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А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
двести 300 .четырнадцать 15 .двадцать один 22 .пятнадцать 16 .семьсот 800 .семнадцать 18 .тридцать 40 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see. It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles. Here are some examples: 20 .двадцать два 23 . (You will need to drop the soft sign. or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".восемнадцать 19 .шестьдесят 70 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English. Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.шестнадцать 17 .триста 400 .двадцать 21 .семьдесят 80 .одиннадцать 12 .четыреста 500 . quite similar to English.двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.сто 200 .восемьдесят 90 .шестьсот 700 .двенадцать 13 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).тринадцать 14 .восемьсот 900 .пятьсот 600 .девяносто 100 .двадцать три 24 .девятьсот . 30 .11 .сорок 50 .пятьдесят 60 .
You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .007 2.Yes Нет ("nyet") . . Yes and No. 0 .No Saying Hello.000 .000. after somebody says thank-you.564 2.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No". You should always say this after someone thanks you.000.994 1.миллион 1.812 Please and Thank-You. you can basically forget the "уй".Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". 456 219 9.345 23.тысяча 1.000 1. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.1. Да ("da") . Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.000 .миллиард For example: 131 .ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.008 2.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .000.000 .
put a real questioning expression on your face. but we suggest you only use it with friends. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. Introducing Yourself. there is no difference between the question and the statement. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. In order to introduce yourself. ("min-ya za-voot") .Good-bye.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. You should just learn the whole phrase. Меня зовут . (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . If somebody says Привет to you.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") .Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . Вы говорите по-английски? . and should only be used with friends. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. However.My name is .Bad Saying Good-Bye. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question.. If all else fails. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . You may also hear people say Пока. There are also two words for saying good-bye.Pleased to meet you.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first.. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") .How are things? Хорошо спасибо .. slang) You should generally use до свидания. not the individual words. There are two forms of this word. Привет is also commonly used with friends.Bye (Informal. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . you may need the following phrases.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . except for the question mark.
пожалуйста. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”. where is a cafe? Скажите.I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia. Скажите.Wine Вода . где ближайшее кафе? .. Скажите.Tell me please.Vodka Пиво .Juice Борщ .Russian beetroot soup Суп .I speak English Я говорю по-русски .I speak Russian Я понимаю .Cake Водка . . You could ask people with the following phrases..Coffee Чай . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню .Soup Торт .Tell me please. пожалуйста.Beer Вино ...Я говорю по-английски .Water .Milk Кока-Кола . where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.Tea Молоко . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”..I understand Я не понимаю . It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Tell me please. Скажите. где бар? . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. пожалуйста. где кафе? .Menu Кофе .Tell me please.. пожалуйста.Coca-Cola Лимонад .Lemonade Сок .
. пожалуйста .? If you want to ask someone if they have something.What is it? Это кофе....Do you have . кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Please give me coffee. . Дайте. У вас есть .Excuse me. кофе с молоком . you will generally get straight vodka. Сколько стоит? .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.. .? . пожалуйста. . when you order vodka in russia.. пожалуйста. Простите. это кофе.. is it coffee? Нет. Do you have. кофе .? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? . you can use the following phrase... Дайте.Please give me coffee with milk. Что это? . Дайте. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are.I want.What do you want? Я хочу . .. Examples: Дайте...Give me please. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian.. пожалуйста.No. это чай. .. чай...How much is it?.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . . . You can use it to ask the price of something.It is coffee.What? Что вы хотите? .. пожалуйста.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .Be careful. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .. Дайте. it is gramatically unusual)..Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. it is tea. (Just learn the whole phrase.Please give me tea.
want. it.Tell me please. you.She.. eat.We Вы . For example: I..) Я-I Ты . (Known as the nominative case. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".You (informal) Он . or plural) . "love" is the verb..He.How do you say ".. Definitions Verbs are action words. Скажите.. her." in Russian? Что значит "." по-русски? ..You (formal. Here are some useful phrases. Пожалуйста ..How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . and the object is "him". The subject is "I".. In the sentence "I love him". How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. she..It (n) Мы . Pronouns are words that can replace names. he." mean in English? Where is the toilet.? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is..What does ".21 rubles.Сколько? .. It (m) Она . love. For example: run." на английском? . where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M". walk. Где Туалет .... Как сказать ". Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.. It (f) Оно .How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . him.. they are things you can do. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian.
She.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I").Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work).They work.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". (There are also some irregular verbs). Just remember that unlike English. It (m. To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). but not as much. Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject.I work Ты работаешь . It is the most common.To work.Her. "ем". In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".Him.You work. dictionary form) Я работаю . It works. and add the appropriate ending ("ю". Мы работаем .Me Тебя .("yevo") . and once you get the hang of it. Она. (Example: I work.We work Вы работаете . (Known as the accusative case) Меня . Both these patterns are quite similar. it is not too difficult. It (f) Нас . and the second conjugation. dictionary form) . This happens a little in English. or plural) Их .To understand. "ете" or "ют").You work Он. "I am working" and "I do work". and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. (infinitive. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". he works). "ешь".You (formal. Они работают .You (informal) Его .They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. работать .Us Вас .n) Еѐ . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. Оно работает . "ет". You should memorise these pronouns. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать .Они . Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. (infinitive.He.
Оно говорит . She. She.You know.I don't understand. Я не понимаю . Они знают . Они понимают . It knows. Он.You know.We understand.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation.To know.He.You understand. Он не понимает .He.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. (infinitive. Вы понимаете .He.We know. dictionary form) Я знаю . Remember. (infinitive. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). Она.You understand. For example: Я не знаю . this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). Он. It understands Мы понимаем . Оно понимает .You speak. dictionary form) Я говорю .We speak. Он.They understand. Ты знаешь .I speak. Ты понимаешь . Мы знаем .They know. which replace "ить".I understand. Она.He doesn't understand. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). .To speak. It Speaks.I know. Она. Мы говорим . говорить . Вы знаете . Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. Знать . Оно знает .I don't know. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. Ты говоришь . She.Я понимаю .
Жить . Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. слышишь .You live.We don't speak Russian. Они едут . Вы живѐте .You go (by transport).I live. However.They hear. Я живу . Они говорят .You hear.You hear. Some examples: Ехать . Он. Мы едем . Ты живѐшь . слышат .The dog doesn't speak English. Оно живѐт .You live.He.Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. слышу .They speak. Они живут . слышим .We hear. слышите .He.We go (by transport). She. Мы живѐм .To go (by transport). It lives. Он. (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). Она. Собака не говорит по-английски . For Example: Я говорю по-английски . It goes (by transport). Ты едешь . She. She. .Вы говорите .He. слышать .To hear.You go (by transport).They live.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . Оно едет .I hear. Вы едете .You speak. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Я еду .I go (by transport). It hears. except that "у" replaces "ю".They go (by transport). you can often predict the endings. слышит .I speak English Он говорит по-русски .We live. Она.To live. often once you know the stem of the verb.
Cases . here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. У. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. and neuter (neutral). feminine.I live in London.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. the word is masculine. Example: dog.(Man) .O. (A. Russian has three genders: masculine. Я. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. Luckily. ъ because they have no sound). If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. There are very few exceptions to these rules. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them.A letter that is not a vowel. “cup”. 3.(Daddy.U in English). Папа . Ю.E. Он едет домой . In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. or “й”. In Russian we use 6 cases. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. Е. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. From the dictionary form of a noun. cup. Moscow.Is Masculine Дедушка .A noun is a thing. paper. Э. Consonant . In Russian.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. it will be in its dictionary form.Is Masculine . И and Й. Look at the last letter of the word: 2.Is Masculine Дядя . 4. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. Ё. (Except ь. Papa) .Is Masculine Кофе .(Grandfather) .He is going home Definitions Noun .I. In the case of other objects like “pen”.(Coffee) . this occurs mainly because of physical gender. cat. pen. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. unlike many languages. name or place. Gender of nouns. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. If it is a consonant.Is Masculine Мужчина .(Uncle) . Ы. “house”. each noun is assigned a gender. as with many other languages. О. Vowel . The letters А. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . But there are five notable exceptions. 5.
The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Хлеб (bread). Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. (In. In fact it was also used in Old English. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. In Russian there are six cases. on. and still keep the same meaning. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. so we will take it slowly. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. For example. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words.. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. Feminine : газета (newspaper). (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence.. at. радио (radio). .. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. документ (document). Greek and German. Россия (Russia).. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. (Eg. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. and about. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. брат (brother). Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary.
For example. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject.buildings) The Accusative Case.Interestingly. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. “ы”. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. In Russian. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. so there is nothing special to learn here. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. In the sentence “I love her”. not plants). the word “I” is the subject. you need to use the accusative case also. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student .newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. especially pronouns. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. in the nominative case. “я” or “а”. . some remnants of the case system still exist in English. add “ы”. The Nominative Case. in this case the word “dog”. Russian uses the case for all nouns. without changing the actual meaning. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. Russian is very free about word order. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. However.
I love music. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. .I love sport. 3. add “а”.He loves Moscow. Он любит Москву . If noun is animate. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . 2. If the noun in inanimate. Надя не любит вино . To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. Иван любит чай . Ты любишь музыку? . there is no change. Я не люблю музыку . Надя любит вино . with “я”. add “я”.Nadya doesn't like wine. Replace “я” with “ю”. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. If noun is animate. Я люблю музыку .I love Moscow.Nadya loves wine.I don't like music. 4. replace “ь”.Masculine Nouns: 1. Feminine Nouns: 1. 2. Neuter Nouns: 1.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . replace “й”.Ivan loves tea. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Replace “а” with “у”.
to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор . . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. Она любит меня . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. .She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Что ты любишь? . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence.to read.to work Хотеть . Я читаю газету . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. The word "Что" has two uses. You can use it to form questions.I love her. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.to think Работать . so don't be confused.What do you love? However. Слушать . it is probably the conjunction "that".I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . Я читаю журнал . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs.I am reading a magazine.I love him. An example could be: Я знаю. Читать .I love you. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . Я еѐ люблю .to watch.I am watching television.I am reading a book.I know that you love music.to listen Изучать ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . Смотреть . что ты любишь музыку. Я слушаю музыку .to study Думать .I am listening to the radio.I am listening to music. If you would like. Я слушаю радио .
Я изучаю русский язык .I really love Moscow.Who? Что? .very.Where? Кто? .I love to read. Где? . For example: Я люблю читать . (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .I want to buy a magazine. Я очень люблю Москву .What? Как? .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.I love to travel.I want tea. Я люблю путешествовать . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . (lit: I study the Russian language). Я так думаю . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".I think so! Как вы думаете? . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.I study Russian.What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. For example: Очень . Я хочу купить журнал . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. You can include it into many phrases.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . Что вы хотите? .How? Почему? . Add : “е”.I really love sport.
Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. Replace “о” with “е” 2. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? .cinema театр . although these aren‟t precise rules. Я живу в Сибири . Petersburg. 3.on the street Что на столе? . (Eg. Replace “ь” with “и”. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces.theatre .at the post office в саду . As with any language. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . Here are some tips to help you.Where is she? на вокзале .I live in St. Replace “а” with “е”. Replace “я” with “е”.I live in London.On the table is a book and a pencil. 4.I live in Siberia. Using prepositions and the prepositional case.in the garden в лесу . As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. „at a station‟. suburbs and places.at the station на почте . Exception: Replace “ия”. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. Я живу в Лондоне .Feminine Nouns: 1. even though they are not Russian. „at a concert‟). „at work‟.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . Я живу в Петербурге .I live in Moscow.in the forest на улице . 2. (Eg. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. (They are in dicionary form) кино . “е” remains unchanged.
The first indicates you are going on foot.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .restaurant банк . Here are some examples for you to compare.pharmacy парк . Где вы работаете? . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.square ресторан . налево . прямо . there are actually four ways: . but as these words are so important for basic Russian. направо .I work at (in) a school.park стадион .stadium школа . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs.library кафе .Straight ahead.To the right. Both these words are verbs of motion.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .school библиотека . So to express „to go‟ in Russian.hotel музей . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).аптека . прямо потом направо .Straight ahead then to the right.hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. and are grammatically quite complex. your answer will involve the prepositional case.To the left.I am going to school.cafe площадь . Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.museum больница .bank гостиница . you can tell this by the case. you would use the accusative case. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. we will introduce them now in a simple way. However. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). Куда вы идѐте . prepositions have more than one meaning.
They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: .Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу .I am going to school. Мы ходим. Мы едем в кафе .He is going to London Ездить .We are going to the cafe. Ты идѐшь в кино? . Вы ходите. Мы ездим. Вы едете. Ехать . (Я хожу.To go on foot.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Я иду в кино .I go to the theatre every day. Он едет. Мы идѐм. (Я еду. in more than one direction.He is going to the hotel. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Он ходит. Он идѐт.I am going to the cinema. (Я иду.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день . Ты едешь.I am going to the cinema on the metro. Ты ходишь.We are going to the cafe. Ты ездишь .He is going to the hotel by taxi.I am going to the university Ходить . in more than one direction. in one direction. Они часто ездят в Амстердам .Идти . or repetitively. Мы идѐм в кафе . Вы ездите. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . in one direction.I am going to school. Они едут ) Я еду в школу .I go to school. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . я иду в университет . Вы идѐте. Они идут) Я иду в школу .To go by transport. Он ездит . Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон .To go by transport. Мы едем. or repetitively (Я езжу.We go to the cafe every day.To go on foot. Я часто хожу в кино . Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Ты идѐшь.
Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.auntie Дядя . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. Еѐ (f) .I don't have any children.daughter Сын . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. Твоя (f).mum Папа .grandfather Жена .I have a sister. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.our . У тебя есть дети? . Твои (pl) .his. Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.I have a son and a daughter.dad Сестра . Моѐ (n). Наше (n). Твоѐ (n).wife Муж .sister Брат .granddaughter Внук .brother Дочь . Мои (pl) .Do you have children?.family Just like English. Here are some Russian phrases you could use.Мать .parents Дети . her Наш (m).my Твой (m). У меня есть брат . For example we use the words mum and dad. Мой (m). Моя (f).uncle Родители .father Мама . Наши (pl) . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.I have a brother.children Внучка . У меня нет детей . Наша (f).grandmother Дедушка .your Его (m n) ("yevo"). У меня есть сестра .grandson Семья .mother Отец . У меня есть сын и дочь .husband Тѐтя .son бабушка .
This is my house Это моя квартира .Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally. Доброе утро . This is. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.good afternoon Добрый вечер . However. Ваше (n). The Russian word Это means 'this is'.My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.. Это мой дом .good morning Добрый день .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . Ваша (f).My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . you may wish to say her name is Anna.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна ..goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .your Их .Ваш (m). For example. Моя мама любит музыку . Ваши (pl) .Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.his name is Ivan. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet.good evening Спокойной ночи .
Сестра Анны читает газету . (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case.ownership As you can see in the above example. 2. Replace “я” with “и”.Adam's dog. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . For example. Let's have a look at some more examples.Anna's car. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .Igor's telephone. Neuter Nouns: 1. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. add “а”. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. Replace “о” with “а” 2. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . (This is like using 's in English). Собака Адама . Replace “ь”. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). the object that is owned always comes first. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. with “я”. pay particular attention to the order of the words. If the noun ends in a consonant. Anna's) Дом Ивана . add “я”. 2. Брат Адама любит Москву . 3. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan.Adam's brother loves Moscow. Using the genitive case .Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. Replace “й”.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Replace “е” with “я” For example.Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “ь” with “и”. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. 3. Feminine Nouns: 1. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. However. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. in Russian. Replace “а” with “ы”.
but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't .He is not home. У вас есть кофе? . The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning.She has a dog. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case.Ivan isn't here.I have book. Generally.There is no milk.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case .Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case..to have As the genitive case relates to possession. Его нет дома . Молока нет . Ивана нет . У меня есть книга ..Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . Тебя. Его. Кофе нет . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. Еѐ. As we have seen in a previous lesson. it is just easier to learn the concept by example.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. план города . There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.sentence and uses the nominative case. У нее есть собака. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.A glass of milk.A map of the city. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. . Here are some examples. Вас. Нас. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) .There is no coffee.‟. This is exactly the same concept as above. Here are some examples. Using the genitive case . (Меня. Чая нет . стакан молока . Их) Using the genitive case .There is no tea.
It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. The Nominative Case . Ч. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. .здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . for example "10 roubles". Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt.Plural (Subject) In Russian. but don‟t worry. Х.Using the genitive case .студенты (students) газета (newspaper) .газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . plurals.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. "я" or "а". you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. depending on whether the object is animate or not.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. you make a plural by using the letters "и". This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. add “ы”. quantaties. "ы". Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. in the nominative case. The genitive case is used after most numbers.numbers. К. Ш. Ж.
but in Russian we use it for all numbers. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. or whether you are just using general plurals.марок. (марка . For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. but in the plural form. англичанка . девушка . This may feel a little strange at first. Here are some examples.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).The Genitive Case . now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. let‟s see how to use them. . Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.The books are on the table.студентов (students') газета .англичанок.щ. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. Анна любит книги .ч.ш.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. Ok. Книги на столе . The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.Anna loves books.газет (newspapers') здание . but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.
. 3 or 4.three dogs четыре доллара .4 If the number.four students три газеты .one rouble двадцать один рубль . then you should use the genitive singular case.21 roubles один доллар .nine dogs десять студентов .ten roubles сто рублей . три рубля .four roubles две книги . 13 & 14). (example: 22. одна девушка . then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. Here are some examples.three roubles четыре рубля .I know one girl один рубль . 61) (but not 11). 103. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. or the last digit of the number is 2.eight buildings девять собак .. 13. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. 42.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.four dollars четыре студента .6. The number one declines like an adjective. etc) пять рублей .six books семь газет . 12.five roubles десять рублей .three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5. 4) (but not 12. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.one hundred dollars шесть книг .one hundred roubles сто долларов .7.one girl Я знаю одну девушку .8. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.3. 14. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.seven newspapers восемь зданий . 21.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.9. To help you get used to this concept.0.two books три собаки .ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. Here are some examples. try using plurals that involve money.
Much like “Мне холодно” .9.4 .“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).How old are you.7.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна . Quantity ends in 1 .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 . Мне восемнадцать лет . Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.. .Genitive Plural General Quantity .As per position in the sentence. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .Nikolay (Коля) Борис .Vladimir (Володя.Boris Владимир ..Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.the dative case.I am 23 years old. Here are some other common Russian names for men.3. Как его зовут? .His name is Boris. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns. Quantity ends in 5.What is his name? Его зовут Борис .Her name is Alyona. Как вас зовут? .. Quantity ends in 2.-надцать . Николай .My name is Vera.8. Вова) .So in summary.0.. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. Как еѐ зовут? .Genitive Singular.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . (Lit: To me there are 16 years).Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.) Quantity not specified .6.
Пѐтр . Елена . Some of these may be new. Шура) Дмитрий . This is like a pet name. Здравствуйте .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Yekaterina Анастасия . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Sergey Алексей . Peter.Oxana Екатерина .Olga (Оля) Александра . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Hello Привет .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . but try to learn them all. (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). and should only be used when you are in close firendship.Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Alexander (Саша.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и . The diminuative is a more personal.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. Андрей .and а .Andrey Александр .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.good morning Добрый день .good afternoon Добрый вечер . Спасибо .Pyotr. You should be able to remember all of these.good evening Спокойной ночи .and/but (contrasting) .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you. or tender form.Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Yelena (Лена) Наталья . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.Natalya (Наташа) Мария .Thank-You Пожалуйста .
пожалуйста.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . У вас есть водка? . These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .но . In Russian we would use the word "а". For example.them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. We will use only common words. so you should try to learn them all. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. У вас есть чай? . it ты . You might also find some new words in these sentences.near. об . to (+accusative) на . Что вы хотите? .you (formal/plural) его . to за . что ты говоришь по-русски.".He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.with у . to (+accusative) о. Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.out of.he. где туалет? .her. . .but или . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. .Do you have coffee? Кофе нет.from по .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . . onto.Tell me please.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". Он любит говорить по-английски. . кофе с молоком и с сахаром. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns. Скажите.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. from от .along.There is no coffee. coffee with milk and with sugar.about к . .for (+accusative). во . Дайте. я-I он .him.Do you have tea? Чая нет. пожалуйста. at (+prepositional). the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".I know that you speak Russian.on. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .What do you want? Я хочу чай.There is no tea. . it их .I want tea please. behind (+instrumental) из . Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. .in (+prepositional).you (informal) вы . it еѐ .My mum loves music.towards.Give me please. пожалуйста.
.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. Почему ты не понимаешь? .I am reading a magazine. что вы понимаете.Who is he? Я читаю журнал .I really love Moscow.I know that you understand. Моя сестра читает газету .I think that you understand. He speaks Russian well. .Does your borther speak Russian? Да. Собака не говорит по-английски. Я очень люблю Москву .He is going home.How much? сто рублей . Моя мама любит музыку . сколько стоит? . Сестра Анны читает газету .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . сколько стоит? . Брат Адама любит Москву .My Mum loves music.What? Как? . Он едет домой .How much? двадцать один рубль .Do you understand? Я знаю. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . что ты понимаешь. Я изучаю русский язык . .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. сколько стоит? . Я очень люблю спорт .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне . .I live in London.4 roubles.Why? Что ты знаешь? .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.I really love sport.Where? Кто? .21 roubles.My sister is reading a newspaper.Твой брат говорит по-русски? .When? Почему? .I don't understand.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .I am studying the Russian language. Его нет дома . Где? .What do you think? Где он? . .Where is he? Где кафе? .I understand. Я не понимаю. Я думаю. сколько стоит? .How much? четыре доллара .4 dollars.How much? четыре рубля .Yes.How? Когда? . .He is not home. Я слушаю музыку .100 roubles. Ты понимаешь? . . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Он хорошо говорит по-русски.Who? Что? .Adam's brother loves Moscow.I am listening to music.The dog doesn't speak English.
2. .us. Replace “ия” with “ии”. or plural). Нам . Replace “й”. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Replace “а” with “е”. Им . Вам . add “ю”. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. "о" or a consonant with "ам".. Ему (m). 3. 3. Masculine Nouns: 1. If the noun ends in a consonant. Ей (f) . add “у”. Replace "а". Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. Replace “ь”. Replace “ь” with “и”. 3. Replace “я” with “е”. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form.Елене Молоко .him.Молоку Вино . her..them. 2. If the noun ends in a consonant. it.me.Адаму Елена . add "ам".you (informal).you (formal. 1. Тебе . 4. Replace “о” with “у” 2. Адам . 2. Feminine Nouns: 1. To create nouns in the dative case. Neuter Nouns: 1. Мне .Forming the dative case. with “ю”. Ему (n).
In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.(they) give The command forms of this word include.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . ..to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне ...I give flowers to Anna. Here are the conjuctions: Даю . (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне .I am helping Ivan. Я помогаю Ивану . Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. Дай . Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. Я даю цветы Анне . In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.Ivan gives flowers to Anna. the word “Anna” is the indirect object. .I am helping Anna. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.I am helping this girl. Мы помогаем маме каждый день . Я помогаю этой девушке .Give me your address and telephone number. For this reason.(you) give Дают .Give me .We help mother every day.(we) give Даѐте .(you) give Даѐт . For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”.. Similarly.(I) give Даѐшь .They give flowers to Elena. It should be used in the dative case. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. Дайте мне . Most of these involve giving something or communicating something.(he) gives Даѐм .. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object.give! Дайте . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged. . you need to be able to recognise cases effectively. Они дают цветы Елене .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something..
This is verb is also a reflexive verb.I like the children.She calls Ivan every day.) Ему нравится Москва .He is cold (to him its cold) .Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.) Ей нравится Москва . Мне нравится Москва .I like your children.Звонить .? .Adam likes Moscow. it is like saying “To me it is likable”. Мне нравятся цветы . (The "ся" ending is reflexive). (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. Адаму нравится Москва .How do you like . Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.) Мне нравятся ваши дети . Мне холодно .. However it is a common word.. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. (lit: children are pleasing to me.I like the flowers. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. and it relies on the dative case.) Practice using the word нравится. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. so it is enough for now just to learn this form. so it is worth learning now. Вам нравится Москва .? Как вам нравится фильм? .You like Moscow.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? ..I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день .She likes Moscow.I like Moscow.I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. Как вам нравится .Ivan calls Anna every day. it is still worth learning these examples. However this verb is used differently. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet.. Иван звонит Анне каждый день . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love).He likes Moscow. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. Мне очень нравятся цветы . The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case.I really like the flowers.
2.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . Except.We are going to our friends. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. 4. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. if stressed “ѐм”.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно .I am walking towards the station. Replace “ь”. with “ем”..I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . then add “ем”. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to".We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . “ц”.Ей холодно .I am 23 years old. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. All consonants. Replace “й”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. “ш” or “щ”. if stressed “ѐм”. and has too many meanings. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. add “ом”. “ч”. add “ем”. to create an exact rule. Мы едем к друзьям . . You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case.. It is followed by the dative case.
ножом (knife) муж .. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. “ч”. Иван пишет карандашом .женой (wife) Иван ..Анной (Anna) студенты . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. “ш” or “щ”.ложкой (spoon) нож .. 2.Feminine Nouns: 1.мужем (husband) жена . Я ем суп ложкой .I eat soup with a spoon. Replace "а". Examples. 4. 2.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .. All consonants.карандашом (pencil) ложка . 3. “ц”. if stressed “ѐй”. add "ами". replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.Ivan writes with a pencil. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Accompanied by. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Replace “я” with “ей”. "о" with "ами". “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Neuter Nouns: 1.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.молоком (milk) сметана . The preposition: „с‟ . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. Except.With. Олег режет мясо ножом . 1. In English these words can have different meanings. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Replace “а” with “ой”. Replace “ь” with “ью”.
Pronouns .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.For ease of pronunciation.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . пожалуйста.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Here are some examples. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. with Ivan”). Иван с Анной идут в кафе.Ivan wants tea with milk.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. it is often written as “со”. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Please give me coffee with milk. „with him‟. пожалуйста. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.Me and you Notes: 1. . Have a look at the following Russian examples. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. However it is followed by the genitive case. In English we would use the word “and”.Her .You Им . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. 2. Мы с вами .I eat borsh with sour cream. Дайте. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. кофе с молоком . Мной .Nadya wants tea with lemon.Him Ей .My wife and I are going to the cafe.Me Тобой .Ivan and I are going to school. . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). „with you‟.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Иван с женой идут в кафе. .My husband and I are going to the cafe. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.
at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .morning утром .in autumn зима . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.in the morning день .It Нами .in the evening ночь .Them Seasons and parts of the day. afternoon днѐм .winter зимой .Us Вами . .in summer осень .autumn осенью .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .You (plural) Ими .night ночью . For example: лето .summer летом .in winter весна . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.spring весной .Им .day. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.evening вечером .in the afternoon вечер .
under Examples: За этим зданием . is. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. Перед этой школой поверните налево.Behind this building there is a school.to be.I was a doctor). Над столом висит лампа.to use. You don't need to learn these verbs now.Happy birthday С новым годом . manage. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . was заниматься . but it is something to keep in mind.control. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. to be occupied with интересоваться . enjoy становиться/стать . (Example: Я был врачом .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.behind.to remain as пользоваться .школа. . быть .in front of под .to be engaged in. was) has no present tense. for между . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.to turn out to be оставаться . be The verb “Быть” (to be.за . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case .above перед .Under the table the cat is sitting. .between над . . beyond.to be keen on управлять . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. .In front of this school turn to the left. govern являться .to become увлекаться . is.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.to seem. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. .The lamp is above the table. Под столом сидит кот.to be interested in оказываться .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .
2. Except. Neuter Nouns: 1. All consonants.ложкой (spoon) нож . Examples. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. with “ем”. 4.I eat soup with a spoon. Replace "а". 4. Replace “ь” with “ью”. if stressed “ѐй”. Replace “ь”.Masculine Nouns: 1. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. 3. 2.мужем (husband) жена . Except. . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. 1. Replace “а” with “ой”.ножом (knife) муж .. “ц”. Replace “я” with “ей”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. “ч”. Олег режет мясо ножом .Иваном (Ivan) Анна ..Анной (Anna) студенты . “ц”. if stressed “ѐм”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.. add “ем”. add "ами". Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.Ivan writes with a pencil. add “ом”. Replace “й”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. "о" with "ами".Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.. “ш” or “щ”.. “ш” or “щ”. Feminine Nouns: 1. Иван пишет карандашом . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Я ем суп ложкой . if stressed “ѐм”.женой (wife) Иван .карандашом (pencil) ложка . then add “ем”. “ч”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . 2..молоком (milk) сметана . In English these words can have different meanings. All consonants.
when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. . it is often written as “со”. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Me and you Notes: 1. Мы с вами . . пожалуйста. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. 2. Here are some examples.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. In English we would use the word “and”. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . .I eat borsh with sour cream.My wife and I are going to the cafe.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Дайте. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . However it is followed by the genitive case. Иван с женой идут в кафе. For ease of pronunciation. .Ivan and I are going to school. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .My husband and I are going to the cafe. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Анна с мужем идут в кафе.The preposition: „с‟ . кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Instrumental Case .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Иван с Анной идут в кафе.With. кофе с молоком . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.Ivan wants tea with milk.Please give me coffee with milk. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.Nadya wants tea with lemon. with Ivan”). пожалуйста. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . Accompanied by. Pronouns .
at night .You (plural) Ими .in the evening ночь .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.in the morning день .in winter весна . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.Us Вами . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.summer летом . „with you‟.Her Им . For example: лето . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.autumn осенью . Мной .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .morning утром .winter зимой .in summer осень .Him Ей .evening вечером .spring весной .You Им .night ночью . „with him‟.Them Seasons and parts of the day.day.It Нами .Me Тобой .in autumn зима .in the afternoon вечер . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. afternoon днѐм .
.to use. was) has no present tense.to be. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.to be interested in оказываться . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.to turn out to be оставаться . . Над столом висит лампа.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. govern являться . was заниматься . beyond.Behind this building there is a school. (Example: Я был врачом .in front of под . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.The lamp is above the table.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. Под столом сидит кот.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.to be engaged in.I was a doctor). .to become увлекаться . to be occupied with интересоваться .to remain as пользоваться .under Examples: За этим зданием . You don't need to learn these verbs now.between над . .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . is. for между . be The verb “Быть” (to be.In front of this school turn to the left. .above перед .behind. enjoy становиться/стать .школа.control. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. за . . Перед этой школой поверните налево. but it is something to keep in mind.to seem.to be keen on управлять .Happy birthday С новым годом .Under the table the cat is sitting. is. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. manage. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. быть .
Dima knew Елена знала .You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . The same principal also applies in the future tense. or talk about something that has happened in the past. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.Elena knew Ольга знала .She knew Оно знало .. In English there are quite a number of different past tenses.He knew Она знала . Let's have a look at the past tense now.Vladimir knew Дима знал . Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings.The dog knew .We knew Я знал .I knew (female speaking) Ты знал .I knew (male speaking) Я знала . 2nd or 3rd person).. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.It knew Они знали . Forming Verbs in Past Tense. Он знал . Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject.Olga knew Собака знала . Although this concept differs from English.They knew Мы знали . In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. but in Russian there is simply one. it is conceptually quite easy.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала . To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. (ie 1st..
and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. (often По-). There are two aspects in Russian. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . so there is no perfective in the present tense. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. consequently each verb has two possible forms. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. . Simply conjugate them as discussed above. Some tenses in English can indicate this. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. reversed or repeated actions. When using pronouns such as Я. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. habitual. ongoing. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together.I worked everyday.I run in the forest every day. The Imperfective Aspect. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective.She wants to buy a book. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. . Я работал каждый день . Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. Я работал . By definition something in the present tense is happening now. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. . Ты. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective.I worked for 2 hours. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means.I was home. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time.I was working Я шѐл .You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. Я работал два часа . and is not complete. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. use the imperfective also.
Я не понял. . Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?.I went home. .She did not eat bananas. Я не жила в Англии.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. что он сказал. .Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . . .Did you tell him about it? . Он не хотел видеть меня. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Questions and Aspects. Я купил кофе . . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? .He did not want to see me. Она спросила учителя.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. . .I did not live in England. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.Yesterday we read an interesting article.I failed to phone.I did not understand what he said. If you are still unsure which to use. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.We did not watch the movie yesterday. . try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. . Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. Perfective: Я не позвонила .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. . Саша съел обед за пять минут. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. (but I was expected to).
I was (man speaking) Я была . Я был .It was Они были .He was Она была .Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. В школе я начала учить английский. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.I was not (man speaking). Они не были .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.At school I started learning English.They were not.I‟ve already visited Sweden. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.It was not.I finished school when I was 16 years old. .I was (woman speaking) Он был . . когда мне было 16 лет . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. The stress moves to the word 'не'. Я не была . Оно не было . .We rented a summer house for three months. Я окончила школу. Я была во многих странах. .I‟ve been to many countries. Он читал три часа.I was not (woman speaking).She was Оно было . This is not the case in the past tense. except in the feminine. Я не был .He read for three hours. . Я уже посетила Швецию .
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