он.You understand. Оно говорит .You know.We speak.

It hears. слышит .They live.To hear.I go (by transport).Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . Вы живѐте . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. .We don't speak Russian.To go (by transport). Ты живѐшь .I live. слышите .You go (by transport). often once you know the stem of the verb.He. слышат .They speak. слышу .We live. It goes (by transport). Я еду . For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Some examples: Ехать . слышишь .We hear. Они едут . Жить . Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. However. She. (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). Она.Вы говорите . She. Я живу .You live. Вы едете . Они живут . Они говорят . Она. Собака не говорит по-английски . Оно едет .They go (by transport). слышать . She.You speak.You go (by transport). Мы едем . except that "у" replaces "ю". you can often predict the endings.We go (by transport).You hear.You hear.The dog doesn't speak English.I speak English Он говорит по-русски . слышим . Мы живѐм .To live. It lives. Ты едешь . Он.I hear. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Оно живѐт .He.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? .You live.He. Он.They hear.

unlike many languages. ъ because they have no sound). Он едет домой .(Man) .Is Masculine Мужчина .U in English).Is Masculine Дядя . 4. “house”. paper.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. Luckily. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . У. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. Е.Is Masculine . In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. name or place. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. Vowel . cup. the word is masculine. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.E. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. In Russian we use 6 cases. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. “cup”.A noun is a thing.(Daddy.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. The letters А. cat.He is going home Definitions Noun . But there are five notable exceptions. (Except ь.Is Masculine Кофе .I. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. 3. 5. Ю. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. If it is a consonant. Gender of nouns.Is Masculine Дедушка . If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. it will be in its dictionary form. Папа . In the case of other objects like “pen”.(Grandfather) . Э. feminine. Example: dog.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. Ё.(Uncle) . as with many other languages. Ы. or “й”. Papa) . Moscow. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. Consonant .A letter that is not a vowel. И and Й. From the dictionary form of a noun. each noun is assigned a gender. О. Cases . Russian has three genders: masculine. pen. (A. and neuter (neutral). In English we do this by having a strict word-order. Look at the last letter of the word: 2.(Coffee) . There are very few exceptions to these rules. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1.O.I live in London. In Russian. Я.

Россия (Russia). “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. For example. . Feminine : газета (newspaper). (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟.. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. (In. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. so we will take it slowly. on. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. Хлеб (bread). The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. брат (brother). (Eg. документ (document). To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. In Russian there are six cases..Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). радио (radio). To indicate each case we change the ending of word. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building).. In fact it was also used in Old English. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. Greek and German. at.. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. and still keep the same meaning. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. and about.

Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. Russian uses the case for all nouns. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. For example. In the sentence “I love her”. . An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. Russian is very free about word order. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. so there is nothing special to learn here. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. the word “I” is the subject. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. “я” or “а”. you need to use the accusative case also. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. without changing the actual meaning. “ы”. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. However. especially pronouns. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”.buildings) The Accusative Case.Interestingly.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. In Russian. in this case the word “dog”. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. in the nominative case. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. add “ы”. not plants). (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. The Nominative Case.

Feminine Nouns: 1.I love sport. Replace “я” with “ю”. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. with “я”.Ivan loves tea. If the noun in inanimate. .He loves Moscow.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву .Masculine Nouns: 1. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. add “а”. If noun is animate. Он любит Москву . If noun is animate. replace “ь”. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Я не люблю музыку . Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. 2. Надя не любит вино . Ты любишь музыку? . Я люблю музыку . 3. replace “й”. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Neuter Nouns: 1.Nadya doesn't like wine. Иван любит чай . 2.I love Moscow. 4. add “я”. there is no change. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . Надя любит вино .Nadya loves wine.I don't like music. Replace “а” with “у”.I love music.

что ты любишь музыку.to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here.I am listening to the radio. Я еѐ люблю . Слушать . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .to read.I am watching television. so don't be confused. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a think Работать . Я читаю журнал .I am listening to music.I know that you love music.I am reading a magazine.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .What do you love? study Думать . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. Я читаю газету . The word "Что" has two uses. You can use it to form questions.I love you. If you would like. .to listen Изучать . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. Я слушаю радио . An example could be: Я знаю. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs.I love him. Что ты любишь? .to work Хотеть ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . Она любит меня . Читать . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Я слушаю музыку . .to watch. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?".I love her.I am reading a book. it is probably the conjunction "that". Смотреть .

For example: Я люблю читать .I think so! Как вы думаете? .I want to buy a magazine.Who? Что? . (lit: I study the Russian language). Где? .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .How? Почему? .very. Я так думаю . For example: Очень . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.I really love Moscow. Что вы хотите? .I study Russian. For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".I want tea.I love to read. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .Я изучаю русский язык . Я хочу купить журнал . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.What? Как? .Where? Кто? . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . Add : “е”.What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Я люблю путешествовать . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". You can include it into many phrases.I really love sport.I love to travel. Я очень люблю Москву .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.

in the garden в лесу . . 4.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . Replace “а” with “е”. Petersburg. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in the station на почте .at the post office в саду . Replace “о” with “е” 2.on the street Что на столе? .cinema театр . The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. Я живу в Лондоне . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Exception: Replace “ия”. „at a concert‟). Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. Replace “ь” with “и”. „at a station‟. suburbs and places. 2. although these aren‟t precise rules. Replace “я” with “е”. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings.I live in Siberia. (They are in dicionary form) кино . “е” remains unchanged.On the table is a book and a pencil. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . Я живу в Петербурге .Feminine Nouns: 1.I live in London. (Eg. Here are some tips to help you. even though they are not Russian.Where is she? на вокзале .in the forest на улице .I live in Moscow. (Eg.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . Using prepositions and the prepositional case. As with any language. „at work‟.I live in St. Я живу в Сибири .

hotel музей . Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.Straight ahead.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟.I am going to school. but as these words are so important for basic площадь .library кафе . налево .stadium школа . prepositions have more than one meaning. прямо . you can tell this by the case. and are grammatically quite complex.I work at (in) a school. Here are some examples for you to compare. there are actually four ways: . Куда вы идѐте . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. прямо потом направо .restaurant банк . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.аптека . So to express „to go‟ in Russian. However. we will introduce them now in a simple way. Both these words are verbs of motion.To the Location and Direction библиотека . the second indicates that you are going by some form of больница .pharmacy парк . your answer will involve the prepositional case. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.park стадион .Straight ahead then to the right. you would use the accusative case. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). направо .To the гостиница .square ресторан .Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). Где вы работаете? . The first indicates you are going on foot.

я иду в университет .To go by transport. Я иду в кино .I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .To go on foot.We are going to the cafe.He is going to the hotel. Они идут) Я иду в школу . Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Ты идѐшь. in more than one direction.To go on foot.I am going to school. Он едет. Мы идѐм в кафе .He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . (Я иду.I am going to the cinema. Ты едешь. Ехать .He is going to the hotel by taxi. Вы едете. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Мы едем. Я часто хожу в кино . in one direction. in more than one direction.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Ты ездишь .Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Вы ездите.I am going to school. (Я еду. Мы ездим. Он ходит. or repetitively (Я езжу. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Мы идѐм. Мы ходим. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .We are going to the cafe.I am going to the cinema on the metro.I go to school. Он ездит . Мы едем в кафе . Вы идѐте. Они часто ездят в Амстердам . Он едет в гостиницу на такси .He is going to London Ездить . (Я хожу.To go by transport. or repetitively. Вы ходите. Ты ходишь. in one direction. Ты идѐшь в кино? .I am going to the university Ходить .Идти . Он идѐт.I go to the theatre every day.We go to the cafe every day.

her Наш (m).husband Тѐтя . Наши (pl) .his. Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.I have a brother. Here are some Russian phrases you could use.Мать . У меня есть сын и дочь . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns. У меня есть сестра .our .I have a sister. Моя (f).children Внучка . Наше (n).grandson Семья . Мои (pl) .I don't have any Дочь . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now.wife Муж .mother Отец .my Твой (m).parents Дети .uncle Родители . Еѐ (f) .dad Сестра .son бабушка . Твоя (f). Моѐ (n).grandmother Дедушка . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.granddaughter Внук . Твоѐ (n).I have a son and a daughter.your Его (m n) ("yevo"). У меня нет детей . Наша (f). У меня есть брат .Do you have children?. Мой (m).grandfather Жена . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. Твои (pl) .mum Папа .father Мама . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their Just like English.auntie Дядя . For example we use the words mum and dad.sister Брат .daughter Сын . У тебя есть дети? .

However. Ваше (n).my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .This is my house Это моя квартира .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .. The Russian word Это means 'this is'. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .Ваш (m).Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. you may wish to say her name is Anna. Это мой дом . For example. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual. Моя мама любит музыку . This is. Доброе утро . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. Ваши (pl) .My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .his name is Ivan.good morning Добрый день .good evening Спокойной ночи . Ваша (f).My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .your Их ..goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .good afternoon Добрый вечер .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.

Adam's dog. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Собака Адама . (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . (This is like using 's in English). Replace “е” with “я” For example. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan.ownership As you can see in the above example. Replace “ь”. Neuter Nouns: 1. 2. 2.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). However. Anna's) Дом Ивана . Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. add “я”.Anna's car. with “я”. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . In the phrase "Дом Ивана". Replace “о” with “а” 2. Replace “а” with “ы”.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. Replace “й”. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . add “а”. in Russian. Брат Адама любит Москву . The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. Using the genitive case . This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. Replace “ь” with “и”. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . 3. Feminine Nouns: 1. pay particular attention to the order of the words. For example.Adam's brother loves Moscow. Replace “я” with “и”. If the noun ends in a consonant.Igor's telephone. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession.Masculine Nouns: 1. the object that is owned always comes first. Let's have a look at some more examples. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. 3. Сестра Анны читает газету .Anna's sister is reading the newspaper.

Тебя. Вас. У нее есть собака.sentence and uses the nominative case. план города . Их) Using the genitive case .There is no milk.I have book. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. Кофе нет .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.He is not home. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. Here are some examples.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained.. Ивана нет .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . У вас есть кофе? .A glass of milk.. Его. Его нет дома .There is no tea. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . У меня есть книга .She has a dog. As we have seen in a previous lesson. Чая нет . but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English.There is no coffee. стакан молока . The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case.‟. Here are some examples.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .to have As the genitive case relates to possession. Using the genitive case . Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. Еѐ. This is exactly the same concept as above. . (Меня.Ivan isn't here. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). Generally. Нас. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.A map of the city.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Молока нет .Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) .

Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. plurals. Х.Using the genitive case . The Nominative Case . Ч.numbers. add “ы”. but don‟t worry. quantaties.Plural (Subject) In Russian. . "я" or "а".студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . "ы".) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. you make a plural by using the letters "и". Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . The genitive case is used after most numbers. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. in the nominative case. Ш. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. depending on whether the object is animate or not. for example "10 roubles". Ж. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. К.

Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. Ok. девушка . or whether you are just using general plurals. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). let‟s see how to use them.марок. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. англичанка . but in Russian we use it for all numbers. Книги на столе .ч. Анна любит книги . Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.The Genitive Case .Anna loves books.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.газет (newspapers') здание . For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.студентов (students') газета . (марка .англичанок. This may feel a little strange at first.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”.The books are on the table. Here are some examples. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). . ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. but in the plural form.ш.щ.

five roubles десять рублей .21 roubles один доллар . All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory ( три рубля . 13 & 14).three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. Here are some examples.7. To help you get used to this concept. (example: 22.9. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.ten roubles сто рублей ..4 If the number.eight buildings девять собак .three dogs четыре доллара . 103. 61) (but not 11).one rouble двадцать один рубль . etc) пять рублей .3.two books три собаки . одна девушка .I know one girl один рубль . try using plurals that involve money. or the last digit of the number is girl Я знаю одну девушку .three roubles четыре рубля . The number one declines like an adjective.six books семь газет . then you should use the genitive singular case. 42. 14. 3 or 4.nine dogs десять студентов .one hundred roubles сто долларов . 21.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is hundred dollars шесть книг . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. Here are some examples. .one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.four students три газеты . 12.four dollars четыре студента .four roubles две книги .ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1. 4) (but not 12. newspapers восемь зданий .

-надцать . Как его зовут? .4 .3.What is his name? Его зовут Борис .0.His name is Boris..Nikolay (Коля) Борис .As per position in the sentence.) Quantity not specified . .Vladimir (Володя.7. Much like “Мне холодно” . Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 . Quantity ends in 1 .9. Вова) .So in summary. Quantity ends in 2.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .the dative case.Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position. Here are some other common Russian names for men.How old are you. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction. Quantity ends in 5. Мне восемнадцать лет ..“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).My name is Vera.I am 23 years old.6. Как еѐ зовут? .8.What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.Genitive Plural General Quantity . Николай . In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .Her name is Alyona. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.Boris Владимир .Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .Genitive Singular.. Как вас зовут? . (Lit: To me there are 16 years)..

In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . Шура) Дмитрий .Пѐтр .good afternoon Добрый вечер . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. Здравствуйте . This is like a pet name. Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.Olga (Оля) Александра . Peter.Andrey Александр . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').Mariya (Маша) Ольга . The diminuative is a more personal.Alexander (Саша. and should only be used when you are in close firendship. Спасибо . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Oxana Екатерина .and/but (contrasting) . but try to learn them all.Hello Привет . Some of these may be new.goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Natalya (Наташа) Мария . Андрей .good morning Добрый день .and а .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Thank-You Пожалуйста .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .good evening Спокойной ночи .Pyotr. Елена .Sergey Алексей .Yelena (Лена) Наталья . You should be able to remember all of these.Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .Yekaterina Анастасия . or tender form.

along.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . . кофе с молоком и с сахаром. at (+prepositional).Do you have coffee? Кофе нет.но .What do you want? Я хочу чай. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . Он любит говорить по-английски. it их .from по .near. . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. behind (+instrumental) из .Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.Give me please. . onto. . об . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. We will use only common words. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.Do you have tea? Чая нет. пожалуйста. Что вы хотите? . In Russian we would use the word "а".about к . У вас есть чай? . You might also find some new words in these sentences. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev.out of.".Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .but или . Скажите. где туалет? .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences.for (+accusative).He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.Tell me please.on. .her. . .There is no tea.he. so you should try to learn them all. it еѐ . У вас есть водка? . from от .My mum loves music.There is no coffee. to (+accusative) на .in (+prepositional). пожалуйста. to за . For example. я-I он . coffee with milk and with sugar. to (+accusative) о.towards. пожалуйста.you (informal) вы .I know that you speak (formal/plural) его .him.with у . что ты говоришь по-русски.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . it ты . во .I want tea please. Дайте.

My Mum loves music.I really love Moscow. Моя сестра читает газету . Сестра Анны читает газету .I am listening to music.Who? Что? . сколько стоит? .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .Твой брат говорит по-русски? . что ты понимаешь.Yes. Я думаю.He is not home.How much? четыре рубля . Почему ты не понимаешь? . .How much? сто рублей .21 roubles. сколько стоит? .I am studying the Russian language.Do you understand? Я знаю. сколько стоит? . Я очень люблю спорт .I live in London.How much? четыре доллара .I know that you understand. что вы понимаете.How much? двадцать один рубль . Его нет дома .Does your borther speak Russian? Да.When? Почему? .He is going home.Adam's brother loves Moscow. Моя мама любит музыку .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.Where is he? Где кафе? .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . . Он хорошо говорит по-русски. Где? .I don't understand. .The dog doesn't speak English. .100 roubles. сколько стоит? . . Брат Адама любит Москву .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.Who is he? Я читаю журнал .Where? Кто? . Я очень люблю Москву . He speaks Russian well. Я изучаю русский язык .Why? Что ты знаешь? .Where is the cafe? Кто он? . Я слушаю музыку .My sister is reading a newspaper.I think that you understand.What? Как? . Собака не говорит по-английски. Ты понимаешь? . Он едет домой . Я не понимаю. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .I am reading a magazine. .How? Когда? .4 dollars.I really love sport.What do you think? Где он? .I understand.4 roubles.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.

Нам . Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. with “ю”.Молоку Вино . Мне . Вам . Replace “ия” with “ии”. Replace “ь” with “и”.him. Replace “ь”. Ему (n). "о" or a consonant with "ам". it. Replace “й”.you (formal. 4. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. If the noun ends in a consonant.Forming the dative case. her. To create nouns in the dative case. 2. add "ам". Replace “я” with “е”. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) (informal). add “ю”. Neuter Nouns: If the noun ends in a consonant. Им . 2. add “у”. Masculine Nouns: 1. 3. Replace “о” with “у” 2. 3. 3. 1. Ему (m). Тебе . Replace "а".Адаму Елена . we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Feminine Nouns: 1.. . Ей (f) . Replace “а” with “е”.them.Елене Молоко . or plural).. 2. Адам .us.

Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. Дайте мне .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. Я даю цветы Анне .I am helping this girl. .(you) give Дают . Я помогаю этой девушке .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .(I) give Даѐшь . The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”.give! Дайте . It should be used in the dative case. Дай . Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . Similarly. Они дают цветы Елене .They give flowers to Elena.I give flowers to Anna.(you) give Даѐт .(he) gives Даѐм . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.We help mother every day..Give me your address and telephone number. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”.. Я помогаю Ивану .(we) give Даѐте .I am helping Anna.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. . Here are the conjuctions: Даю . Мы помогаем маме каждый день .. the word “Anna” is the indirect object.I am helping Ivan. For this reason.. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.Give me . you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.Ivan gives flowers to Anna..(they) give The command forms of this word include. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . .

However it is a common word. Мне нравится Москва .? Как вам нравится фильм? . (The "ся" ending is reflexive). and it relies on the dative case.I like the children. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.Ivan calls Anna every day.She likes Moscow.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно .) Мне нравятся ваши дети . Вам нравится Москва ..I like Moscow. Иван звонит Анне каждый день .You like call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день .? .) Ему нравится Москва . Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.She calls Ivan every day. Как вам нравится . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. it is still worth learning these examples..I really like the flowers.How do you like . Мне холодно . If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.He is cold (to him its cold) . To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). so it is worth learning now. However this verb is used differently.I like the flowers. (lit: children are pleasing to me. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. Мне очень нравятся цветы . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.) Practice using the word нравится.Adam likes Moscow. it is like saying “To me it is likable”. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. Адаму нравится Москва . so it is enough for now just to learn this form. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.I like your children. Мне нравятся цветы .He likes Moscow.) Ей нравится Москва . Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.Звонить .Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case.. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns.

You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. . Replace “ь”. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. Мы едем к друзьям . and has too many meanings.Ей холодно .I am 23 years old. Except. 2. It is followed by the dative case.. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. to create an exact rule. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. with “ем”.We are going to our friends. “ш” or “щ”. Replace “й”. 4. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1.I am walking towards the station.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . “ц”. if stressed “ѐм”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . if stressed “ѐм”. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). All consonants. then add “ем”.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . add “ем”. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. “ч”.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . add “ом”.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно ..

“ч”.ложкой (spoon) нож .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.Feminine Nouns: 1. 1. Иван пишет карандашом . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Replace “ь” with “ью”. In English these words can have different meanings. 4. Examples. “ш” or “щ”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. 3. Replace “я” with “ей”.. Except. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.карандашом (pencil) ложка .. . Neuter Nouns: 1. add "ами". "о" with "ами"... Accompanied by.мужем (husband) жена . Replace “а” with “ой”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .ножом (knife) муж .Анной (Anna) студенты . Олег режет мясо ножом . Replace "а". so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .I eat soup with a spoon. Я ем суп ложкой . 2.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. if stressed “ѐй”.женой (wife) Иван .With. 2. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.молоком (milk) сметана . The preposition: „с‟ .Ivan writes with a pencil. All consonants. “ц”. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.

Her .I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Me Тобой . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). .You Им . Мы с вами . Дайте. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Pronouns . Иван с Анной идут в кафе.Him Ей . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Have a look at the following Russian examples.My husband and I are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. However it is followed by the genitive case. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . it is often written as “со”. Иван с женой идут в кафе.I eat borsh with sour cream. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.For ease of pronunciation. 2. Here are some examples. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. with Ivan”).Ivan and I are going to school.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Me and you Notes: 1. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. „with him‟. In English we would use the word “and”.My wife and I are going to the cafe. пожалуйста. кофе с молоком . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. „with you‟. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. . Мной . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Ivan wants tea with milk.Nadya wants tea with lemon. пожалуйста. . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Иван хочет чай с молоком .

You (plural) Ими .Them Seasons and parts of the summer осень . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.night ночью .It Нами .evening вечером .Us Вами .spring весной .morning утром .in the evening ночь . . afternoon днѐм . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.winter зимой . For example: лето .autumn осенью . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. The instrumental case is also used after the following the morning день .summer летом .day.Им .in the afternoon вечер .in autumn зима .in winter весна .

.Behind this building there is a school.Under the table the cat is sitting.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .Between lunch and dinner drink tea.In front of this school turn to the left. be The verb “Быть” (to be interested in оказываться . to be occupied with интересоваться . enjoy становиться/стать .I was a doctor).to be. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. is. .to be keen on управлять . .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. . was) has no present tense. (Example: Я был врачом . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. Под столом сидит кот.to turn out to be оставаться .above перед .control. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. Над столом висит лампа.under Examples: За этим зданием .The lamp is above the table.за .школа.to remain as пользоваться .to be engaged in. for между . govern являться .to use.behind. beyond. быть . was заниматься . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.between над . is. . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . the following noun is usually in the instrumental front of под .to become увлекаться .Happy birthday С новым годом . Перед этой школой поверните налево. manage. You don't need to learn these verbs now. but it is something to keep in mind. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case .

Анной (Anna) студенты . 1. “ц”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.мужем (husband) жена .Иваном (Ivan) Анна .. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .. Replace “ь” with “ью”.ложкой (spoon) нож . Replace “а” with “ой”.I eat soup with a spoon. All consonants. Except.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace "а". In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.Masculine Nouns: 1.. Олег режет мясо ножом . add "ами".карандашом (pencil) ложка ..ножом (knife) муж .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . if stressed “ѐм”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. Replace “ь”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. 2. “ш” or “щ”. Иван пишет карандашом . Feminine Nouns: 1.. In English these words can have different meanings. if stressed “ѐй”. “ч”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. if stressed “ѐм”. “ч”. 4. .молоком (milk) сметана . 2.Ivan writes with a pencil.. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. 3. "о" with "ами". then add “ем”. Except.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Я ем суп ложкой . 2.женой (wife) Иван . Examples. with “ем”. “ш” or “щ”. 4. All consonants. add “ом”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. add “ем”. Replace “я” with “ей”. Replace “й”. “ц”.

For ease of pronunciation. Мы с вами . Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Иван хочет чай с молоком . Pronouns . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. . . Have a look at the following Russian examples.Instrumental Case . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Accompanied by.Please give me coffee with milk.The preposition: „с‟ . пожалуйста.I eat borsh with sour cream. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. it is often written as “со”. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.Me and you Notes: 1. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . кофе с молоком . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.My wife and I are going to the cafe. Here are some examples. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. пожалуйста.With. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Анна с мужем идут в кафе.My husband and I are going to the cafe. . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. 2. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. However it is followed by the genitive case. with Ivan”).Ivan wants tea with milk. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Nadya wants tea with lemon. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. In English we would use the word “and”.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . .Ivan and I are going to school. Дайте. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . Иван с женой идут в кафе.

summer летом .It Нами .Them Seasons and parts of the the evening ночь . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Мной .Me Тобой .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.night ночью .evening вечером .autumn осенью . For example: лето .in winter весна . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. „with you‟.in the afternoon вечер .Her Им .You Им . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.spring весной .in summer осень . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.day.morning утром .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .Him Ей . „with him‟.at night .in autumn зима .in the morning день .Us Вами .winter зимой .You (plural) Ими . afternoon днѐм .

Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . быть . for между . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.школа.to become увлекаться . You don't need to learn these verbs now.control.Behind this building there is a school. to be occupied with интересоваться . . . . (Example: Я был врачом .to be.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. Над столом висит лампа.The lamp is above the front of под .to turn out to be оставаться . govern являться .to use.Happy birthday С новым годом .In the evening I eat borsh with sour be interested in оказываться . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt remain as пользоваться . за .In front of this school turn to the left. Перед этой школой поверните налево.Under the table the cat is sitting. .to be keen on управлять .under Examples: За этим зданием . manage. be The verb “Быть” (to be engaged in. is. . is.above перед . enjoy становиться/стать . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. was) has no present tense.I was a doctor).between над . but it is something to keep in mind. beyond. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental seem. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . Под столом сидит кот. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. . was заниматься . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.

Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not.. In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. but in Russian there is simply one.We knew Я знал .They knew Мы знали .Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.Olga knew Собака знала .Dima knew Елена знала .You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. Although this concept differs from English. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).I knew (female speaking) Ты знал ..Elena knew Ольга знала .It knew Они знали .Vladimir knew Дима знал .She knew Оно знало . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. Forming Verbs in Past Tense. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings.He knew Она знала . it is conceptually quite easy. The same principal also applies in the future tense..The dog knew .I knew (male speaking) Я знала . Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. Let's have a look at the past tense now. or talk about something that has happened in the past. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. Он знал . 2nd or 3rd person). (ie 1st.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .

This should help you remember how to form the verbs. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned.I was working Я шѐл . The Imperfective Aspect. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. . Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. consequently each verb has two possible forms. Ты. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. . and it becomes important in the past and future tenses.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. Я работал . When using pronouns such as Я. There are two aspects in Russian. so there is no perfective in the present tense. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. By definition something in the present tense is happening now.I worked for 2 hours. Some tenses in English can indicate this. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated.She wants to buy a book. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. reversed or repeated actions. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect.I was home. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. The perfective and the imperfective aspect.I run in the forest every day. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. Я работал два часа . habitual. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. use the imperfective also. ongoing. and is not complete.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу.I worked everyday. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. . (often По-). You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. Я работал каждый день .

Perfective: Я не позвонила . Она спросила учителя. Он не хотел видеть меня.He did not want to see me.She did not eat bananas. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened.I did not live in England. Я купил кофе .I did not understand what he said.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. .Did you tell him about it? . . Questions and Aspects. .I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . Я не жила в Англии.Yesterday we read an interesting article. Я не понял.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.I went home.I failed to phone.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. . Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. Саша съел обед за пять минут. .She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. If you are still unsure which to use.We did not watch the movie yesterday.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . .Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. . The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. (but I was expected to). . . try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. . . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. что он сказал.

Я не была .At school I started learning English. Я была во многих странах. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.He read for three hours. Я окончила школу. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.I‟ve already visited Sweden.It was Они были .I was (woman speaking) Он был .Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.It was not. . когда мне было 16 лет . Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.We rented a summer house for three months. Они не были . . .I was not (woman speaking).She was Оно было . Я уже посетила Швецию . Я был . Я не был .They were not. В школе я начала учить английский. This is not the case in the past tense.I was not (man speaking).He was Она была . .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.I‟ve been to many countries. The stress moves to the word 'не'.I finished school when I was 16 years old. . Оно не было . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). Он читал три часа. except in the feminine.I was (man speaking) Я была .

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