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А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
семнадцать 18 .сто 200 .двадцать два 23 .восемнадцать 19 .пятнадцать 16 .сорок 50 .пятьсот 600 .семьсот 800 .пятьдесят 60 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.восемьдесят 90 .одиннадцать 12 . Here are some examples: 20 .тринадцать 14 .двадцать один 22 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.шестьдесят 70 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".двадцать 21 .двадцать три 24 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.шестнадцать 17 .семьдесят 80 .триста 400 .девятьсот . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia. quite similar to English.двенадцать 13 . 30 .шестьсот 700 .тридцать 40 .девяносто 100 .четыреста 500 .восемьсот 900 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.11 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.четырнадцать 15 .двести 300 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).
сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".тысяча 1. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. 456 219 9.345 23. Yes and No. 0 . you can basically forget the "уй".миллиард For example: 131 .000 . Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. You should always say this after someone thanks you.564 2.000 .000 .Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .008 2.007 2.000.812 Please and Thank-You.994 1.Yes Нет ("nyet") . Да ("da") .миллион 1. after somebody says thank-you. .000 1.000. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.No Saying Hello. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .1.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".000.
not the individual words.Bad Saying Good-Bye. slang) You should generally use до свидания. You may also hear people say Пока. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. There are two forms of this word. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello".Good/Well thank-you Плохо . then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.How are things? Хорошо спасибо . In order to introduce yourself.Pleased to meet you. ("min-ya za-voot") .Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first.Bye (Informal. There are also two words for saying good-bye. If somebody says Привет to you..Do you (formal) speak Russian? . and should only be used with friends. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") ..Good-bye. except for the question mark. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") .Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . Introducing Yourself. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone.My name is . you may need the following phrases.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. put a real questioning expression on your face. Меня зовут . Привет is also commonly used with friends. there is no difference between the question and the statement. However. If all else fails. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). Вы говорите по-английски? . You should just learn the whole phrase. but we suggest you only use it with friends..Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") ..
Soup Торт .Water ..I speak Russian Я понимаю . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню .Tell me please. You could ask people with the following phrases.Menu Кофе . where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Cake Водка .Lemonade Сок .Tell me please. where is a cafe? Скажите. пожалуйста. .. пожалуйста.. где кафе? . Скажите.Tell me please.Wine Вода .Vodka Пиво . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.I speak English Я говорю по-русски . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.Coca-Cola Лимонад . Скажите.Russian beetroot soup Суп .Я говорю по-английски .Milk Кока-Кола . где бар? ..Juice Борщ . It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.I understand Я не понимаю .I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia..Tell me please. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café. где ближайшее кафе? .Beer Вино .Tea Молоко . пожалуйста.. Скажите.Coffee Чай . пожалуйста.
. (Just learn the whole phrase. пожалуйста . you will generally get straight vodka... or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . it is tea.. it is gramatically unusual)..Excuse me.No...Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. . How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. Сколько стоит? . пожалуйста..Please give me coffee. пожалуйста. You can use it to ask the price of something. Дайте. you can use the following phrase. это кофе.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .... кофе . Examples: Дайте. пожалуйста.Do you have . ... is it coffee? Нет. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order.What is it? Это кофе. . ..Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . У вас есть . Простите.How much is it?. . Do you have.Be careful.. Дайте.Give me please. чай.What? Что вы хотите? .Please give me tea.. ..? .? If you want to ask someone if they have something. Что это? . кофе с молоком . Here are some Russian phrases you might need.. пожалуйста.. это чай. when you order vodka in russia.I want..It is coffee.Please give me coffee with milk. Дайте.What do you want? Я хочу . Дайте.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .
Пожалуйста .. (Known as the nominative case..You (formal. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian..How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль .You (informal) Он .. or plural) . her. Here are some useful phrases. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M". eat..We Вы . want.. In the sentence "I love him". they are things you can do. love." на английском? . Где Туалет ... Скажите. For example: run.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . Как сказать ".. "love" is the verb.? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.. Definitions Verbs are action words." по-русски? .How do you say ". walk.Сколько? . and the object is "him". you... she." mean in English? Where is the toilet." in Russian? Что значит ". him.. It (m) Она .What does ". For example: I. The subject is "I". he.21 rubles.Tell me please. Pronouns are words that can replace names.) Я-I Ты .It (n) Мы .She. it. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”.He.... It (f) Оно . Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.
and the second conjugation. or plural) Их . It is the most common. "ете" or "ют").To work. "ешь". Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.You work Он. Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. and once you get the hang of it. he works).Her. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". (Example: I work. "ем". (There are also some irregular verbs). but not as much. Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject.To understand. (infinitive.Они . dictionary form) .Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". "ет".n) Еѐ . and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person.Him. Они работают .You work. работать .You (informal) Его . It works. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. This happens a little in English. and add the appropriate ending ("ю".He. it is not too difficult. Мы работаем . It (f) Нас .They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". Just remember that unlike English.They work.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). She. "I am working" and "I do work". Both these patterns are quite similar. Она. Оно работает . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".("yevo") .We work Вы работаете . (infinitive.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work).I work Ты работаешь . It (m. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . You should memorise these pronouns. (Known as the accusative case) Меня .Us Вас . To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). dictionary form) Я работаю .Me Тебя .You (formal.
Оно знает . Оно говорит . Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).Do you know? Ты понимаешь? .They know.He. For example: Я не знаю . Она. She.You know.I speak. It understands Мы понимаем .Я понимаю . Ты понимаешь . (infinitive.He. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. dictionary form) Я говорю . Вы знаете .He. Он.You speak. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). Я не понимаю .They understand. Он.I don't understand. Он не понимает .We understand. Они понимают . Remember.I understand. There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation.We know. Мы говорим . You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? .I don't know. Они знают . . dictionary form) Я знаю . She. which replace "ить". It knows.I know. Он. Ты знаешь . Ты говоришь .To speak. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. Мы знаем .To know.We speak. Оно понимает . Знать .You understand. Она. Она. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).You understand. Вы понимаете . She. говорить .Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation.He doesn't understand. (infinitive.You know. It Speaks.
слышите .We live. слышим . Я живу .You speak. Вы живѐте .They go (by transport).You live.They speak. Оно живѐт . Она. Оно едет . Мы живѐм .He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . Мы едем . Она.You hear. Собака не говорит по-английски . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. you can often predict the endings.He. Они живут .I hear.I go (by transport). However. She. Вы едете . . Some examples: Ехать .We don't speak Russian. слышишь . Он. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above.You live. Они едут .They live.Вы говорите .You hear. often once you know the stem of the verb.I speak English Он говорит по-русски . She. слышит . For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Он. Я еду .To hear. Ты живѐшь . Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction.You go (by transport).Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . слышать . Они говорят . It hears. It lives. It goes (by transport).The dog doesn't speak English.We go (by transport).They hear. слышу .He. слышат . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).To live.To go (by transport). She.I live.He. except that "у" replaces "ю".You go (by transport).We hear. Ты едешь . Жить .
О. each noun is assigned a gender. paper.Is Masculine Дедушка . the word is masculine. name or place. (A. Cases . The letters А. Я.He is going home Definitions Noun .Is Masculine Мужчина . Ю. Papa) . 5.O. and neuter (neutral). У.Is Masculine Кофе . or “й”. In Russian we use 6 cases.I live in London.Is Masculine Дядя . In English we do this by having a strict word-order. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. Е. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. Ё.Is Masculine . unlike many languages. Russian has three genders: masculine.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. it will be in its dictionary form. (Except ь. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. Папа .(Uncle) .E. In the case of other objects like “pen”. 4. But there are five notable exceptions. Ы.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. In Russian.(Coffee) . Consonant .Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. И and Й. “house”. Example: dog.I. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. Moscow. cup. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. cat. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. Он едет домой .(Man) .A letter that is not a vowel. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. From the dictionary form of a noun. feminine. If it is a consonant. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence.(Daddy. 3.A noun is a thing. There are very few exceptions to these rules. Luckily.U in English). ъ because they have no sound). “cup”.(Grandfather) . as with many other languages. Э. pen. Vowel . If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . Gender of nouns. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.
In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun.. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. радио (radio). You may wish to do this to emphasise something. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. (In. документ (document). Хлеб (bread). and about. (Eg. at. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. Greek and German. Feminine : газета (newspaper). Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first.. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. Россия (Russia). so we will take it slowly.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport).. In Russian there are six cases. In fact it was also used in Old English. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now.. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. брат (brother). Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. and still keep the same meaning. For example. on. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. . To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English.
The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . Russian uses the case for all nouns. The Nominative Case. add “ы”.buildings) The Accusative Case. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. “ы”. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. especially pronouns. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. in the nominative case. In the sentence “I love her”. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. “я” or “а”. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence.Interestingly. In Russian. However. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. so there is nothing special to learn here. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . some remnants of the case system still exist in English. without changing the actual meaning. in this case the word “dog”. . In English we make a plural by adding “s”. not plants). For example. the word “I” is the subject. Russian is very free about word order. you need to use the accusative case also. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building .
Replace “я” with “ю”.I don't like music. Feminine Nouns: 1. Надя не любит вино . Он любит Москву .I love sport. add “я”. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Ты любишь музыку? . there is no change.I love Moscow.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . Я люблю музыку . 4. replace “ь”.Masculine Nouns: 1. If noun is animate. Иван любит чай .Nadya loves wine. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. If the noun in inanimate. Надя любит вино . Replace “а” with “у”. If noun is animate. 2. with “я”. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. replace “й”.Nadya doesn't like wine. . Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . add “а”. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. 2.He loves Moscow. Я не люблю музыку . 3. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant.Ivan loves tea. Neuter Nouns: 1.I love music.
to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .I am watching television. Читать . Я еѐ люблю . Я слушаю музыку . If you would like. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs.I am listening to music.I love you. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. Она любит меня .to work Хотеть .to think Работать . Слушать .She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". An example could be: Я знаю. . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . it is probably the conjunction "that".I am reading a magazine.to watch. Я читаю журнал .I am reading a book. Смотреть .What do you love? However.I know that you love music.I love him. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. Я слушаю радио . Что ты любишь? . The word "Что" has two uses.to read. You can use it to form questions. so don't be confused. что ты любишь музыку. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence.to listen Изучать .I love her. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Я читаю газету .to study Думать .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning.I am listening to the radio.
What? Как? .I love to read. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also.Where? Кто? . You can include it into many phrases.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . Я очень люблю Москву . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.I want tea.Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. Я так думаю . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".I really love sport.I love to travel. For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".I study Russian.How? Почему? . (lit: I study the Russian language). For example: Очень . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.Who? Что? . Где? . Add : “е”.I think so! Как вы думаете? . Я люблю путешествовать . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.I want to buy a magazine. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . Я хочу купить журнал .Я изучаю русский язык . Что вы хотите? . For example: Я люблю читать .very.I really love Moscow.
I live in Siberia. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Exception: Replace “ия”. Я живу в Петербурге . Я живу в Лондоне .What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . although these aren‟t precise rules.on the street Что на столе? . 4. (Eg.Where is she? на вокзале .On the table is a book and a pencil. Replace “я” with “е”. suburbs and places. „at work‟. Replace “а” with “е”.in the garden в лесу . “е” remains unchanged. Using prepositions and the prepositional case.theatre .cinema театр . it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. „at a station‟.I live in St.in the forest на улице . (Eg. even though they are not Russian. Petersburg. 2. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. Replace “о” with “е” 2. „at a concert‟). Here are some tips to help you. (They are in dicionary form) кино .I live in Moscow.Feminine Nouns: 1. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. As with any language. Replace “ь” with “и”. Я живу в Сибири .at the station на почте .at the post office в саду . 3.I live in London.
прямо потом направо .pharmacy парк .bank гостиница .I am going to school.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.library кафе .cafe площадь . you can tell this by the case. prepositions have more than one meaning.restaurant банк .I work at (in) a school.stadium школа . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. However.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .Straight ahead.school библиотека . and are grammatically quite complex. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). Both these words are verbs of motion.Straight ahead then to the right. but as these words are so important for basic Russian. we will introduce them now in a simple way.hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. The first indicates you are going on foot.hotel музей . Here are some examples for you to compare. your answer will involve the prepositional case.To the left. налево . When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).museum больница .аптека . So to express „to go‟ in Russian. прямо . Где вы работаете? . Куда вы идѐте .square ресторан .park стадион . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. направо . Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.To the right. there are actually four ways: . you would use the accusative case.
I am going to the university Ходить . Они едут ) Я еду в школу .He is going to London Ездить . or repetitively (Я езжу. Мы идѐм. Ты едешь. Мы ходим. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Он едет. in more than one direction. Он ездит .We are going to the cafe. Вы ездите.Идти . Ехать .He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Ты ездишь .He is going to the hotel by taxi. я иду в университет .To go on foot.I am going to school.I am going to school.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Вы едете. Ты идѐшь в кино? . in one direction. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . or repetitively. Я иду в кино .I am going to the cinema. Они идут) Я иду в школу . Вы ходите. (Я еду. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Он ходит. Ты ходишь. Мы едем в кафе .I go to the theatre every day.To go by transport. Он идѐт. Он едет в гостиницу на такси .I go to school. in more than one direction.To go by transport. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . Мы ездим.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .He is going to the hotel. (Я хожу. in one direction.To go on foot. Они часто ездят в Амстердам .We go to the cafe every day. Вы идѐте.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Я часто хожу в кино . Мы идѐм в кафе .I am going to the cinema on the metro. Мы едем.We are going to the cafe. Ты идѐшь. (Я иду.
grandfather Жена .children Внучка . Мои (pl) .husband Тѐтя .granddaughter Внук . Твои (pl) .my Твой (m).uncle Родители .Мать .grandmother Дедушка .father Мама . Наше (n).grandson Семья . Наша (f). У меня есть сын и дочь . For example we use the words mum and dad. Моѐ (n). У меня есть сестра .daughter Сын .dad Сестра . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now.I have a son and a daughter. У меня нет детей .wife Муж . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.mother Отец .I don't have any children.I have a sister. Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.our . Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10. her Наш (m). Твоѐ (n).son бабушка .brother Дочь . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. Твоя (f). У меня есть брат . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.his. Моя (f).family Just like English.your Его (m n) ("yevo"). Наши (pl) . Еѐ (f) . Мой (m).I have a brother. У тебя есть дети? .auntie Дядя .Do you have children?. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.parents Дети .mum Папа .sister Брат .
Ваши (pl) . Это мой дом .good afternoon Добрый вечер .Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт ..good evening Спокойной ночи .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету . Доброе утро . Ваше (n). However. Моя мама любит музыку .Ваш (m).goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .This is my house Это моя квартира . The Russian word Это means 'this is'. Ваша (f). Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. you may wish to say her name is Anna. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.good morning Добрый день .. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . This is.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . For example.his name is Ivan.Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .your Их .
This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English.Igor's telephone. Let's have a look at some more examples. Брат Адама любит Москву . Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. the object that is owned always comes first. Собака Адама . you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Replace “а” with “ы”. Replace “ь”.Adam's brother loves Moscow. with “я”.Adam's dog. Anna's) Дом Ивана . In the phrase "Дом Ивана". Replace “я” with “и”.ownership As you can see in the above example. If the noun ends in a consonant. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. Neuter Nouns: 1.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the .Anna's car. Feminine Nouns: 1. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. 3. in Russian. add “я”. Сестра Анны читает газету . add “а”. For example. Replace “ь” with “и”. 3. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. Replace “е” with “я” For example. pay particular attention to the order of the words. (This is like using 's in English). Replace “о” with “а” 2. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . However. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Using the genitive case . 2.Masculine Nouns: 1. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. Replace “й”.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). 2.
Ivan isn't here. У меня есть книга .‟. стакан молока . план города . When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here.Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . . but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. As we have seen in a previous lesson.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.There is no milk. This is exactly the same concept as above. Вас.He is not home. Его. Using the genitive case .A map of the city.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . Кофе нет . “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. Тебя.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning.She has a dog.. Ивана нет .Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .There is no coffee. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. Here are some examples.. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. Чая нет . As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. У нее есть собака. Generally.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. (Меня.sentence and uses the nominative case. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. Его нет дома . it is just easier to learn the concept by example.A glass of milk. Here are some examples. Нас. Молока нет . Их) Using the genitive case .There is no tea. У вас есть кофе? .to have As the genitive case relates to possession. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is).I have book. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . Еѐ.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .
The genitive case is used after most numbers. . For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.numbers. К. Ч. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) .студенты (students) газета (newspaper) .Using the genitive case . "ы". plurals.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals.Plural (Subject) In Russian. The Nominative Case . but don‟t worry. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. "я" or "а". Х. Ж.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) .Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. add “ы”. depending on whether the object is animate or not. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. in the nominative case. Ш. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. quantaties. you make a plural by using the letters "и". It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. for example "10 roubles".
You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals.ч.ш. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). let‟s see how to use them.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . but in Russian we use it for all numbers.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.The Genitive Case . . Анна любит книги . девушка . but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.Anna loves books. This may feel a little strange at first. Книги на столе . е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation.The books are on the table. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. (марка . now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. or whether you are just using general plurals. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). англичанка . For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.англичанок. Here are some examples. but in the plural form. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.газет (newspapers') здание .щ.марок. Ok. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.студентов (students') газета .
0.one hundred dollars шесть книг .three roubles четыре рубля . All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.eight buildings девять собак .ten roubles сто рублей .three dogs четыре доллара . три рубля . (example: 22. 4) (but not 12.4 If the number. 42. try using plurals that involve money. 13.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.five roubles десять рублей . Here are some examples.6. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.nine dogs десять студентов .four students три газеты . To help you get used to this concept.8.I know one girl один рубль . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.one rouble двадцать один рубль .one girl Я знаю одну девушку .3.two books три собаки . . 3 or 4.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1. then you should use the genitive singular case. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.9. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. одна девушка .four roubles две книги .one hundred roubles сто долларов . The number one declines like an adjective. 13 & 14). 21.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. 103.7.four dollars четыре студента . or the last digit of the number is 2.six books семь газет .seven newspapers восемь зданий .21 roubles один доллар . 14. Here are some examples. etc) пять рублей .one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. 61) (but not 11). 12.
Вова) .His name is Boris. Here are some other common Russian names for men. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .) Quantity not specified .What is his name? Его зовут Борис .Boris Владимир . Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.How old are you. Quantity ends in 1 .8.My name is Vera.Vladimir (Володя. Мне восемнадцать лет .Genitive Singular.3.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . Как его зовут? .4 .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.0. Much like “Мне холодно” .As per position in the sentence. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.Nikolay (Коля) Борис . Как вас зовут? .the dative case. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. Quantity ends in 5. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .6. Quantity ends in 2. ..7.. (Lit: To me there are 16 years)...I am 23 years old.Her name is Alyona.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). Как еѐ зовут? .What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .9.Genitive Plural General Quantity .So in summary.-надцать .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. Николай .
and а .Olga (Оля) Александра .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. Some of these may be new. This is like a pet name.Sergey Алексей . The diminuative is a more personal. Peter. There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .Yekaterina Анастасия .Andrey Александр . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .good morning Добрый день . Здравствуйте . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.good afternoon Добрый вечер .Oxana Екатерина .and/but (contrasting) . or tender form. Шура) Дмитрий . Андрей .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана . and should only be used when you are in close firendship.Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Thank-You Пожалуйста .Пѐтр . Елена .Pyotr.Alexander (Саша.Hello Привет .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you. Спасибо .Natalya (Наташа) Мария .good evening Спокойной ночи .Yelena (Лена) Наталья . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt. but try to learn them all. The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. You should be able to remember all of these.Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .
Дайте.There is no coffee.for (+accusative). где туалет? .along. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .you (formal/plural) его . .on. У вас есть чай? .you (informal) вы .her.".or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but".I want tea please. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".но .him. .My mum loves music. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. пожалуйста. onto.Give me please. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. We will use only common words. Скажите. so you should try to learn them all. it их . . я-I он . Он любит говорить по-английски. it еѐ .I know that you speak Russian. at (+prepositional). These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .about к . behind (+instrumental) из . to (+accusative) на .out of. . пожалуйста. it ты . кофе с молоком и с сахаром.from по . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. что ты говоришь по-русски. У вас есть водка? .but или . to (+accusative) о.Tell me please.near. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .What do you want? Я хочу чай.towards. coffee with milk and with sugar. to за . во . .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.with у . For example. In Russian we would use the word "а". You might also find some new words in these sentences. пожалуйста. from от .he. об .Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.There is no tea. . .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences.Do you have tea? Чая нет.in (+prepositional). Что вы хотите? .
I don't understand.How much? сто рублей . Я очень люблю Москву .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.How much? двадцать один рубль . Я думаю.I really love Moscow. Сестра Анны читает газету .Who? Что? . .I think that you understand.I really love sport.Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. Где? . Собака не говорит по-английски.4 dollars. Он хорошо говорит по-русски. Брат Адама любит Москву .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.What do you think? Где он? .Yes. .I am listening to music.Твой брат говорит по-русски? .The dog doesn't speak English.My sister is reading a newspaper.Who is he? Я читаю журнал .My Mum loves music. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . . Я очень люблю спорт . Я слушаю музыку .Where is he? Где кафе? .I know that you understand. Я не понимаю. что ты понимаешь. .100 roubles. сколько стоит? . сколько стоит? .I live in London.Why? Что ты знаешь? . Его нет дома .How much? четыре рубля . Почему ты не понимаешь? . He speaks Russian well. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .I am reading a magazine. что вы понимаете.4 roubles. .Adam's brother loves Moscow. Ты понимаешь? .How? Когда? .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .Do you understand? Я знаю.I am studying the Russian language.He is going home.What? Как? . Моя сестра читает газету . сколько стоит? .Where is the cafe? Кто он? . Моя мама любит музыку .When? Почему? .He is not home.Does your borther speak Russian? Да.Where? Кто? . Я изучаю русский язык .How much? четыре доллара .21 roubles. . сколько стоит? . Он едет домой .I understand.
Адаму Елена .Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case.them. 2. Replace “о” with “у” 2. or plural). Replace “ь”.me. add "ам".Forming the dative case. Мне . If the noun ends in a consonant.you (formal.him. Replace "а". we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Feminine Nouns: 1. 4. add “ю”. 3. To create nouns in the dative case. Replace “а” with “е”.Елене Молоко . Вам . 1. Replace “й”. Replace “я” with “е”. Ему (n). Нам . Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. it. 2. "о" or a consonant with "ам". Тебе . Ему (m). Replace “ь” with “и”. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. her. add “у”. 3.us.. .Молоку Вино . 3. 2. Им .. If the noun ends in a consonant. with “ю”. Адам . Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “ия” with “ии”.you (informal). Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. Ей (f) .
They give flowers to Elena. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English..give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. . (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”..I am helping this girl.give! Дайте . you need to be able to recognise cases effectively. . Дай .(I) give Даѐшь .(you) give Дают .(they) give The command forms of this word include.Give me .I give flowers to Anna.Give me your address and telephone number. Я помогаю этой девушке . The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case..to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .Ivan gives flowers to Anna. Они дают цветы Елене .. Я даю цветы Анне . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. Similarly.. Дайте мне .I am helping Anna. Мы помогаем маме каждый день . Я помогаю Ивану .(you) give Даѐт . . Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . Here are the conjuctions: Даю . the word “Anna” is the indirect object. It should be used in the dative case. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.I am helping Ivan.(we) give Даѐте . For this reason.Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.(he) gives Даѐм .. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”.We help mother every day.
He likes Moscow. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love).He is cold (to him its cold) . Мне нравится Москва . Адаму нравится Москва . Мне холодно . (lit: children are pleasing to me. However it is a common word. so it is enough for now just to learn this form.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.Звонить .Adam likes Moscow. However this verb is used differently. it is like saying “To me it is likable”. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. Иван звонит Анне каждый день .) Ему нравится Москва . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case.? . Мне нравятся цветы ..I like Moscow.? Как вам нравится фильм? .) Practice using the word нравится. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like).to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.. This is verb is also a reflexive verb. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. Вам нравится Москва .. so it is worth learning now.) Ей нравится Москва .How do you like . it is still worth learning these examples. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns.Ivan calls Anna every day. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns.I like the children..She likes Moscow. (The "ся" ending is reflexive).You like Moscow. Мне очень нравятся цветы . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. Как вам нравится . Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something.I like the flowers.I really like the flowers. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. and it relies on the dative case.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно .I like your children.She calls Ivan every day.
add “ом”. if stressed “ѐм”. Мы едем к друзьям .We are going to our friends. “ч”. Except. 2. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . Although the use of this proposition is too varied. then add “ем”. “ш” or “щ”.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года .I am 23 years old. to create an exact rule.. and has too many meanings. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Replace “ь”. All consonants. Replace “й”. 4.. add “ем”. “ц”.I am walking towards the station. . More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case.Ей холодно .I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. It is followed by the dative case. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). if stressed “ѐм”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . with “ем”.
3. 1. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Анной (Anna) студенты .женой (wife) Иван . 4. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Replace “а” with “ой”. ..молоком (milk) сметана . Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “ь” with “ью”. Except. Neuter Nouns: 1..I eat soup with a spoon. Олег режет мясо ножом .With. if stressed “ѐй”. The preposition: „с‟ . “ч”. Replace “я” with “ей”. “ц”. In English these words can have different meanings. Я ем суп ложкой . Accompanied by. “ш” or “щ”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. "о" with "ами".ложкой (spoon) нож . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Replace "а".ножом (knife) муж . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Examples.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Иван пишет карандашом . 2. All consonants.. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”..сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . add "ами".карандашом (pencil) ложка .мужем (husband) жена .Ivan writes with a pencil.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. 2. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .
My wife and I are going to the cafe. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.Him Ей . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .My husband and I are going to the cafe.For ease of pronunciation. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Иван с Анной идут в кафе.Ivan and I are going to school. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Иван с женой идут в кафе. пожалуйста.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Дайте.Nadya wants tea with lemon.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.You Им . кофе с молоком . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Have a look at the following Russian examples. . . пожалуйста. 2. . Мы с вами . Pronouns . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. In English we would use the word “and”. with Ivan”).Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Мной . it is often written as “со”. Here are some examples.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.Her . . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . „with you‟. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .I eat borsh with sour cream. „with him‟. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.Me Тобой .Please give me coffee with milk. However it is followed by the genitive case. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Ivan wants tea with milk.Me and you Notes: 1. Иван хочет чай с молоком .
The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.in winter весна .summer летом .winter зимой .in the morning день .It Нами .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . .You (plural) Ими .day. For example: лето .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .Us Вами .morning утром .in the afternoon вечер . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.autumn осенью .evening вечером . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.Them Seasons and parts of the day.Им . afternoon днѐм .spring весной .night ночью .in summer осень .in the evening ночь .in autumn зима .
is. быть .under Examples: За этим зданием . . .to remain as пользоваться .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . was заниматься .to use.Behind this building there is a school.In front of this school turn to the left. manage. for между . Под столом сидит кот.in front of под . Перед этой школой поверните налево.за . You will learn more about this in a later lesson.I was a doctor). govern являться . Над столом висит лампа. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.between над . beyond.to be interested in оказываться .to become увлекаться .to be engaged in.to be.control.to seem.above перед .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. (Example: Я был врачом . enjoy становиться/стать . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .Happy birthday С новым годом . to be occupied with интересоваться . was) has no present tense.Under the table the cat is sitting. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.to turn out to be оставаться .школа. . but it is something to keep in mind. is. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. .to be keen on управлять .The lamp is above the table. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.behind. You don't need to learn these verbs now.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . be The verb “Быть” (to be.
All consonants. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Replace "а". 2.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .. Я ем суп ложкой . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Replace “ь” with “ью”. with “ем”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . if stressed “ѐй”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . . "о" with "ами". Neuter Nouns: 1. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Examples. Except. Replace “ь”.. Replace “а” with “ой”. 1. “ч”. Иван пишет карандашом ..Ivan writes with a pencil.I eat soup with a spoon. 4. In English these words can have different meanings..студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. 4. then add “ем”.ножом (knife) муж . 2.Анной (Anna) студенты . Feminine Nouns: 1. “ц”.карандашом (pencil) ложка . add “ом”. Replace “й”. “ш” or “щ”.молоком (milk) сметана . “ч”. All consonants.ложкой (spoon) нож . if stressed “ѐм”. Except.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. 3. “ц”. add "ами".. Олег режет мясо ножом . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. 2. if stressed “ѐм”..женой (wife) Иван . “ш” or “щ”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. add “ем”. Replace “я” with “ей”.Masculine Nouns: 1.мужем (husband) жена .
Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. кофе с молоком . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. it is often written as “со”. Иван с Анной идут в кафе.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.Please give me coffee with milk.Ivan and I are going to school.Ivan wants tea with milk. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .My husband and I are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. пожалуйста. пожалуйста. Иван хочет чай с молоком . Have a look at the following Russian examples. with Ivan”). Мы с вами . However it is followed by the genitive case. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Pronouns . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.Instrumental Case . Иван с женой идут в кафе.The preposition: „с‟ . Accompanied by.Nadya wants tea with lemon. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .I eat borsh with sour cream. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. For ease of pronunciation.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. . . 2. Here are some examples. In English we would use the word “and”.With.Me and you Notes: 1.My wife and I are going to the cafe.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Дайте. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.
Them Seasons and parts of the day.night ночью . afternoon днѐм . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.You (plural) Ими .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .in the morning день .Her Им .morning утром .at night .Him Ей .Me Тобой .in the afternoon вечер .in summer осень .summer летом . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.in winter весна .in autumn зима .Us Вами . „with you‟. For example: лето .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.spring весной . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. „with him‟. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.You Им .evening вечером . Мной .in the evening ночь .It Нами .day.winter зимой .autumn осенью .
to be. быть .to remain as пользоваться . was заниматься .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.between над . .Under the table the cat is sitting.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .to turn out to be оставаться . Под столом сидит кот. beyond. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.Behind this building there is a school. but it is something to keep in mind. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. Перед этой школой поверните налево. . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.In front of this school turn to the left. .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . You don't need to learn these verbs now.to seem.behind. Над столом висит лампа.to be interested in оказываться . enjoy становиться/стать .Happy birthday С новым годом .The lamp is above the table.I was a doctor). Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.under Examples: За этим зданием . was) has no present tense. (Example: Я был врачом . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.to become увлекаться . manage.to use. for между . . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . за . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. is.школа.to be engaged in. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.to be keen on управлять . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. govern являться . to be occupied with интересоваться .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. . is.in front of под . .control. be The verb “Быть” (to be.above перед .
Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English. but in Russian there is simply one. The same principal also applies in the future tense. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.They knew Мы знали . You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.Olga knew Собака знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses.. 2nd or 3rd person).She knew Оно знало .I knew (male speaking) Я знала ..We knew Я знал . (ie 1st.Dima knew Елена знала .You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала . Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. it is conceptually quite easy.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .Elena knew Ольга знала . Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was..Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.Vladimir knew Дима знал .He knew Она знала . Although this concept differs from English.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. Let's have a look at the past tense now.It knew Они знали .The dog knew . or talk about something that has happened in the past. Он знал . Forming Verbs in Past Tense.
When using pronouns such as Я. habitual. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. Я работал .I was home. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. By definition something in the present tense is happening now.I run in the forest every day. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. There are two aspects in Russian.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”.I worked for 2 hours.I was working Я шѐл . Ты. ongoing. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. . . Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. . The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. Some tenses in English can indicate this. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. consequently each verb has two possible forms. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. Я работал каждый день . but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. reversed or repeated actions. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated.I worked everyday.She wants to buy a book. and is not complete. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . use the imperfective also. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. (often По-). so there is no perfective in the present tense. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. The Imperfective Aspect. Я работал два часа . and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned.
. . .Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. If you are still unsure which to use. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. .I failed to phone.She did not eat bananas. (but I was expected to). Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. .Yesterday we read an interesting article.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. Я не жила в Англии.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . Я не понял. Саша съел обед за пять минут.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. Она спросила учителя. что он сказал. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.I did not live in England. . .Did you tell him about it? .Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?.I went home.I did not understand what he said. .He did not want to see me. Он не хотел видеть меня. Perfective: Я не позвонила . . Я купил кофе .We did not watch the movie yesterday. . .Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. Questions and Aspects. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью.
except in the feminine. Оно не было . .She was Оно было . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). Они не были .They were not.I‟ve been to many countries. Я уже посетила Швецию . This is not the case in the past tense.He read for three hours. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.I was not (man speaking).I finished school when I was 16 years old. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.At school I started learning English.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.It was not. Я не был .I was (man speaking) Я была .It was Они были .We rented a summer house for three months. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. Я была во многих странах.I was (woman speaking) Он был .I was not (woman speaking). когда мне было 16 лет . Мы сняли дачу на три месяца. Я не была . The stress moves to the word 'не'. Я был . . .I‟ve already visited Sweden. В школе я начала учить английский. Я окончила школу. Он читал три часа. .He was Она была . .