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А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
восемьсот 900 .пятнадцать 16 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).семьсот 800 .четыреста 500 .шестнадцать 17 .четырнадцать 15 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way. The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English. It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.пятьдесят 60 .тринадцать 14 .семнадцать 18 .девятьсот .семьдесят 80 .пятьсот 600 .11 .двадцать три 24 .двадцать два 23 . (You will need to drop the soft sign. Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.сто 200 .тридцать 40 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".двести 300 . 30 . Here are some examples: 20 .сорок 50 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.шестьсот 700 .одиннадцать 12 .девяносто 100 .двадцать один 22 .двенадцать 13 .восемнадцать 19 .восемьдесят 90 .двадцать 21 .шестьдесят 70 . quite similar to English.триста 400 .
007 2.345 23. Да ("da") .000. you can basically forget the "уй". 0 . after somebody says thank-you.000 . The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. .сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. You should always say this after someone thanks you.000.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.Yes Нет ("nyet") .тысяча 1.812 Please and Thank-You. Yes and No.миллион 1.000 .000 1.008 2.000 .миллиард For example: 131 . Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.000.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .994 1.564 2.1.No Saying Hello. 456 219 9. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") . Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".
Introducing Yourself.. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") .Do you (formal) speak Russian? . Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. In order to introduce yourself. you may need the following phrases. If all else fails. There are two forms of this word. However. If somebody says Привет to you.. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") .My name is .. and should only be used with friends. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . ("min-ya za-voot") . except for the question mark. not the individual words.How are things? Хорошо спасибо . which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. slang) You should generally use до свидания..Bad Saying Good-Bye.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") .Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. You should just learn the whole phrase. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. Привет is also commonly used with friends. there is no difference between the question and the statement. but we suggest you only use it with friends.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English).When you are in Russia and you meet somebody.Good-bye. There are also two words for saying good-bye. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .Good/Well thank-you Плохо .Pleased to meet you. You may also hear people say Пока.Bye (Informal. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. Меня зовут . Вы говорите по-английски? . How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . put a real questioning expression on your face. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.
где кафе? . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.. Скажите.Wine Вода .Juice Борщ .Vodka Пиво . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню ..Soup Торт .Beer Вино .Milk Кока-Кола . пожалуйста.Tea Молоко . where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Coca-Cola Лимонад . It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Menu Кофе . пожалуйста.Coffee Чай ... Скажите. пожалуйста. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café..Tell me please. where is a cafe? Скажите.Russian beetroot soup Суп .Water . . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.I understand Я не понимаю .Tell me please.I speak Russian Я понимаю .Lemonade Сок . пожалуйста. где бар? .Я говорю по-английски .I speak English Я говорю по-русски . где ближайшее кафе? .Tell me please.I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia. You could ask people with the following phrases.Cake Водка .Tell me please. Скажите..
Что это? .No.? If you want to ask someone if they have something..Give me please.What? Что вы хотите? ..Please give me coffee. ... (Just learn the whole phrase. you can use the following phrase. it is gramatically unusual). How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. . кофе .It is coffee. Here are some Russian phrases you might need.How much is it?.. это кофе.. you will generally get straight vodka.? . .. пожалуйста .Excuse me. Do you have.Please give me coffee with milk. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order.I want. кофе с молоком . пожалуйста.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . it is tea.. пожалуйста. У вас есть . . Простите.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Дайте.... это чай. пожалуйста. Дайте.What do you want? Я хочу . чай. is it coffee? Нет. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? . when you order vodka in russia. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") ..Be careful. .Do you have ... Дайте.What is it? Это кофе. пожалуйста.Please give me tea.. Дайте.. Examples: Дайте... You can use it to ask the price of something. Сколько стоит? . . ..
or plural) . her." in Russian? Что значит "..21 rubles. Скажите. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".How do you say ".You (formal.. him.Сколько? . For example: run..) Я-I Ты .. walk.Tell me please. Here are some useful phrases. Pronouns are words that can replace names. (Known as the nominative case. she. want. It (m) Она . It (f) Оно .How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль .. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence. and the object is "him". It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian.We Вы .She. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. they are things you can do.What does ". eat. The subject is "I". Где Туалет .He." mean in English? Where is the toilet. love.It (n) Мы . In the sentence "I love him".. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж"....How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .. he...You (informal) Он . For example: I. "love" is the verb. it." на английском? .. Definitions Verbs are action words. Пожалуйста ...." по-русски? . Как сказать ".? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is. you.
This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. This happens a little in English. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . it is not too difficult. Both these patterns are quite similar.We work Вы работаете . dictionary form) Я работаю .Him.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you".He.To understand.Her. Мы работаем . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". (Known as the accusative case) Меня . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence.You work. It is the most common. Она. "ете" or "ют"). To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть").Me Тебя . "ешь". dictionary form) . and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. Они работают . работать .You work Он. but not as much. he works). (Example: I work.To work.They work.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). Оно работает .Us Вас . Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. and once you get the hang of it. (There are also some irregular verbs).n) Еѐ . She. "ет".("yevo") . (infinitive. "I am working" and "I do work". It (f) Нас .Они .I work Ты работаешь . "ем". Just remember that unlike English. and the second conjugation. It (m.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". (infinitive. Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. It works.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". You should memorise these pronouns. or plural) Их .You (formal.You (informal) Его . and add the appropriate ending ("ю".
Она. говорить .I understand. Они знают .I don't understand.He. Remember. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).I don't know. She.He doesn't understand.You speak. Я не понимаю . You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? .You understand. Ты знаешь . Она. Он.I know. Ты понимаешь . Он не понимает . which replace "ить".He. It understands Мы понимаем .To speak. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. Она. Мы говорим .Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).They know. Оно говорит . Ты говоришь . Они понимают . She. (infinitive. Знать . For example: Я не знаю . Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. Вы знаете . Мы знаем . Он. Оно понимает . Вы понимаете . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation.You understand. It Speaks. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. She.We understand.Я понимаю . dictionary form) Я говорю .We speak. (infinitive.They understand.He.I speak.We know. Оно знает .You know. Он. It knows.To know.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. . dictionary form) Я знаю .You know. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат").
The dog doesn't speak English. слышат . It hears.We hear. Он. слышит . Мы едем . It lives.We don't speak Russian. Оно живѐт .We go (by transport). Они едут . For Example: Я говорю по-английски .They hear. She. except that "у" replaces "ю".To hear.He.Вы говорите . слышим . Оно едет .To go (by transport). Она. (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian.I go (by transport).You go (by transport).They speak.To live. слышу . Some examples: Ехать . Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. .He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? .You hear.He.You speak.I hear. She. Они говорят . Вы живѐте . Жить . It goes (by transport).I speak English Он говорит по-русски .You live.They go (by transport). слышать . She. Мы живѐм . Вы едете .You hear.He. However.You live. Я еду . Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Ты едешь .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . Они живут . you can often predict the endings. Ты живѐшь . слышишь . Я живу . often once you know the stem of the verb. Он.I live.They live.We live. слышите . Собака не говорит по-английски .You go (by transport). Она.
cat. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine.I. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. Э.Is Masculine Дядя . (A. “cup”. the word is masculine. In Russian. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case.A noun is a thing. Papa) . ъ because they have no sound). О.E. “house”. it will be in its dictionary form. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . Ё. feminine. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine.Is Masculine Дедушка . paper.Is Masculine Мужчина . Ю. The letters А. or “й”. (Except ь.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. and neuter (neutral). 3. each noun is assigned a gender. 5. Russian has three genders: masculine. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. as with many other languages. Е. Я. Ы. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. Moscow.U in English). 4. pen. In Russian we use 6 cases. У. Vowel .(Grandfather) .Is Masculine . unlike many languages.I live in London.O. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender.(Coffee) . Папа . From the dictionary form of a noun. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. Он едет домой . Luckily.(Man) . In the case of other objects like “pen”. There are very few exceptions to these rules. If it is a consonant.He is going home Definitions Noun . But there are five notable exceptions.(Daddy. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender.(Uncle) . Cases . name or place. Example: dog.Is Masculine Кофе .A letter that is not a vowel. Consonant . this occurs mainly because of physical gender.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. И and Й. Gender of nouns. cup. In English we do this by having a strict word-order.
(Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. брат (brother). and about. and still keep the same meaning. In Russian there are six cases.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. Россия (Russia). It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. Хлеб (bread). (Eg. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system.. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. Feminine : газета (newspaper). Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. on. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building).Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. The case system is also used in languages like Latin.. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. радио (radio).. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. For example. at. (In. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. In fact it was also used in Old English. Greek and German.. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. so we will take it slowly. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. документ (document). and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. .
We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. not plants). In the sentence “I love her”. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. However. “я” or “а”. . The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . in the nominative case. “ы”. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. in this case the word “dog”. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”.buildings) The Accusative Case. add “ы”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. In Russian. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. the word “I” is the subject. especially pronouns. Russian uses the case for all nouns.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . without changing the actual meaning. Russian is very free about word order. so there is nothing special to learn here. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. The Nominative Case. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. you need to use the accusative case also. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. For example. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . some remnants of the case system still exist in English. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. In English we make a plural by adding “s”.Interestingly. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first.
Ivan loves tea. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. 2.I love music. replace “ь”. Я не люблю музыку . Надя не любит вино . If noun is animate. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant.I love Moscow. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . Replace “а” with “у”. Ты любишь музыку? . 4. replace “й”. . Feminine Nouns: 1. add “я”. Neuter Nouns: 1. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт .Nadya doesn't like wine. If the noun in inanimate. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson.Masculine Nouns: 1. there is no change. Он любит Москву . 3.He loves Moscow. Иван любит чай . add “а”.I love sport. with “я”. Надя любит вино . Я люблю музыку . 2. If noun is animate.Nadya loves wine.I don't like music. Replace “я” with “ю”.
I am listening to the radio. .to think Работать . Она любит меня .I am watching television. it is probably the conjunction "that".What do you love? However.to watch. что ты любишь музыку. .I love him. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. Я читаю журнал . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .I am reading a magazine.I am listening to music.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .to read. An example could be: Я знаю.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". Я читаю газету .I know that you love music."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. Я слушаю музыку . If you would like. Смотреть . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs.to work Хотеть . Что ты любишь? . Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.to listen Изучать .to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор . The word "Что" has two uses.I am reading a book.I love you. Я еѐ люблю . You can use it to form questions. Читать . Слушать . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here.I love her. Я слушаю радио .to study Думать . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. so don't be confused.
Что вы хотите? . For example: Очень .I study Russian. Я люблю путешествовать . Я очень люблю Москву . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . (lit: I study the Russian language). Add : “е”.I think so! Как вы думаете? . For example: Я люблю читать . Я хочу купить журнал .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.How? Почему? .Я изучаю русский язык .I love to travel. In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Я так думаю .Where? Кто? .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. You can include it into many phrases.I love to read.I really love Moscow.Who? Что? . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".very.What? Как? .I want tea. Где? . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .I want to buy a magazine.I really love sport.
„at a concert‟). Here are some tips to help you. Using prepositions and the prepositional case. Replace “я” with “е”. Exception: Replace “ия”. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. (They are in dicionary form) кино . “е” remains unchanged.on the street Что на столе? .Feminine Nouns: 1.I live in St. „at a station‟.Where is she? на вокзале .I live in Moscow. „at work‟. 2.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .at the post office в саду . Я живу в Лондоне . You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . 4. (Eg. suburbs and places. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Replace “ь” with “и”. Petersburg. (Eg. even though they are not Russian. Я живу в Сибири .in the garden в лесу .at the station на почте .On the table is a book and a pencil.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш .theatre . 3. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. As with any language. although these aren‟t precise rules.in the forest на улице . Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. Я живу в Петербурге . Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . Replace “о” with “е” 2. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities.cinema театр . Replace “а” with “е”.I live in Siberia. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”.I live in London.
Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. prepositions have more than one meaning.bank гостиница .stadium школа . Both these words are verbs of motion. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. направо .park стадион .аптека .library кафе . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). прямо . However. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.museum больница .square ресторан . Here are some examples for you to compare. прямо потом направо .I work at (in) a school.To the left. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟.I am going to school. you can tell this by the case. налево . and are grammatically quite complex. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. The first indicates you are going on foot.pharmacy парк .Straight ahead then to the right. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). Куда вы идѐте . we will introduce them now in a simple way.school библиотека . you would use the accusative case. Где вы работаете? .restaurant банк . your answer will involve the prepositional case.hotel музей .Straight ahead.To the right.cafe площадь . So to express „to go‟ in Russian. but as these words are so important for basic Russian. there are actually four ways: . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .
To go on foot. Ехать .He is going to the hotel. Мы едем. Мы идѐм. (Я еду. Мы ездим.We go to the cafe every day. Я часто хожу в кино .I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день . Он ходит.To go by transport.I go to the theatre every day.To go by transport. Он ездит . Они идут) Я иду в школу . Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Они часто ездят в Амстердам .To go on foot. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро .I am going to school.He is going to the hotel by taxi.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу .I am going to school. Ты едешь. Вы ходите. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . in one direction. Ты ездишь .I go to school. Ты идѐшь в кино? .He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Я иду в кино . (Я иду. Ты ходишь. я иду в университет . Мы ходим. Он идѐт. Мы едем в кафе .We are going to the cafe.Идти . in more than one direction. in more than one direction. Вы ездите. Ты идѐшь. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Мы идѐм в кафе . Вы едете. or repetitively (Я езжу. in one direction. or repetitively.He is going to London Ездить . (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . (Я хожу. Вы идѐте.I am going to the cinema.We are going to the cafe.I am going to the university Ходить . Он едет.I am going to the cinema on the metro.
Еѐ (f) . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.granddaughter Внук . For example we use the words mum and dad.daughter Сын . Наша (f). Наши (pl) . У меня нет детей .Мать .brother Дочь .his.family Just like English.father Мама .our . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now.Do you have children?. У меня есть брат . Моѐ (n). Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. her Наш (m).son бабушка . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. Мой (m).parents Дети .wife Муж .grandson Семья . Твоѐ (n). Here are some Russian phrases you could use. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.I have a son and a daughter.dad Сестра .children Внучка . Твоя (f).grandmother Дедушка .I have a brother. Наше (n). Мои (pl) .uncle Родители . Твои (pl) . У меня есть сестра .auntie Дядя . Моя (f).grandfather Жена .husband Тѐтя .mother Отец . У тебя есть дети? .sister Брат . Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.mum Папа .your Его (m n) ("yevo"). У меня есть сын и дочь .I don't have any children.my Твой (m).I have a sister.
This is my house Это моя квартира . Ваше (n). Моя мама любит музыку . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know. you may wish to say her name is Anna. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.good morning Добрый день .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . Ваши (pl) . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.your Их .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .good evening Спокойной ночи . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .his name is Ivan. For example. This is. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.good afternoon Добрый вечер .My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .Ваш (m). Доброе утро .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case . The Russian word Это means 'this is'.Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally. Это мой дом . However. Ваша (f).Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт ..my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3..My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .
(lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Replace “е” with “я” For example. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . Neuter Nouns: 1. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam.Adam's brother loves Moscow.ownership As you can see in the above example.Adam's dog. Replace “й”. add “я”. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". Собака Адама . Using the genitive case . 3. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. the object that is owned always comes first. Replace “я” with “и”.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. (This is like using 's in English). Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. pay particular attention to the order of the words. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Replace “ь” with “и”. For example. 3.Masculine Nouns: 1. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. However. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. Брат Адама любит Москву .Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. 2. in Russian. Feminine Nouns: 1. with “я”. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. add “а”. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession.Igor's telephone. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. If the noun ends in a consonant.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan).Anna's car. 2. Replace “а” with “ы”. Сестра Анны читает газету . Anna's) Дом Ивана . Let's have a look at some more examples. Replace “ь”. Replace “о” with “а” 2.
Using the genitive case . Generally. У нее есть собака. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) .She has a dog. Here are some examples. У вас есть кофе? . As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. .. (Меня.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. Нас. Кофе нет .I have book.. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. У меня есть книга . These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained.A glass of milk. Их) Using the genitive case . Его.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Его нет дома . As we have seen in a previous lesson. Ивана нет . but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . Молока нет .He is not home. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here.There is no coffee.A map of the city. Чая нет . план города .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Here are some examples. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.Ivan isn't here.There is no milk. Еѐ. стакан молока .to have As the genitive case relates to possession.There is no tea.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning.sentence and uses the nominative case. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. This is exactly the same concept as above. Тебя. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. Вас.‟.
First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г.numbers. but don‟t worry. quantaties. in the nominative case. "я" or "а". For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . It is quite a bit of information to present all at once.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . you make a plural by using the letters "и". depending on whether the object is animate or not. Ш.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) .) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . The Nominative Case .Plural (Subject) In Russian. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. Х. .Using the genitive case . Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. К.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. add “ы”. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. "ы". for example "10 roubles". This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. plurals. Ч. Ж. The genitive case is used after most numbers.
Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.ш. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals.щ. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. Анна любит книги . These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. . or whether you are just using general plurals.ч. Ok.студентов (students') газета . In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.The Genitive Case . For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). but in Russian we use it for all numbers.марок.англичанок.газет (newspapers') здание . (марка .Anna loves books. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. This may feel a little strange at first.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. let‟s see how to use them. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. Книги на столе . but in the plural form.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . англичанка . For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. Here are some examples.The books are on the table. девушка .
then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. or the last digit of the number is 2. etc) пять рублей .three dogs четыре доллара .three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.9.three roubles четыре рубля . You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. одна девушка . 14.seven newspapers восемь зданий . 13.8.ten roubles сто рублей .I know one girl один рубль .one dollar Numbers ending in : 2. 12. три рубля . Here are some examples. 4) (but not 12.6.. 103.four dollars четыре студента .Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.one hundred dollars шесть книг .four roubles две книги .one girl Я знаю одну девушку .3. try using plurals that involve money. 61) (but not 11).eight buildings девять собак .4 If the number. 42. 3 or 4.five roubles десять рублей . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.0.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. (example: 22.one hundred roubles сто долларов . 21. . 13 & 14).four students три газеты .7. The number one declines like an adjective. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.six books семь газет . then you should use the genitive singular case.one rouble двадцать один рубль . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.21 roubles один доллар . Here are some examples. To help you get used to this concept.nine dogs десять студентов .two books три собаки .
Вова) .As per position in the sentence. Quantity ends in 5..Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.the dative case..What is his name? Его зовут Борис .How old are you.0. Much like “Мне холодно” .Genitive Singular.I am 23 years old.Vladimir (Володя.6.3. Как еѐ зовут? . Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction. .My name is Vera.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. Quantity ends in 2.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .Her name is Alyona.9.) Quantity not specified . Quantity ends in 1 . Мне восемнадцать лет .4 .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.So in summary. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? . Here are some other common Russian names for men. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.Boris Владимир .His name is Boris. Как вас зовут? . Как его зовут? .Nikolay (Коля) Борис . You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.-надцать .8..I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .7.Genitive Plural General Quantity . (Lit: To me there are 16 years).. Николай .
Андрей . Елена . Some of these may be new. here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Sergey Алексей . Peter.Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Hello Привет .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Alexander (Саша.Andrey Александр .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .good afternoon Добрый вечер .Pyotr.Пѐтр . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). Здравствуйте . but try to learn them all. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Olga (Оля) Александра . You should be able to remember all of these.Natalya (Наташа) Мария .Thank-You Пожалуйста .Oxana Екатерина .Mariya (Маша) Ольга . This is like a pet name. The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. Шура) Дмитрий .and а .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons. The diminuative is a more personal.good morning Добрый день .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .Yelena (Лена) Наталья .good evening Спокойной ночи . Спасибо .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Yekaterina Анастасия .and/but (contrasting) . and should only be used when you are in close firendship. There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . or tender form.
in (+prepositional).along. it ты .What do you want? Я хочу чай. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. You might also find some new words in these sentences. to (+accusative) о.He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.you (informal) вы . . во .from по .about к .her. . so you should try to learn them all.out of. У вас есть водка? . где туалет? .". by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.near.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but".I know that you speak Russian.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . кофе с молоком и с сахаром.you (formal/plural) его . . In Russian we would use the word "а". (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns. Скажите.with у .Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. что ты говоришь по-русски. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . пожалуйста. it еѐ .но .Give me please. об .Tell me please. я-I он .but или . onto. пожалуйста. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". from от .There is no coffee. We will use only common words.for (+accusative). пожалуйста. to за . at (+prepositional).he. . These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . Он любит говорить по-английски. behind (+instrumental) из . . coffee with milk and with sugar. to (+accusative) на . .towards. У вас есть чай? .There is no tea.on.him. For example.Do you have tea? Чая нет.I want tea please. .My mum loves music.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Дайте. it их . Что вы хотите? .
Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . . . сколько стоит? . . . Я слушаю музыку . .Who? Что? .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .Where is he? Где кафе? . . Его нет дома .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . что ты понимаешь.When? Почему? .I understand. Он хорошо говорит по-русски. Он едет домой . Я очень люблю Москву .How much? сто рублей . .My sister is reading a newspaper. Я не понимаю.21 roubles.100 roubles.4 roubles.I really love sport. Я думаю.I don't understand. He speaks Russian well. Моя сестра читает газету . сколько стоит? .I live in London.I think that you understand.I know that you understand. Я изучаю русский язык .Who is he? Я читаю журнал . Моя мама любит музыку .How much? четыре рубля .How much? двадцать один рубль .Does your borther speak Russian? Да.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .He is not home.What do you think? Где он? .I am listening to music. Где? . Брат Адама любит Москву .The dog doesn't speak English. Я очень люблю спорт .4 dollars. Сестра Анны читает газету .Why? Что ты знаешь? .Do you understand? Я знаю.I am studying the Russian language.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.My Mum loves music.Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .How much? четыре доллара .I really love Moscow. Собака не говорит по-английски.How? Когда? . что вы понимаете. Почему ты не понимаешь? .What? Как? . Ты понимаешь? .Твой брат говорит по-русски? .I am reading a magazine. сколько стоит? .Where? Кто? .He is going home.Adam's brother loves Moscow.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. сколько стоит? .Yes.
add “ю”. Masculine Nouns: 1. add "ам". 2. 4. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. Replace “ь” with “и”. 3. "о" or a consonant with "ам". add “у”. Мне .us. Replace “ия” with “ии”. Вам . 1. or plural).him. Ему (m). Им . it. Ей (f) . Replace “я” with “е”. Replace “й”. 2.Адаму Елена . her. Нам . Ему (n). Тебе .you (formal. with “ю”. Replace “ь”.Forming the dative case...them. Neuter Nouns: 1. If the noun ends in a consonant. Replace “а” with “е”. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Адам .Елене Молоко . Replace “о” with “у” 2.you (informal). we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Replace "а". 3.me. 2. To create nouns in the dative case. Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. .Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. 3.Молоку Вино . If the noun ends in a consonant.
give! Дайте . Я даю цветы Анне . For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона.I give flowers to Anna. the word “Anna” is the indirect object. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case..Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object.. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.(I) give Даѐшь . Они дают цветы Елене . . It should be used in the dative case.(he) gives Даѐм . Дайте мне .(they) give The command forms of this word include.. For this reason.They give flowers to Elena. . Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . Мы помогаем маме каждый день .give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson.We help mother every day.(we) give Даѐте . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .Give me . Я помогаю Ивану . Дай . Most of these involve giving something or communicating something.(you) give Даѐт . The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case..Give me your address and telephone number. Similarly. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively. Я помогаю этой девушке .I am helping Ivan.(you) give Дают ..Ivan gives flowers to Anna. . Here are the conjuctions: Даю . In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”.I am helping Anna..I am helping this girl. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.
I really like the flowers. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. so it is worth learning now. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like).Звонить .Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . However this verb is used differently. Иван звонит Анне каждый день . Мне холодно . Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. and it relies on the dative case.? .He is cold (to him its cold) ..) Practice using the word нравится.She calls Ivan every day.Ivan calls Anna every day.. Вам нравится Москва .She likes Moscow.You like Moscow.I like the flowers.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? .) Ей нравится Москва . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. it is like saying “To me it is likable”. Мне нравится Москва .. Мне нравятся цветы . Мне очень нравятся цветы . To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love).I like your children. (lit: children are pleasing to me. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns.He likes Moscow. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. (The "ся" ending is reflexive). so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. Адаму нравится Москва .I like Moscow. so it is enough for now just to learn this form. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet.I like the children.How do you like .) Ему нравится Москва .Adam likes Moscow. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день .? Как вам нравится фильм? . it is still worth learning these examples. This is verb is also a reflexive verb. Как вам нравится . However it is a common word.I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet.
I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . add “ем”. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. 2. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. “ц”. if stressed “ѐм”. to create an exact rule. and has too many meanings. if stressed “ѐм”.I am walking towards the station. add “ом”. All consonants.. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". with “ем”. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “й”.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года .Ей холодно .We are going to our friends. Replace “ь”. Although the use of this proposition is too varied.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно .. 4. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. then add “ем”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). It is followed by the dative case. “ш” or “щ”.I am 23 years old. . Мы едем к друзьям . “ч”. Except.
.Ivan writes with a pencil. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. if stressed “ѐй”. 2. “ч”. “ц”. Олег режет мясо ножом .женой (wife) Иван . "о" with "ами". Replace "а". Replace “я” with “ей”.ножом (knife) муж . 4.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Neuter Nouns: 1. All consonants.Анной (Anna) студенты .. Replace “ь” with “ью”.мужем (husband) жена . The preposition: „с‟ . 1. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.With.молоком (milk) сметана . “ш” or “щ”. 3. Accompanied by. Я ем суп ложкой . Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.I eat soup with a spoon. In English these words can have different meanings.. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. Examples.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.ложкой (spoon) нож . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. 2.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .Feminine Nouns: 1.. Иван пишет карандашом . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Replace “а” with “ой”. Except.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.карандашом (pencil) ложка . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. add "ами"..
Me and you Notes: 1. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Ivan wants tea with milk. пожалуйста. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. However it is followed by the genitive case.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Мы с вами .Please give me coffee with milk. кофе с молоком . .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.Nadya wants tea with lemon.My wife and I are going to the cafe. In English we would use the word “and”. „with you‟.Ivan and I are going to school. but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. пожалуйста.Her . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Иван хочет чай с молоком . „with him‟.I eat borsh with sour cream. Мной .My husband and I are going to the cafe. 2. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Иван с женой идут в кафе.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .Me Тобой .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.You Им .Him Ей . with Ivan”).Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.For ease of pronunciation.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Дайте. . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. it is often written as “со”. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Have a look at the following Russian examples. Here are some examples. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Pronouns . Анна с мужем идут в кафе.
afternoon днѐм .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.spring весной .Им .in summer осень .in winter весна .in the evening ночь .in the afternoon вечер .in autumn зима .You (plural) Ими .Us Вами .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .evening вечером .autumn осенью .day.Them Seasons and parts of the day. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. For example: лето .winter зимой .morning утром .It Нами .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .summer летом .in the morning день .night ночью . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.
to use. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.behind.to be engaged in.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . was заниматься .to be. .to be keen on управлять .to become увлекаться .control. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.to remain as пользоваться . . enjoy становиться/стать . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . быть . beyond. . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case .under Examples: За этим зданием . You don't need to learn these verbs now.Under the table the cat is sitting.школа. govern являться .between над . Над столом висит лампа. but it is something to keep in mind. Перед этой школой поверните налево. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.to be interested in оказываться .to turn out to be оставаться . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. to be occupied with интересоваться .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. for между .за . was) has no present tense.in front of под . You will learn more about this in a later lesson.Happy birthday С новым годом .I was a doctor). is. be The verb “Быть” (to be. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.Behind this building there is a school. Под столом сидит кот.to seem.above перед .The lamp is above the table. . manage.In front of this school turn to the left. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. is. (Example: Я был врачом .
мужем (husband) жена . “ш” or “щ”. “ц”. Replace “а” with “ой”. “ч”. 2. 4. All consonants.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.. 3.. Replace “ь”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. 1.. Examples. add "ами". if stressed “ѐм”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. Replace “й”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .молоком (milk) сметана .Анной (Anna) студенты . if stressed “ѐй”.. Feminine Nouns: 1. with “ем”. “ч”. if stressed “ѐм”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. All consonants. In English these words can have different meanings.ножом (knife) муж . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . then add “ем”. Replace “ь” with “ью”. Я ем суп ложкой . Neuter Nouns: 1. “ц”. 4. "о" with "ами". Replace “я” with “ей”. Иван пишет карандашом .карандашом (pencil) ложка .ложкой (spoon) нож .. 2.. . Олег режет мясо ножом . add “ем”.женой (wife) Иван .I eat soup with a spoon.Ivan writes with a pencil. Except.Masculine Nouns: 1. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. “ш” or “щ”. 2. Except. add “ом”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Replace "а".
My wife and I are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Иван с женой идут в кафе.Nadya wants tea with lemon. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Дайте. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.The preposition: „с‟ . .With. Мы с вами .Me and you Notes: 1. However it is followed by the genitive case.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Иван хочет чай с молоком .My husband and I are going to the cafe.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Pronouns . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Иван с Анной идут в кафе.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. In English we would use the word “and”. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. пожалуйста.Ivan and I are going to school. . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Instrumental Case .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Ivan wants tea with milk. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . For ease of pronunciation.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. 2. with Ivan”). пожалуйста. Accompanied by. Here are some examples.I eat borsh with sour cream. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. it is often written as “со”.
in summer осень .in the afternoon вечер .day.evening вечером .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. For example: лето .spring весной . „with you‟.night ночью . „with him‟.Her Им . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.You Им .You (plural) Ими .Them Seasons and parts of the day.winter зимой .in winter весна . Мной .Him Ей .in the morning день .in autumn зима .Me Тобой .in the evening ночь .at night . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.summer летом .autumn осенью .morning утром . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. afternoon днѐм .Us Вами .It Нами .
Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. . You will learn more about this in a later lesson.to turn out to be оставаться . to be occupied with интересоваться . was заниматься . за . enjoy становиться/стать .in front of под .Under the table the cat is sitting. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.школа.control.to be interested in оказываться .to be engaged in.behind. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .Behind this building there is a school. . (Example: Я был врачом . Перед этой школой поверните налево.I was a doctor). but it is something to keep in mind. .to seem. You don't need to learn these verbs now.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . manage.In front of this school turn to the left. was) has no present tense. is. быть .under Examples: За этим зданием . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.to use. . Над столом висит лампа. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.to become увлекаться .Happy birthday С новым годом . for между . govern являться .to be keen on управлять .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.to be.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. be The verb “Быть” (to be. beyond. is.to remain as пользоваться .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.above перед .Between lunch and dinner drink tea.between над . Под столом сидит кот. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. .The lamp is above the table.
Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not..They knew Мы знали . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. Let's have a look at the past tense now. but in Russian there is simply one. (ie 1st. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.It knew Они знали .I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . Он знал .The dog knew .. Although this concept differs from English. 2nd or 3rd person).Vladimir knew Дима знал . Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.I knew (male speaking) Я знала .You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .. it is conceptually quite easy.She knew Оно знало .He knew Она знала . You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings.Elena knew Ольга знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. The same principal also applies in the future tense.Dima knew Елена знала .Olga knew Собака знала . Forming Verbs in Past Tense.Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.We knew Я знал . Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. or talk about something that has happened in the past.
Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs.I worked everyday. reversed or repeated actions. . and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. When using pronouns such as Я.I run in the forest every day. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.She wants to buy a book. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. Ты.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. Simply conjugate them as discussed above.I was working Я шѐл .I worked for 2 hours. There are two aspects in Russian. Я работал каждый день . The perfective and the imperfective aspect. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. Я работал два часа . There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. ongoing. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. consequently each verb has two possible forms. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . and is not complete. so there is no perfective in the present tense.I was home. use the imperfective also. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. Я работал . The following sentences are habitual or are repeated.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. The Imperfective Aspect. . habitual. . The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. (often По-). Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. Some tenses in English can indicate this. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished.
. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?.I did not live in England.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. If you are still unsure which to use. .He did not want to see me.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . Я купил кофе .I did not understand what he said. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. Саша съел обед за пять минут. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Он не хотел видеть меня.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. Я не понял. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. (but I was expected to). Она спросила учителя. . . . . Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью.We did not watch the movie yesterday.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. что он сказал. . .Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . .Yesterday we read an interesting article.She did not eat bananas.I failed to phone. . Perfective: Я не позвонила .Did you tell him about it? .I went home.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. Я не жила в Англии. Questions and Aspects.
Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.I was not (woman speaking). .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. This is not the case in the past tense.He was Она была . Я была во многих странах.I was (woman speaking) Он был .I‟ve already visited Sweden. .I‟ve been to many countries. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. The stress moves to the word 'не'.At school I started learning English.It was not. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.I was not (man speaking).It was Они были . . and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. . Я не была . Он читал три часа. когда мне было 16 лет .They were not.I was (man speaking) Я была .We rented a summer house for three months. except in the feminine. . Я окончила школу. В школе я начала учить английский.She was Оно было . Они не были . Оно не было .He read for three hours. Я не был . Я был .Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. Я уже посетила Швецию .I finished school when I was 16 years old.
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