Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)

Хорошо(Good)

Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.восемьсот 900 . 30 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).пятнадцать 16 .тринадцать 14 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.двести 300 .восемьдесят 90 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.двенадцать 13 .пятьдесят 60 .триста 400 .четыреста 500 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.девятьсот .восемнадцать 19 .пятьсот 600 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.двадцать 21 .одиннадцать 12 .семьсот 800 .двадцать три 24 .11 .сто 200 .шестьсот 700 .девяносто 100 .двадцать два 23 .шестнадцать 17 .шестьдесят 70 .семьдесят 80 .двадцать один 22 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать". Here are some examples: 20 . quite similar to English.четырнадцать 15 .семнадцать 18 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.сорок 50 .тридцать 40 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.

000 .000.007 2. Yes and No.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .миллиард For example: 131 .сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0. You should always say this after someone thanks you.994 1.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".000 1.000 . 456 219 9.1.Yes Нет ("nyet") . 0 . you can basically forget the "уй".812 Please and Thank-You. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. . after somebody says thank-you.008 2.000.миллион 1. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".345 23.564 2.000 . The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.000.No Saying Hello.тысяча 1. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. Да ("da") .

Меня зовут . ("min-ya za-voot") . Привет is also commonly used with friends. There are also two words for saying good-bye. In order to introduce yourself. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . put a real questioning expression on your face. If all else fails. If somebody says Привет to you. except for the question mark. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone.Pleased to meet you.. Introducing Yourself. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? .Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". you may need the following phrases. slang) You should generally use до свидания.. not the individual words. You may also hear people say Пока.Bye (Informal. There are two forms of this word.My name is . and should only be used with friends. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. there is no difference between the question and the statement.. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") .Good/Well thank-you Плохо . Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") .What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . However.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. Вы говорите по-английски? . then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.Bad Saying Good-Bye.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .How are things? Хорошо спасибо . keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . but we suggest you only use it with friends. You should just learn the whole phrase. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.Good-bye.

I speak Russian Я понимаю .Tell me please. Скажите. где кафе? ..Juice Борщ . где ближайшее кафе? . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is..Lemonade Сок . Скажите.. here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню .Wine Вода .Tell me please. пожалуйста.Beer Вино . where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café. where is a cafe? Скажите. пожалуйста. .Tell me please.I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia..Vodka Пиво .Russian beetroot soup Суп .I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Milk Кока-Кола .Я говорю по-английски .Cake Водка .I understand Я не понимаю .Coca-Cola Лимонад . пожалуйста..Tea Молоко . Скажите. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”..Water .Coffee Чай .Menu Кофе .Soup Торт . где бар? .Tell me please. You could ask people with the following phrases. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. пожалуйста.

пожалуйста. Examples: Дайте.? .Please give me coffee with milk. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .Please give me coffee.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.What? Что вы хотите? .It is coffee.How much is it?.. is it coffee? Нет. when you order vodka in russia. it is gramatically unusual). Do you have. Дайте. Сколько стоит? . кофе с молоком . you will generally get straight vodka. you can use the following phrase.Do you have . пожалуйста . .. . кофе с молоком и с сахаром .I want...Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Что это? ..Give me please.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .. Простите.Please give me tea. чай. . What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. пожалуйста. У вас есть .? If you want to ask someone if they have something.... You can use it to ask the price of something.. Дайте.Be careful.. . Here are some Russian phrases you might need. пожалуйста.. .. it is tea. Дайте.. это чай.What do you want? Я хочу ..What is it? Это кофе. это кофе. .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . Дайте.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. кофе .... пожалуйста.Excuse me. (Just learn the whole phrase.No. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. ..

The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".We Вы ..How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . him. they are things you can do. It (f) Оно ...She. walk. For example: I.. Definitions Verbs are action words.What does ". want. she.. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M"..." in Russian? Что значит ". Как сказать ". It (m) Она .How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль .Сколько? . For example: run. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian.." по-русски? .. Pronouns are words that can replace names.... eat. or plural) .? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is. The subject is "I".Tell me please.) Я-I Ты . "love" is the verb. and the object is "him".. In the sentence "I love him".How do you say ".21 rubles.You (formal.It (n) Мы . it. her. Где Туалет ." mean in English? Where is the toilet. Here are some useful phrases. you... How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”.You (informal) Он .. (Known as the nominative case. he. love. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.He." на английском? . Скажите. Пожалуйста .

"ем". You should memorise these pronouns. and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person.Они . (Example: I work. but not as much. It is the most common.("yevo") . (infinitive. It works. dictionary form) . (There are also some irregular verbs). Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . and once you get the hang of it. To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть").Me Тебя . or plural) Их . Both these patterns are quite similar. Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.He. It (f) Нас . It (m.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you".They work. She.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). Just remember that unlike English. Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you".You work Он. Они работают . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". "ет".Him. Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject.To work. (Known as the accusative case) Меня .I work Ты работаешь .Us Вас . "ете" or "ют"). (infinitive.You (informal) Его .Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). he works). it is not too difficult.You work.n) Еѐ .To understand. "ешь".We work Вы работаете . and add the appropriate ending ("ю". Оно работает . This happens a little in English.Her. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". dictionary form) Я работаю . Мы работаем . and the second conjugation. "I am working" and "I do work". Она. работать .You (formal. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation.

I know.To speak. Знать . Ты понимаешь . Ты знаешь . Вы знаете . Он.To know. She.You know. It understands Мы понимаем . It Speaks. Вы понимаете . Он. Мы знаем .Я понимаю . which replace "ить". She.You understand. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules.I speak. For example: Я не знаю . Она.You speak. Ты говоришь . Он не понимает . this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).He. Remember.He doesn't understand. (infinitive. Они знают . Я не понимаю . You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . говорить . Она.He.I don't understand.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. Оно понимает . (infinitive. Оно знает .We know. She. Она. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation.You understand. dictionary form) Я знаю . Мы говорим .They understand.I don't know. Он.He. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation.They know. Оно говорит .We understand.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? .I understand. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). It knows.We speak.You know. dictionary form) Я говорю . Они понимают .

слышите .To hear.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . Они едут .To live. слышат .They live.You hear. Вы живѐте . Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Some examples: Ехать .You live. Он. She.You hear.Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . It lives.Вы говорите . Они говорят . слышим . Мы живѐм .We don't speak Russian.He. Я еду . Вы едете . Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Она. Она. .They speak. слышать . However. Они живут .He.I hear. Он. except that "у" replaces "ю". often once you know the stem of the verb.You live.They hear.To go (by transport). Ты живѐшь .The dog doesn't speak English. She. Я живу .You go (by transport). Собака не говорит по-английски . She. слышит .We hear.He. (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).They go (by transport). Жить .You speak.I speak English Он говорит по-русски . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian.We go (by transport).I live. you can often predict the endings. It goes (by transport). Оно живѐт . слышу . Мы едем . Ты едешь .We live.I go (by transport). слышишь .You go (by transport). It hears. Оно едет .

Luckily. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. There are very few exceptions to these rules. (Except ь.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. name or place. cat. Gender of nouns. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. У. or “й”. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. From the dictionary form of a noun. О.Is Masculine . Ы. If it is a consonant. Ю. “house”. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. it will be in its dictionary form. each noun is assigned a gender. Ё. Papa) .(Daddy.Is Masculine Кофе .He is going home Definitions Noun . pen.Is Masculine Мужчина . (A. 5. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine.Is Masculine Дядя . If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. Папа .A letter that is not a vowel. and neuter (neutral).Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence.I live in London. feminine.(Uncle) . “cup”. Russian has three genders: masculine. The letters А. 3.E. И and Й. In the case of other objects like “pen”.O. Э. But there are five notable exceptions. as with many other languages.(Man) .I. In Russian. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. Example: dog. Я. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . Moscow. unlike many languages. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. Он едет домой . Vowel . cup. 4. Е.U in English). ъ because they have no sound).Is Masculine Дедушка . the word is masculine. Cases . This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence.(Grandfather) .A noun is a thing.(Coffee) . paper. In Russian we use 6 cases. Consonant .

The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). To indicate each case we change the ending of word. Россия (Russia).. документ (document). Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. In fact it was also used in Old English. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. You may wish to do this to emphasise something.. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. Хлеб (bread). (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. Feminine : газета (newspaper). . and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. and still keep the same meaning. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. брат (brother).) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. In Russian there are six cases. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English.. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. Greek and German. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. so we will take it slowly. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. (In. at. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. For example. and about. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. on. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. (Eg.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport).. радио (radio).

The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. Russian is very free about word order. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. you need to use the accusative case also. .buildings) The Accusative Case. “ы”.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . some remnants of the case system still exist in English. especially pronouns. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . In the sentence “I love her”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. For example. The Nominative Case. in this case the word “dog”. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. “я” or “а”. In Russian.Interestingly. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. Russian uses the case for all nouns. the word “I” is the subject. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. in the nominative case. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. without changing the actual meaning. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. add “ы”. so there is nothing special to learn here. However. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. not plants). For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object.

Иван любит чай .Nadya loves wine. Я не люблю музыку .I don't like music. Надя не любит вино . Он любит Москву .I love sport. Надя любит вино . Replace “я” with “ю”.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. add “а”. replace “ь”. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “у”.Nadya doesn't like wine. If noun is animate. 2.I love music.Ivan loves tea. add “я”. with “я”. . Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт .I love Moscow. replace “й”. If noun is animate.He loves Moscow. 2.Masculine Nouns: 1. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. 3. 4. Ты любишь музыку? . there is no change. If the noun in inanimate. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Я люблю музыку . Feminine Nouns: 1. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю.

to work Хотеть .I love her. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.I am watching television.I am listening to the radio. An example could be: Я знаю. Я читаю журнал . Читать . The word "Что" has two uses."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . Что ты любишь? . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . Она любит меня . You can use it to form questions. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning.I am listening to music. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.What do you love? However.to watch.I am reading a book.I am reading a magazine.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. If you would like.to listen Изучать . Я слушаю музыку . Смотреть . . so don't be confused.to read. что ты любишь музыку. Я еѐ люблю .to study Думать . .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .I love you. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. it is probably the conjunction "that". Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.I know that you love music.I love him. Слушать . Я читаю газету .to think Работать . Я слушаю радио .to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .

2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. Я хочу купить журнал .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . Я очень люблю Москву .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.I love to travel. For example: Очень .very. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.I really love sport.Я изучаю русский язык .I really love Moscow.I want to buy a magazine. You can include it into many phrases. For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".I want tea. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . Где? .Who? Что? . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. Add : “е”. Я люблю путешествовать . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Я так думаю .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.I think so! Как вы думаете? . Что вы хотите? .Where? Кто? . For example: Я люблю читать .I love to read. (lit: I study the Russian language).I study Russian.How? Почему? .What? Как? . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".

Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. As with any language. Exception: Replace “ия”. Replace “а” with “е”.theatre .at the station на почте .in the forest на улице .I live in Moscow. Я живу в Лондоне . Replace “ь” with “и”.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. Я живу в Петербурге .Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? .I live in London. even though they are not Russian.On the table is a book and a pencil. Petersburg. Here are some tips to help you. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. 2.in the garden в лесу . 4. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. „at work‟.I live in Siberia.Feminine Nouns: 1. Я живу в Сибири . 3.at the post office в саду .on the street Что на столе? . (Eg. Using prepositions and the prepositional case. (They are in dicionary form) кино .Where is she? на вокзале . Replace “о” with “е” 2. “е” remains unchanged.cinema театр . although these aren‟t precise rules. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. suburbs and places. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”.I live in St. Replace “я” with “е”. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. (Eg. „at a concert‟). „at a station‟.

So to express „to go‟ in Russian. прямо потом направо . your answer will involve the prepositional case. Here are some examples for you to compare. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟.bank гостиница . Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. However.I am going to school.stadium школа . Both these words are verbs of motion. you can tell this by the case. The first indicates you are going on foot. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). направо . there are actually four ways: . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs.cafe площадь . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport.park стадион .pharmacy парк .Straight ahead.To the right. Куда вы идѐте .аптека . but as these words are so important for basic Russian.museum больница . налево . you would use the accusative case. Где вы работаете? .restaurant банк . You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. prepositions have more than one meaning.hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . прямо .Straight ahead then to the right.library кафе . and are grammatically quite complex.school библиотека .To the left. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.hotel музей .I work at (in) a school. we will introduce them now in a simple way.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .square ресторан .

Вы едете. Мы идѐм. Я иду в кино . Он ходит.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу .I am going to school. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон .I am going to the university Ходить .To go on foot.To go on foot.To go by transport. Ты идѐшь.We are going to the cafe. Он ездит . Мы едем. Мы едем в кафе . Вы идѐте. in one direction. Я часто хожу в кино . Ты ездишь .They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро .He is going to the hotel by taxi. Ты едешь. or repetitively (Я езжу. Ехать .We are going to the cafe.He is going to London Ездить .I go to school. Они едут ) Я еду в школу .He is going to the hotel.To go by transport.I go to the theatre every day. (Я хожу. Он идѐт. Ты идѐшь в кино? . Мы ходим. (Я еду. Вы ездите. in one direction. Мы ездим. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . Ты ходишь.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . in more than one direction.I am going to the cinema on the metro. or repetitively. Они часто ездят в Амстердам . Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . (Я иду. Вы ходите. я иду в университет .I am going to the cinema. Мы идѐм в кафе .We go to the cafe every day. in more than one direction.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .I am going to school. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Они идут) Я иду в школу . Он едет.Идти .

our . Here are some Russian phrases you could use. Моя (f). in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.husband Тѐтя . Наша (f). Твои (pl) .mum Папа .grandson Семья . Наше (n). У меня есть брат .grandmother Дедушка .Мать . Моѐ (n).wife Муж . Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.mother Отец .I have a son and a daughter.brother Дочь . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. Наши (pl) .dad Сестра . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now.granddaughter Внук .Do you have children?. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.your Его (m n) ("yevo").daughter Сын . У меня есть сестра . her Наш (m). Твоѐ (n). Мои (pl) .I don't have any children. У меня есть сын и дочь .his.auntie Дядя . Еѐ (f) .son бабушка .I have a sister.uncle Родители .father Мама .I have a brother. Мой (m).children Внучка .my Твой (m). У тебя есть дети? .sister Брат . У меня нет детей . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.grandfather Жена .parents Дети . For example we use the words mum and dad.family Just like English. Твоя (f).

the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual. Доброе утро . However.This is my house Это моя квартира ... The Russian word Это means 'this is'.goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case . This is.Ваш (m).My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .good afternoon Добрый вечер . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . For example. Ваши (pl) .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . Это мой дом . you may wish to say her name is Anna.good morning Добрый день .Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.your Их .good evening Спокойной ночи . Ваша (f). we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. Ваше (n).My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . Моя мама любит музыку .his name is Ivan. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.

you can use the genitive case to indicate possession.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper.Anna's car. the object that is owned always comes first. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. in Russian. 2. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. 3.Igor's telephone. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря .Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). Сестра Анны читает газету . Replace “я” with “и”. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .Adam's brother loves Moscow. If the noun ends in a consonant. add “я”. Replace “е” with “я” For example. Replace “ь”. 2. Anna's) Дом Ивана . Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. Using the genitive case . Replace “о” with “а” 2. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. Собака Адама . pay particular attention to the order of the words. Брат Адама любит Москву . Neuter Nouns: 1.Adam's dog. Replace “а” with “ы”. Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “ь” with “и”. add “а”. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? .Masculine Nouns: 1. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Let's have a look at some more examples. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. Replace “й”. However. (This is like using 's in English). with “я”. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". For example.ownership As you can see in the above example. 3. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences.

стакан молока . Ивана нет .‟. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). Here are some examples. (Меня.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning.to have As the genitive case relates to possession.She has a dog.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.There is no milk. У вас есть кофе? . Его нет дома . У нее есть собака. This is exactly the same concept as above. Нас. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.A glass of milk.I have book.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. Кофе нет .Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . Молока нет . Чая нет . У меня есть книга . Тебя.Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . Generally.He is not home. Using the genitive case . it is just easier to learn the concept by example.There is no tea. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.There is no coffee. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) .sentence and uses the nominative case. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. план города . These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. Here are some examples. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . Их) Using the genitive case .of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. Вас.. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. As we have seen in a previous lesson.A map of the city. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here.. . Его.Ivan isn't here.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Еѐ.

plurals.Using the genitive case . you make a plural by using the letters "и". The Nominative Case . First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) .numbers. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. . you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson.Plural (Subject) In Russian.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. depending on whether the object is animate or not. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. "я" or "а". "ы". Ч. quantaties.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . add “ы”. Ж. in the nominative case. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. Ш.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . but don‟t worry. The genitive case is used after most numbers. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. for example "10 roubles". Х. К.

For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. . For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money.Anna loves books.The Genitive Case . Книги на столе . These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й.газет (newspapers') здание . девушка . but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. but in Russian we use it for all numbers. англичанка . or whether you are just using general plurals. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. but in the plural form. This may feel a little strange at first.марок. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals.The books are on the table.англичанок. Анна любит книги . Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”.студентов (students') газета . Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент .Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.щ. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.ч. let‟s see how to use them.ш. (марка . Here are some examples. Ok.

Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.seven newspapers восемь зданий .eight buildings девять собак ..3.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language.one hundred roubles сто долларов .I know one girl один рубль .six books семь газет .three roubles четыре рубля .ten roubles сто рублей .6. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. 12. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.4 If the number. 103.four students три газеты . etc) пять рублей . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.four roubles две книги . одна девушка . (example: 22. 3 or 4.four dollars четыре студента . . try using plurals that involve money. 61) (but not 11). Here are some examples.7. To help you get used to this concept. 13. 4) (but not 12. 14. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. 21. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.0. три рубля .8.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2. 13 & 14). or the last digit of the number is 2.five roubles десять рублей .two books три собаки .one rouble двадцать один рубль .nine dogs десять студентов . Here are some examples.9. 42.one girl Я знаю одну девушку .21 roubles один доллар .three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5. then you should use the genitive singular case.three dogs четыре доллара . The number one declines like an adjective.one hundred dollars шесть книг .

7.Boris Владимир .Genitive Singular. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. Quantity ends in 5. .What is his name? Его зовут Борис . Quantity ends in 1 .8. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.How old are you.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года ..) Quantity not specified .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.. Как его зовут? .“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).. Here are some other common Russian names for men. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.So in summary.0.4 . Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .Nikolay (Коля) Борис .My name is Vera. Мне восемнадцать лет .Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.6.9.I am 23 years old. Вова) . Николай .Genitive Plural General Quantity . In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .3.the dative case.Her name is Alyona.Vladimir (Володя..His name is Boris.As per position in the sentence. Как еѐ зовут? .What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна . Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.-надцать . Quantity ends in 2. Much like “Мне холодно” . Как вас зовут? .

good morning Добрый день . Андрей . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Olga (Оля) Александра . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. Some of these may be new. or tender form.Pyotr.and/but (contrasting) . Елена .Alexander (Саша.Sergey Алексей .good afternoon Добрый вечер .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .Hello Привет .Yelena (Лена) Наталья . This is like a pet name.Пѐтр .Thank-You Пожалуйста .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you. Шура) Дмитрий . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons. Спасибо .good evening Спокойной ночи .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . Здравствуйте . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Natalya (Наташа) Мария .and а . but try to learn them all. and should only be used when you are in close firendship.Andrey Александр .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана . You should be able to remember all of these.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . The diminuative is a more personal. Peter.Yekaterina Анастасия .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Oxana Екатерина . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .

What do you want? Я хочу чай.along. to (+accusative) о.on.". пожалуйста. so you should try to learn them all. . Дайте. .in (+prepositional). .near.them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. . it еѐ .him. Что вы хотите? . У вас есть чай? .но . coffee with milk and with sugar. You might also find some new words in these sentences. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . at (+prepositional).about к . it их . In Russian we would use the word "а". что ты говоришь по-русски. to (+accusative) на .but или .I want tea please. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". to за . . пожалуйста. it ты . об . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.for (+accusative). где туалет? .There is no tea.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .you (formal/plural) его .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.towards.her.out of.you (informal) вы .he. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.Give me please. . from от . onto. . behind (+instrumental) из . . For example.Tell me please.Do you have tea? Чая нет. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. во . Он любит говорить по-английски.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.from по . У вас есть водка? . Скажите.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .My mum loves music.with у . кофе с молоком и с сахаром. пожалуйста. We will use only common words. я-I он .There is no coffee. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.I know that you speak Russian.

Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. Я очень люблю Москву .How much? четыре доллара . Я изучаю русский язык .I really love Moscow.4 roubles.He is going home.Твой брат говорит по-русски? . Я не понимаю.4 dollars.Where? Кто? .When? Почему? . He speaks Russian well.Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .My sister is reading a newspaper. Я думаю. что вы понимаете.Does your borther speak Russian? Да.100 roubles. .Where is he? Где кафе? .My Mum loves music. Ты понимаешь? .How much? четыре рубля . Я слушаю музыку .Why? Что ты знаешь? . Моя сестра читает газету . сколько стоит? . . Почему ты не понимаешь? .I think that you understand. .How? Когда? . сколько стоит? . Его нет дома . Собака не говорит по-английски.How much? двадцать один рубль . сколько стоит? . Я очень люблю спорт . .Who? Что? .I know that you understand.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.Do you understand? Я знаю.I understand. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Он хорошо говорит по-русски.I live in London.The dog doesn't speak English.Yes. . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . .Adam's brother loves Moscow. Сестра Анны читает газету .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .I am listening to music.What? Как? . что ты понимаешь.I really love sport. .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .What do you think? Где он? . сколько стоит? .How much? сто рублей .He is not home.21 roubles.I am studying the Russian language. Брат Адама любит Москву .I am reading a magazine. Он едет домой . Где? .I don't understand. Моя мама любит музыку .

you (formal.Елене Молоко .you (informal). Replace “ь” with “и”. Replace “ь”. "о" or a consonant with "ам". Replace “а” with “е”. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Ему (n). If the noun ends in a consonant. Neuter Nouns: 1. 1. Replace “й”.me. or plural). Replace “ия” with “ии”. Ему (m). To create nouns in the dative case. Replace “о” with “у” 2. her.Молоку Вино . If the noun ends in a consonant. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.Forming the dative case. Тебе . Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. 3. Replace “я” with “е”. with “ю”.them. add “ю”. Адам . 2.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Мне ..him.us. 3. Им . add “у”. Replace "а". Feminine Nouns: 1. Masculine Nouns: 1. . we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Ей (f) . 2. 2. Вам . 4.. add "ам". Нам .Адаму Елена . it. 3.

(View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.I am helping Anna. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case.(we) give Даѐте . ..Ivan gives flowers to Anna. Дай . Here are the conjuctions: Даю . Я даю цветы Анне . Я помогаю этой девушке .(they) give The command forms of this word include.. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”..I give flowers to Anna. Я помогаю Ивану . ..I am helping this girl..(he) gives Даѐм . you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.Give me your address and telephone number.We help mother every day.I am helping Ivan. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something.give! Дайте . the word “Anna” is the indirect object. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. . Мы помогаем маме каждый день .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. Дайте мне .(I) give Даѐшь .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .Give me . In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. Они дают цветы Елене . Similarly. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson.(you) give Дают .(you) give Даѐт . For this reason. It should be used in the dative case. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .They give flowers to Elena.

It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet.I like your children. it is still worth learning these examples.I like Moscow.You like Moscow.She calls Ivan every day.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . Мне холодно . Мне очень нравятся цветы .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. Мне нравится Москва . it is like saying “To me it is likable”.) Мне нравятся ваши дети . (lit: children are pleasing to me. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns.) Ему нравится Москва .. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.? Как вам нравится фильм? . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.She likes Moscow..? . If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). so it is enough for now just to learn this form.Ivan calls Anna every day. Вам нравится Москва . The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. Мне нравятся цветы . Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case. However it is a common word. This is verb is also a reflexive verb..How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . so it is worth learning now.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .Звонить . (The "ся" ending is reflexive). Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. Иван звонит Анне каждый день . However this verb is used differently.. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.I like the flowers.I really like the flowers. and it relies on the dative case. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). Адаму нравится Москва .He likes Moscow.How do you like .I like the children.Adam likes Moscow.) Practice using the word нравится.He is cold (to him its cold) .) Ей нравится Москва . Как вам нравится .

Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). Replace “й”.. Except.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно .I am 23 years old. 4.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . It is followed by the dative case..Ей холодно . Although the use of this proposition is too varied. Мы едем к друзьям . with “ем”. if stressed “ѐм”. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. All consonants. 2. if stressed “ѐм”. “ш” or “щ”. to create an exact rule. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. and has too many meanings.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . add “ем”.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . . “ц”. “ч”.We are going to our friends.I am walking towards the station. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. Replace “ь”. then add “ем”. add “ом”. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to".

женой (wife) Иван . Олег режет мясо ножом .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Иван пишет карандашом . The preposition: „с‟ . All consonants.молоком (milk) сметана . Examples. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Replace “ь” with “ью”.I eat soup with a spoon.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Replace “я” with “ей”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. 2... “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. "о" with "ами". Except.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.Feminine Nouns: 1. 3. 1. “ц”. Neuter Nouns: 1.Ivan writes with a pencil. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . 2.ножом (knife) муж .ложкой (spoon) нож . “ш” or “щ”. add "ами". The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.карандашом (pencil) ложка . “ч”. if stressed “ѐй”..мужем (husband) жена .With.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.. Replace "а". In English these words can have different meanings. Accompanied by. Replace “а” with “ой”. 4. Я ем суп ложкой .Анной (Anna) студенты .

Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. „with him‟. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . „with you‟. However it is followed by the genitive case. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Here are some examples.Please give me coffee with milk. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.My husband and I are going to the cafe.Ivan wants tea with milk.Her . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Мной .Ivan and I are going to school. пожалуйста. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.Me and you Notes: 1. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Дайте. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. Иван хочет чай с молоком . with Ivan”). Мы с вами .I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.You Им . Иван с Анной идут в кафе.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.For ease of pronunciation. Pronouns . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. .Nadya wants tea with lemon.Me Тобой . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Иван с женой идут в кафе. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. пожалуйста. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .I eat borsh with sour cream.Him Ей . . Анна с мужем идут в кафе.My wife and I are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком . 2.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. it is often written as “со”. . In English we would use the word “and”.

The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.day.morning утром .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .You (plural) Ими .evening вечером .in the morning день .autumn осенью .in winter весна .night ночью . .winter зимой . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.spring весной .in summer осень . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.Им .It Нами .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .Them Seasons and parts of the day. afternoon днѐм .in autumn зима .summer летом .Us Вами .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.in the afternoon вечер .in the evening ночь . For example: лето .

to be. enjoy становиться/стать . is.Under the table the cat is sitting. (Example: Я был врачом .control.Behind this building there is a school. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. manage.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . . Перед этой школой поверните налево. for между .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. is.between над . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . was) has no present tense. .under Examples: За этим зданием . .to use. быть .In front of this school turn to the left. govern являться .to seem. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. You don't need to learn these verbs now.to be keen on управлять .in front of под . You will learn more about this in a later lesson.The lamp is above the table.за .to become увлекаться . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.школа. Над столом висит лампа. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.Happy birthday С новым годом .above перед . be The verb “Быть” (to be. was заниматься . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. . Под столом сидит кот. but it is something to keep in mind. to be occupied with интересоваться . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .behind.to turn out to be оставаться .I was a doctor). Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. beyond.to be interested in оказываться .to be engaged in.to remain as пользоваться .

.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Я ем суп ложкой .студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. All consonants. 4. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.мужем (husband) жена . 1. Replace “ь”. Replace “я” with “ей”. 2. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. “ш” or “щ”. add “ом”. “ч”. Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “ой”. Except. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.. if stressed “ѐй”.Masculine Nouns: 1. “ш” or “щ”. Олег режет мясо ножом . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. .женой (wife) Иван .карандашом (pencil) ложка . then add “ем”. 2.ложкой (spoon) нож . Replace "а". if stressed “ѐм”. Иван пишет карандашом . All consonants. Examples.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. add “ем”.Анной (Anna) студенты . 4.. Replace “ь” with “ью”. “ц”.молоком (milk) сметана . “ц”.ножом (knife) муж . add "ами". if stressed “ѐм”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. with “ем”. 2. "о" with "ами". In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. 3.. “ч”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .. In English these words can have different meanings.I eat soup with a spoon.. Except.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .Ivan writes with a pencil. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “й”.

I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.Ivan wants tea with milk. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Accompanied by. . Here are some examples. .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. For ease of pronunciation.Nadya wants tea with lemon. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Have a look at the following Russian examples. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.Instrumental Case . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Иван с женой идут в кафе. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .Please give me coffee with milk. .The preposition: „с‟ . . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . Мы с вами . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. пожалуйста. Иван хочет чай с молоком .My wife and I are going to the cafe. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Pronouns .Ivan and I are going to school. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. 2.My husband and I are going to the cafe. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . кофе с молоком . In English we would use the word “and”. Дайте.Me and you Notes: 1. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. However it is followed by the genitive case. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.I eat borsh with sour cream. with Ivan”).Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. it is often written as “со”.With. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. пожалуйста.

Me Тобой . For example: лето .summer летом . „with you‟.Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.in winter весна . afternoon днѐм .autumn осенью .Them Seasons and parts of the day.It Нами .in autumn зима .spring весной . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.in the evening ночь . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Мной .day.at night . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.Her Им . „with him‟.in the morning день .winter зимой .Us Вами .evening вечером .Him Ей .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .morning утром .in the afternoon вечер .in summer осень .night ночью .You Им .You (plural) Ими . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.

to be keen on управлять . . enjoy становиться/стать . govern являться .In front of this school turn to the left.Under the table the cat is sitting. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. is.to become увлекаться . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. You don't need to learn these verbs now. but it is something to keep in mind. . .to be.behind. manage. was) has no present tense. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.to turn out to be оставаться . . (Example: Я был врачом .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . for между .to use.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.to remain as пользоваться .I was a doctor).The lamp is above the table. Перед этой школой поверните налево.школа.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .to seem. was заниматься . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. . . быть .in front of под .Behind this building there is a school.control.to be engaged in. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.between над .under Examples: За этим зданием . Под столом сидит кот. is. be The verb “Быть” (to be.to be interested in оказываться . за .above перед .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. Над столом висит лампа. to be occupied with интересоваться . beyond.Happy birthday С новым годом . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.

Vladimir knew Дима знал . Although this concept differs from English. or talk about something that has happened in the past.Olga knew Собака знала .The dog knew . The same principal also applies in the future tense. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал .. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.She knew Оно знало . Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.He knew Она знала . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject.Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.They knew Мы знали . Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. In English there are quite a number of different past tenses.Elena knew Ольга знала . 2nd or 3rd person).We knew Я знал . but in Russian there is simply one.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . Он знал .. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject.Dima knew Елена знала .It knew Они знали .I knew (male speaking) Я знала .. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. Forming Verbs in Past Tense. it is conceptually quite easy. Let's have a look at the past tense now. (ie 1st.

When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. Ты.She wants to buy a book. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.I run in the forest every day. When using pronouns such as Я. ongoing. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. (often По-).I worked for 2 hours. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. reversed or repeated actions.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . and is not complete. This should help you remember how to form the verbs.I was working Я шѐл . Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. use the imperfective also. consequently each verb has two possible forms. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. .I worked everyday. The Imperfective Aspect. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. Я работал два часа . and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect.I was home.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. Some tenses in English can indicate this. habitual. There are two aspects in Russian. so there is no perfective in the present tense. . Я работал . Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. . Я работал каждый день .

I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?.He did not want to see me.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets.I went home.I did not understand what he said. Questions and Aspects. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened.I failed to phone. что он сказал. . Я купил кофе . . Саша съел обед за пять минут.Yesterday we read an interesting article. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. Он не хотел видеть меня. .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. .She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. If you are still unsure which to use.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. . . The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. Perfective: Я не позвонила .Did you tell him about it? . (but I was expected to). Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. . Я не жила в Англии. . Она спросила учителя.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? .Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples.I did not live in England. . Я не понял.We did not watch the movie yesterday. .She did not eat bananas. .

Я окончила школу. Оно не было . Я был . Я уже посетила Швецию .It was not.She was Оно было . .I finished school when I was 16 years old. когда мне было 16 лет . Я не была . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). The stress moves to the word 'не'. . More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. В школе я начала учить английский.I‟ve been to many countries. This is not the case in the past tense.They were not. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.It was Они были .I was (woman speaking) Он был .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. .He was Она была .At school I started learning English. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.I was (man speaking) Я была . Я была во многих странах. Он читал три часа.We rented a summer house for three months. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. . Они не были .I was not (woman speaking).I‟ve already visited Sweden.He read for three hours. . except in the feminine. Я не был .I was not (man speaking).

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