This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
триста 400 .пятьсот 600 .четырнадцать 15 .восемьсот 900 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.семьсот 800 .двадцать один 22 . 30 .одиннадцать 12 .восемнадцать 19 .двенадцать 13 . quite similar to English. The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.пятьдесят 60 .шестьдесят 70 .семнадцать 18 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.сто 200 .семьдесят 80 .четыреста 500 .двадцать 21 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".двести 300 . Here are some examples: 20 .девятьсот .шестнадцать 17 .11 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian). Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.тридцать 40 .пятнадцать 16 .двадцать два 23 .двадцать три 24 .шестьсот 700 .тринадцать 14 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.восемьдесят 90 .девяносто 100 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.сорок 50 .
миллиард For example: 131 .Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") . The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. Да ("da") .тысяча 1. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .миллион 1.000 . after somebody says thank-you.564 2. .007 2. 456 219 9.000 1.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.994 1.345 23. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. Yes and No.No Saying Hello.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.1.812 Please and Thank-You. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.000. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No". You should always say this after someone thanks you. you can basically forget the "уй". Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct. 0 .000 .000.000.000 .008 2.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".Yes Нет ("nyet") .
What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. slang) You should generally use до свидания. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . In order to introduce yourself.. and should only be used with friends. put a real questioning expression on your face..Bad Saying Good-Bye.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") .Bye (Informal. not the individual words. There are two forms of this word. You may also hear people say Пока. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual.Good-bye.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . There are also two words for saying good-bye. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". Меня зовут .Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") .Pleased to meet you.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.. However. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. you may need the following phrases. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. except for the question mark.My name is . You should just learn the whole phrase.How are things? Хорошо спасибо . ("min-ya za-voot") . Привет is also commonly used with friends. If all else fails.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. there is no difference between the question and the statement. Вы говорите по-английски? .Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . If somebody says Привет to you. but we suggest you only use it with friends. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. Introducing Yourself.. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") .
Tell me please..Beer Вино . пожалуйста. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Vodka Пиво . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. Скажите.I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Menu Кофе .Juice Борщ . пожалуйста. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Soup Торт .Cake Водка . где кафе? .I speak English Я говорю по-русски . где ближайшее кафе? .Russian beetroot soup Суп .Coca-Cola Лимонад .Я говорю по-английски ..Tell me please. you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. Скажите. Скажите. You could ask people with the following phrases.Lemonade Сок .Milk Кока-Кола ...Water .. . где бар? .Tea Молоко .Tell me please. here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню .Tell me please.Wine Вода .I speak Russian Я понимаю . where is a cafe? Скажите.I understand Я не понимаю . пожалуйста. пожалуйста..Coffee Чай .
you will generally get straight vodka.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . you can use the following phrase..What is it? Это кофе. кофе с молоком .I want. it is tea.. Дайте. . How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. . Дайте.It is coffee.. is it coffee? Нет.. чай.What? Что вы хотите? .? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? . пожалуйста . ..Do you have . ... . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . .No. it is gramatically unusual). пожалуйста. You can use it to ask the price of something.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . Here are some Russian phrases you might need..Excuse me. пожалуйста. Сколько стоит? . Do you have. это чай...How much is it?.What do you want? Я хочу .Please give me tea. Дайте.Please give me coffee with milk. Examples: Дайте..? ..Give me please.Please give me coffee. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are.? If you want to ask someone if they have something... when you order vodka in russia.. (Just learn the whole phrase... Дайте.Be careful. пожалуйста. Что это? . У вас есть . пожалуйста. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . это кофе.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. .. Простите. кофе .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar..
.She.Tell me please. Как сказать ". Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". It (m) Она . where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M". Скажите. want. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”." in Russian? Что значит ".He.We Вы ..You (formal." по-русски? ... Пожалуйста .... or plural) .. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian." mean in English? Where is the toilet. In the sentence "I love him". and the object is "him". "love" is the verb. they are things you can do. It (f) Оно .How do you say ".? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . walk. you.. eat.You (informal) Он ...What does ".Сколько? . she. Definitions Verbs are action words.It (n) Мы . For example: run. love. him." на английском? . The subject is "I". (Known as the nominative case. her.... Где Туалет ..) Я-I Ты . it. Here are some useful phrases.21 rubles. Pronouns are words that can replace names. he.How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль .. For example: I.
Him. "ем". (infinitive.You work Он.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". "ете" or "ют").Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). Она. (Example: I work. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation.You (informal) Его . Они работают . "ет". Мы работаем .Us Вас . Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . работать . and add the appropriate ending ("ю".They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". it is not too difficult.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. It (f) Нас . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence.I work Ты работаешь . "I am working" and "I do work".n) Еѐ . Both these patterns are quite similar.You (formal. or plural) Их . "ешь". It (m.("yevo") . It works. It is the most common. he works). but not as much. She. and once you get the hang of it. Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. and the second conjugation. You should memorise these pronouns. and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person.We work Вы работаете . (Known as the accusative case) Меня .Они . Just remember that unlike English.Me Тебя .Her. dictionary form) Я работаю . dictionary form) . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".They work.To understand. (There are also some irregular verbs). (infinitive.You work. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). This happens a little in English.To work. Оно работает .He.
Вы понимаете . Remember.You know.You know. dictionary form) Я знаю . It knows.He. Ты понимаешь . говорить .To know.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? .I understand. Ты говоришь .I don't know.They know. (infinitive. Мы знаем .I speak. Она. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. For example: Я не знаю . Оно понимает . Оно говорит . You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? .Я понимаю .You understand. It Speaks. Знать .You understand.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. It understands Мы понимаем . Я не понимаю .He doesn't understand. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.You speak. .We speak. Она.He. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. Она. which replace "ить". Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). She. She. Они знают . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Он. Оно знает . this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). Мы говорим .He. Он не понимает .To speak. Он. Вы знаете . (infinitive. She.We understand.We know. dictionary form) Я говорю .I know. Ты знаешь .They understand. Он. Они понимают .I don't understand.
To live.We don't speak Russian.He. Мы едем .They speak. Оно живѐт . слышишь . often once you know the stem of the verb. Вы едете .You go (by transport). Мы живѐм .They go (by transport). you can often predict the endings. Оно едет . She.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . слышат . Он.You go (by transport). (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). Он. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Я еду . слышим .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . слышу . It goes (by transport).I go (by transport). Она.We live. It hears. It lives. Жить .You hear.They hear.He. She. Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian.They live. except that "у" replaces "ю". слышать .Вы говорите . Они говорят . Она.We hear. Собака не говорит по-английски .He.You speak. However. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction.The dog doesn't speak English. Они едут .I speak English Он говорит по-русски .You live. She.I hear. . Вы живѐте . слышите .You live. Они живут . слышит .We go (by transport).I live. For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Я живу .To hear.To go (by transport). Ты едешь . Ты живѐшь . Some examples: Ехать .You hear.
Moscow. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . Gender of nouns. the word is masculine. From the dictionary form of a noun.A noun is a thing. name or place. Consonant . There are very few exceptions to these rules. But there are five notable exceptions.Is Masculine .Is Masculine Дедушка . If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. Vowel . cup. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. Я. Папа . In the case of other objects like “pen”. or “й”.(Coffee) . each noun is assigned a gender. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. “cup”. it will be in its dictionary form. The letters А. У. Cases . feminine. Е.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence.(Man) . In Russian we use 6 cases. Papa) . “house”.(Daddy. 3. Ю. ъ because they have no sound). If it is a consonant. Он едет домой .O. (A.I live in London.He is going home Definitions Noun . If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. И and Й. О.Is Masculine Дядя . If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. cat. In Russian.I.Is Masculine Кофе . (Except ь. 4.Is Masculine Мужчина . However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.(Grandfather) . Example: dog. pen. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. 5. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender.(Uncle) . Э.E.A letter that is not a vowel. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. Russian has three genders: masculine.U in English). Ё. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. Ы. Luckily. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. and neuter (neutral).Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. unlike many languages. as with many other languages. paper.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. In English we do this by having a strict word-order.
and still keep the same meaning. In Russian there are six cases. (Eg. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. документ (document). Россия (Russia). For example. (In. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. радио (radio). The case system is also used in languages like Latin. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. so we will take it slowly. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). In fact it was also used in Old English.. Feminine : газета (newspaper).Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case..) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. Greek and German. at. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. брат (brother). on. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. Хлеб (bread). Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. . Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian.. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. You may wish to do this to emphasise something.. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. and about. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian.
The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. . An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object.Interestingly. In Russian.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . so there is nothing special to learn here. “я” or “а”. not plants). The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. without changing the actual meaning. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. For example. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . in the nominative case. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. the word “I” is the subject.buildings) The Accusative Case. In the sentence “I love her”.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. especially pronouns. in this case the word “dog”. “ы”. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. Russian uses the case for all nouns. The Nominative Case. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. you need to use the accusative case also. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. add “ы”. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. However. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. Russian is very free about word order.
Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence.Nadya loves wine. Feminine Nouns: 1. with “я”. Neuter Nouns: 1. Ты любишь музыку? . replace “ь”. 4.Nadya doesn't like wine. Он любит Москву .He loves Moscow. add “а”. Я люблю музыку .Masculine Nouns: 1.I don't like music. 3. If noun is animate. there is no change. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. add “я”. Надя не любит вино . Я не люблю музыку . Replace “я” with “ю”. Replace “а” with “у”. replace “й”. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Надя любит вино . If noun is animate and ends in a consonant.I love Moscow. 2.Ivan loves tea.I love music. If the noun in inanimate.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . . Иван любит чай . Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . 2. If noun is animate.I love sport.
to work Хотеть . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. Смотреть .She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". You can use it to form questions. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.I love her.I am reading a book. The word "Что" has two uses. it is probably the conjunction "that".I am listening to the radio. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю .I am listening to music. Она любит меня .What do you love? However.I am watching television. Я слушаю радио . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. Я читаю газету .I know that you love music. Я еѐ люблю .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . что ты любишь музыку.to think Работать .I love him. If you would like. Я читаю журнал . .to watch. Я слушаю музыку .to read.I am reading a magazine.to listen Изучать .to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор . Читать . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . Что ты любишь? . so don't be confused. An example could be: Я знаю. .to study Думать . Слушать .I love you.
I love to read. Я хочу купить журнал .I really love Moscow. Что вы хотите? . Я так думаю . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also.I really love sport.What? Как? . For example: Очень . You can include it into many phrases. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. Я люблю путешествовать .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . Где? .very. In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.Я изучаю русский язык . For example: Я люблю читать . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. Add : “е”. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. Я очень люблю Москву .I think so! Как вы думаете? . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".Where? Кто? .I study Russian.I love to travel.I want to buy a magazine. For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.Who? Что? .I want tea.How? Почему? . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . (lit: I study the Russian language).
“е” remains unchanged. Replace “ь” with “и”. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. Я живу в Сибири . 4. Here are some tips to help you. „at work‟.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .Feminine Nouns: 1. 3.Where is she? на вокзале . Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? .I live in St. although these aren‟t precise rules.in the garden в лесу .I live in Siberia. „at a station‟. Exception: Replace “ия”.cinema театр .What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . (Eg. 2.I live in London. „at a concert‟). when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings.I live in Moscow. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? .at the station на почте . Petersburg. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. Я живу в Лондоне .in the forest на улице .On the table is a book and a pencil. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. suburbs and places. (They are in dicionary form) кино . Using prepositions and the prepositional case.at the post office в саду . Я живу в Петербурге . As with any language. (Eg. Replace “я” with “е”. Replace “о” with “е” 2.theatre . even though they are not Russian. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. Replace “а” with “е”. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces.on the street Что на столе? .
your answer will involve the prepositional case.hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. Куда вы идѐте . you would use the accusative case. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.pharmacy парк .Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .museum больница . прямо потом направо . Где вы работаете? . Both these words are verbs of motion. there are actually four ways: . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. but as these words are so important for basic Russian. you can tell this by the case. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).I am going to school. prepositions have more than one meaning.Straight ahead then to the right. and are grammatically quite complex. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. we will introduce them now in a simple way.school библиотека . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).To the left. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.Straight ahead.аптека .park стадион . So to express „to go‟ in Russian.To the right. прямо . The first indicates you are going on foot.hotel музей . налево .bank гостиница . However.I work at (in) a school.cafe площадь .library кафе . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. направо .stadium школа . Here are some examples for you to compare.square ресторан .restaurant банк .
We go to the cafe every day. Вы ездите.To go on foot.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: .I go to school. (Я иду.I am going to the cinema on the metro.I am going to the cinema. Он ходит. Ты ходишь. Вы идѐте. Мы ходим. or repetitively (Я езжу. in one direction.I am going to school. Ехать .I am going to school.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Мы идѐм. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Ты едешь. я иду в университет . (Я хожу. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .Идти . Ты идѐшь. (Я еду. Вы ходите. Вы едете. Мы ездим. in more than one direction. in one direction. Он идѐт. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Они идут) Я иду в школу .I am going to the university Ходить .We are going to the cafe. Они часто ездят в Амстердам . Ты ездишь .I go to the theatre every day. Я иду в кино . Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Мы едем в кафе . in more than one direction.He is going to the hotel by taxi.To go by transport. Он едет.To go on foot.He is going to the hotel.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Мы едем. Ты идѐшь в кино? . Я часто хожу в кино . Мы идѐм в кафе . Он ездит . or repetitively. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон .He is going to London Ездить .To go by transport.We are going to the cafe.
mother Отец . У меня есть сестра .husband Тѐтя .Do you have children?. Мой (m).son бабушка . У меня нет детей . У меня есть брат . Наши (pl) .children Внучка . Твоѐ (n).wife Муж .father Мама .I have a brother. Моѐ (n). For example we use the words mum and dad.dad Сестра .uncle Родители .mum Папа .your Его (m n) ("yevo"). Моя (f).family Just like English.auntie Дядя . Мои (pl) . Наше (n). her Наш (m). У тебя есть дети? .my Твой (m). Твоя (f).parents Дети . Наша (f). Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.Мать .granddaughter Внук .grandson Семья . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.his. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.our .I have a sister.grandmother Дедушка .I don't have any children.sister Брат .grandfather Жена .I have a son and a daughter. Твои (pl) .daughter Сын . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. Еѐ (f) . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.brother Дочь . У меня есть сын и дочь .
Ваша (f). Это мой дом .good morning Добрый день . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . This is. you may wish to say her name is Anna. Моя мама любит музыку .good afternoon Добрый вечер .My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . The Russian word Это means 'this is'.This is my house Это моя квартира . Доброе утро ..This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт . Ваши (pl) .your Их .Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case . the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.. However.my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .Ваш (m). For example.Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.his name is Ivan. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know. Ваше (n). Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.good evening Спокойной ночи .
Neuter Nouns: 1. add “я”. Replace “я” with “и”. Replace “е” with “я” For example. 3. Let's have a look at some more examples. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. Брат Адама любит Москву . Replace “о” with “а” 2.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio.Masculine Nouns: 1. However.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples.Igor's telephone.Anna's car. 3. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. the object that is owned always comes first. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". For example. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. Собака Адама . in Russian. with “я”. Feminine Nouns: 1.ownership As you can see in the above example. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . add “а”. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . Replace “й”. Anna's) Дом Ивана .Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. Сестра Анны читает газету . It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . 2. pay particular attention to the order of the words. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the .Adam's dog.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). (This is like using 's in English). Replace “ь”. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam.Adam's brother loves Moscow. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. Replace “а” with “ы”. Using the genitive case . Replace “ь” with “и”. If the noun ends in a consonant. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. 2. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna.
Вас.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . As we have seen in a previous lesson.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. Кофе нет . Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.to have As the genitive case relates to possession.I have book. Using the genitive case . Here are some examples.sentence and uses the nominative case. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. стакан молока . Тебя.There is no tea. .He is not home. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. Молока нет . To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. Ивана нет .. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. Еѐ. У меня есть книга .She has a dog. Here are some examples. Generally. Нас. Его.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . план города . У нее есть собака. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained.There is no milk. Чая нет .Ivan isn't here. This is exactly the same concept as above. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't .Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case .Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Их) Using the genitive case .There is no coffee. (Меня. У вас есть кофе? .‟.A glass of milk. Его нет дома ..A map of the city.
Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. The genitive case is used after most numbers. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. for example "10 roubles". quantaties. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. . The Nominative Case . "я" or "а".Plural (Subject) In Russian.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . "ы". Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases.numbers.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . you make a plural by using the letters "и". Ч.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . Ж. Х. plurals. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. in the nominative case.Using the genitive case . This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. but don‟t worry. add “ы”. Ш. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. depending on whether the object is animate or not. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. К.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case .
зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.англичанок.марок.ч. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . . Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. Here are some examples. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. девушка . Анна любит книги . англичанка . now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. (марка .Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.щ. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. or whether you are just using general plurals.ш. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.газет (newspapers') здание . For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.The books are on the table. but in Russian we use it for all numbers. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.The Genitive Case .Anna loves books. Книги на столе .студентов (students') газета .ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. Ok. but in the plural form. let‟s see how to use them. This may feel a little strange at first.
21 roubles один доллар .9.four roubles две книги . or the last digit of the number is 2.one hundred dollars шесть книг . .Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1. 13 & 14).three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5. Here are some examples. 12. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.8.one hundred roubles сто долларов . 21.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language.three roubles четыре рубля . To help you get used to this concept. try using plurals that involve money.7. The number one declines like an adjective. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. 103. одна девушка .nine dogs десять студентов .0.ten roubles сто рублей . 13. then you should use the genitive singular case..four dollars четыре студента .3. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.seven newspapers восемь зданий .three dogs четыре доллара . 14. 61) (but not 11). 42. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. etc) пять рублей . (example: 22.four students три газеты .two books три собаки .6.six books семь газет .I know one girl один рубль .eight buildings девять собак . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. три рубля .one girl Я знаю одну девушку . or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.one rouble двадцать один рубль .five roubles десять рублей .4 If the number. Here are some examples. 3 or 4.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2. 4) (but not 12.
0.Her name is Alyona. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.4 .. Quantity ends in 5..So in summary. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.the dative case.7. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.9. Вова) .Nikolay (Коля) Борис . Как вас зовут? ..I am 23 years old. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? . Мне восемнадцать лет .8. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .. Николай .3.Genitive Plural General Quantity .6. Here are some other common Russian names for men.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .As per position in the sentence.Vladimir (Володя.What is his name? Его зовут Борис .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position. Quantity ends in 2. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). Much like “Мне холодно” . .Genitive Singular.What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. Как его зовут? .) Quantity not specified .My name is Vera.His name is Boris.How old are you.Boris Владимир . Quantity ends in 1 . Как еѐ зовут? .-надцать .Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.
Шура) Дмитрий .Thank-You Пожалуйста .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . Андрей . This is like a pet name.Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .Pyotr.and/but (contrasting) .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .good evening Спокойной ночи . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons. Здравствуйте .and а . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). Some of these may be new. Спасибо .Andrey Александр .Sergey Алексей .Yekaterina Анастасия .good morning Добрый день . Елена . Peter. You should be able to remember all of these. There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Oxana Екатерина . and should only be used when you are in close firendship.Yelena (Лена) Наталья .Olga (Оля) Александра .Natalya (Наташа) Мария . The diminuative is a more personal.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Hello Привет .Alexander (Саша.Пѐтр .Mariya (Маша) Ольга .good afternoon Добрый вечер .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt. but try to learn them all. or tender form.
You might also find some new words in these sentences. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. In Russian we would use the word "а".near. onto.He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. что ты говоришь по-русски. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .you (formal/plural) его . it их .Give me please.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. to за .There is no coffee.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but".him. it ты . to (+accusative) на .What do you want? Я хочу чай. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.her. об .on. кофе с молоком и с сахаром. пожалуйста. behind (+instrumental) из . . so you should try to learn them all.". .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. Дайте. .My mum loves music. to (+accusative) о.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .in (+prepositional). во .towards. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. . Он любит говорить по-английски. from от . We will use only common words.with у .но . at (+prepositional). пожалуйста. я-I он . Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.I know that you speak Russian.I want tea please.out of.about к . У вас есть чай? . Что вы хотите? .for (+accusative).There is no tea. Скажите.Tell me please. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.from по . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . For example.you (informal) вы . it еѐ . .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .along. . coffee with milk and with sugar. . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.he. У вас есть водка? .Do you have tea? Чая нет. где туалет? . . пожалуйста.but или .
Я не понимаю.How much? четыре рубля .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.I live in London. что вы понимаете.Yes. .I am studying the Russian language. сколько стоит? .Does your borther speak Russian? Да. Где? .He is going home.I understand.What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .How much? двадцать один рубль . . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . Почему ты не понимаешь? .Where is he? Где кафе? .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. Сестра Анны читает газету . Собака не говорит по-английски. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . что ты понимаешь.Where is the cafe? Кто он? . сколько стоит? . Моя сестра читает газету . Он хорошо говорит по-русски.Do you understand? Я знаю. .I think that you understand. Его нет дома .I am reading a magazine. Брат Адама любит Москву . .When? Почему? .My Mum loves music. Я очень люблю спорт .4 dollars. Я очень люблю Москву . .I really love sport. .Who? Что? .Why? Что ты знаешь? . Моя мама любит музыку . Я думаю. .How much? четыре доллара . Я слушаю музыку .4 roubles.Who is he? Я читаю журнал .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .I am listening to music.He is not home. Ты понимаешь? .What do you think? Где он? . Он едет домой .My sister is reading a newspaper.How? Когда? .What? Как? . сколько стоит? .100 roubles.Твой брат говорит по-русски? .I really love Moscow.The dog doesn't speak English.21 roubles.Where? Кто? .How much? сто рублей .Adam's brother loves Moscow. сколько стоит? . Я изучаю русский язык .I don't understand. He speaks Russian well.I know that you understand.
2. Ему (n). .Forming the dative case. Masculine Nouns: 1. 4.. add "ам". Feminine Nouns: 1.them.Молоку Вино . Им . Вам . 1. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. add “ю”. 2. Replace “о” with “у” 2.you (informal). Replace “й”. it. Ему (m). 3. Replace “ь” with “и”. her. If the noun ends in a consonant. If the noun ends in a consonant. 3. Replace “а” with “е”.you (formal.. Тебе . Neuter Nouns: 1. Адам . Replace "а".Адаму Елена . we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. "о" or a consonant with "ам". 2. Replace “ь”. with “ю”.me.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Replace “ия” with “ии”. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.Елене Молоко . 3. Ей (f) . Нам .us.him. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. To create nouns in the dative case. Replace “я” with “е”. or plural). Мне . add “у”.
Я даю цветы Анне . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. Дай . Here are the conjuctions: Даю .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .Give me your address and telephone number. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case.(you) give Даѐт . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.. It should be used in the dative case.(he) gives Даѐм . Мы помогаем маме каждый день . For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Similarly.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. Дайте мне . Я помогаю Ивану .I am helping Ivan.I am helping Anna. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.(you) give Дают .. Они дают цветы Елене . .I am helping this girl.Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. For this reason. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. .Ivan gives flowers to Anna.. the word “Anna” is the indirect object. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively. Я помогаю этой девушке .(I) give Даѐшь ..I give flowers to Anna..give! Дайте . Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .(we) give Даѐте . (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case.They give flowers to Elena. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”.. .Give me .We help mother every day.(they) give The command forms of this word include.
Как вам нравится . it is still worth learning these examples. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. and it relies on the dative case.I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно .He is cold (to him its cold) . Мне холодно .I like the children. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . (lit: children are pleasing to me.I like your children. (The "ся" ending is reflexive).I really like the flowers.) Ей нравится Москва . Мне нравится Москва . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet.How do you like .She calls Ivan every day. so it is worth learning now.He likes Moscow. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.She likes Moscow.You like Moscow. However this verb is used differently.) Ему нравится Москва .) Practice using the word нравится. Вам нравится Москва .Ivan calls Anna every day. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.. so it is enough for now just to learn this form.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. Мне нравятся цветы .I like Moscow.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. However it is a common word. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something.? Как вам нравится фильм? .Adam likes Moscow.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? .I like the flowers. it is like saying “To me it is likable”. Иван звонит Анне каждый день .. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.) Мне нравятся ваши дети . If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.? ..Звонить . Адаму нравится Москва . Мне очень нравятся цветы . Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.
but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. and has too many meanings. then add “ем”.Ей холодно . 4. “ч”.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . add “ом”.. add “ем”. if stressed “ѐм”. with “ем”.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно ..I am walking towards the station. Replace “ь”.We are going to our friends. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). Replace “й”.I am 23 years old. . The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". All consonants. 2.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Мы едем к друзьям . (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. “ш” or “щ”.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. to create an exact rule. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. Except. “ц”. if stressed “ѐм”. It is followed by the dative case. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу .
4.. Replace “я” with “ей”. The preposition: „с‟ . Иван пишет карандашом . In English these words can have different meanings.I eat soup with a spoon. Олег режет мясо ножом . .Ivan writes with a pencil.молоком (milk) сметана .ложкой (spoon) нож . Neuter Nouns: 1. Except. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. 2. “ц”. Replace "а". Accompanied by.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Replace “ь” with “ью”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.Feminine Nouns: 1. “ш” or “щ”..сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . “ч”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. add "ами". Examples.Анной (Anna) студенты ..Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Я ем суп ложкой . if stressed “ѐй”. 2.. All consonants.мужем (husband) жена .карандашом (pencil) ложка . 3. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.ножом (knife) муж . 1. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.женой (wife) Иван . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . "о" with "ами".With. Replace “а” with “ой”. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.
It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. it is often written as “со”. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Дайте.My wife and I are going to the cafe.You Им . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Мной . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Иван хочет чай с молоком .Nadya wants tea with lemon.Ivan wants tea with milk.Me and you Notes: 1. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . In English we would use the word “and”.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.I eat borsh with sour cream. Мы с вами . .Her .My husband and I are going to the cafe. 2. Pronouns .Ivan and I are going to school. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . However it is followed by the genitive case.Me Тобой . Here are some examples. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. „with you‟. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . with Ivan”). More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . пожалуйста.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . . .I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. „with him‟.Please give me coffee with milk.Him Ей .Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. пожалуйста. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Иван с женой идут в кафе. . кофе с молоком .For ease of pronunciation.
The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.in autumn зима . .autumn осенью .morning утром .Us Вами .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.You (plural) Ими . afternoon днѐм .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . For example: лето .in summer осень .winter зимой .summer летом . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.in winter весна . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.in the evening ночь .in the afternoon вечер . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.It Нами .day.Them Seasons and parts of the day.spring весной .Им .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .in the morning день .evening вечером .night ночью .
to be occupied with интересоваться .above перед .In front of this school turn to the left.in front of под .behind.The lamp is above the table. enjoy становиться/стать . manage.Under the table the cat is sitting. You don't need to learn these verbs now. beyond. Перед этой школой поверните налево. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. but it is something to keep in mind.control. was) has no present tense.to be. . govern являться . is.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.Happy birthday С новым годом . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . . Над столом висит лампа. is. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. (Example: Я был врачом .under Examples: За этим зданием .I was a doctor). .to turn out to be оставаться .to be keen on управлять . .Behind this building there is a school. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. . was заниматься .to remain as пользоваться .to be engaged in.to use. быть .to become увлекаться . for между .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .школа. Под столом сидит кот. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . be The verb “Быть” (to be.to be interested in оказываться . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.за . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.between над .to seem.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.
.Ivan writes with a pencil. Replace “ь”. 2. Except. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.ножом (knife) муж . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Replace “й”. Иван пишет карандашом ..Иваном (Ivan) Анна .карандашом (pencil) ложка .ложкой (spoon) нож . "о" with "ами". Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace "а". Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. In English these words can have different meanings..Анной (Anna) студенты .. 1. 3. with “ем”. Except. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. if stressed “ѐй”. “ш” or “щ”. Replace “я” with “ей”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Я ем суп ложкой . “ц”. All consonants.I eat soup with a spoon. if stressed “ѐм”. “ц”. “ч”.молоком (milk) сметана . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Олег режет мясо ножом . 2. 4.Masculine Nouns: 1. . Replace “ь” with “ью”. Examples.женой (wife) Иван .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . 2.. add "ами".студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.. “ч”. add “ем”.мужем (husband) жена . Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “ой”. then add “ем”. 4. if stressed “ѐм”. “ш” or “щ”. All consonants. add “ом”.
With. . Мы с вами . Have a look at the following Russian examples. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Иван хочет чай с молоком . with Ivan”). but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Here are some examples.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Accompanied by.Me and you Notes: 1. Иван с женой идут в кафе.Nadya wants tea with lemon. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.Instrumental Case . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . 2.My wife and I are going to the cafe. it is often written as “со”.Please give me coffee with milk. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.I eat borsh with sour cream.Ivan wants tea with milk. . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. пожалуйста. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.My husband and I are going to the cafe. Pronouns . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . However it is followed by the genitive case.The preposition: „с‟ . кофе с молоком . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. For ease of pronunciation.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. пожалуйста.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. In English we would use the word “and”. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Дайте. . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Ivan and I are going to school. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.
summer летом .Her Им .in summer осень .winter зимой .morning утром . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.It Нами . afternoon днѐм .Them Seasons and parts of the day. Мной .spring весной .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.in winter весна . For example: лето .You Им .night ночью .Us Вами .in the morning день . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.day.autumn осенью .in the evening ночь . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.at night . „with you‟.in the afternoon вечер .You (plural) Ими .evening вечером .Me Тобой . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. „with him‟.Him Ей .in autumn зима .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .
(Example: Я был врачом .Behind this building there is a school.Under the table the cat is sitting. Под столом сидит кот. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.above перед . Над столом висит лампа. be The verb “Быть” (to be. . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. for между . .to use.to become увлекаться . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.In front of this school turn to the left.to turn out to be оставаться .to be.to seem. to be occupied with интересоваться . быть .control. was) has no present tense. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. You don't need to learn these verbs now.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.between над .to be engaged in.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .Happy birthday С новым годом . manage. enjoy становиться/стать . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.школа. is. . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.to remain as пользоваться . govern являться . .behind.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.I was a doctor).under Examples: За этим зданием . was заниматься .The lamp is above the table.to be keen on управлять .to be interested in оказываться .in front of под . but it is something to keep in mind. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. . beyond. is. Перед этой школой поверните налево. за .
They knew Мы знали . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. (ie 1st. Let's have a look at the past tense now. The same principal also applies in the future tense. Although this concept differs from English. Он знал . In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.Olga knew Собака знала .You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.It knew Они знали .Elena knew Ольга знала . or talk about something that has happened in the past.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал .You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . 2nd or 3rd person). Forming Verbs in Past Tense.I knew (male speaking) Я знала . Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.We knew Я знал . but in Russian there is simply one.. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.Vladimir knew Дима знал . Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.He knew Она знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses.. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings.Dima knew Елена знала .She knew Оно знало . it is conceptually quite easy.The dog knew . Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).
Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. Some tenses in English can indicate this. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. .You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. consequently each verb has two possible forms. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete.I worked for 2 hours. and is not complete. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома .I was working Я шѐл . The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. ongoing.I worked everyday. so there is no perfective in the present tense. .I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. . and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. There are two aspects in Russian. Ты. habitual. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. (often По-).I run in the forest every day. Я работал два часа . Simply conjugate them as discussed above. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. Я работал . When using pronouns such as Я. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. The Imperfective Aspect. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день.I was home. Я работал каждый день . reversed or repeated actions.She wants to buy a book. use the imperfective also.
Я купил кофе .Did you tell him about it? . try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. . .She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. . Она спросила учителя. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. .She did not eat bananas. Questions and Aspects. что он сказал. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. Саша съел обед за пять минут.Yesterday we read an interesting article. . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. .We did not watch the movie yesterday. Я не жила в Англии. .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . .I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .He did not want to see me. Он не хотел видеть меня. If you are still unsure which to use.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. .I went home.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?.I did not understand what he said. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. Я не понял. . (but I was expected to). Perfective: Я не позвонила . .Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? .I failed to phone.I did not live in England.
I finished school when I was 16 years old.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.At school I started learning English. . . Оно не было .He read for three hours. This is not the case in the past tense. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.We rented a summer house for three months. Я окончила школу.I‟ve been to many countries.They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. Он читал три часа. Я была во многих странах.It was Они были . except in the feminine. Я не была . Я не был . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.I was not (woman speaking). . .I was (woman speaking) Он был . Они не были .I‟ve already visited Sweden.I was not (man speaking).They were not.It was not. В школе я начала учить английский.I was (man speaking) Я была .She was Оно было .He was Она была . Я был . and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. когда мне было 16 лет . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). The stress moves to the word 'не'. . Я уже посетила Швецию .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.