This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
семьсот 800 .четыреста 500 .триста 400 .девятьсот .тридцать 40 .восемнадцать 19 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles. Here are some examples: 20 .восемьсот 900 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".шестьсот 700 .тринадцать 14 .двадцать 21 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.шестьдесят 70 .11 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.восемьдесят 90 .одиннадцать 12 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.пятнадцать 16 .семьдесят 80 .девяносто 100 .четырнадцать 15 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).двадцать один 22 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English. quite similar to English. 30 .шестнадцать 17 .сто 200 .сорок 50 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.двадцать три 24 .двенадцать 13 .пятьсот 600 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.двадцать два 23 .пятьдесят 60 .двести 300 .семнадцать 18 .
000.No Saying Hello. Yes and No.Yes Нет ("nyet") .000.1.000 .564 2. you can basically forget the "уй".Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") . Да ("da") .миллиард For example: 131 .994 1.345 23.тысяча 1. You should always say this after someone thanks you. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".000. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.000 1.812 Please and Thank-You. after somebody says thank-you. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.миллион 1. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.008 2. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .000 .007 2. 456 219 9. . 0 .сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.000 .
Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .Pleased to meet you.Bad Saying Good-Bye. Привет is also commonly used with friends. You should just learn the whole phrase. not the individual words. ("min-ya za-voot") . Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . slang) You should generally use до свидания. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". Вы говорите по-английски? . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.How are things? Хорошо спасибо .My name is . In order to introduce yourself. There are two forms of this word. You may also hear people say Пока.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . Introducing Yourself. put a real questioning expression on your face. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . If all else fails. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). but we suggest you only use it with friends. except for the question mark. there is no difference between the question and the statement. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") .Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . you may need the following phrases. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. There are also two words for saying good-bye. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question... Меня зовут . However.Bye (Informal. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone... and should only be used with friends.Good-bye. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") .Do you (formal) speak Russian? .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. If somebody says Привет to you. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? .
where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”. Скажите.Menu Кофе .Coca-Cola Лимонад .Я говорю по-английски .Russian beetroot soup Суп .Wine Вода .Tell me please.Water .Tell me please. Скажите. .Coffee Чай .Tell me please.I speak Russian Я понимаю .I speak English Я говорю по-русски .. пожалуйста.. пожалуйста.Soup Торт . Скажите.I understand Я не понимаю ..Lemonade Сок .. пожалуйста.. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is. where is a cafe? Скажите. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.Tell me please. где бар? .I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Juice Борщ . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. где ближайшее кафе? ..Tea Молоко . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . You could ask people with the following phrases.Cake Водка .Milk Кока-Кола .Vodka Пиво . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. где кафе? . пожалуйста.Beer Вино .
I want. это чай..It is coffee. is it coffee? Нет. пожалуйста..? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? . . пожалуйста . Do you have. ..Please give me tea. кофе с молоком ..What do you want? Я хочу . Дайте. это кофе. You can use it to ask the price of something.. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian.. пожалуйста. Дайте. кофе .. . У вас есть ..Please give me coffee with milk. . Сколько стоит? .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? ... пожалуйста. Examples: Дайте.? .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .What? Что вы хотите? .What is it? Это кофе. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are..Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .. it is gramatically unusual). Дайте. Простите. when you order vodka in russia.. пожалуйста..Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .? If you want to ask someone if they have something. you will generally get straight vodka. Here are some Russian phrases you might need... Дайте.Please give me coffee. (Just learn the whole phrase. . it is tea.. . чай.Do you have . Что это? ..Be careful.No.How much is it?.. you can use the following phrase. .Excuse me.Give me please.
she.. he.You (informal) Он ." in Russian? Что значит ".He.21 rubles. walk.? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.It (n) Мы . For example: I. it. For example: run.. Here are some useful phrases.You (formal.How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль .) Я-I Ты .Tell me please." по-русски? ..What does ". or plural) . Скажите.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .. and the object is "him".. In the sentence "I love him".Сколько? . The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж"... Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.. (Known as the nominative case.... Definitions Verbs are action words.How do you say ". Пожалуйста . they are things you can do. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M". "love" is the verb. Как сказать ". want. love.She. eat... Pronouns are words that can replace names." на английском? . him. Где Туалет .. her.. The subject is "I". It (m) Она . you.. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. It (f) Оно ." mean in English? Where is the toilet.We Вы .
You should memorise these pronouns.n) Еѐ . or plural) Их . (infinitive. and once you get the hang of it.I work Ты работаешь .Him. he works). This happens a little in English.You (informal) Его . It (f) Нас . It is the most common. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. "I am working" and "I do work".They work. but not as much. работать . Мы работаем . She. "ет". Она. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation.To work.("yevo") . (Example: I work.Они . (infinitive. Оно работает . and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. (Known as the accusative case) Меня . it is not too difficult. dictionary form) Я работаю .Us Вас . "ем".Her. It (m.You (formal. Both these patterns are quite similar.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). (There are also some irregular verbs).They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". and the second conjugation. Они работают . "ете" or "ют").We work Вы работаете .To understand.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). It works.You work. "ешь". Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". Just remember that unlike English.You work Он. Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. and add the appropriate ending ("ю". The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". dictionary form) .Me Тебя . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".He.
Оно понимает . Ты знаешь . It knows. She. Ты говоришь . Remember. It Speaks. Они знают .You understand. Я не понимаю . Он.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. dictionary form) Я говорю .I don't know. dictionary form) Я знаю . Вы понимаете . Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).We understand.We speak.He. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). (infinitive.He doesn't understand.They know. Она. Он. Он не понимает . Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation.I don't understand. . Она. (infinitive.To know. There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation.You speak.Я понимаю .We know. Оно знает . Мы говорим . Они понимают . which replace "ить".Do you know? Ты понимаешь? .I know. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. Он. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. She.You know. Знать .To speak. Ты понимаешь .You understand.They understand. Оно говорит .I understand. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . It understands Мы понимаем .I speak. Она. говорить .You know. For example: Я не знаю . this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). She.He. Вы знаете .He. Мы знаем .
Оно живѐт . Они говорят .You live. Я живу . Они живут .We live. слышим . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian.I live. It goes (by transport).The dog doesn't speak English.To go (by transport).I hear.They speak. Мы живѐм . Вы едете . except that "у" replaces "ю".He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . She. слышишь . It lives. She.They hear. Она. However.I go (by transport). слышит . Вы живѐте . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). She.You speak. Он.You live. It hears. слышите . слышу .He.You hear.You go (by transport).We go (by transport). Она. often once you know the stem of the verb.We don't speak Russian.He. Ты едешь .You go (by transport). Он.Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . Они едут .They go (by transport).I speak English Он говорит по-русски .To hear.They live. Мы едем . Оно едет . слышат .Вы говорите . Собака не говорит по-английски .We hear.You hear. you can often predict the endings.To live. For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Я еду . Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above.He. . Жить . Some examples: Ехать . слышать . Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Ты живѐшь .
If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. name or place.A noun is a thing. Example: dog. (A.I live in London. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender.U in English).He is going home Definitions Noun . Papa) .I. unlike many languages. Moscow.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. 4. Consonant . In the case of other objects like “pen”. Russian has three genders: masculine. Е. If it is a consonant. and neuter (neutral). here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. Папа . or “й”. The letters А. cat.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. In Russian. it will be in its dictionary form.A letter that is not a vowel. 3. (Except ь. “house”.(Daddy. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. Ы. О. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. feminine. Ю. 5. But there are five notable exceptions. У.(Grandfather) . paper. each noun is assigned a gender. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine.(Uncle) .(Man) . И and Й. Cases . as with many other languages.(Coffee) . When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence.Is Masculine .Is Masculine Дядя . Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. Я.Is Masculine Дедушка .Is Masculine Мужчина .O. pen. Э. Он едет домой . Ё. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.E. Luckily. There are very few exceptions to these rules. Gender of nouns. “cup”. Vowel . From the dictionary form of a noun.Is Masculine Кофе . ъ because they have no sound). Look at the last letter of the word: 2. the word is masculine. In Russian we use 6 cases.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. cup.
In Russian there are six cases. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. (In. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. In fact it was also used in Old English. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. For example. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. on. Feminine : газета (newspaper). at. Хлеб (bread).) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. (Eg. and still keep the same meaning. and about. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you... Greek and German. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). so we will take it slowly. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar.. радио (radio). Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). брат (brother). “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. . In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words.. документ (document). Россия (Russia). „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟.
especially pronouns. in this case the word “dog”. The Nominative Case. in the nominative case. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. the word “I” is the subject.Interestingly. In Russian.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. not plants). It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. add “ы”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. so there is nothing special to learn here. Russian is very free about word order. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. “ы”. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. For example. . “я” or “а”. Russian uses the case for all nouns. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. without changing the actual meaning. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence.buildings) The Accusative Case.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . In the sentence “I love her”. However. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. you need to use the accusative case also. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”.
Nadya doesn't like wine. Ты любишь музыку? . . Я люблю музыку . Neuter Nouns: 1. add “а”. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. 3.I love sport. there is no change. add “я”.He loves Moscow. If noun is animate.I don't like music. Feminine Nouns: 1. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate).I love music. 2. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт .Do you love music? Я люблю Москву .Ivan loves tea. If the noun in inanimate. 4. Я не люблю музыку . Он любит Москву . replace “й”. Иван любит чай . Replace “а” with “у”. Replace “я” with “ю”. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. replace “ь”. Надя не любит вино . If noun is animate.Masculine Nouns: 1.Nadya loves wine. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. Надя любит вино . 2.I love Moscow. with “я”.
Читать . so don't be confused. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . The word "Что" has two uses. Она любит меня . Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. Я читаю журнал . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.to work Хотеть .to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор . что ты любишь музыку.I love her. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here.What do you love? However.I am listening to music.I am watching television.I know that you love music. Что ты любишь? .I am reading a book.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . Слушать .I am listening to the radio. Смотреть .I love you."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . An example could be: Я знаю.I love him. You can use it to form questions. If you would like. Я читаю газету .to listen Изучать . Я слушаю радио .She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. Я слушаю музыку . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. . .I am reading a magazine.to study Думать . it is probably the conjunction "that".to watch.to read. Я еѐ люблю .to think Работать .
For example: Я люблю читать .I love to read.I want tea. For example: Очень . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) .Я изучаю русский язык .I think so! Как вы думаете? .I love to travel. Что вы хотите? . Add : “е”. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Где? . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".Where? Кто? .very. Я так думаю . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.How? Почему? . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. Я хочу купить журнал . Я люблю путешествовать .I really love sport. Я очень люблю Москву .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .I study Russian. You can include it into many phrases.What? Как? .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. (lit: I study the Russian language).Who? Что? .I want to buy a magazine.I really love Moscow.
theatre . Я живу в Петербурге .at the post office в саду . „at a station‟. Replace “а” with “е”.at the station на почте .Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .Feminine Nouns: 1. (Eg.cinema театр . „at work‟. even though they are not Russian. (Eg.I live in London. 4. Replace “о” with “е” 2.I live in St. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Replace “ь” with “и”.I live in Moscow. (They are in dicionary form) кино .on the street Что на столе? .in the garden в лесу . 2. Я живу в Сибири .What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”.On the table is a book and a pencil. Я живу в Лондоне . „at a concert‟).in the forest на улице . Exception: Replace “ия”.Where is she? на вокзале . Here are some tips to help you. Replace “я” with “е”. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . As with any language. suburbs and places. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. 3. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. although these aren‟t precise rules. Using prepositions and the prepositional case. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. “е” remains unchanged. Petersburg.I live in Siberia.
I am going to school.hospital Location and Direction Sometimes.library кафе . направо . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. прямо . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.аптека . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). прямо потом направо . Где вы работаете? . Here are some examples for you to compare.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . налево . So to express „to go‟ in Russian.To the left. your answer will involve the prepositional case. but as these words are so important for basic Russian. we will introduce them now in a simple way. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).Straight ahead then to the right.bank гостиница .stadium школа .restaurant банк . you can tell this by the case. The first indicates you are going on foot.school библиотека . the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. However.park стадион . and are grammatically quite complex. there are actually four ways: .I work at (in) a school.pharmacy парк .Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .Straight ahead. you would use the accusative case. Куда вы идѐте .To the right.hotel музей . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. Both these words are verbs of motion. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.cafe площадь .museum больница .square ресторан . prepositions have more than one meaning.
in more than one direction.I go to the theatre every day. Мы идѐм. Вы ездите. or repetitively (Я езжу.I am going to the cinema on the metro. (Я еду. Они часто ездят в Амстердам . in one direction.I go to school.We go to the cafe every day.He is going to London Ездить .He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Он ходит.To go by transport.To go by transport. Вы ходите. Ты ездишь . Ты ходишь.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Вы едете. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . Он едет. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро .To go on foot. Он ездит .I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день . Вы идѐте.I am going to the university Ходить . Ты идѐшь. Мы ходим.He is going to the hotel by taxi.To go on foot. я иду в университет . Я часто хожу в кино . Он идѐт. Ты едешь. Я иду в кино . in one direction. Мы едем.I am going to school.We are going to the cafe.Идти . Мы едем в кафе .He is going to the hotel. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Ты идѐшь в кино? . Ехать . (Я хожу. Они идут) Я иду в школу . (Я иду.We are going to the cafe.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу .I am going to school. Мы идѐм в кафе . Мы ездим. in more than one direction.I am going to the cinema. or repetitively. Он едет в гостиницу на такси .
in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.children Внучка .family Just like English.uncle Родители .father Мама .his.dad Сестра . Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.granddaughter Внук .my Твой (m).grandfather Жена . Наша (f). У меня есть брат . Твоя (f). her Наш (m). Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. У меня есть сестра .auntie Дядя . У тебя есть дети? .husband Тѐтя .mum Папа . У меня нет детей .mother Отец .I have a sister. Here are some Russian phrases you could use.Do you have children?. Еѐ (f) .parents Дети .grandson Семья .our . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.Мать .I have a son and a daughter. У меня есть сын и дочь .wife Муж .grandmother Дедушка .son бабушка . Наше (n). For example we use the words mum and dad.your Его (m n) ("yevo"). Моѐ (n).daughter Сын . Мой (m). Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now.sister Брат .brother Дочь .I have a brother. Твои (pl) . Мои (pl) . Наши (pl) . Моя (f).I don't have any children. Твоѐ (n).
my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . However. Моя мама любит музыку . you may wish to say her name is Anna. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету . This is. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. Доброе утро .good morning Добрый день . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.Ваш (m). Это мой дом . For example.My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally..their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . Ваши (pl) .good afternoon Добрый вечер .. Ваша (f). Ваше (n).your Их .his name is Ivan.This is my house Это моя квартира .her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .good evening Спокойной ночи . The Russian word Это means 'this is'.
Anna's) Дом Ивана . Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. add “я”. pay particular attention to the order of the words. Neuter Nouns: 1. 3. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. In the phrase "Дом Ивана".Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. 3. For example. 2. 2.Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “ы”. Replace “ь” with “и”.Adam's brother loves Moscow.Adam's dog. Let's have a look at some more examples. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Брат Адама любит Москву .Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. Replace “ь”. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . Replace “о” with “а” 2. Replace “й”. add “а”. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .Igor's telephone. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . the object that is owned always comes first. (This is like using 's in English). This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. If the noun ends in a consonant.Anna's car. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns.ownership As you can see in the above example. However.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). Feminine Nouns: 1. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. Сестра Анны читает газету . in Russian. Собака Адама . (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Replace “я” with “и”. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . Replace “е” with “я” For example. Using the genitive case . the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. with “я”. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences.
Кофе нет . Here are some examples. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . У нее есть собака.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .A glass of milk.There is no coffee. Тебя. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). Молока нет . (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. стакан молока .He is not home. Чая нет .to have As the genitive case relates to possession. Ивана нет . (Меня. Их) Using the genitive case ..Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .Ivan isn't here.There is no tea. . “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. Using the genitive case . У меня есть книга . These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. This is exactly the same concept as above.A map of the city. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. Generally. Вас. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. Его. Еѐ. Нас.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .I have book.sentence and uses the nominative case.There is no milk.‟. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.She has a dog. Его нет дома . У вас есть кофе? . As we have seen in a previous lesson.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .. план города . There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case .there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. Here are some examples.
plurals. The genitive case is used after most numbers. К. "ы". The Nominative Case . you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. add “ы”. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. quantaties. .Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . you make a plural by using the letters "и".здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. depending on whether the object is animate or not. but don‟t worry. for example "10 roubles". Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. Ч. Х.numbers.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) .студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . Ж. Ш. in the nominative case.Using the genitive case . Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural.Plural (Subject) In Russian. "я" or "а". This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals.
but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. Анна любит книги . but in the plural form. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.Anna loves books. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation.газет (newspapers') здание . Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). девушка . (марка . Here are some examples. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.The books are on the table. .щ. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й.ш. Ok. This may feel a little strange at first.англичанок. but in Russian we use it for all numbers. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. англичанка . let‟s see how to use them.марок.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals.ч. Книги на столе .девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. or whether you are just using general plurals.The Genitive Case . Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”.студентов (students') газета .
0. (example: 22. then you should use the genitive singular case. 13 & 14).21 roubles один доллар .five roubles десять рублей . 61) (but not 11). одна девушка . 14. etc) пять рублей .one rouble двадцать один рубль .nine dogs десять студентов .one girl Я знаю одну девушку .8. The number one declines like an adjective.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1. Here are some examples. 12.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.one hundred dollars шесть книг .4 If the number.six books семь газет .seven newspapers восемь зданий .eight buildings девять собак . 21.3..I know one girl один рубль .four dollars четыре студента . then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. or the last digit of the number is 2.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2. 4) (but not 12.three dogs четыре доллара .7.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language.9.four students три газеты . . Here are some examples. 3 or 4. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1. 13. try using plurals that involve money.one hundred roubles сто долларов . 103. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.6. To help you get used to this concept.four roubles две книги . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.two books три собаки . три рубля .three roubles четыре рубля . 42.ten roubles сто рублей .
How old are you.. Николай . Вова) .the dative case. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 . Quantity ends in 2. Как вас зовут? .7.9.0.Boris Владимир . Quantity ends in 5. Мне восемнадцать лет .What is his name? Его зовут Борис . (Lit: To me there are 16 years).) Quantity not specified .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Как его зовут? .-надцать .4 . .6.Nikolay (Коля) Борис . In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .Genitive Plural General Quantity ..Vladimir (Володя.So in summary. Much like “Мне холодно” .Her name is Alyona.As per position in the sentence.My name is Vera. Как еѐ зовут? .3. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.8. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction. Quantity ends in 1 .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. Here are some other common Russian names for men..I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.His name is Boris.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .Genitive Singular.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).I am 23 years old.
Andrey Александр . Some of these may be new. or tender form. The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Пѐтр . The diminuative is a more personal.Olga (Оля) Александра . Peter.good afternoon Добрый вечер .and а . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Thank-You Пожалуйста .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . Спасибо .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .Sergey Алексей . and should only be used when you are in close firendship.Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. Шура) Дмитрий .Pyotr.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . Андрей .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Hi (Informal) Доброе утро . but try to learn them all. This is like a pet name. here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Natalya (Наташа) Мария . You should be able to remember all of these.Hello Привет . Здравствуйте .and/but (contrasting) .Oxana Екатерина . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.good morning Добрый день .Alexander (Саша.good evening Спокойной ночи .Yekaterina Анастасия . Елена . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.Yelena (Лена) Наталья .
with у . from от .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. .My mum loves music. У вас есть чай? . so you should try to learn them all. кофе с молоком и с сахаром. .near.towards.in (+prepositional).he. что ты говоришь по-русски. at (+prepositional). the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". it еѐ . to за .There is no tea.но .I know that you speak Russian.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. во .or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. У вас есть водка? .out of.along. где туалет? . behind (+instrumental) из . . coffee with milk and with sugar.from по .Give me please. пожалуйста. You might also find some new words in these sentences.".I want tea please. In Russian we would use the word "а".Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .for (+accusative). For example. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .Do you have tea? Чая нет. пожалуйста. Дайте.on. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.about к . . . об .Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.There is no coffee.her. . to (+accusative) на . Что вы хотите? . . in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. it их .What do you want? Я хочу чай.He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. Он любит говорить по-английски.him. onto.you (informal) вы . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. Скажите.but или . пожалуйста. it ты . . to (+accusative) о. We will use only common words. я-I он .Tell me please.you (formal/plural) его .
How much? сто рублей . Брат Адама любит Москву .21 roubles. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . сколько стоит? .Where is he? Где кафе? . Почему ты не понимаешь? .Why? Что ты знаешь? . Я очень люблю спорт .My sister is reading a newspaper. .4 roubles. .The dog doesn't speak English. Сестра Анны читает газету .I think that you understand. .Where? Кто? . Где? .Yes. Моя мама любит музыку .4 dollars.What? Как? .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.How much? четыре рубля .What do you think? Где он? .I live in London. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .I don't understand.Who is he? Я читаю журнал .I am studying the Russian language. что ты понимаешь. Он едет домой . Я изучаю русский язык . Я не понимаю.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. сколько стоит? . сколько стоит? .He is going home. Ты понимаешь? . сколько стоит? .How much? двадцать один рубль .How much? четыре доллара .He is not home. He speaks Russian well.100 roubles.I understand. Моя сестра читает газету . Собака не говорит по-английски. что вы понимаете.My Mum loves music.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.How? Когда? .Твой брат говорит по-русски? .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .I am reading a magazine. Я слушаю музыку .I am listening to music.Adam's brother loves Moscow. Он хорошо говорит по-русски.I really love Moscow.What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .Does your borther speak Russian? Да.Who? Что? . . .When? Почему? .I really love sport. .Where is the cafe? Кто он? . Я очень люблю Москву . Его нет дома .I know that you understand. Я думаю. .Do you understand? Я знаю.
Masculine Nouns: 1. Нам . add “у”. . Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.Forming the dative case. Replace “й”. 2.Молоку Вино . Ему (n). 3.Елене Молоко . with “ю”.you (formal.. Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “ь”.them.you (informal). Тебе . Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. 2. Replace “ия” with “ии”. her. If the noun ends in a consonant. Replace "а".Адаму Елена . Ему (m). 3. 2. Им . Ей (f) . "о" or a consonant with "ам". Replace “я” with “е”. To create nouns in the dative case. add “ю”. 4. Адам . it. 1. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. add "ам".us. Мне . or plural).. Replace “ь” with “и”. 3.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case.him. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “е”. If the noun ends in a consonant. Вам . Replace “о” with “у” 2. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.me.
you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.(you) give Даѐт . Они дают цветы Елене . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.I am helping Ivan. . Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона..(I) give Даѐшь . Дай . Similarly.. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. . Я даю цветы Анне .I am helping Anna. It should be used in the dative case.I am helping this girl.(they) give The command forms of this word include. Мы помогаем маме каждый день .They give flowers to Elena. Дайте мне . For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. Я помогаю Ивану . the word “Anna” is the indirect object. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .Give me your address and telephone number.(he) gives Даѐм .. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Я помогаю этой девушке .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case.give! Дайте .I give flowers to Anna.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. .We help mother every day.. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне .. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .(you) give Дают . For this reason. Here are the conjuctions: Даю .(we) give Даѐте .Ivan gives flowers to Anna..Give me . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case.
Иван звонит Анне каждый день .Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . Как вам нравится . Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . Вам нравится Москва . (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.Ivan calls Anna every day. (The "ся" ending is reflexive).) Practice using the word нравится.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.? . It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns..) Ему нравится Москва . Мне холодно .She likes Moscow. and it relies on the dative case. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.She calls Ivan every day.? Как вам нравится фильм? . However it is a common word. so it is enough for now just to learn this form..I like your children. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.He is cold (to him its cold) . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.How do you like . it is still worth learning these examples. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like).He likes Moscow. However this verb is used differently.I like the flowers.Adam likes Moscow. Мне нравятся цветы . Мне нравится Москва . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). (lit: children are pleasing to me.I like Moscow.Звонить . so it is worth learning now.I like the children. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.) Ей нравится Москва .You like Moscow. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.I really like the flowers... This is verb is also a reflexive verb. it is like saying “To me it is likable”. Адаму нравится Москва .) Мне нравятся ваши дети . The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. Мне очень нравятся цветы .
Ей холодно . The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". . to create an exact rule.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . Replace “ь”. add “ем”. with “ем”. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. 2.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . It is followed by the dative case. if stressed “ѐм”. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. Мы едем к друзьям . if stressed “ѐм”.I am 23 years old. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). “ц”. 4. and has too many meanings.We are going to our friends. All consonants. “ч”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . then add “ем”. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. Except.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . “ш” or “щ”.. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . Replace “й”. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. add “ом”. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case..I am walking towards the station.
сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Replace “я” with “ей”. Иван пишет карандашом . Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.ложкой (spoon) нож .Иваном (Ivan) Анна .. Neuter Nouns: 1. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Replace "а".Анной (Anna) студенты . 1.Ivan writes with a pencil.I eat soup with a spoon.мужем (husband) жена . The preposition: „с‟ .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. “ш” or “щ”. “ч”. 4. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Except. Examples. Replace “ь” with “ью”. Replace “а” with “ой”. if stressed “ѐй”.. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”..студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.Feminine Nouns: 1. 2. . 3. All consonants. "о" with "ами". replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.молоком (milk) сметана . Accompanied by. In English these words can have different meanings.карандашом (pencil) ложка . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. 2. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Я ем суп ложкой .With.ножом (knife) муж ..женой (wife) Иван . Олег режет мясо ножом . “ц”. add "ами".
Анна с мужем идут в кафе.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Ivan wants tea with milk. пожалуйста. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.Ivan and I are going to school.Nadya wants tea with lemon. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.My wife and I are going to the cafe. with Ivan”). „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .For ease of pronunciation. . it is often written as “со”. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. However it is followed by the genitive case.You Им .Her .Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . . . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.I eat borsh with sour cream. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. 2. Иван с женой идут в кафе. Here are some examples. Pronouns . Дайте. пожалуйста.My husband and I are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Надя хочет чай с лимоном .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Him Ей . кофе с молоком . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Иван хочет чай с молоком . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Me Тобой . . In English we would use the word “and”. Мной . Мы с вами . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. „with him‟.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Please give me coffee with milk. Have a look at the following Russian examples. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. „with you‟.Me and you Notes: 1.
Them Seasons and parts of the day.in autumn зима .summer летом . .in winter весна .winter зимой .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . For example: лето .in summer осень . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.spring весной .in the afternoon вечер .night ночью .It Нами .day. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. afternoon днѐм .Us Вами .evening вечером .You (plural) Ими .in the evening ночь .Им . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.autumn осенью .morning утром .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .in the morning день . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.
The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.in front of под . is. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. is. was) has no present tense. . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. be The verb “Быть” (to be. Под столом сидит кот. beyond.to remain as пользоваться . Перед этой школой поверните налево.between над . was заниматься .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.I was a doctor).школа.under Examples: За этим зданием .за . быть .to be interested in оказываться . . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . but it is something to keep in mind.control.In front of this school turn to the left.behind. .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .Happy birthday С новым годом .to turn out to be оставаться .to be keen on управлять .The lamp is above the table.Behind this building there is a school. .Under the table the cat is sitting. enjoy становиться/стать . govern являться . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. (Example: Я был врачом . manage.to be. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. You don't need to learn these verbs now. for между .to be engaged in.to become увлекаться . Над столом висит лампа.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. to be occupied with интересоваться .above перед .to seem.to use. . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.
All consonants. Neuter Nouns: 1. All consonants.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. "о" with "ами". if stressed “ѐй”. “ш” or “щ”. Иван пишет карандашом . Replace "а". add “ем”. “ч”. with “ем”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. “ш” or “щ”. In English these words can have different meanings. “ц”..I eat soup with a spoon. add "ами".Ivan writes with a pencil.. Replace “й”.ложкой (spoon) нож . 3. Except. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. if stressed “ѐм”. Replace “ь” with “ью”. if stressed “ѐм”. 4.ножом (knife) муж . “ч”. 2.мужем (husband) жена .карандашом (pencil) ложка . Replace “ь”. 1. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Олег режет мясо ножом . Feminine Nouns: 1. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. then add “ем”..сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . 4.. 2. Replace “я” with “ей”.Masculine Nouns: 1.Анной (Anna) студенты .. Examples.. “ц”. 2. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.женой (wife) Иван . add “ом”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Replace “а” with “ой”.молоком (milk) сметана . . Except. Я ем суп ложкой . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.
It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Me and you Notes: 1.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Иван с женой идут в кафе.Please give me coffee with milk. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . Дайте. пожалуйста.I eat borsh with sour cream. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Иван хочет чай с молоком . Мы с вами . For ease of pronunciation. пожалуйста. Here are some examples.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Instrumental Case . .My wife and I are going to the cafe. . In English we would use the word “and”. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Accompanied by.Ivan and I are going to school.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . кофе с молоком .My husband and I are going to the cafe. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.Nadya wants tea with lemon. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . However it is followed by the genitive case. it is often written as “со”. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. 2. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Pronouns .With. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. . Have a look at the following Russian examples.Ivan wants tea with milk. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.The preposition: „с‟ . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . with Ivan”).Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.
Him Ей .winter зимой . „with him‟. „with you‟.autumn осенью .in winter весна .in the evening ночь . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .Me Тобой . For example: лето .spring весной .day.in autumn зима .Them Seasons and parts of the day. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.night ночью .in summer осень .It Нами . Мной .morning утром .evening вечером .in the afternoon вечер .You (plural) Ими . afternoon днѐм .Us Вами .You Им .in the morning день . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.summer летом .at night .Her Им .
The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.to seem.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. быть .I was a doctor). beyond. enjoy становиться/стать . govern являться . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.to become увлекаться . за .Between lunch and dinner drink tea.above перед . (Example: Я был врачом . Перед этой школой поверните налево. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. .to be interested in оказываться .to be keen on управлять .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.школа. Под столом сидит кот. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. You don't need to learn these verbs now. but it is something to keep in mind.under Examples: За этим зданием .in front of под .between над .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .Behind this building there is a school. . . be The verb “Быть” (to be.to be. to be occupied with интересоваться . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .Under the table the cat is sitting.to be engaged in. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.behind.control. manage.to remain as пользоваться .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.to turn out to be оставаться . was заниматься . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. Над столом висит лампа. was) has no present tense. is.Happy birthday С новым годом .The lamp is above the table. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. . is. . for между .In front of this school turn to the left.to use.
Forming Verbs in Past Tense. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not..Vladimir knew Дима знал .I knew (male speaking) Я знала .It knew Они знали . (ie 1st.Dima knew Елена знала . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. Let's have a look at the past tense now. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.The dog knew . Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. it is conceptually quite easy.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).Elena knew Ольга знала . Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject.We knew Я знал . To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал ...They knew Мы знали . Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.Olga knew Собака знала . The same principal also applies in the future tense.He knew Она знала . Он знал . 2nd or 3rd person). You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. or talk about something that has happened in the past.She knew Оно знало . Although this concept differs from English. but in Russian there is simply one.
Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. .I was home. use the imperfective also. habitual. Я работал два часа . This should help you remember how to form the verbs. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . (often По-). Simply conjugate them as discussed above. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. consequently each verb has two possible forms.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. Я работал . By definition something in the present tense is happening now. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. Some tenses in English can indicate this. . so there is no perfective in the present tense. and is not complete. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. There are two aspects in Russian.She wants to buy a book.I run in the forest every day. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed.I was working Я шѐл . ongoing.I worked for 2 hours. The Imperfective Aspect. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses.I worked everyday. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. . The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. When using pronouns such as Я. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. reversed or repeated actions. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. Я работал каждый день . Ты.
Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. Саша съел обед за пять минут.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples.Yesterday we read an interesting article. Он не хотел видеть меня.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . Questions and Aspects. Она спросила учителя. .I went home. If you are still unsure which to use. что он сказал. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. . .I failed to phone. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. Я не жила в Англии. . . . When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. . (but I was expected to). Я не понял.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .We did not watch the movie yesterday. Perfective: Я не позвонила .I did not live in England.I did not understand what he said. .Did you tell him about it? .He did not want to see me. . Я купил кофе . .She did not eat bananas.
I‟ve already visited Sweden. . . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.I was not (man speaking).At school I started learning English. . В школе я начала учить английский. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). когда мне было 16 лет .They were not. Я была во многих странах. Я уже посетила Швецию . Они не были . This is not the case in the past tense.I was not (woman speaking). Я окончила школу. . The stress moves to the word 'не'.We rented a summer house for three months. Оно не было . and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.I‟ve been to many countries.He was Она была .She was Оно было . Я не была .Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. Я был . Он читал три часа. except in the feminine.I was (woman speaking) Он был .He read for three hours.It was Они были .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.It was not. Я не был .I finished school when I was 16 years old. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. .I was (man speaking) Я была . Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.