Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)

Хорошо(Good)

Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles. Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.шестьсот 700 .11 .восемьсот 900 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. 30 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.четырнадцать 15 .двенадцать 13 .двадцать один 22 .пятнадцать 16 .пятьсот 600 .шестьдесят 70 .семьсот 800 .восемьдесят 90 .тринадцать 14 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".семнадцать 18 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.тридцать 40 . Here are some examples: 20 .девяносто 100 .двести 300 .восемнадцать 19 .четыреста 500 .двадцать 21 .двадцать два 23 .шестнадцать 17 . quite similar to English.семьдесят 80 .девятьсот .пятьдесят 60 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).сорок 50 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.одиннадцать 12 .триста 400 .двадцать три 24 .сто 200 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.

000.000 .345 23.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below. 0 .008 2.No Saying Hello.994 1.миллион 1. after somebody says thank-you.812 Please and Thank-You. you can basically forget the "уй". Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.Yes Нет ("nyet") .564 2. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.000 . Да ("da") . .миллиард For example: 131 .007 2. Yes and No.000.000. 456 219 9. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") . Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".000 .сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.тысяча 1.000 1. You should always say this after someone thanks you.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .1.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".

Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. Меня зовут . In order to introduce yourself. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") .Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.Good-bye. There are two forms of this word. you may need the following phrases. and should only be used with friends. However. If somebody says Привет to you. ("min-ya za-voot") .. Introducing Yourself... If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. You should just learn the whole phrase. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . If all else fails.. slang) You should generally use до свидания.Bad Saying Good-Bye.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . but we suggest you only use it with friends. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English).How are things? Хорошо спасибо . Вы говорите по-английски? . there is no difference between the question and the statement.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . Привет is also commonly used with friends. except for the question mark. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? .Bye (Informal. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. put a real questioning expression on your face. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. You may also hear people say Пока. not the individual words.Good/Well thank-you Плохо .Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first.My name is . There are also two words for saying good-bye.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian.Pleased to meet you. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello".

Tea Молоко .Coffee Чай . where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café. You could ask people with the following phrases.Soup Торт .Lemonade Сок .Coca-Cola Лимонад .. . Скажите.Wine Вода .Cake Водка .Beer Вино . где кафе? .Tell me please.Milk Кока-Кола . пожалуйста.Tell me please. where is a cafe? Скажите. Скажите. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.I understand Я не понимаю . пожалуйста. here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню .. где ближайшее кафе? . It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Я говорю по-английски . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. пожалуйста.Tell me please...I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Vodka Пиво ..Tell me please..Water .Russian beetroot soup Суп . Скажите.Juice Борщ . пожалуйста.I speak Russian Я понимаю . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.Menu Кофе . где бар? .

or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . пожалуйста.. Дайте. пожалуйста.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Please give me coffee with milk. . . . is it coffee? Нет. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. you can use the following phrase..Do you have .I want.? .It is coffee. (Just learn the whole phrase. пожалуйста... Сколько стоит? .. You can use it to ask the price of something. Простите.Excuse me.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. Дайте... Examples: Дайте.. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .No. Here are some Russian phrases you might need.? If you want to ask someone if they have something. Дайте.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . Что это? .What do you want? Я хочу . Do you have.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . you will generally get straight vodka. пожалуйста ....Give me please. это кофе. кофе с молоком ...What is it? Это кофе. it is tea.Be careful. it is gramatically unusual). .. это чай. . У вас есть .. кофе ... . .Please give me coffee. пожалуйста. чай.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .. when you order vodka in russia..How much is it?. Дайте.What? Что вы хотите? . How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian.Please give me tea.

.. It (f) Оно ..... him. eat.What does "..How do you say ". (Known as the nominative case.You (formal." mean in English? Where is the toilet. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".Сколько? .How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . love. Где Туалет . Как сказать ". The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж"." по-русски? .. she. Пожалуйста . Here are some useful phrases. It (m) Она .Tell me please.." in Russian? Что значит ". Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.. For example: run. or plural) .. they are things you can do. you.We Вы .? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. Definitions Verbs are action words.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . it. he. For example: I. "love" is the verb. In the sentence "I love him".. Pronouns are words that can replace names. walk.It (n) Мы . want..She.21 rubles.." на английском? .He.You (informal) Он ... and the object is "him". Скажите.) Я-I Ты . her. The subject is "I".

and once you get the hang of it. "ет". Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject.Они . (infinitive. To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). She. it is not too difficult.("yevo") . Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you".Him.You (formal. Они работают .You work Он. "I am working" and "I do work".We work Вы работаете . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".To work.They work. работать .You (informal) Его . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. It (m.You work. and the second conjugation. Мы работаем .Me Тебя . dictionary form) Я работаю . Она. Оно работает . The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. "ете" or "ют"). but not as much. (There are also some irregular verbs).n) Еѐ .He. It is the most common.I work Ты работаешь . he works). You should memorise these pronouns. and add the appropriate ending ("ю".To understand. It (f) Нас .Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". It works.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . This happens a little in English. "ешь". (infinitive.Us Вас . and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. Both these patterns are quite similar. (Known as the accusative case) Меня . (Example: I work. dictionary form) . Just remember that unlike English.Her. "ем".Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). or plural) Их .

Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). Remember.You know.They know. Мы знаем . Он не понимает .He doesn't understand.I understand. Ты понимаешь .Я понимаю .We speak. Они знают . Он. говорить .To speak. For example: Я не знаю . Она. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).They understand. Он. Ты знаешь .You understand.He. Я не понимаю . . (infinitive. Знать . It Speaks. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. Оно знает . She. Они понимают .You understand. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? .I speak. Ты говоришь . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Оно говорит . It knows. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.We know.He. dictionary form) Я знаю . Оно понимает . dictionary form) Я говорю . Вы знаете . Он. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). She.I don't know.To know.You speak.He.You know.I know. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . Вы понимаете .I don't understand.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. (infinitive. Она. which replace "ить". It understands Мы понимаем .We understand. Она. Мы говорим . She.

It lives. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Они едут . Оно живѐт .I hear.To hear. except that "у" replaces "ю".They speak. She. It goes (by transport). She. Я живу . For Example: Я говорю по-английски .You live.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски .He. It hears. Собака не говорит по-английски . Она. Жить . .You hear. Оно едет . Ты живѐшь . However.You hear. Они живут .You speak. She. Он.I speak English Он говорит по-русски .They live. often once you know the stem of the verb.He. слышать . слышу . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). you can often predict the endings. слышат . Я еду . Мы едем .We live.We hear.We don't speak Russian. Some examples: Ехать .You go (by transport). Вы едете .They go (by transport).To go (by transport).They hear. слышит . Он. слышите . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian.You live.He. слышим .To live.The dog doesn't speak English. слышишь . Мы живѐм .Вы говорите .You go (by transport). Вы живѐте . Ты едешь .I live.I go (by transport).We go (by transport). Они говорят . Она. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above.

cup. From the dictionary form of a noun.Is Masculine Кофе . О. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. 4. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.(Coffee) . Ы. paper. “house”. Russian has three genders: masculine. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. If it is a consonant. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. ъ because they have no sound). Consonant . The letters А. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . Ё. Папа . In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. There are very few exceptions to these rules.A noun is a thing. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. Vowel . as with many other languages.I live in London.(Man) . When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. it will be in its dictionary form. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. И and Й. In Russian we use 6 cases. In the case of other objects like “pen”. Papa) .He is going home Definitions Noun . pen. Я. unlike many languages.O. Ю.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. But there are five notable exceptions.Is Masculine Дедушка . 3.(Grandfather) .E.A letter that is not a vowel. Look at the last letter of the word: 2.(Daddy. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. the word is masculine. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. Э.Is Masculine .I. or “й”. Moscow. name or place. Example: dog. feminine.(Uncle) .Is Masculine Дядя . 5.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. cat.U in English). Е. (A.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. and neuter (neutral). Luckily. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. У. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. Cases . each noun is assigned a gender. In Russian. (Except ь. Gender of nouns.Is Masculine Мужчина . Он едет домой . “cup”.

брат (brother). You may wish to do this to emphasise something. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. so we will take it slowly. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. In fact it was also used in Old English. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence.. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building).. at.. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. In Russian there are six cases. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. Feminine : газета (newspaper). In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian.. радио (radio). The case system is also used in languages like Latin. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. документ (document). Хлеб (bread). Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. Россия (Russia). .) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. Greek and German. (Eg. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. on. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. For example. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. (In. and about. and still keep the same meaning.

For example. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. Russian is very free about word order. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. the word “I” is the subject. In Russian. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. “я” or “а”. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. add “ы”. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. in the nominative case. without changing the actual meaning. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject.buildings) The Accusative Case. in this case the word “dog”. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . you need to use the accusative case also. not plants). so there is nothing special to learn here. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. In the sentence “I love her”. Russian uses the case for all nouns. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. especially pronouns. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. The Nominative Case. “ы”. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . However.Interestingly. .

Feminine Nouns: 1. 2. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence.Nadya doesn't like wine. Я не люблю музыку . Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate).I don't like music. If noun is animate. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Я люблю музыку .Nadya loves wine. 2. Он любит Москву . Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . If the noun in inanimate. .Ivan loves tea. add “я”.I love Moscow. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. Replace “я” with “ю”. 4.I love music. add “а”. Neuter Nouns: 1.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . Replace “а” with “у”. 3. Ты любишь музыку? . Надя не любит вино . Надя любит вино . Иван любит чай . replace “й”. replace “ь”. with “я”. there is no change.Masculine Nouns: 1.I love sport.He loves Moscow. If noun is animate.

to think Работать . Я читаю газету . Я читаю журнал .to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .I am listening to the radio. что ты любишь музыку. so don't be confused.What do you love? However. . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.I am reading a book.to watch. it is probably the conjunction "that".I am reading a magazine. Что ты любишь? . Смотреть .to read.I love you.I love her.I am listening to music.to work Хотеть . Слушать . If you would like. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . The word "Что" has two uses. Я слушаю музыку .I know that you love music. Я слушаю радио .I love him. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. Она любит меня ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs.to study Думать . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning.I am watching television. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. . Я еѐ люблю . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. You can use it to form questions. An example could be: Я знаю. Читать .She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?".to listen Изучать .

What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. You can include it into many phrases. Где? . Add : “е”. Я очень люблю Москву . Я люблю путешествовать . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) .I really love sport.I want tea.Where? Кто? .I love to travel. For example: Очень . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. For example: Я люблю читать .I think so! Как вы думаете? . Я хочу купить журнал .I love to read.I study Russian.What? Как? . (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.Я изучаю русский язык . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.very.I really love Moscow.I want to buy a magazine. Что вы хотите? .Who? Что? . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".How? Почему? . Я так думаю . (lit: I study the Russian language).

I live in Siberia. Using prepositions and the prepositional case. suburbs and places. Exception: Replace “ия”. Here are some tips to help you.Where is she? на вокзале . 3. Petersburg. 4.in the garden в лесу . Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English.at the station на почте . it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1.I live in London. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . (Eg.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. Я живу в Сибири . Replace “я” with “е”. (They are in dicionary form) кино . Replace “а” with “е”. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. „at work‟.cinema театр . „at a concert‟).at the post office в саду . You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? .Feminine Nouns: 1.I live in Moscow. (Eg. Я живу в Петербурге . As with any language.theatre . when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . „at a station‟. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. 2.I live in St. Я живу в Лондоне . although these aren‟t precise rules. even though they are not Russian. Replace “о” with “е” 2.on the street Что на столе? . Replace “ь” with “и”. “е” remains unchanged.in the forest на улице .On the table is a book and a pencil.

restaurant банк . there are actually four ways: .school библиотека . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.I am going to school. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.museum больница .To the left. but as these words are so important for basic Russian. you can tell this by the case. and are grammatically quite complex.Straight ahead then to the right.pharmacy парк . прямо . Где вы работаете? . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. you would use the accusative case. налево . When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).park стадион .Straight ahead.hotel музей . прямо потом направо . So to express „to go‟ in Russian. However. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟.hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. your answer will involve the prepositional case.To the right. Both these words are verbs of motion. Куда вы идѐте .аптека . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).I work at (in) a school.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .bank гостиница . The first indicates you are going on foot.cafe площадь .square ресторан . prepositions have more than one meaning. Here are some examples for you to compare. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . направо .library кафе .stadium школа . we will introduce them now in a simple way.

Вы ходите. or repetitively (Я езжу. Вы ездите. Ты идѐшь.To go on foot. Они часто ездят в Амстердам .I am going to school. in more than one direction. Он ездит . Ты идѐшь в кино? . Ехать .To go by transport. Он идѐт. in one direction.I am going to school.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день . Вы едете. in more than one direction. Ты ездишь . Он ходит.We are going to the cafe.We are going to the cafe. Вы идѐте. Мы идѐм. (Я еду. (Я хожу.I go to school. Мы едем в кафе . Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Мы ходим. Он едет.I am going to the university Ходить . Ты ходишь.To go on foot. Ты едешь. Я часто хожу в кино . Они едут ) Я еду в школу .Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу .We go to the cafe every day.Идти . (Я иду.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Я иду в кино . Мы идѐм в кафе .I am going to the cinema on the metro. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . я иду в университет . in one direction.He is going to the hotel by taxi.He is going to the hotel. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . or repetitively.To go by transport.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: .I am going to the cinema.He is going to London Ездить . Они идут) Я иду в школу .I go to the theatre every day. Мы ездим. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Мы едем. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон .

Твоя (f).daughter Сын .husband Тѐтя . У меня есть сын и дочь . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.I have a sister. Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.grandmother Дедушка .our .son бабушка .I have a son and a daughter.father Мама . Твоѐ (n). Еѐ (f) .mum Папа . Here are some Russian phrases you could use. Наше (n).sister Брат .uncle Родители . Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.auntie Дядя . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now.wife Муж .parents Дети . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.granddaughter Внук . У тебя есть дети? . Твои (pl) . Наши (pl) . У меня есть брат . Мои (pl) . Наша (f).Мать .children Внучка .grandson Семья .your Его (m n) ("yevo"). For example we use the words mum and dad. Мой (m).my Твой (m).I have a brother.I don't have any children. her Наш (m).his.grandfather Жена . У меня есть сестра . У меня нет детей . Моя (f).Do you have children?.family Just like English.mother Отец . Моѐ (n).brother Дочь .dad Сестра .

goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .. Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. Моя мама любит музыку . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet.good evening Спокойной ночи .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. you may wish to say her name is Anna. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .This is my house Это моя квартира . For example.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .good morning Добрый день . Ваше (n). However. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.Ваш (m). Доброе утро .her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .his name is Ivan.good afternoon Добрый вечер .. This is.Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. Ваша (f). So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . The Russian word Это means 'this is'. Это мой дом .your Их . Ваши (pl) .

in Russian. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Feminine Nouns: 1. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. Using the genitive case . Replace “ь” with “и”. For example. Сестра Анны читает газету . Replace “а” with “ы”. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. pay particular attention to the order of the words. (This is like using 's in English). add “а”. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. the object that is owned always comes first.ownership As you can see in the above example. Replace “е” with “я” For example. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. 3. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . 3. Anna's) Дом Ивана . Replace “ь”.Adam's brother loves Moscow.Anna's car. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case.Masculine Nouns: 1. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . Брат Адама любит Москву . Replace “о” with “а” 2. 2. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны .Igor's telephone.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. Replace “й”.Adam's dog. Собака Адама . you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Neuter Nouns: 1. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. Replace “я” with “и”. However.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. If the noun ends in a consonant. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. with “я”. Let's have a look at some more examples. 2.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). add “я”.

it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. Кофе нет . Ивана нет . As we have seen in a previous lesson.‟. Чая нет .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . it is just easier to learn the concept by example. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't .of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Generally. Using the genitive case .There is no milk.Ivan isn't here.I have book. (Меня.There is no coffee. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . У нее есть собака.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . У меня есть книга .Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Его. Here are some examples. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. Их) Using the genitive case . У вас есть кофе? .. Еѐ.. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case.to have As the genitive case relates to possession. Вас. Тебя. план города .He is not home. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . Here are some examples. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) .there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. . стакан молока .A map of the city. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case.There is no tea.sentence and uses the nominative case. Молока нет .Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . This is exactly the same concept as above. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.A glass of milk.She has a dog. Его нет дома . Нас.

Ш. Х.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. plurals. for example "10 roubles". The genitive case is used after most numbers.Plural (Subject) In Russian. but don‟t worry. . It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. "ы". Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) .здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . Ж. quantaties. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. Ч. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. add “ы”. The Nominative Case . depending on whether the object is animate or not.Using the genitive case . in the nominative case. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. you make a plural by using the letters "и". "я" or "а".numbers.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. К.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.

You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money.The Genitive Case . е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. This may feel a little strange at first. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.студентов (students') газета .ш. (марка . Анна любит книги .ч. Книги на столе .англичанок.газет (newspapers') здание . The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.Anna loves books. but in Russian we use it for all numbers.The books are on the table.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. девушка .марок.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. let‟s see how to use them. but in the plural form.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. or whether you are just using general plurals. Here are some examples.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). Ok. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. англичанка .щ. .

one girl Я знаю одну девушку . or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1. 103.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2. or the last digit of the number is 2.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language.I know one girl один рубль . 21. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. 42.3.six books семь газет . To help you get used to this concept. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.8. then you should use the genitive singular case.one hundred dollars шесть книг . 13 & 14).eight buildings девять собак . 12.three dogs четыре доллара .three roubles четыре рубля .6. The number one declines like an adjective. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. 13. 3 or 4. (example: 22.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.ten roubles сто рублей .0. .7.seven newspapers восемь зданий . 61) (but not 11). 4) (but not 12. etc) пять рублей .21 roubles один доллар .nine dogs десять студентов . You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.4 If the number.. 14.five roubles десять рублей . Here are some examples. Here are some examples. одна девушка . три рубля .9.four students три газеты .four dollars четыре студента .four roubles две книги .two books три собаки . try using plurals that involve money.one hundred roubles сто долларов .three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.one rouble двадцать один рубль .

Вова) . Here are some other common Russian names for men.My name is Vera. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).8. Quantity ends in 1 .Her name is Alyona..Vladimir (Володя. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.How old are you. Quantity ends in 2.) Quantity not specified . Николай .His name is Boris.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна . This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.-надцать . Как его зовут? .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .Genitive Singular.. Мне восемнадцать лет . .9.Nikolay (Коля) Борис .. Quantity ends in 5.. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 . Как еѐ зовут? .Genitive Plural General Quantity .3.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .As per position in the sentence.What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.the dative case.Boris Владимир . Как вас зовут? .So in summary.What is his name? Его зовут Борис .0.6. Much like “Мне холодно” .7. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.4 .I am 23 years old.

Пѐтр .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.good evening Спокойной ночи .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Yelena (Лена) Наталья .Andrey Александр . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Sergey Алексей .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро . or tender form. Peter. Здравствуйте .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . Шура) Дмитрий .Olga (Оля) Александра . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').Pyotr. Елена .good afternoon Добрый вечер . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.good morning Добрый день .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Mariya (Маша) Ольга . The diminuative is a more personal. You should be able to remember all of these.Hello Привет . and should only be used when you are in close firendship. but try to learn them all.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . Спасибо .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. Андрей .Natalya (Наташа) Мария .Oxana Екатерина .and/but (contrasting) .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women. This is like a pet name.Alexander (Саша.Thank-You Пожалуйста .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Yekaterina Анастасия . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. Some of these may be new.and а .

it их . to (+accusative) о. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev.along.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .Give me please. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. У вас есть чай? .or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but".you (informal) вы . . Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. it ты .out of. it еѐ .I know that you speak Russian. coffee with milk and with sugar. onto.her. кофе с молоком и с сахаром. to (+accusative) на . . to за . .There is no coffee.I want tea please. You might also find some new words in these sentences. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns. об . где туалет? . We will use only common words. во . пожалуйста.towards. У вас есть водка? .There is no tea. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .What do you want? Я хочу чай. .Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. behind (+instrumental) из . Он любит говорить по-английски. In Russian we would use the word "а".with у .in (+prepositional).from по .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.near. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . so you should try to learn them all.for (+accusative).но .My mum loves music. .he. .but или . Дайте. что ты говоришь по-русски.about к . For example. я-I он .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. Скажите.you (formal/plural) его . .Do you have tea? Чая нет. from от .on.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. пожалуйста.".him. .Tell me please. пожалуйста. at (+prepositional). Что вы хотите? . the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".

Брат Адама любит Москву . что ты понимаешь.Do you understand? Я знаю.I really love sport.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .He is going home. что вы понимаете. Он хорошо говорит по-русски.Who? Что? .He is not home.What do you think? Где он? .Yes. Моя мама любит музыку .4 dollars. .My sister is reading a newspaper. Я думаю.Why? Что ты знаешь? . .100 roubles.Where? Кто? .I am reading a magazine. . Я очень люблю спорт . сколько стоит? .I understand.21 roubles. Я очень люблю Москву .4 roubles. .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .How much? четыре доллара .Does your borther speak Russian? Да.Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . .My Mum loves music.What? Как? .I think that you understand. Собака не говорит по-английски. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . Я не понимаю. сколько стоит? .I know that you understand. . Сестра Анны читает газету .How? Когда? .I really love Moscow. Ты понимаешь? . Я изучаю русский язык .I don't understand.How much? четыре рубля . сколько стоит? . Его нет дома .I am listening to music. Где? .I live in London. Моя сестра читает газету .Adam's brother loves Moscow. Почему ты не понимаешь? .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. Я слушаю музыку .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . .The dog doesn't speak English.I am studying the Russian language.How much? двадцать один рубль .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. He speaks Russian well. Он едет домой . сколько стоит? .Where is he? Где кафе? .When? Почему? .Твой брат говорит по-русски? .How much? сто рублей .

3. To create nouns in the dative case.. Replace “й”. Replace “ь” with “и”. with “ю”. Ей (f) . Replace “я” with “е”. Replace “ия” with “ии”. Ему (n). it. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. Вам . 3. 1. If the noun ends in a consonant. add “ю”. Replace "а". 4. 2.you (informal).Forming the dative case. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. If the noun ends in a consonant.. . Masculine Nouns: 1. Нам . Replace “а” with “е”.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. 3. Тебе . Replace “ь”. Адам . It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. Мне . we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Им . add “у”.him. add "ам". her.me. Ему (m).Елене Молоко . or plural).you (formal. Feminine Nouns: 1.Молоку Вино . "о" or a consonant with "ам". 2. Replace “о” with “у” 2.us. 2. Neuter Nouns: 1.them.Адаму Елена .

I am helping this girl. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case..Give me your address and telephone number. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case.(you) give Даѐт .(he) gives Даѐм .. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона.(we) give Даѐте . . In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. Я даю цветы Анне . Here are the conjuctions: Даю . Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . Мы помогаем маме каждый день . the word “Anna” is the indirect object. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations. .Ivan gives flowers to Anna.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.(I) give Даѐшь .I am helping Anna. Я помогаю Ивану .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something.give! Дайте .(they) give The command forms of this word include.. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.. For this reason. It should be used in the dative case.(you) give Дают .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне . In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. Я помогаю этой девушке .We help mother every day. Дайте мне .I am helping Ivan. Similarly.Give me . Они дают цветы Елене . (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне .They give flowers to Elena.I give flowers to Anna. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.. Дай .. .

(lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.? . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet.? Как вам нравится фильм? .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно .She calls Ivan every day. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. Адаму нравится Москва .) Ему нравится Москва .to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . Мне нравится Москва . so it is enough for now just to learn this form.How do you like .Ivan calls Anna every day. so it is worth learning now...How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . This is verb is also a reflexive verb. and it relies on the dative case. (The "ся" ending is reflexive). it is like saying “To me it is likable”.He is cold (to him its cold) .. Вам нравится Москва .Adam likes Moscow. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. it is still worth learning these examples.I like Moscow.) Ей нравится Москва . Иван звонит Анне каждый день . The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети .I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .. Как вам нравится .She likes Moscow.) Practice using the word нравится.I like the children.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .Звонить . Мне очень нравятся цветы .He likes Moscow. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns.You like Moscow. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. Мне холодно .I really like the flowers.I like your children.I like the flowers. However this verb is used differently. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. Мне нравятся цветы . To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. (lit: children are pleasing to me. However it is a common word.

I am 23 years old.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. . It is followed by the dative case. “ч”. if stressed “ѐм”. with “ем”.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . add “ом”. All consonants..We are going to our friends. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. add “ем”. Replace “ь”. then add “ем”. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Мы едем к друзьям . “ш” or “щ”.. to create an exact rule. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . if stressed “ѐм”. 4. Except. 2. and has too many meanings.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . Replace “й”. “ц”. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to".Ей холодно . but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.I am walking towards the station.

ложкой (spoon) нож . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Олег режет мясо ножом .студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.I eat soup with a spoon. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. 2. Replace "а".Ivan writes with a pencil.мужем (husband) жена .. . “ц”.Feminine Nouns: 1. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Neuter Nouns: 1. if stressed “ѐй”.With. 1.карандашом (pencil) ложка .ножом (knife) муж .молоком (milk) сметана . Replace “ь” with “ью”. Replace “я” with “ей”. “ш” or “щ”.женой (wife) Иван . add "ами".. Я ем суп ложкой . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. "о" with "ами"..сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . The preposition: „с‟ . Replace “а” with “ой”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. All consonants. 4. In English these words can have different meanings. Иван пишет карандашом . Except. 2. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. “ч”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. 3. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Accompanied by.Анной (Anna) студенты . Examples.

Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Her . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . . „with him‟. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Мной . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. кофе с молоком . Here are some examples.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. In English we would use the word “and”. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .For ease of pronunciation. пожалуйста. Дайте. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.Ivan and I are going to school.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.My husband and I are going to the cafe.Ivan wants tea with milk. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Pronouns .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. with Ivan”). More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .Me Тобой .Please give me coffee with milk. пожалуйста. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. However it is followed by the genitive case.You Им .Me and you Notes: 1.I eat borsh with sour cream. Иван хочет чай с молоком . Иван с женой идут в кафе. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. . . „with you‟. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. it is often written as “со”. Мы с вами . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). 2.Him Ей .Nadya wants tea with lemon. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .My wife and I are going to the cafe.

It Нами . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.You (plural) Ими .in the afternoon вечер .winter зимой .in the morning день .summer летом . For example: лето .day.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.in summer осень .in autumn зима . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.in winter весна .Them Seasons and parts of the day.morning утром .Us Вами . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .autumn осенью .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .in the evening ночь .Им .spring весной . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.night ночью .evening вечером . afternoon днѐм .

above перед . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. . beyond.In front of this school turn to the left. Под столом сидит кот.under Examples: За этим зданием . for между . You don't need to learn these verbs now. was заниматься . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.Under the table the cat is sitting. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . . is.to be keen on управлять . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. to be occupied with интересоваться . enjoy становиться/стать . manage.школа. (Example: Я был врачом . .I was a doctor). be The verb “Быть” (to be.to be interested in оказываться .The lamp is above the table. but it is something to keep in mind. Над столом висит лампа.to become увлекаться .Behind this building there is a school.to use.to remain as пользоваться .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. was) has no present tense. govern являться .Happy birthday С новым годом . is.to turn out to be оставаться .to seem. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . .to be.control.in front of под .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.between над .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . быть . .behind. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.за . Перед этой школой поверните налево.to be engaged in.

4.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . “ц”.. "о" with "ами". Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . add “ем”. 2.карандашом (pencil) ложка . Replace “я” with “ей”. if stressed “ѐй”. “ц”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.. All consonants. All consonants. “ч”.молоком (milk) сметана ..Ivan writes with a pencil. 2. Я ем суп ложкой . In English these words can have different meanings. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. 1. Иван пишет карандашом .студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. 2. Feminine Nouns: 1. Neuter Nouns: 1. Examples. add "ами". if stressed “ѐм”.Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “ой”. add “ом”. if stressed “ѐм”. 3.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . with “ем”.ложкой (spoon) нож . then add “ем”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.женой (wife) Иван . Replace “й”. “ч”. Except. “ш” or “щ”... “ш” or “щ”. Replace “ь” with “ью”.I eat soup with a spoon. Replace “ь”..ножом (knife) муж . If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Except. Replace "а".Анной (Anna) студенты . . 4.мужем (husband) жена . Олег режет мясо ножом . Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.

I eat borsh with sour cream. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.My wife and I are going to the cafe.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Pronouns . кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Instrumental Case . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Мы с вами . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . пожалуйста. Иван хочет чай с молоком . . кофе с молоком . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Have a look at the following Russian examples. Here are some examples.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Иван с женой идут в кафе.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.My husband and I are going to the cafe. with Ivan”). It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . .The preposition: „с‟ . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .Ivan wants tea with milk. . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. In English we would use the word “and”. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Accompanied by. . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. For ease of pronunciation. 2. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .Ivan and I are going to school. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. it is often written as “со”. However it is followed by the genitive case.With. пожалуйста.Please give me coffee with milk. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Me and you Notes: 1. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Nadya wants tea with lemon.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Дайте.

It Нами .Me Тобой .Us Вами .spring весной .evening вечером .morning утром .winter зимой .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.in winter весна . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. For example: лето .in the evening ночь .in summer осень .Them Seasons and parts of the day.in the afternoon вечер .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .Her Им . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.at night .night ночью . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. afternoon днѐм . „with him‟.autumn осенью .day.summer летом .You Им . Мной . „with you‟.Him Ей .in autumn зима .You (plural) Ими . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.in the morning день .

be The verb “Быть” (to be. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. is. . .above перед .In front of this school turn to the left. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. beyond. manage.to remain as пользоваться .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . for между .to become увлекаться .behind. govern являться .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. to be occupied with интересоваться .under Examples: За этим зданием .to be keen on управлять . . You will learn more about this in a later lesson.to turn out to be оставаться . was заниматься . . You don't need to learn these verbs now.control.to seem.The lamp is above the table.Behind this building there is a school.to use.to be interested in оказываться . Перед этой школой поверните налево. . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. за . was) has no present tense.школа. (Example: Я был врачом .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.to be.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .I was a doctor). is. enjoy становиться/стать .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.Under the table the cat is sitting. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. but it is something to keep in mind.to be engaged in. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.between над . Над столом висит лампа. Под столом сидит кот. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.Happy birthday С новым годом .in front of под . . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. быть .

I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).Olga knew Собака знала .You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала . The same principal also applies in the future tense.. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense..The dog knew . it is conceptually quite easy.. Although this concept differs from English.They knew Мы знали . Let's have a look at the past tense now. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject.Dima knew Елена знала .I knew (male speaking) Я знала . Forming Verbs in Past Tense. (ie 1st.He knew Она знала .We knew Я знал .Vladimir knew Дима знал . or talk about something that has happened in the past. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. Он знал .Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.Elena knew Ольга знала . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. 2nd or 3rd person).You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .She knew Оно знало . Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. but in Russian there is simply one. In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.It knew Они знали . Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not.

Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. ongoing. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. . Some tenses in English can indicate this. There are two aspects in Russian.I was home. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb.I worked for 2 hours. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together.I was working Я шѐл . By definition something in the present tense is happening now. Я работал два часа . habitual. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. so there is no perfective in the present tense. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. Ты. The Imperfective Aspect. Я работал . The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. (often По-).You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. . The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. and is not complete. use the imperfective also. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу.I run in the forest every day. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. Я работал каждый день . and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. . Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. consequently each verb has two possible forms. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . When using pronouns such as Я. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. reversed or repeated actions.I worked everyday. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time.She wants to buy a book. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect.

что он сказал.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . Он не хотел видеть меня. . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.I went home. . Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. . . . Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets.Did you tell him about it? .Yesterday we read an interesting article.I did not live in England. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?.He did not want to see me. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. Она спросила учителя.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? .She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. (but I was expected to).We did not watch the movie yesterday. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.She did not eat bananas. .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. .I failed to phone.I did not understand what he said. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? .Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. . Я не понял. If you are still unsure which to use. Я купил кофе . . . Questions and Aspects. Я не жила в Англии. Perfective: Я не позвонила . Саша съел обед за пять минут.

He was Она была . Оно не было .I was (man speaking) Я была . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.We rented a summer house for three months. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.He read for three hours. Я была во многих странах. Я не была . and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. .At school I started learning English.I was (woman speaking) Он был . Я был . когда мне было 16 лет . . В школе я начала учить английский. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be).I finished school when I was 16 years old. Я окончила школу. This is not the case in the past tense.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. The stress moves to the word 'не'.I was not (woman speaking).It was not. except in the feminine. Я уже посетила Швецию .She was Оно было . .It was Они были .I‟ve already visited Sweden. Я не был .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. Он читал три часа.I‟ve been to many countries. Они не были . .I was not (man speaking). . Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.They were not.

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