Russian letters that are (almost) the same.
А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
шестнадцать 17 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.девяносто 100 .пятьсот 600 .двадцать три 24 .шестьдесят 70 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).семьсот 800 .сто 200 .пятнадцать 16 .триста 400 .11 .восемьсот 900 . (You will need to drop the soft sign. or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".девятьсот
.восемьдесят 90 .девятнадцать
Russian numbers: 20 and onwards
As you could see.восемнадцать 19 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.двенадцать 13 .сорок 50 .тридцать 40 .тринадцать 14 .семьдесят 80 .двести 300 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.шестьсот 700 . 30 . quite similar to English.двадцать два 23 .четыреста 500 .четырнадцать 15 . Here are some examples: 20 .двадцать один 22 .двадцать 21 .пятьдесят 60 .одиннадцать 12 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.семнадцать 18 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.
Yes Нет ("nyet") .007 2. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .000.миллиард For example: 131 .
.345 23.008 2. You should always say this after someone thanks you.тысяча 1.
The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.812
Please and Thank-You.564 2.1.No
Saying Hello. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.000 .
Yes and No. 456 219 9.000.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.000.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .000 1.994 1.ноль
Saying Large Russian Numbers
Try pronouncing the numbers below. 0 . after somebody says thank-you.миллион 1. you can basically forget the "уй". Да ("da") .
Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".000 .000 . You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.
How are you?
The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody.Pleased to meet you.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . not the individual words.. except for the question mark.. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. you may need the following phrases.Good/Well thank-you Плохо .
Asking about languages
When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian.My name is . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. slang) You should generally use до свидания. You should just learn the whole phrase. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. put a real questioning expression on your face. but we suggest you only use it with friends.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? .Do you (formal) speak Russian?
. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". However. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . Меня зовут .Bye (Informal.
Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . If all else fails. and should only be used with friends.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.
In order to introduce yourself.Bad
Saying Good-Bye. Привет is also commonly used with friends. You may also hear people say Пока. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . which is appropriate in formal or informal situations.. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English).Good-bye. If somebody says Привет to you.
There are also two words for saying good-bye.. Вы говорите по-английски? . There are two forms of this word. there is no difference between the question and the statement. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.How are things? Хорошо спасибо .
Introducing Yourself. ("min-ya za-voot") .
пожалуйста.. You could ask people with the following phrases. you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Coca-Cola Лимонад . Скажите. пожалуйста.Menu Кофе . where is the nearest cafe?
On the Menu
If you were in a Russian bar or café.Soup Торт .Tea Молоко .Cake Водка .Milk Кока-Кола .Vodka Пиво .. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Tell me please.Coffee Чай ..Я говорю по-английски .Lemonade Сок . Скажите.I speak Russian Я понимаю . где бар? .Tell me please..Beer Вино .Wine Вода .I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Water
.Juice Борщ .I understand Я не понимаю .Tell me please. пожалуйста. .Russian beetroot soup Суп . where is a cafe? Скажите.. где ближайшее кафе? . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . Скажите.Tell me please.I don't understand
Finding a cafe
After a busy day in Russia. где кафе? . пожалуйста. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”..
What is it? Это кофе. Сколько стоит? .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar..? (formal)
У вас есть кофе? .. . you will generally get straight vodka. is it coffee? Нет. (Just learn the whole phrase.Do you have ....Give me please.Excuse me. У вас есть .Do you have vodka?
Please give me
When you decide what you will have you will need to order. Дайте.... Простите. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .
Do you have. пожалуйста. .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .. .Please give me tea. Дайте.No. пожалуйста .I want. пожалуйста.Be careful. пожалуйста. it is gramatically unusual). кофе . or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .
What is it?
Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. это чай. Дайте... кофе с молоком . You can use it to ask the price of something.?
If you want to ask someone if they have something.What? Что вы хотите? .Please give me coffee.. .
Дайте. it is tea. when you order vodka in russia.
The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian.. ..How much is it?. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. ..It is coffee.
. Что это? .. чай. пожалуйста. you can use the following phrase. Дайте....What do you want? Я хочу .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .Please give me coffee with milk.? . это кофе.
How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль ." на английском? . Пожалуйста . it. and the object is "him". The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".You (informal) Он . Pronouns are words that can replace names.She..We Вы .
Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.. he. eat. Скажите...What does ".. him.It (n) Мы . you.. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. It (f) Оно . (Known as the nominative case.?
To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is." mean in English?
Where is the toilet. her. they are things you can do. Here are some useful phrases.You (formal.. walk.) Я-I Ты . love. It (m) Она ." по-русски? ..21 rubles. In the sentence "I love him".He. "love" is the verb.How do you say ". or plural)
. she.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M"..
Verbs are action words. For example: I.. Где Туалет ... want. For example: run.Tell me please.. The subject is "I". Как сказать "." in Russian? Что значит "..
How do you say?
Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”..Сколько? ..
To understand.("yevo") . Оно работает . "ет". but not as much. It (m. dictionary form)
.Her.You (informal) Его . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. This happens a little in English. Both these patterns are quite similar. (infinitive.I work Ты работаешь . and once you get the hang of it. "I am working" and "I do work". and add the appropriate ending ("ю". Она. Они работают . It is the most common. Мы работаем .You work Он.We work Вы работаете .Him. (Known as the accusative case) Меня . To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть").
The first conjugation
The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject.
You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. (There are also some irregular verbs).Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). "ешь".Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I").He. it is not too difficult.Us Вас . "ете" or "ют"). he works). работать . You should memorise these pronouns.Они .Me Тебя . or plural) Их . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". dictionary form) Я работаю .To work. and the second conjugation. She. Just remember that unlike English.You (formal. (Example: I work.They work. It works.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you".They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". It (f) Нас . Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . "ем". (infinitive.n) Еѐ . This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation.You work.
Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. She. Он.I don't understand. Мы знаем .He doesn't understand. Я не понимаю .You know.You understand. dictionary form) Я говорю . It knows. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? .You speak. Она. Оно знает . Мы говорим .Я понимаю .I know. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). Ты понимаешь .I speak. Вы знаете .He. Он.I don't know.
. dictionary form) Я знаю . Ты говоришь . It Speaks. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. Она. Вы понимаете . Знать .He. Они понимают . Remember. Он не понимает . For example: Я не знаю .You know.We speak. (infinitive.He. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).Do you understand?
The second conjugation
Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation.We understand.We know. She. Оно понимает . Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. She.You understand. which replace "ить". Оно говорит . Ты знаешь .To know.They understand. говорить . It understands Мы понимаем . Он.I understand. Она.They know. Они знают . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. (infinitive.
Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).To speak.
Оно живѐт . Ты едешь .
. Мы едем . слышат . It lives. Они говорят .To live.I live. Вы едете . Они живут .You live.I go (by transport). Собака не говорит по-английски .He. слышать . you can often predict the endings.The dog doesn't speak English. Оно едет . слышишь .You hear.You live.He.We go (by transport). Я еду . Они едут . often once you know the stem of the verb.They live. слышу . It goes (by transport). except that "у" replaces "ю". слышит . However. Some examples: Ехать .To go (by transport). Она.They go (by transport).You hear. слышите .
Жить .We live.Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски .Вы говорите .We hear. Я живу . Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Он. слышим . She.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . Мы живѐм .I speak English Он говорит по-русски .They speak.You go (by transport). She. Вы живѐте . She. Ты живѐшь . Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Он.You speak.You go (by transport).We don't speak Russian. It hears.
For Example: Я говорю по-английски . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).He.I hear.
There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. Она.They hear.To hear.
paper.Is Masculine Мужчина . In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender.I. Example: dog. (Except ь. 3. (A. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. cat.E.O. There are very few exceptions to these rules.(Daddy. Luckily. But there are five notable exceptions. pen.He is going home
Noun .Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. feminine. each noun is assigned a gender. “house”. Я. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender.A noun is a thing. “cup”. Е. 5. The letters А. as with many other languages. Ю.Is Masculine Дядя .U in English). In the case of other objects like “pen”.Is Masculine Кофе . here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. and neuter (neutral). or “й”. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. From the dictionary form of a noun. name or place. Papa) .Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. the word is masculine.
In Russian. О. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. 4. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне .Is Masculine Дедушка . Russian has three genders: masculine. Moscow. cup. Э. unlike many languages. Он едет домой . If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. У. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. Папа .I live in London. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. it will be in its dictionary form. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. ъ because they have no sound).
Gender of nouns. If it is a consonant. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. In Russian we use 6 cases. Cases . Consonant . И and Й.(Coffee) . Ы.(Uncle) .(Man) .Is Masculine
. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. Ё.A letter that is not a vowel.(Grandfather) . Vowel . this occurs mainly because of physical gender.
For example. (Eg. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. письмо (letter)
Cases in Russian
Russian grammar uses the case system. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. (In. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. Feminine : газета (newspaper).. брат (brother). To indicate each case we change the ending of word. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary..) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. and about. and still keep the same meaning.. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. Greek and German. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. The case system is also used in languages like Latin.
. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. on. In fact it was also used in Old English. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence.. Россия (Russia). Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). радио (radio). Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. so we will take it slowly. документ (document). Хлеб (bread). The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. at. In Russian there are six cases.
This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. the word “I” is the subject.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. you need to use the accusative case also.buildings)
The Accusative Case. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. (The object of a sentence)
To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal.
. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . For example. Russian uses the case for all nouns. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. Russian is very free about word order. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. in the nominative case. you make a plural by using the letters “и”.
The Nominative Case. (The subject of a sentence)
The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. “ы”. some remnants of the case system still exist in English.Interestingly. so there is nothing special to learn here. In Russian. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. especially pronouns. not plants). Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. However. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. “я” or “а”. add “ы”. in this case the word “dog”. In the sentence “I love her”. without changing the actual meaning.
with “я”. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence.Nadya loves wine. Он любит Москву . Feminine Nouns: 1. Надя любит вино .Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . 4.Masculine Nouns: 1.Ivan loves tea. If noun is animate. Replace “а” with “у”. Я не люблю музыку . Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate).
Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю.He loves Moscow. Иван любит чай . If noun is animate and ends in a consonant.I love music. Replace “я” with “ю”. add “а”. replace “ь”. If noun is animate. Я люблю музыку .I don't like music.I love sport. Neuter Nouns: 1.I love Moscow. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . 2. Надя не любит вино . replace “й”. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. add “я”. If the noun in inanimate. Ты любишь музыку? . there is no change.Nadya doesn't like wine. 3. 2.
to listen Изучать . Я читаю газету .to watch."I love you" in Russian
You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю .She loves me
The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?".I love her. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. Слушать .I am reading a magazine.to read. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .
Что ты любишь? . .I am watching television.
Using other Russian verbs
To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. Смотреть . You can use it to form questions. Я читаю журнал . Я слушаю музыку .I love you.to work Хотеть .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .I am listening to the radio. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. If you would like.to want
Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .to study Думать . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.I am reading a book.I love him.I am listening to music. An example could be: Я знаю. Читать .I know that you love music. The word "Что" has two uses. Я слушаю радио . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. it is probably the conjunction "that". Она любит меня . что ты любишь музыку.
. Я еѐ люблю .to think Работать . so don't be confused.What do you love? However.
What? Как? .I love to travel.I think so! Как вы думаете? .I want tea.I want to buy a magazine. Я так думаю . Я очень люблю Москву . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Я люблю путешествовать . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .Where? Кто? .I really love Moscow.
A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". For example: Очень . Что вы хотите? . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". Где? .How? Почему? .Why?
Forming the prepositional case
To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.What do you want?
Sometime you will want to talk about an action. Я хочу купить журнал .I love to read.I really love sport. Add : “е”. For example: Я люблю читать . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”)
.Who? Что? .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .I study Russian. You can include it into many phrases.Я изучаю русский язык . (lit: I study the Russian language).
You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.very.
cinema театр . 3. “е” remains unchanged. Replace “о” with “е” 2. Replace “я” with “е”. Я живу в Сибири . Exception: Replace “ия”. although these aren‟t precise rules.
As with any language.I live in St. „at a station‟.Where is she? на вокзале .theatre
Using prepositions and the prepositional case. (Eg.in the garden в лесу . You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? .in the forest на улице .Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . „at a concert‟). (They are in dicionary form) кино .Feminine Nouns: 1. 2. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. Replace “ь” with “и”. even though they are not Russian. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English.at the station на почте .
Here are some names of other useful places. Petersburg. Я живу в Лондоне . Я живу в Петербурге .On the table is a book and a pencil.I live in Moscow.on the street
Что на столе? . Replace “а” with “е”. Here are some tips to help you. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. 4.at the post office в саду .What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш .I live in Siberia. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. suburbs and places.I live in London. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. (Eg. „at work‟.
there are actually four ways:
. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. but as these words are so important for basic Russian.I am going to school.cafe площадь . we will introduce them now in a simple way. and are grammatically quite complex.library кафе . However. The first indicates you are going on foot.restaurant банк .Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . налево . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. прямо . Куда вы идѐте . направо .museum больница . Both these words are verbs of motion.I work at (in) a school.To the right.hospital
Location and Direction
Sometimes.square ресторан .Straight ahead. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.bank гостиница . So to express „to go‟ in Russian.Straight ahead then to the right.pharmacy парк . the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟.park стадион . You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.
Going Places in Russian
In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.
Где вы работаете? . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. prepositions have more than one meaning. прямо потом направо . you can tell this by the case. Here are some examples for you to compare.аптека .Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .stadium школа .To the left. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).school библиотека . you would use the accusative case. your answer will involve the prepositional case.hotel музей .
in more than one direction.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день .Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу .I am going to school. Ты идѐшь в кино? . Он едет. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон .He is going to the hotel.I am going to the cinema. Ты ездишь . Вы едете. Мы идѐм. Вы ходите.He is going to London
Ездить .We are going to the cafe.He is going to the hotel by taxi. in more than one direction. Ты ходишь.I am going to the university
Ходить . Он ездит . or repetitively.To go by transport. Он ходит. in one direction.To go by transport.
(Я иду.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .I am going to the cinema on the metro.
(Я еду.To go on foot.I am going to school. Я иду в кино . Вы ездите. in one direction. Ты едешь.To go on foot. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Вы идѐте. Мы едем в кафе . Он идѐт. Я часто хожу в кино . Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .They often go to Amsterdam
Russian Family Words
Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family:
.We are going to the cafe.I go to school. Они едут ) Я еду в школу .
(Я хожу. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон .Идти . я иду в университет .I go to the theatre every day. Они часто ездят в Амстердам . or repetitively
(Я езжу. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Мы ездим. Ты идѐшь. Мы ходим.We go to the cafe every day. Они идут) Я иду в школу . Мы едем. Мы идѐм в кафе .
Моѐ (n). Еѐ (f) .his.I have a son and a daughter. For example we use the words mum and dad.brother Дочь .granddaughter Внук . Наши (pl) . Мои (pl) . У меня есть сын и дочь .I have a sister. in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. her Наш (m).wife Муж .
Basic russian phrases
Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.auntie Дядя . Наше (n).Мать .sister Брат .family Just like English.your Его (m n) ("yevo").father Мама . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.
Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.grandson Семья .dad Сестра .I have a brother. У меня есть сестра .uncle Родители .Do you have children?.husband Тѐтя .children Внучка . Твоя (f).grandfather Жена .I don't have any children. Мой (m).our
. У меня есть брат .grandmother Дедушка . У меня нет детей .son бабушка .mother Отец . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns. Моя (f).mum Папа . Твоѐ (n).daughter Сын . Наша (f).
In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. У тебя есть дети? . Твои (pl) .my Твой (m).parents Дети .
Is this your apartment?
Finally.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. Ваши (pl) .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know. However. Моя мама любит музыку .your Их . Доброе утро .
The Russian word Это means 'this is'.This is my house Это моя квартира . you may wish to say her name is Anna.my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. Это мой дом . Ваше (n). the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual..good afternoon Добрый вечер . For example.Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.good morning Добрый день . Ваша (f).
This is.his name is Ivan.My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .Ваш (m).My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.goodnight (when going to bed)
Forming the genitive case
.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .good evening Спокойной ночи .
pay particular attention to the order of the words. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". Сестра Анны читает газету . The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. add “а”. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. Replace “о” with “а” 2. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. add “я”. Replace “е” with “я” For example.
Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. 3. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the
. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . with “я”.Anna's car. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . However.ownership
As you can see in the above example. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны .Masculine Nouns:
1. the object that is owned always comes first. Replace “ь” with “и”. Собака Адама .Adam's dog.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's)
In the above examples.
Using the genitive case .Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). If the noun ends in a consonant. For example.
1.Adam's brother loves Moscow.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. Replace “а” with “ы”. Replace “я” with “и”. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. Let's have a look at some more examples. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. Anna's) Дом Ивана . Replace “й”. in Russian. 2. 3.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. Брат Адама любит Москву . 2. (This is like using 's in English). Replace “ь”.Igor's telephone. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan.
but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.There is no tea. . Кофе нет .Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.There is no coffee.She has a dog. У вас есть кофе? .Ivan isn't here. Молока нет . Еѐ. Его.to have
As the genitive case relates to possession.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . У меня есть книга . As we have seen in a previous lesson.He is not home. (Меня. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. Here are some examples. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't .there is not
The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning.There is no milk.‟. This is exactly the same concept as above. Ивана нет . When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here.sentence and uses the nominative case. Чая нет .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case.A glass of milk.A map of the city.of
The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟.. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. Тебя. (coffee is an indeclinable noun)
. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . У нее есть собака.Does Ivan have tea?
Using the genitive case . Generally. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. Их)
Using the genitive case .
Using the genitive case . it is just easier to learn the concept by example. Нас. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. стакан молока . Вас. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English.I have book. план города .. Его нет дома .
Pronouns of the genitive case
The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. Here are some examples. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is).
quantaties. Х. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. in the nominative case.Using the genitive case . for example "10 roubles".здания (buildings)
The Accusative Case .газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . "я" or "а". Ж. "ы".студенты (students) газета (newspaper) .
The genitive case is used after most numbers. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. you make a plural by using the letters "и". Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г.
The Nominative Case . For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . Ч. plurals.
First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. but don‟t worry.
.Plural (Direct Object)
For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. К. add “ы”. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. depending on whether the object is animate or not. This will be covered in the next lesson
Forming Plurals.numbers.Plural (Subject)
In Russian. Ш.
but in Russian we use it for all numbers. Анна любит книги .Plural (Possession)
The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.
Plurals with numbers
In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.щ.The books are on the table.зданий (buildings')
General use of plurals. Here are some examples. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals.студентов (students') газета . Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. англичанка .Anna loves books.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). or whether you are just using general plurals. девушка . let‟s see how to use them.газет (newspapers') здание .англичанок.The Genitive Case .марок. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. Книги на столе .ч.
The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. This may feel a little strange at first. but in the plural form. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.ш. (марка . but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. Ok.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й.
. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.
Numbers ending in : 1
If the number is 1.four roubles две книги . Here are some examples. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.five roubles десять рублей . 21. одна девушка . 13 & 14).7. or the last digit of the number is 2. 61) (but not 11). The number one declines like an adjective.one hundred dollars шесть книг . then you should use the genitive singular case..9.3.nine dogs десять студентов . 13. 12.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language.seven newspapers восемь зданий .four dollars четыре студента . 42.I know one girl один рубль . or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.one girl Я знаю одну девушку .three dogs четыре доллара .one hundred roubles сто долларов . To help you get used to this concept.0. -надцать
If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.8.
. try using plurals that involve money.ten roubles сто рублей . then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.four students три газеты . You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. 14.4
If the number. 103. (example: 22.6. etc) пять рублей .three newspapers
Numbers ending in : 5. Here are some examples. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. 4) (but not 12. три рубля .three roubles четыре рубля .one rouble двадцать один рубль .21 roubles один доллар . 3 or 4.one dollar
Numbers ending in : 2.eight buildings девять собак .two books три собаки .six books семь газет .
I am 23 years old. Как вас зовут? ..As per position in the sentence.Genitive Singular.6.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position. (Lit: To me there are 16 years). Quantity ends in 5.3.
Quantity ends in 1 . Вова)
.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .Vladimir (Володя.What is his name? Его зовут Борис . Quantity ends in 2. . You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 . Как его зовут? .7.8.Nikolay (Коля) Борис .Genitive Plural General Quantity ..-надцать . Мне восемнадцать лет .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .
Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.9. Here are some other common Russian names for men.His name is Boris. Much like “Мне холодно” .the dative case.So in summary.My name is Vera. Николай .4 .
Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.Her name is Alyona.. Как еѐ зовут? .
Expressing Your Age in Russian
When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.0.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.Boris Владимир .) Quantity not specified .How old are you. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года ..
(For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').Yekaterina Анастасия .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women. here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Olga (Оля) Александра .
Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .and/but (contrasting)
.Yelena (Лена) Наталья . but try to learn them all. or tender form. The diminuative is a more personal.Natalya (Наташа) Мария .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Please (and You're Welcome)
Really Small Russian Words
To help you remember.good evening Спокойной ночи .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана . Peter.Oxana Екатерина .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .Hello Привет .Пѐтр .Mariya (Маша) Ольга . Андрей . You should be able to remember all of these. Шура) Дмитрий . Спасибо . Some of these may be new.Sergey Алексей . Елена . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Alexander (Саша.good afternoon Добрый вечер .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Pyotr.and а .Thank-You Пожалуйста .good morning Добрый день . and should only be used when you are in close firendship. Здравствуйте . This is like a pet name.Andrey Александр .goodnight (when going to bed)
Please and Thank-You
Never forget please and thank-you.
пожалуйста. я-I он . Он любит говорить по-английски.you (informal) вы . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. behind (+instrumental) из .you (formal/plural) его . .но .Tell me please. У вас есть чай? .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . onto. (also used with languages)
You should already know these pronouns.but или . где туалет? .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .out of. .on. to (+accusative) на . These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . Дайте. to за .from по . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". Что вы хотите? . In Russian we would use the word "а". in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. . . кофе с молоком и с сахаром. it их . to (+accusative) о. . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . во .Give me please.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.". .her. from от .along. Скажите. .near. it ты .in (+prepositional).Do you have coffee? Кофе нет.
. For example. so you should try to learn them all.My mum loves music.There is no coffee.I want tea please.them
Using the Russian Language
Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. что ты говоришь по-русски. У вас есть водка? . at (+prepositional). Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.about к . пожалуйста.towards.he.Do you have tea? Чая нет.for (+accusative). coffee with milk and with sugar. it еѐ .him.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but".There is no tea. We will use only common words. You might also find some new words in these sentences. об .I know that you speak Russian.What do you want? Я хочу чай. пожалуйста.with у .
I live in London.How much? двадцать один рубль . Моя мама любит музыку . Он едет домой . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .I am listening to music. .My Mum loves music. что вы понимаете.How much? сто рублей .I think that you understand.What? Как? .When? Почему? .What do you think? Где он? . He speaks Russian well.I really love Moscow.
. . Где? . Я не понимаю.How much? четыре рубля .I don't understand. Ты понимаешь? . . Моя сестра читает газету .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне . Я слушаю музыку .How? Когда? . сколько стоит? .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .How much? четыре доллара . Сестра Анны читает газету .Твой брат говорит по-русски? .Where? Кто? . Я изучаю русский язык .He is not home.I am reading a magazine. Он хорошо говорит по-русски.I really love sport. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .I am studying the Russian language. что ты понимаешь. Собака не говорит по-английски. .Adam's brother loves Moscow.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .Why? Что ты знаешь? . Я думаю. Я очень люблю спорт . Почему ты не понимаешь? . Брат Адама любит Москву .Does your borther speak Russian? Да.I understand.Yes.4 roubles.Where is he? Где кафе? .The dog doesn't speak English. .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. Его нет дома . Я очень люблю Москву .Who? Что? .My sister is reading a newspaper. .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.21 roubles. сколько стоит? .4 dollars.100 roubles.He is going home.I know that you understand.Do you understand? Я знаю.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. сколько стоит? . сколько стоит? .
.him. Replace “о” with “у” 2.
1.Forming the dative case.
It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.Адаму Елена . 3. "о" or a consonant with "ам".
To create nouns in the dative case. Тебе . 2. Вам .
1. add "ам". If the noun ends in a consonant. Replace “я” with “е”. add “ю”. Ей (f) . 1. Ему (m).
. Нам . If the noun ends in a consonant.. Ему (n).me. 3. 3. Replace “й”.you (informal).Елене Молоко . Адам . Replace “ия” with “ии”. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. with “ю”. Replace “а” with “е”. Мне . Replace “ь”. Им . it.Вину
Pronouns of the Dative Case. 2. Replace “е” with “ю”
Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.us. Replace “ь” with “и”.you (formal. 4. 2. or plural). we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Replace "а". add “у”.Молоку Вино .them.
. Дайте мне . . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects
The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.Ivan gives flowers to Anna. Я помогаю Ивану .I give flowers to Anna.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .
.I am helping Ivan. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. . Similarly. Я даю цветы Анне .
Other uses of the dative case meaning “to”
There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. It should be used in the dative case. Here are the conjuctions: Даю . For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. Они дают цветы Елене .They give flowers to Elena..(I) give Даѐшь . the word “Anna” is the indirect object. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something..I am helping this girl.give! Дайте . Дай .give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson..(you) give Дают .We help mother every day. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case.(they) give The command forms of this word include.(we) give Даѐте .. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . For this reason. Я помогаю этой девушке .I am helping Anna.(he) gives Даѐм .Give me .Give me your address and telephone number. Мы помогаем маме каждый день .(you) give Даѐт .. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.
so it is enough for now just to learn this form.How do you like .Adam likes Moscow. so it is worth learning now.She calls Ivan every day.I like the flowers.
In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). Мне нравятся цветы . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . However it is a common word. (The "ся" ending is reflexive).He is cold (to him its cold)
..He likes Moscow. Иван звонит Анне каждый день .You like Moscow.I really like the flowers. Вам нравится Москва .) Ему нравится Москва . it is like saying “To me it is likable”. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.? ...
Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. Мне очень нравятся цветы . and it relies on the dative case.Звонить .I like your children.) Practice using the word нравится.? Как вам нравится фильм? .I like Moscow. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.. it is still worth learning these examples.) Мне нравятся ваши дети . It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. Мне холодно . Как вам нравится . Адаму нравится Москва . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . Мне нравится Москва . Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.) Ей нравится Москва . However this verb is used differently.Ivan calls Anna every day.She likes Moscow. (lit: children are pleasing to me. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case.I like the children.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.
“ч”. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. and has too many meanings. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу .I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года .
The preposition "к" (towards/to)
In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". Replace “ь”. if stressed “ѐм”. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. Replace “й”.I am bored (to me its boring)
The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . add “ом”. 4.I am 23 years old.
Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns:
1. with “ем”.
.I am walking towards the station. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along).. 2.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно .
More Dative Case
A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. “ш” or “щ”. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. if stressed “ѐм”.. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Except. to create an exact rule. then add “ем”. Мы едем к друзьям .We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . add “ем”.Ей холодно . All consonants. “ц”.We are going to our friends. It is followed by the dative case.
2. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Accompanied by.Анной (Anna) студенты . “ч”.
The preposition: „с‟ . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Otherwise replace with "ями"
молоко . Replace “а” with “ой”. Replace "а". Replace “я” with “ей”.молоком (milk) сметана .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.Feminine Nouns:
The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Replace “ь” with “ью”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .With.мужем (husband) жена . Олег режет мясо ножом . Except.I eat soup with a spoon.
Иван пишет карандашом . “ц”.студентами (students)
Using the Intrumental Case: By means of
The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. 2.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .Ivan writes with a pencil. All consonants. Я ем суп ложкой .. 1. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.ложкой (spoon) нож . 4.карандашом (pencil) ложка . 3..ножом (knife) муж . "о" with "ами".
Examples. add "ами". Add “м”
Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. if stressed “ѐй”.
. “ш” or “щ”..женой (wife) Иван . In English these words can have different meanings.
My wife and I are going to the cafe.Instrumental Case
Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. . Иван с женой идут в кафе.I eat borsh with sour cream. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). пожалуйста.I love pancakes with caviar
In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Мной . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Please give me coffee with milk.Ivan wants tea with milk.Her
. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.You Им . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. кофе с молоком .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. . Иван хочет чай с молоком . Мы с вами . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . However it is followed by the genitive case. „with him‟. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . „with you‟. . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. пожалуйста.Ivan and I are going to school. it is often written as “со”.My husband and I are going to the cafe.Me Тобой . with Ivan”).Nadya wants tea with lemon. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Here are some examples. Дайте. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Have a look at the following Russian examples. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.For ease of pronunciation.
More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .Me and you
Notes: 1.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.
Pronouns .Him Ей .
Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . 2. In English we would use the word “and”.
afternoon днѐм .autumn осенью .evening вечером .night ночью .Them
Seasons and parts of the day.in autumn зима .Им . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.
The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.morning утром .
.winter зимой .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .in the evening ночь .
Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.
Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.in the morning день .in the afternoon вечер .in summer осень .Us Вами .in spring
The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .You (plural) Ими .summer летом .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.It Нами . For example: лето .day.in winter весна .spring весной .
govern являться .above перед . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.
Important Russian Expressions
Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .The lamp is above the table.to turn out to be оставаться .
Forming the Russian Instrumental Case
. for между .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . enjoy становиться/стать .Behind this building there is a school. be The verb “Быть” (to be. .to be.I was a doctor).Happy birthday С новым годом . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. Над столом висит лампа.to use.between над . быть . to be occupied with интересоваться .in front of под .Happy new year
Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.за . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.under Examples: За этим зданием . .to become увлекаться . . but it is something to keep in mind.behind.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.In front of this school turn to the left.школа. . . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. Перед этой школой поверните налево. was заниматься . was) has no present tense.to remain as пользоваться .
The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. You don't need to learn these verbs now. Под столом сидит кот.Under the table the cat is sitting.to be interested in оказываться . is. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.control.to be keen on управлять . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. manage. beyond. is.to seem. (Example: Я был врачом .to be engaged in.
if stressed “ѐм”.
1. 2. 4. “ш” or “щ”.женой (wife) Иван . Replace “ь” with “ью”. Otherwise replace with "ями"
молоко ..ножом (knife) муж .. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.Анной (Anna) студенты .
Examples.. “ц”. 2.
Иван пишет карандашом . Replace “й”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . "о" with "ами". “ч”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Replace “ь”.Masculine Nouns:
1. with “ем”. 3. All consonants. “ч”. “ш” or “щ”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. add “ом”. 1.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .ложкой (spoon) нож . “ц”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Except. add "ами". Add “м”
Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Replace "а".Ivan writes with a pencil.. In English these words can have different meanings. if stressed “ѐм”. if stressed “ѐй”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.. Except. Replace “а” with “ой”.молоком (milk) сметана .
1.карандашом (pencil) ложка . then add “ем”. Replace “я” with “ей”. 4. Олег режет мясо ножом . Я ем суп ложкой .
. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3..I eat soup with a spoon.студентами (students)
Using the Intrumental Case: By means of
The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. add “ем”. All consonants.мужем (husband) жена . 2.
Ivan and I are going to school.Nadya wants tea with lemon. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . Мы с вами . Иван хочет чай с молоком . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.Ivan wants tea with milk.With. пожалуйста. . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Accompanied by. .The preposition: „с‟ . In English we would use the word “and”. However it is followed by the genitive case.My husband and I are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Here are some examples. Дайте. кофе с молоком . . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.
More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.
The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. with Ivan”).Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Have a look at the following Russian examples.Instrumental Case
. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .I love pancakes with caviar
In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. . 2. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. it is often written as “со”. Анна с мужем идут в кафе.
Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. For ease of pronunciation. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.Please give me coffee with milk. Иван с женой идут в кафе. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Me and you
Notes: 1.I eat borsh with sour cream. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. пожалуйста.
Pronouns .My wife and I are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .
It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.in autumn зима .in spring
The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .You (plural) Ими .evening вечером .in the afternoon вечер .Me Тобой .Them
Seasons and parts of the day. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.spring весной .at night
. Мной .You Им . For example: лето . „with you‟. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.Her Им . „with him‟. afternoon днѐм .
Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.It Нами .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.day.morning утром .in winter весна .winter зимой .Him Ей .in the evening ночь .summer летом .night ночью .in the morning день .in summer осень .autumn осенью .Us Вами .
was заниматься . was) has no present tense.
Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. for между . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. за .to be engaged in.to seem. be The verb “Быть” (to be.Happy new year
Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.to turn out to be оставаться . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. . быть . Перед этой школой поверните налево. but it is something to keep in mind.above перед . manage.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. is. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. Под столом сидит кот. govern являться . . . enjoy становиться/стать .to become увлекаться .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.in front of под .under Examples: За этим зданием .control.to use.
The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.behind. is.
Important Russian Expressions
Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .I was a doctor).Behind this building there is a school. . You don't need to learn these verbs now.
The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.to remain as пользоваться .to be interested in оказываться .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .школа.Happy birthday С новым годом . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.to be.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.The lamp is above the table. .between над .to be keen on управлять . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. to be occupied with интересоваться . (Example: Я был врачом . beyond.In front of this school turn to the left.
. Над столом висит лампа.Under the table the cat is sitting. You will learn more about this in a later lesson.
Although this concept differs from English. but in Russian there is simply one. or talk about something that has happened in the past. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.Russian Past Tense
In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story. (ie 1st.
In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.The dog knew
..I knew (male speaking) Я знала . Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not.She knew Оно знало .Vladimir knew Дима знал .He knew Она знала .Elena knew Ольга знала .Dima knew Елена знала ..You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .I knew (female speaking) Ты знал .
Forming Verbs in Past Tense. Let's have a look at the past tense now.They knew Мы знали . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. Он знал .Olga knew Собака знала . Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). The same principal also applies in the future tense. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.We knew Я знал . it is conceptually quite easy..It knew Они знали . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. 2nd or 3rd person). You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .
Ты.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. . Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian.I worked for 2 hours. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. ongoing. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished.I was home. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. Some tenses in English can indicate this.
The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. consequently each verb has two possible forms. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома .You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. There are two aspects in Russian.
. use the imperfective also.I run in the forest every day. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete.She wants to buy a book. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not.
The Imperfective Aspect. so there is no perfective in the present tense. habitual. reversed or repeated actions. and is not complete. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. Я работал два часа . (often По-). Я работал каждый день .I was working Я шѐл . This should help you remember how to form the verbs. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs.
The Perfective Aspect
Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. Я работал . When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. When using pronouns such as Я. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated.I worked everyday.
Aspects in the past
In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. .
Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. Он не хотел видеть меня.I did not live in England. . Я купил кофе . .Yesterday we read an interesting article.I failed to phone. . .
Что ты делал вчера?.Did you tell him about it?
. Саша съел обед за пять минут.
Questions and Aspects.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?.
Она не ела бананы.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. . Я не понял.
When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. (but I was expected to).We did not watch the movie yesterday.Did you run yesterday morning?
Ты понял этот фильм? . Я не жила в Англии.
The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.I did not understand what he said.He did not want to see me. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. . Она спросила учителя. .Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples.I went home.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets.She did not eat bananas.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .She asked the teacher
Aspects and the negative. . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. . . что он сказал. . If you are still unsure which to use.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.
Я не позвонила .
It was not. .He read for three hours.She was Оно было .I was not (woman speaking).Saying “Was”
You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.I‟ve already visited Sweden. Я была во многих странах.I was (woman speaking) Он был . .We rented a summer house for three months. Я был . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). Они не были . Я уже посетила Швецию .I‟ve been to many countries.
Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.At school I started learning English.I was not (man speaking).I was (man speaking) Я была . The stress moves to the word 'не'. Оно не было .It was Они были . когда мне было 16 лет .I finished school when I was 16 years old.He was Она была . Я не был .
. . . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. Я не была . Он читал три часа. В школе я начала учить английский. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца. Я окончила школу.They were
Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. except in the feminine. This is not the case in the past tense. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.They were not.