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А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
семьсот 800 .восемьдесят 90 .семьдесят 80 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way. It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.восемнадцать 19 . quite similar to English.пятьдесят 60 .сто 200 .11 .пятьсот 600 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".двадцать один 22 .четырнадцать 15 .двести 300 .шестьдесят 70 . 30 .пятнадцать 16 .шестнадцать 17 .тридцать 40 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).двенадцать 13 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see. (You will need to drop the soft sign.триста 400 .шестьсот 700 .тринадцать 14 .одиннадцать 12 .двадцать два 23 .восемьсот 900 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English. the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.сорок 50 .двадцать три 24 .двадцать 21 .девятьсот .четыреста 500 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia. Here are some examples: 20 .девяносто 100 .семнадцать 18 .
You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. 0 . You should always say this after someone thanks you. .No Saying Hello.812 Please and Thank-You.000 .000.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.000 . The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.тысяча 1.008 2.345 23.1. Yes and No. you can basically forget the "уй".994 1. 456 219 9.000 . Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.Yes Нет ("nyet") .007 2.000. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". after somebody says thank-you.миллион 1.миллиард For example: 131 .000 1. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.564 2.000. Да ("da") . Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .
There are also two words for saying good-bye. In order to introduce yourself. However. and should only be used with friends. You should just learn the whole phrase. ("min-ya za-voot") . not the individual words. except for the question mark.Good-bye. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. slang) You should generally use до свидания. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . If all else fails. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") .What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. There are two forms of this word..Bye (Informal. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. Привет is also commonly used with friends. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . there is no difference between the question and the statement. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). put a real questioning expression on your face. Вы говорите по-английски? . but we suggest you only use it with friends.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. Introducing Yourself.Bad Saying Good-Bye. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. you may need the following phrases. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? .... Меня зовут . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". You may also hear people say Пока. If somebody says Привет to you.My name is . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone.Do you (formal) speak Russian? .How are things? Хорошо спасибо .Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? .Pleased to meet you.Good/Well thank-you Плохо .
.Wine Вода . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . пожалуйста.Tell me please. где ближайшее кафе? .Coca-Cola Лимонад ..Soup Торт . Скажите...I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café. пожалуйста.I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Coffee Чай .Water .Tea Молоко . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. пожалуйста.Menu Кофе .Tell me please.Juice Борщ . where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”. где кафе? . where is a cafe? Скажите.Cake Водка .Я говорю по-английски .Tell me please.. Скажите.. You could ask people with the following phrases.I understand Я не понимаю . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.Lemonade Сок .Milk Кока-Кола . It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is. пожалуйста.Beer Вино .Tell me please.I speak Russian Я понимаю . Скажите.Vodka Пиво .. где бар? .Russian beetroot soup Суп .
. when you order vodka in russia.Excuse me. пожалуйста. Сколько стоит? .. Examples: Дайте.Do you have .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . ..What? Что вы хотите? . is it coffee? Нет. You can use it to ask the price of something. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .. it is gramatically unusual). Дайте..What do you want? Я хочу .How much is it?.. you will generally get straight vodka.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. you can use the following phrase. У вас есть .Please give me coffee. кофе с молоком .? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? ... Дайте.. кофе .. it is tea. чай.? .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .Be careful. . это кофе.I want. пожалуйста .? If you want to ask someone if they have something..Give me please. кофе с молоком и с сахаром ..Please give me coffee with milk. пожалуйста.It is coffee. Что это? . How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian... (Just learn the whole phrase.What is it? Это кофе. пожалуйста. пожалуйста.. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. Дайте. ... . . .. Дайте. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. .Please give me tea. Простите. это чай..Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.No. Do you have.
? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is. Here are some useful phrases. love.) Я-I Ты . Как сказать ". It (m) Она . Скажите. (Known as the nominative case. Где Туалет ." mean in English? Where is the toilet." по-русски? .....How do you say ". she. Definitions Verbs are action words.We Вы . walk.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . he." на английском? . or plural) .. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”.Сколько? . want.He..Tell me please. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence. For example: run... In the sentence "I love him"... him." in Russian? Что значит "..She. her.It (n) Мы . "love" is the verb. you. and the object is "him". Pronouns are words that can replace names...You (formal. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". It (f) Оно .21 rubles.What does ". it.. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian.. The subject is "I". eat..You (informal) Он . Пожалуйста . where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M". For example: I. they are things you can do.
I work Ты работаешь . This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". and add the appropriate ending ("ю". Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject.To work. (infinitive. he works).n) Еѐ .Us Вас . and the second conjugation. Just remember that unlike English. Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). (infinitive. This happens a little in English.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). Оно работает . You should memorise these pronouns.You (formal.We work Вы работаете . (There are also some irregular verbs). работать . Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . Мы работаем . Both these patterns are quite similar.They work. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". "ем". Она. Они работают .Her. dictionary form) . It works. "ете" or "ют"). She. "ет".To understand.Они .Russian uses an extra version of the word "you".You (informal) Его . and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. "I am working" and "I do work". or plural) Их . (Known as the accusative case) Меня .("yevo") . (Example: I work. it is not too difficult.Him. In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".Me Тебя . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. but not as much. It is the most common. To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). It (f) Нас . dictionary form) Я работаю . "ешь".You work. and once you get the hang of it. It (m.He.You work Он.
There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. (infinitive. Оно знает .We understand.I speak. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. Оно понимает . Оно говорит .They know. Ты знаешь . Он. It knows. She. Мы говорим . (infinitive. Они понимают . Remember.You understand.Я понимаю .He.To know. which replace "ить". Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).He. She. Она. Он.He doesn't understand. говорить . For example: Я не знаю .You understand. Они знают . Он не понимает . Я не понимаю .I don't know.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules.To speak. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? .He. She. .You know.I know. Знать .We know. Она.They understand. Вы понимаете . Ты понимаешь . It Speaks. Он.You know. dictionary form) Я говорю . Мы знаем . Она. Вы знаете .I understand. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат").You speak. Ты говоришь .Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation.We speak. It understands Мы понимаем .I don't understand. dictionary form) Я знаю .
Она.You live.You hear. .He.We go (by transport).You hear. (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).I speak English Он говорит по-русски .They go (by transport). слышу . Я живу . It hears. слышим .We live. often once you know the stem of the verb. Вы едете . For Example: Я говорю по-английски .They hear. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction.They speak.I go (by transport). Собака не говорит по-английски .You go (by transport).He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . Она. слышат . She.The dog doesn't speak English.I live. except that "у" replaces "ю".They live.To go (by transport).He. She.You live. Мы едем .He. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above.We don't speak Russian.I hear. It lives. Жить . Ты живѐшь . слышит .We hear. It goes (by transport). Он. However.To live. слышать . слышите . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. you can often predict the endings.You go (by transport). Some examples: Ехать .To hear. слышишь . Они едут . Вы живѐте .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . Ты едешь . Он. Они говорят . Они живут . Мы живѐм . Оно едет .Вы говорите .You speak. Я еду . Оно живѐт . She.
5. But there are five notable exceptions. Vowel . 3. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. Cases .U in English). (A. and neuter (neutral). However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.Is Masculine Кофе .Is Masculine .Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. unlike many languages. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. 4.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. Moscow. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. pen. Look at the last letter of the word: 2.A noun is a thing. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter.E. Я. The letters А.I.(Uncle) . Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . this occurs mainly because of physical gender. О. Luckily. In Russian. If it is a consonant. Ю. И and Й. In English we do this by having a strict word-order.I live in London. cat. each noun is assigned a gender. Е. “cup”. Example: dog. name or place. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. it will be in its dictionary form.He is going home Definitions Noun . in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling.Is Masculine Дедушка . Papa) . ъ because they have no sound).(Coffee) . Он едет домой .O. In Russian we use 6 cases.(Daddy. Э. the word is masculine. Gender of nouns. Ё. cup.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. or “й”.Is Masculine Дядя .(Grandfather) . There are very few exceptions to these rules. У.(Man) . paper. Ы. Russian has three genders: masculine. “house”.A letter that is not a vowel. Папа . Consonant . feminine. (Except ь. From the dictionary form of a noun. In the case of other objects like “pen”. as with many other languages.Is Masculine Мужчина .
It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. In Russian there are six cases. and still keep the same meaning. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. Greek and German. . (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. Feminine : газета (newspaper). Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. at.. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary.. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. документ (document). (Eg. Хлеб (bread).) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. on.. so we will take it slowly. For example. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. In fact it was also used in Old English. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. and about. радио (radio). To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. The case system is also used in languages like Latin.. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. брат (brother). Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. (In. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. Россия (Russia). (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟.
In English we make a plural by adding “s”.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . “я” or “а”.Interestingly. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. the word “I” is the subject. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. without changing the actual meaning. Russian is very free about word order. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. For example. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. you need to use the accusative case also. so there is nothing special to learn here. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. The Nominative Case. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. Russian uses the case for all nouns. “ы”. especially pronouns. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns.buildings) The Accusative Case. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . However.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . in this case the word “dog”. not plants). some remnants of the case system still exist in English. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. . We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. in the nominative case. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. In the sentence “I love her”. In Russian. add “ы”. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case.
Replace “а” with “у”.Ivan loves tea.Nadya doesn't like wine. 2. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. Feminine Nouns: 1.I love Moscow. add “я”. 3.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . If noun is animate. add “а”. If the noun in inanimate. Надя любит вино . Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . Ты любишь музыку? .I love music. 4. Neuter Nouns: 1. Я не люблю музыку . 2. Он любит Москву .Nadya loves wine.I love sport.He loves Moscow. Replace “я” with “ю”. Я люблю музыку . Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. replace “й”. Надя не любит вино . there is no change. with “я”. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate).Masculine Nouns: 1. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Иван любит чай . . If noun is animate. replace “ь”.I don't like music.
Она любит меня . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". Я читаю газету . Я читаю журнал .I am reading a book. Слушать .I love you. Что ты любишь? . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .to listen Изучать . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.I am reading a magazine.I am watching television.I am listening to music.I love her. что ты любишь музыку."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs.to watch. Я слушаю радио . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. You can use it to form questions.I know that you love music.to read. The word "Что" has two uses. .to work Хотеть . it is probably the conjunction "that". Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . Я слушаю музыку . An example could be: Я знаю. Читать .I love him.What do you love? However. If you would like.to think Работать .to study Думать . .I am listening to the radio. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. Смотреть . Я еѐ люблю . so don't be confused. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.
very.I really love Moscow. For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". You can include it into many phrases.I love to travel. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .I want to buy a magazine.Who? Что? . For example: Я люблю читать .Where? Кто? .I really love sport.Я изучаю русский язык .I love to read. Я очень люблю Москву . Я так думаю . For example: Очень . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. Я люблю путешествовать . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . (lit: I study the Russian language). Что вы хотите? . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .I think so! Как вы думаете? . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".How? Почему? .I want tea. Где? .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.What? Как? . Я хочу купить журнал . Add : “е”. In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.I study Russian.
(They are in dicionary form) кино . As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. Replace “я” with “е”. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings.I live in St. 4. Replace “а” with “е”. suburbs and places. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. Я живу в Сибири .at the post office в саду . (Eg. even though they are not Russian.in the garden в лесу .Where is she? на вокзале . Replace “о” with “е” 2. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? .Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . although these aren‟t precise rules. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . „at work‟.I live in London.On the table is a book and a pencil.theatre . Other Places Here are some names of other useful places.at the station на почте .I live in Siberia. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. “е” remains unchanged. Я живу в Лондоне . (Eg. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Using prepositions and the prepositional case.in the forest на улице . Replace “ь” with “и”.on the street Что на столе? .Feminine Nouns: 1. „at a concert‟). Exception: Replace “ия”. 3.I live in Moscow.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . Я живу в Петербурге . The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. Here are some tips to help you. „at a station‟.cinema театр . 2. Petersburg. As with any language.
museum больница . So to express „to go‟ in Russian.аптека .To the right.library кафе . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.cafe площадь . you can tell this by the case.I work at (in) a school. направо . However. Here are some examples for you to compare. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs.pharmacy парк .square ресторан . прямо .Straight ahead. you would use the accusative case. Где вы работаете? . Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.Straight ahead then to the right. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). prepositions have more than one meaning.bank гостиница .park стадион . прямо потом направо .stadium школа . the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. we will introduce them now in a simple way. налево .Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . and are grammatically quite complex.To the left.I am going to school. The first indicates you are going on foot. but as these words are so important for basic Russian.school библиотека . You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . your answer will involve the prepositional case.restaurant банк .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. Both these words are verbs of motion. there are actually four ways: . Куда вы идѐте .hotel музей .
I am going to the cinema on the metro.We are going to the cafe. Ты ходишь.I am going to school. or repetitively. Вы ходите. Вы идѐте. я иду в университет . in one direction. Мы ходим.To go by transport.We are going to the cafe. Они идут) Я иду в школу .To go on foot.He is going to the hotel.We go to the cafe every day. Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Ты идѐшь.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . or repetitively (Я езжу. Он ездит .He is going to the hotel by taxi. Мы ездим. (Я хожу. Мы идѐм. Он идѐт.I am going to the university Ходить . Ты едешь. Они часто ездят в Амстердам .They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Он едет.Идти . Он едет в гостиницу на такси .To go by transport.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . (Я еду. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .He is going to London Ездить . Вы ездите.I go to the theatre every day. Ты идѐшь в кино? . (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Он ходит. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Мы едем.I am going to school. in more than one direction.I am going to the cinema. Вы едете. in one direction. Мы идѐм в кафе . (Я иду. Я иду в кино . Я часто хожу в кино . Ехать .I go to school. in more than one direction. Мы едем в кафе . Ты ездишь .To go on foot.
our .children Внучка . У меня есть сестра . Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10. in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.grandmother Дедушка . У меня нет детей .I have a brother.sister Брат .uncle Родители . Наши (pl) .wife Муж .brother Дочь . Еѐ (f) . Твоя (f).dad Сестра .son бабушка .Мать .I don't have any children. Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.his. У тебя есть дети? .auntie Дядя .parents Дети . У меня есть брат .I have a sister. her Наш (m). You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns. Мои (pl) . Моя (f).father Мама . Твоѐ (n). Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.grandson Семья .Do you have children?. Наше (n). У меня есть сын и дочь . Наша (f).mum Папа . Мой (m). Here are some Russian phrases you could use.your Его (m n) ("yevo"). For example we use the words mum and dad.daughter Сын . Твои (pl) .I have a son and a daughter.my Твой (m).family Just like English.grandfather Жена .mother Отец .granddaughter Внук .husband Тѐтя . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. Моѐ (n).
the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .This is my house Это моя квартира . For example. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . However. This is. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know. you may wish to say her name is Anna.Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .good afternoon Добрый вечер .your Их .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . Ваша (f).Ваш (m). Это мой дом .Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт . Моя мама любит музыку . Ваши (pl) .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . Ваше (n). we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. Доброе утро .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet..his name is Ivan.good evening Спокойной ночи .good morning Добрый день . The Russian word Это means 'this is'.My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт ..
In the phrase "Дом Ивана". pay particular attention to the order of the words.Igor's telephone. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . 3. Собака Адама . Replace “ь”. Using the genitive case . Replace “е” with “я” For example. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the .Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. with “я”.Masculine Nouns: 1. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. Let's have a look at some more examples. Replace “я” with “и”. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. For example.Anna's car. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. If the noun ends in a consonant. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. 3.ownership As you can see in the above example. Anna's) Дом Ивана .Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. add “я”. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. Брат Адама любит Москву . (This is like using 's in English).Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Replace “а” with “ы”. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. Neuter Nouns: 1. However. 2.Adam's dog. Сестра Анны читает газету .Adam's brother loves Moscow. the object that is owned always comes first. 2. add “а”. Replace “й”. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. in Russian. Replace “ь” with “и”. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “о” with “а” 2.
To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is).there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning.He is not home. Вас.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Его. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case.‟.A map of the city. план города . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . Нас. Его нет дома . but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. Еѐ. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. Их) Using the genitive case .Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case .I have book.. У меня есть книга .Ivan isn't here. This is exactly the same concept as above. Ивана нет . “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case.A glass of milk. (Меня.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . Кофе нет . Here are some examples. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . Here are some examples.to have As the genitive case relates to possession.She has a dog.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Using the genitive case . стакан молока .There is no milk.There is no tea. У вас есть кофе? . У нее есть собака.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . As we have seen in a previous lesson. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case..There is no coffee. Молока нет . Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. Generally. . Тебя.sentence and uses the nominative case. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. Чая нет .
) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . but don‟t worry.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. Ч. Х.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. in the nominative case. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. for example "10 roubles". Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. "ы".Plural (Subject) In Russian. quantaties. "я" or "а".газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . plurals. К. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. . The genitive case is used after most numbers. The Nominative Case . you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson.numbers.Using the genitive case . depending on whether the object is animate or not. Ш. add “ы”. you make a plural by using the letters "и".студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. Ж.
but in Russian we use it for all numbers.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.студентов (students') газета .Anna loves books. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. but in the plural form. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”.ч.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й.англичанок. This may feel a little strange at first. Ok. Анна любит книги . е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. девушка . The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.ш. Книги на столе . or whether you are just using general plurals.марок. let‟s see how to use them.The books are on the table. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.щ. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. англичанка .газет (newspapers') здание . (марка .The Genitive Case . For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. .зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. Here are some examples. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).
five roubles десять рублей . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. одна девушка . 42. 21.eight buildings девять собак . To help you get used to this concept.4 If the number.nine dogs десять студентов . три рубля .I know one girl один рубль .four students три газеты .7. 4) (but not 12. 13. etc) пять рублей .6. 12.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.3.one rouble двадцать один рубль .one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.seven newspapers восемь зданий .four roubles две книги . try using plurals that involve money.9.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. 13 & 14).ten roubles сто рублей . All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.three dogs четыре доллара .21 roubles один доллар . then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. 103.8.one girl Я знаю одну девушку . Here are some examples.four dollars четыре студента .six books семь газет .one hundred dollars шесть книг . (example: 22. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1. The number one declines like an adjective.. or the last digit of the number is 2. Here are some examples. 3 or 4. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. then you should use the genitive singular case. . 14.three roubles четыре рубля .0.one hundred roubles сто долларов .two books три собаки . 61) (but not 11).
My name is Vera. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .4 .7.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .9. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .Nikolay (Коля) Борис . Much like “Мне холодно” .So in summary.Her name is Alyona.0.Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).I am 23 years old.the dative case.3. Как вас зовут? .His name is Boris. .I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .What is his name? Его зовут Борис .Genitive Plural General Quantity ..-надцать . Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.Genitive Singular.How old are you. Quantity ends in 2. Quantity ends in 1 .. Как его зовут? . This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.Boris Владимир .“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).8. Вова) .) Quantity not specified .. Quantity ends in 5. Мне восемнадцать лет .Vladimir (Володя. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns. Николай . Как еѐ зовут? .6. Here are some other common Russian names for men.As per position in the sentence..
good afternoon Добрый вечер . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Sergey Алексей . The diminuative is a more personal. Some of these may be new. This is like a pet name.and а .Natalya (Наташа) Мария .Pyotr. Шура) Дмитрий .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Hello Привет . but try to learn them all. Здравствуйте .good morning Добрый день . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Alexander (Саша.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . Андрей .Пѐтр .Thank-You Пожалуйста . Елена .Oxana Екатерина .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Olga (Оля) Александра .and/but (contrasting) .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Yelena (Лена) Наталья . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons. or tender form. Спасибо .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women. The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.good evening Спокойной ночи .Yekaterina Анастасия .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. and should only be used when you are in close firendship. You should be able to remember all of these. Peter. (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Andrey Александр .
Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.Tell me please. to за . it еѐ . У вас есть чай? .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . so you should try to learn them all. to (+accusative) на . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.him. во .near. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . где туалет? . пожалуйста. We will use only common words. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. кофе с молоком и с сахаром.My mum loves music.There is no coffee.". the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".I know that you speak Russian. at (+prepositional).about к . onto.you (formal/plural) его . . Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.I want tea please. Что вы хотите? .towards. it их . it ты .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences.There is no tea.with у .along. For example. . .What do you want? Я хочу чай.in (+prepositional).Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . .from по . coffee with milk and with sugar.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. пожалуйста. behind (+instrumental) из . Он любит говорить по-английски. from от .out of. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .on.Give me please. You might also find some new words in these sentences.you (informal) вы .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. пожалуйста.he.но . .her. У вас есть водка? . Дайте.for (+accusative).but или .Do you have tea? Чая нет. . . я-I он . to (+accusative) о. . что ты говоришь по-русски. In Russian we would use the word "а".or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". Скажите. об .Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.
.How? Когда? . .I think that you understand.Yes. .I really love sport. что ты понимаешь. He speaks Russian well.4 roubles.Adam's brother loves Moscow. Моя мама любит музыку .I am reading a magazine. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . Я слушаю музыку .Do you understand? Я знаю. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . сколько стоит? . сколько стоит? . Я очень люблю Москву .How much? четыре рубля . . сколько стоит? .My Mum loves music.I understand.Твой брат говорит по-русски? .I live in London. Я изучаю русский язык .He is not home.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. Он едет домой .I really love Moscow.What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .Where? Кто? .The dog doesn't speak English. Я думаю.What? Как? . .100 roubles.My sister is reading a newspaper. Сестра Анны читает газету . что вы понимаете. Он хорошо говорит по-русски.Who? Что? .He is going home. Где? .How much? четыре доллара .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.Where is the cafe? Кто он? . . Я не понимаю.Does your borther speak Russian? Да.Why? Что ты знаешь? .Where is he? Где кафе? .I don't understand.I am listening to music. . Моя сестра читает газету . Брат Адама любит Москву .How much? сто рублей .I am studying the Russian language.How much? двадцать один рубль . Собака не говорит по-английски. сколько стоит? . Ты понимаешь? . Его нет дома . Почему ты не понимаешь? .Who is he? Я читаю журнал . Я очень люблю спорт .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.When? Почему? .What do you think? Где он? .I know that you understand.21 roubles.Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .4 dollars.
Мне . or plural). Replace “о” with “у” 2. Replace “ия” with “ии”.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. 2. "о" or a consonant with "ам".Forming the dative case. Ему (m). 4. her. Replace “ь”.. If the noun ends in a consonant. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. . Replace “я” with “е”. it. Replace "а". Feminine Nouns: 1. Адам . Вам . add "ам". Ему (n). 3.them. 1.. Replace “а” with “е”.me. Ей (f) . 3.Адаму Елена . 2.him. 3.Елене Молоко . Replace “ь” with “и”. add “ю”. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. Replace “й”. Neuter Nouns: 1. with “ю”. Тебе .you (informal).you (formal. If the noun ends in a consonant. add “у”. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.us.Молоку Вино . 2. Нам . To create nouns in the dative case. Им . Masculine Nouns: 1. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form.
We help mother every day. Они дают цветы Елене . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged..Give me .Give me your address and telephone number.Ivan gives flowers to Anna.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне ..give! Дайте . Дай . Here are the conjuctions: Даю . Дайте мне .. Я помогаю этой девушке .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something.I am helping Anna. ... In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”.(we) give Даѐте . Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона.They give flowers to Elena.(he) gives Даѐм .I am helping Ivan.(you) give Даѐт .(I) give Даѐшь . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object.(you) give Дают . Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. Мы помогаем маме каждый день . The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.. .give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively. the word “Anna” is the indirect object. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.(they) give The command forms of this word include. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Я помогаю Ивану . For this reason.I am helping this girl. Similarly. Я даю цветы Анне . (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне .I give flowers to Anna. It should be used in the dative case. . Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case.
I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . Мне нравится Москва . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet.? . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. it is like saying “To me it is likable”.Adam likes Moscow.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .Ivan calls Anna every day. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.) Мне нравятся ваши дети . so it is worth learning now. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). (lit: children are pleasing to me. Вам нравится Москва .You like Moscow. However this verb is used differently. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.. (The "ся" ending is reflexive).He is cold (to him its cold) . You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.) Ей нравится Москва . This is verb is also a reflexive verb. Как вам нравится .) Ему нравится Москва .) Practice using the word нравится.I really like the flowers.Звонить .I like your children. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . Адаму нравится Москва .She calls Ivan every day. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love)..How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . Мне очень нравятся цветы . Мне нравятся цветы . However it is a common word. it is still worth learning these examples.I like the flowers. Мне холодно .He likes Moscow. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something.How do you like . so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. Иван звонит Анне каждый день .I like the children.. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.I like Moscow.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день .She likes Moscow. so it is enough for now just to learn this form. and it relies on the dative case. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns..? Как вам нравится фильм? .
If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.I am 23 years old.Ей холодно . The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). if stressed “ѐм”. Replace “й”. “ч”.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно ..I am walking towards the station. 2.We are going to our friends. Мы едем к друзьям . “ш” or “щ”. . 4. “ц”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. then add “ем”. to create an exact rule. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. Except. add “ом”. Replace “ь”. with “ем”. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет .She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . if stressed “ѐм”. It is followed by the dative case. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". add “ем”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. and has too many meanings.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . All consonants. Although the use of this proposition is too varied.. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1.
мужем (husband) жена . In English these words can have different meanings. 3. Replace “я” with “ей”. “ш” or “щ”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Examples. All consonants. Олег режет мясо ножом .. if stressed “ѐй”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .карандашом (pencil) ложка ..Анной (Anna) студенты . Иван пишет карандашом . Replace “ь” with “ью”. 2. Accompanied by. "о" with "ами". Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Neuter Nouns: 1.женой (wife) Иван . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.Feminine Nouns: 1. “ц”. Except. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. 2. .. Replace “а” with “ой”.ложкой (spoon) нож . 1.молоком (milk) сметана .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .With. The preposition: „с‟ . 4. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Я ем суп ложкой . “ч”. add "ами".. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.Ivan writes with a pencil. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.ножом (knife) муж .I eat soup with a spoon. Replace "а". Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.
Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.You Им .Please give me coffee with milk. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. . 2.I eat borsh with sour cream. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . . In English we would use the word “and”. Дайте. However it is followed by the genitive case.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Nadya wants tea with lemon.Me and you Notes: 1. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. . Have a look at the following Russian examples. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Here are some examples. Pronouns . Мной . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. . with Ivan”). Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Иван хочет чай с молоком . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.Ivan and I are going to school. пожалуйста.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .Him Ей . „with him‟. it is often written as “со”.Ivan wants tea with milk. „with you‟. пожалуйста.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Мы с вами . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Иван с Анной идут в кафе.For ease of pronunciation.Her .My husband and I are going to the cafe.My wife and I are going to the cafe. Анна с мужем идут в кафе.Me Тобой . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Иван с женой идут в кафе.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.
.summer летом .morning утром . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. afternoon днѐм .day.in winter весна .Us Вами .spring весной . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.You (plural) Ими .Them Seasons and parts of the day.It Нами .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. For example: лето .in autumn зима .winter зимой .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .in the morning день .in summer осень .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .Им .in the afternoon вечер .evening вечером .in the evening ночь .autumn осенью .night ночью . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.
between над . manage.to be interested in оказываться . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . beyond. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.to seem. was заниматься . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.Happy birthday С новым годом . was) has no present tense.control. .to turn out to be оставаться .above перед .In front of this school turn to the left. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. Под столом сидит кот.to remain as пользоваться . быть .Between lunch and dinner drink tea.to use.to become увлекаться .школа.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . Над столом висит лампа. . enjoy становиться/стать . for между . but it is something to keep in mind. Перед этой школой поверните налево.to be.за . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. govern являться .to be keen on управлять .Under the table the cat is sitting. to be occupied with интересоваться . . .under Examples: За этим зданием . .to be engaged in. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. be The verb “Быть” (to be. You don't need to learn these verbs now.behind. (Example: Я был врачом . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.The lamp is above the table. is.I was a doctor). the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case .in front of под . is.Behind this building there is a school.
Replace “ь” with “ью”.Masculine Nouns: 1.Ivan writes with a pencil. add “ом”. Except. “ш” or “щ”.ножом (knife) муж .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Олег режет мясо ножом . Иван пишет карандашом . All consonants. Replace “а” with “ой”. Replace “я” with “ей”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. 1. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. "о" with "ами".. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. if stressed “ѐм”. Я ем суп ложкой . 2. with “ем”. 2. add “ем”. Replace “й”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.мужем (husband) жена .. All consonants.ложкой (spoon) нож .молоком (milk) сметана . In English these words can have different meanings. “ц”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.I eat soup with a spoon. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “ь”. if stressed “ѐй”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Neuter Nouns: 1.. Examples. “ч”. 3. 4. “ш” or “щ”.женой (wife) Иван . 2.. “ч”.Анной (Anna) студенты . Except. . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .карандашом (pencil) ложка . “ц”.. if stressed “ѐм”. 4.. then add “ем”. Replace "а". add "ами".студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.
Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Here are some examples. кофе с молоком .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Accompanied by. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. For ease of pronunciation. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.Nadya wants tea with lemon. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). However it is followed by the genitive case. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . пожалуйста. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Pronouns . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.My husband and I are going to the cafe. . it is often written as “со”. Иван с женой идут в кафе.The preposition: „с‟ . . Мы с вами . 2.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .With. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .My wife and I are going to the cafe. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.I eat borsh with sour cream.Ivan and I are going to school.Me and you Notes: 1.Please give me coffee with milk. . Дайте. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. In English we would use the word “and”. Иван хочет чай с молоком . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Ivan wants tea with milk. with Ivan”). пожалуйста. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.Instrumental Case .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .
day.Her Им .summer летом .Me Тобой . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.winter зимой . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. „with you‟.Him Ей .in the evening ночь .in summer осень .in winter весна .morning утром .in autumn зима .Them Seasons and parts of the day.at night .night ночью .in the afternoon вечер .You Им .autumn осенью .evening вечером . afternoon днѐм . Мной . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.You (plural) Ими . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.in the morning день .Us Вами .spring весной . „with him‟.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . For example: лето .It Нами .
Happy birthday С новым годом .to use.above перед . manage. быть . (Example: Я был врачом .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . Перед этой школой поверните налево. Над столом висит лампа. govern являться . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.to remain as пользоваться .to be keen on управлять . is. . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.In front of this school turn to the left. to be occupied with интересоваться . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.between над . . is.to become увлекаться .The lamp is above the table. .control.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. for между .I was a doctor). The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .behind. enjoy становиться/стать .школа. was заниматься . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. за . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.Under the table the cat is sitting. be The verb “Быть” (to be.in front of под . You don't need to learn these verbs now.to be.Behind this building there is a school.to be engaged in.to seem. was) has no present tense. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. beyond.to be interested in оказываться . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. . . but it is something to keep in mind.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .under Examples: За этим зданием .to turn out to be оставаться . . Под столом сидит кот.
Elena knew Ольга знала . In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.He knew Она знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses.She knew Оно знало . but in Russian there is simply one. Он знал . Although this concept differs from English. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English. The same principal also applies in the future tense. (ie 1st.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала . Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). it is conceptually quite easy.They knew Мы знали .. Let's have a look at the past tense now.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject.The dog knew .. 2nd or 3rd person).Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.Vladimir knew Дима знал .Olga knew Собака знала .We knew Я знал .I knew (male speaking) Я знала . or talk about something that has happened in the past.. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. Forming Verbs in Past Tense.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал .It knew Они знали . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.Dima knew Елена знала . You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings.
I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not.I worked everyday. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means.I was home. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. There are two aspects in Russian. so there is no perfective in the present tense.She wants to buy a book.I was working Я шѐл . habitual. . reversed or repeated actions. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. . When using pronouns such as Я. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. consequently each verb has two possible forms. The perfective and the imperfective aspect.I worked for 2 hours. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. Я работал . Some tenses in English can indicate this. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian.I run in the forest every day. (often По-). use the imperfective also. The Imperfective Aspect. Ты. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. . Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. Я работал каждый день . and is not complete. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. ongoing. Я работал два часа .
try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. Я купил кофе .Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . . Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью.I failed to phone. . Questions and Aspects. . Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. . The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.Did you tell him about it? . (but I was expected to). Я не понял. Perfective: Я не позвонила .I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .She did not eat bananas. Он не хотел видеть меня.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. что он сказал.He did not want to see me.We did not watch the movie yesterday. Она спросила учителя. Я не жила в Англии.I went home.Yesterday we read an interesting article. .She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. . Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. . . If you are still unsure which to use. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.I did not live in England. Саша съел обед за пять минут. . .Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. .I did not understand what he said.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? .
Я окончила школу. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. В школе я начала учить английский. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). except in the feminine. . Я был . .She was Оно было . The stress moves to the word 'не'.I was (man speaking) Я была . . Я уже посетила Швецию . Я была во многих странах. This is not the case in the past tense.He was Она была . Я не был .I was not (man speaking). . .We rented a summer house for three months.They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. когда мне было 16 лет .I‟ve been to many countries. Они не были . and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.I was not (woman speaking).It was not. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.At school I started learning English.It was Они были .I was (woman speaking) Он был . Оно не было . Я не была .He read for three hours.I‟ve already visited Sweden.They were not.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.I finished school when I was 16 years old. Он читал три часа. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.
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