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А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
восемьсот 900 .двадцать три 24 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia. The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English. or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".восемнадцать 19 .семнадцать 18 .девятьсот . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. quite similar to English.пятнадцать 16 .двенадцать 13 .двадцать два 23 . (You will need to drop the soft sign. (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.девяносто 100 . Here are some examples: 20 .шестьсот 700 .пятьсот 600 .шестьдесят 70 .восемьдесят 90 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.четырнадцать 15 .двадцать один 22 . 30 .одиннадцать 12 .семьсот 800 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.тринадцать 14 .пятьдесят 60 .11 .сто 200 .шестнадцать 17 .сорок 50 .двести 300 .тридцать 40 .семьдесят 80 .двадцать 21 .триста 400 .четыреста 500 .
Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.000 .миллион 1.миллиард For example: 131 .000 1.тысяча 1. after somebody says thank-you.000.000 . .Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .812 Please and Thank-You.007 2.345 23.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below. Да ("da") .994 1.No Saying Hello.1.008 2. Yes and No. You should always say this after someone thanks you.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.Yes Нет ("nyet") . 456 219 9.564 2.000. 0 .000.000 . You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No". you can basically forget the "уй".
If somebody says Привет to you. There are two forms of this word. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . Привет is also commonly used with friends. Вы говорите по-английски? .. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian.How are things? Хорошо спасибо . You should just learn the whole phrase. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). there is no difference between the question and the statement. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. However.. put a real questioning expression on your face. There are also two words for saying good-bye. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") .Bye (Informal. except for the question mark. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello"..When you are in Russia and you meet somebody.Good-bye.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? .Bad Saying Good-Bye. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . but we suggest you only use it with friends. you may need the following phrases.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. Меня зовут . In order to introduce yourself.Good/Well thank-you Плохо .Pleased to meet you.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . and should only be used with friends.My name is . ("min-ya za-voot") . then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. slang) You should generally use до свидания. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. If all else fails. You may also hear people say Пока. not the individual words. Introducing Yourself.
.Cake Водка .I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Tell me please. где кафе? .Soup Торт .Russian beetroot soup Суп .Wine Вода . where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”. Скажите...Tea Молоко . пожалуйста.Я говорю по-английски . where is a cafe? Скажите.I speak Russian Я понимаю . пожалуйста. Скажите.I understand Я не понимаю .Beer Вино ..Tell me please. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café. пожалуйста. где бар? .Tell me please. You could ask people with the following phrases. пожалуйста. Скажите. you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.Coffee Чай ..Tell me please. here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню ...Vodka Пиво . It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Milk Кока-Кола .Water .I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Coca-Cola Лимонад .Menu Кофе .Juice Борщ .Lemonade Сок . где ближайшее кафе? .
Examples: Дайте.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. пожалуйста. it is gramatically unusual). кофе с молоком и с сахаром . . . when you order vodka in russia.No. . you will generally get straight vodka.. .Please give me tea. Сколько стоит? . пожалуйста .I want.Be careful. it is tea. пожалуйста.How much is it?. . Дайте..Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . пожалуйста. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian... пожалуйста. (Just learn the whole phrase.What do you want? Я хочу .. Do you have. это чай..Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Please give me coffee with milk.. кофе . What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are.Excuse me. кофе с молоком . Here are some Russian phrases you might need. чай. Что это? . У вас есть .? . Дайте..? If you want to ask someone if they have something.. is it coffee? Нет...What is it? Это кофе... Дайте.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . You can use it to ask the price of something.Give me please. .Do you have .. это кофе.Please give me coffee.. Дайте..It is coffee. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") ... Простите. you can use the following phrase. ..What? Что вы хотите? .
him. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".21 rubles. and the object is "him". she. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". Скажите.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .What does "..You (formal. they are things you can do.Сколько? . you..You (informal) Он . For example: I. want. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. (Known as the nominative case. eat. For example: run....He." mean in English? Where is the toilet..We Вы . How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”.It (n) Мы .. Here are some useful phrases... Пожалуйста .. her.How do you say ". love.How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . Pronouns are words that can replace names.Tell me please... Как сказать ". walk..She. It (f) Оно ." in Russian? Что значит ". Где Туалет . In the sentence "I love him"." на английском? ..." по-русски? ..) Я-I Ты . It (m) Она . The subject is "I". Definitions Verbs are action words. it. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence. "love" is the verb. or plural) . he.? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.
dictionary form) Я работаю . dictionary form) . работать . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". It works. but not as much. It (f) Нас . "I am working" and "I do work".To understand. This happens a little in English. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. Она.You work Он. (infinitive. or plural) Их . She.Us Вас . Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.You (informal) Его . To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть").He. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить".Russian uses an extra version of the word "you".("yevo") . (There are also some irregular verbs). "ет". "ешь". Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject.I work Ты работаешь . It is the most common.Her. Оно работает .They work.Him. You should memorise these pronouns.Me Тебя .To work. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . Both these patterns are quite similar. It (m. Мы работаем .Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). (Example: I work. Just remember that unlike English. Они работают . and once you get the hang of it. (Known as the accusative case) Меня . (infinitive.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you".Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person.We work Вы работаете . and the second conjugation.n) Еѐ . it is not too difficult.Они . "ем".You work. "ете" or "ют"). and add the appropriate ending ("ю".You (formal. Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. he works).
(infinitive.You know. Они понимают . Он. She.He doesn't understand. It knows.I don't know. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? .They understand. She. Remember. Оно говорит . Он не понимает . Мы знаем .To know.I don't understand. dictionary form) Я говорю . Они знают . Она.He. Оно знает . говорить . Вы понимаете .I understand. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). Ты понимаешь . dictionary form) Я знаю .You know. Она. Я не понимаю . Вы знаете . which replace "ить".We speak.You speak. Мы говорим . Оно понимает . For example: Я не знаю . this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation.I know.I speak.You understand. Он. Она. . It understands Мы понимаем . She. Знать . The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). Он. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation.Я понимаю .We understand. Ты знаешь . It Speaks.They know.You understand.We know. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. (infinitive.He. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules.To speak.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . Ты говоришь .He.
слышите . Я живу . Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction.You go (by transport).He. you can often predict the endings. слышим .We hear.I go (by transport). Жить .You go (by transport). Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. Вы живѐте . Она. Some examples: Ехать . often once you know the stem of the verb.They go (by transport). слышишь .You live.He. It lives. Я еду .He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? .You speak.I speak English Он говорит по-русски . Оно едет .To live. Оно живѐт . Собака не говорит по-английски .He. Вы едете . Они говорят . She. Он.To hear.They speak. Ты едешь . It hears.We go (by transport).I hear. Они едут .Вы говорите . For Example: Я говорю по-английски .I live.They hear. Мы едем . слышат . It goes (by transport). Она.They live.You hear. She. Ты живѐшь . Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. She.You hear. слышу . . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).We don't speak Russian. слышать .We live. However. Мы живѐм .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . Они живут . Он. except that "у" replaces "ю".The dog doesn't speak English. слышит .You live.To go (by transport).
5. Папа . (A.(Uncle) . Consonant . When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence.O.Is Masculine Кофе . Ы. И and Й. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. If it is a consonant. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling.He is going home Definitions Noun . Ё. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. Он едет домой . Example: dog.Is Masculine Мужчина . In Russian we use 6 cases. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. The letters А. it will be in its dictionary form. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. feminine. Luckily. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. Gender of nouns. Cases . О. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. But there are five notable exceptions.(Daddy. or “й”. each noun is assigned a gender. pen. ъ because they have no sound). If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine.A letter that is not a vowel. Э. unlike many languages. Moscow. (Except ь. as with many other languages. There are very few exceptions to these rules.Is Masculine Дедушка .Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. the word is masculine. “house”. 3. Papa) . In Russian. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. From the dictionary form of a noun. and neuter (neutral).U in English). In the case of other objects like “pen”.E.(Grandfather) . Ю. In English we do this by having a strict word-order.Is Masculine .A noun is a thing.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. Е. Vowel . Russian has three genders: masculine. cup.I live in London.I. Я.Is Masculine Дядя . “cup”.(Man) .(Coffee) . If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. name or place. У. cat. paper. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. 4. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . there is no physical meaning attached to the gender.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending.
The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. For example. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian... Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. In Russian there are six cases. Хлеб (bread). (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. Feminine : газета (newspaper). . and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. so we will take it slowly. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. документ (document). and still keep the same meaning. радио (radio). To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. Greek and German. (Eg. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟.. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. at. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. (In.. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. and about. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. In fact it was also used in Old English. Россия (Russia). (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. брат (brother). In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. on.
“я” or “а”. you need to use the accusative case also. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. “ы”. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case.Interestingly. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. so there is nothing special to learn here. The Nominative Case. For example. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. in this case the word “dog”.buildings) The Accusative Case.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. Russian uses the case for all nouns. without changing the actual meaning. especially pronouns. . Russian is very free about word order. not plants).newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. In Russian. In the sentence “I love her”. However. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. in the nominative case. the word “I” is the subject. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. add “ы”. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.
2. Иван любит чай . 4. replace “ь”. Я люблю музыку . replace “й”.Nadya doesn't like wine.Ivan loves tea. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. Я не люблю музыку . 3. Ты любишь музыку? . there is no change. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Replace “а” with “у”.I don't like music. add “а”. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence.He loves Moscow. If noun is animate. Надя любит вино . Он любит Москву .I love Moscow.Nadya loves wine. . Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “я” with “ю”.I love music. 2. If the noun in inanimate.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . Надя не любит вино . with “я”. If noun is animate.I love sport. add “я”. Neuter Nouns: 1. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт .Masculine Nouns: 1.
Слушать . The word "Что" has two uses.I am listening to music. Я еѐ люблю ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю .to work Хотеть . it is probably the conjunction "that". Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.What do you love? However.to watch. Смотреть .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .to listen Изучать .to think Работать . Что ты любишь? . An example could be: Я знаю. so don't be confused.to study Думать . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs.I am listening to the radio. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. You can use it to form questions.I love her. Читать .I am reading a magazine.to read. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .I love him. Я читаю журнал . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning.I know that you love music. Я слушаю радио . Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. Я читаю газету .I am watching television. .She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?".I am reading a book.I love you. что ты любишь музыку. Я слушаю музыку . . Она любит меня . If you would like.
Я так думаю . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". Я люблю путешествовать . Add : “е”.Я изучаю русский язык .What? Как? .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . For example: Я люблю читать .Where? Кто? .Who? Что? .I really love Moscow. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .very.How? Почему? .I really love sport. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Я хочу купить журнал .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. Я очень люблю Москву . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. You can include it into many phrases.I want to buy a magazine. 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. Что вы хотите? . For example: Очень . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.I think so! Как вы думаете? .I love to read.I study Russian. (lit: I study the Russian language).I love to travel. Где? .I want tea. Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".
at the station на почте . 3. Я живу в Лондоне .in the forest на улице .What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces.Feminine Nouns: 1. (Eg. Replace “о” with “е” 2. Exception: Replace “ия”.on the street Что на столе? . Я живу в Сибири .I live in Moscow. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . 4. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. even though they are not Russian. „at a station‟. Petersburg. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. (Eg. “е” remains unchanged. Here are some tips to help you.I live in St.I live in Siberia. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1.Where is she? на вокзале . Replace “я” with “е”.at the post office в саду . Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. Using prepositions and the prepositional case. As with any language.I live in London. 2. „at a concert‟).cinema театр .On the table is a book and a pencil. „at work‟. suburbs and places.in the garden в лесу . Я живу в Петербурге . Replace “ь” with “и”. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. although these aren‟t precise rules.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . (They are in dicionary form) кино . Replace “а” with “е”.theatre .
your answer will involve the prepositional case.cafe площадь . Here are some examples for you to compare. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. but as these words are so important for basic Russian.restaurant банк .To the right.Straight ahead then to the right.square ресторан . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. However.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . The first indicates you are going on foot. прямо . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport.bank гостиница . You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. Куда вы идѐте . When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).library кафе . you would use the accusative case. prepositions have more than one meaning. we will introduce them now in a simple way. налево .hotel музей .pharmacy парк .stadium школа . and are grammatically quite complex. So to express „to go‟ in Russian.I work at (in) a school. you can tell this by the case. Где вы работаете? .school библиотека . there are actually four ways: . прямо потом направо .park стадион .Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.hospital Location and Direction Sometimes.аптека . Both these words are verbs of motion. направо .museum больница .Straight ahead.To the left.I am going to school.
He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день .They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Он идѐт.He is going to the hotel. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро .I go to school. Вы едете. (Я еду.To go by transport.We are going to the cafe. Они едут ) Я еду в школу .I go to the theatre every day. Он ездит . Мы идѐм в кафе . Он едет. я иду в университет . Ехать .To go on foot. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Ты идѐшь.I am going to the university Ходить . in more than one direction.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Мы едем.We are going to the cafe. in one direction. or repetitively (Я езжу. in one direction. Ты идѐшь в кино? . Ты ходишь.I am going to school. Ты едешь. Он ходит.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день . Вы ходите.We go to the cafe every day. Я часто хожу в кино . Мы ходим.He is going to the hotel by taxi. (Я хожу. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Ты ездишь . Они часто ездят в Амстердам . Мы идѐм.I am going to the cinema.I am going to school.He is going to London Ездить . Мы ездим.To go by transport.To go on foot. Я иду в кино . Мы едем в кафе . Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . in more than one direction. or repetitively. (Я иду. Они идут) Я иду в школу .Идти .I am going to the cinema on the metro. Вы идѐте. Вы ездите.
Наше (n).I have a brother.grandson Семья . Твои (pl) . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. У меня есть сын и дочь .mother Отец . Моя (f). Еѐ (f) . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now.dad Сестра . Наша (f). in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.wife Муж . У тебя есть дети? . У меня есть сестра .auntie Дядя .son бабушка . Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.parents Дети .my Твой (m).granddaughter Внук .father Мама . Мой (m).I don't have any children.Мать .grandfather Жена . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. Наши (pl) . Мои (pl) . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.mum Папа .husband Тѐтя . У меня нет детей .sister Брат .brother Дочь .his. Твоя (f).I have a sister. У меня есть брат . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.uncle Родители . her Наш (m). Твоѐ (n).daughter Сын .our .family Just like English.children Внучка .your Его (m n) ("yevo").grandmother Дедушка . For example we use the words mum and dad.I have a son and a daughter.Do you have children?. Моѐ (n).
Ваша (f).Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally. Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.his name is Ivan.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . Ваше (n). However. This is. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .good evening Спокойной ночи . Доброе утро .. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet.This is my house Это моя квартира .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.good afternoon Добрый вечер .Ваш (m). Ваши (pl) .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know. Моя мама любит музыку .My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . The Russian word Это means 'this is'.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.your Их ..Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .good morning Добрый день . Это мой дом . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . For example. you may wish to say her name is Anna.
in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. Neuter Nouns: 1. with “я”. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . 2.Adam's dog. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. Replace “ь” with “и”. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. If the noun ends in a consonant. Replace “е” with “я” For example. Брат Адама любит Москву .Anna's car. in Russian. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences.Masculine Nouns: 1. 3.ownership As you can see in the above example.Igor's telephone. Replace “ь”. However. Let's have a look at some more examples. Сестра Анны читает газету . Replace “й”. Using the genitive case . Replace “о” with “а” 2. add “а”. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? .Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). For example. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. add “я”. Feminine Nouns: 1. Anna's) Дом Ивана . It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. Replace “я” with “и”. Собака Адама . (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря .Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. (This is like using 's in English).Adam's brother loves Moscow. Replace “а” with “ы”. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. 2. 3. pay particular attention to the order of the words.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. the object that is owned always comes first. In the phrase "Дом Ивана".
Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . As we have seen in a previous lesson. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.There is no milk. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . Еѐ. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. Нас. У вас есть кофе? . У нее есть собака.to have As the genitive case relates to possession. стакан молока . Generally.‟.Ivan isn't here. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. Их) Using the genitive case .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Его. Тебя.A glass of milk. Кофе нет . Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case..sentence and uses the nominative case. Чая нет . but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). it is just easier to learn the concept by example. .He is not home. (Меня. Вас. Here are some examples.A map of the city. Ивана нет . Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. Молока нет . У меня есть книга .Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .She has a dog. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. план города . Here are some examples..there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning.There is no tea. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.There is no coffee. Его нет дома . This is exactly the same concept as above. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟.I have book. Using the genitive case .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.
Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. "ы". Х. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. Ч.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules.numbers. The Nominative Case . for example "10 roubles". It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. . The genitive case is used after most numbers. depending on whether the object is animate or not.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . quantaties. add “ы”.Plural (Subject) In Russian. plurals. Ж. Ш. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. К. "я" or "а".Using the genitive case . For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. in the nominative case.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . you make a plural by using the letters "и". Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . but don‟t worry.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases.
This may feel a little strange at first. Here are some examples.ч.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й.ш.студентов (students') газета . These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . but in Russian we use it for all numbers.The Genitive Case . . Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. англичанка . девушка . Ok. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. let‟s see how to use them. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. or whether you are just using general plurals. but in the plural form. Анна любит книги .марок.The books are on the table.англичанок. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. (марка . now that we understand when to use counting-plurals.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.газет (newspapers') здание .Anna loves books. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. Книги на столе .щ. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”.
Here are some examples.one girl Я знаю одну девушку . одна девушка . 4) (but not 12. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1. три рубля .seven newspapers восемь зданий .four students три газеты ..three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.one rouble двадцать один рубль . 42. 21.8.one hundred roubles сто долларов .Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.four dollars четыре студента .4 If the number.nine dogs десять студентов .I know one girl один рубль . The number one declines like an adjective. or the last digit of the number is 2. 12.one hundred dollars шесть книг .two books три собаки .ten roubles сто рублей . etc) пять рублей .9. Here are some examples. 3 or 4.three dogs четыре доллара . (example: 22. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.six books семь газет . To help you get used to this concept. then you should use the genitive singular case.three roubles четыре рубля .ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. . 13.eight buildings девять собак . 13 & 14).four roubles две книги . You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.21 roubles один доллар . 61) (but not 11).7.6.five roubles десять рублей .3. 103. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. 14.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. try using plurals that involve money.0.
Вова) . Here are some other common Russian names for men.) Quantity not specified .Her name is Alyona.How old are you.My name is Vera.As per position in the sentence.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction. Quantity ends in 2.4 .Genitive Plural General Quantity .6..-надцать . .I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 ..I am 23 years old.What is his name? Его зовут Борис ..What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).His name is Boris.7. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.the dative case.Vladimir (Володя.9.What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. Как вас зовут? .Nikolay (Коля) Борис ..Genitive Singular.0. Much like “Мне холодно” . Мне восемнадцать лет .Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Как его зовут? . Как еѐ зовут? . Николай .Boris Владимир . Quantity ends in 1 .So in summary.3. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .8. Quantity ends in 5.
good afternoon Добрый вечер . Спасибо .Thank-You Пожалуйста .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Hi (Informal) Доброе утро . Здравствуйте .good morning Добрый день .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . Шура) Дмитрий .Olga (Оля) Александра . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .and/but (contrasting) . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt. You should be able to remember all of these.Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. This is like a pet name. There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Andrey Александр .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.good evening Спокойной ночи .Alexander (Саша. Peter. The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').Sergey Алексей . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.and а .Natalya (Наташа) Мария . Елена . or tender form. Some of these may be new.Yelena (Лена) Наталья . The diminuative is a more personal.Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . Андрей .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .Pyotr.goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Hello Привет . and should only be used when you are in close firendship.Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Yekaterina Анастасия .Пѐтр .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Oxana Екатерина . but try to learn them all.
on. . .he. it их . во .near. You might also find some new words in these sentences.about к .What do you want? Я хочу чай. я-I он .I know that you speak Russian. from от . to (+accusative) на . об . .from по . so you should try to learn them all.Give me please. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. кофе с молоком и с сахаром. at (+prepositional).in (+prepositional). У вас есть чай? . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. it еѐ . Дайте. что ты говоришь по-русски.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . onto.you (informal) вы .out of. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . .My mum loves music.There is no coffee. For example. пожалуйста. coffee with milk and with sugar. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". . to за .him.you (formal/plural) его .towards.но . У вас есть водка? .but или .for (+accusative). it ты . to (+accusative) о. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.along.He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.".Do you have coffee? Кофе нет.Tell me please.her. пожалуйста. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. In Russian we would use the word "а". Что вы хотите? . .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . пожалуйста.them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. behind (+instrumental) из . Скажите.I want tea please. Он любит говорить по-английски.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.There is no tea.with у . где туалет? .Do you have tea? Чая нет. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns. . We will use only common words.
Я слушаю музыку .I really love Moscow. .I don't understand.Does your borther speak Russian? Да. Сестра Анны читает газету .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .Where is he? Где кафе? .Adam's brother loves Moscow. . сколько стоит? .He is going home. .21 roubles. Его нет дома .4 roubles.I think that you understand.Do you understand? Я знаю. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .I am reading a magazine.I am studying the Russian language.The dog doesn't speak English. Он хорошо говорит по-русски.How much? сто рублей .How much? четыре рубля .My Mum loves music.I really love sport. Ты понимаешь? . что вы понимаете. Он едет домой .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .My sister is reading a newspaper.What? Как? .Yes. сколько стоит? .How much? двадцать один рубль .How much? четыре доллара .I know that you understand.Who? Что? .How? Когда? . Я изучаю русский язык . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .100 roubles. . Я очень люблю Москву .Why? Что ты знаешь? . сколько стоит? . .I am listening to music.When? Почему? . Я не понимаю. Я очень люблю спорт . Я думаю. Моя сестра читает газету . He speaks Russian well.I understand. Брат Адама любит Москву . Где? . Моя мама любит музыку .Where? Кто? .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.He is not home.4 dollars. что ты понимаешь.What do you think? Где он? . сколько стоит? .Твой брат говорит по-русски? .I live in London. Почему ты не понимаешь? .Where is the cafe? Кто он? . Собака не говорит по-английски. . .
Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. To create nouns in the dative case. If the noun ends in a consonant. If the noun ends in a consonant.you (informal). Replace “ь”. 4.them. Replace “ь” with “и”. 3. add “у”. 2. Replace “й”. Neuter Nouns: 1.him. add "ам". Тебе .Forming the dative case. 3. Им . 1. Нам . we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. 3. Мне . Адам . Ему (n). Masculine Nouns: 1. add “ю”. Replace “я” with “е”.us. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. it. Replace "а". with “ю”. .Елене Молоко . or plural). Replace “о” with “у” 2. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.you (formal. 2. Feminine Nouns: 1.Молоку Вино ... 2. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.Адаму Елена . Ей (f) . her.me. "о" or a consonant with "ам". Replace “а” with “е”. Ему (m). Replace “ия” with “ии”. Вам .
. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .give! Дайте . The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. For this reason.Give me your address and telephone number. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. Дай .I give flowers to Anna.I am helping Ivan..Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. . Here are the conjuctions: Даю ..give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. It should be used in the dative case. Я даю цветы Анне . In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.(you) give Даѐт . you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.We help mother every day.(he) gives Даѐм . In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Они дают цветы Елене . the word “Anna” is the indirect object. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . Я помогаю Ивану .. Similarly.(they) give The command forms of this word include. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .Ivan gives flowers to Anna.(we) give Даѐте .They give flowers to Elena.(you) give Дают ..I am helping Anna.Give me . Мы помогаем маме каждый день .I am helping this girl.(I) give Даѐшь .. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. Я помогаю этой девушке . Дайте мне . For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”.. . In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case.
to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . Мне нравятся цветы . However it is a common word. (The "ся" ending is reflexive). so it is enough for now just to learn this form. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her..I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.? .I like Moscow.I like the children.. so it is worth learning now.Adam likes Moscow.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . Мне нравится Москва .Ivan calls Anna every day.He likes Moscow.) Ему нравится Москва .Звонить . Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case. Вам нравится Москва .I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. Мне очень нравятся цветы . To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). it is like saying “To me it is likable”. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.) Practice using the word нравится. Иван звонит Анне каждый день . You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.You like Moscow. and it relies on the dative case.He is cold (to him its cold) . The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.How do you like . The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. Как вам нравится .? Как вам нравится фильм? .She calls Ivan every day. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like).) Ей нравится Москва . Мне холодно . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet.I really like the flowers. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.She likes Moscow.. Адаму нравится Москва . Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. it is still worth learning these examples.. (lit: children are pleasing to me.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .I like the flowers.I like your children. However this verb is used differently.
to create an exact rule. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". “ч”.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . then add “ем”.Ей холодно . The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . Мы едем к друзьям . and has too many meanings. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу .I am walking towards the station. Except. Replace “й”. Replace “ь”.. “ш” or “щ”. 4. “ц”. add “ом”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. if stressed “ѐм”. with “ем”. if stressed “ѐм”.I am 23 years old.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. . 2. All consonants.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно .We are going to our friends. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. It is followed by the dative case. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1.. add “ем”.
Replace “а” with “ой”.I eat soup with a spoon. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.. 3.With.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Accompanied by. Replace "а". In English these words can have different meanings. Иван пишет карандашом . 1.Анной (Anna) студенты . Олег режет мясо ножом . Neuter Nouns: 1. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Я ем суп ложкой . "о" with "ами". “ш” or “щ”.. Examples.женой (wife) Иван ..сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . 4.карандашом (pencil) ложка . All consonants. Replace “ь” with “ью”.мужем (husband) жена . . if stressed “ѐй”.. 2. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Replace “я” with “ей”. 2. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. add "ами". “ч”.ложкой (spoon) нож . The preposition: „с‟ .ножом (knife) муж .Ivan writes with a pencil. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .Feminine Nouns: 1. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.молоком (milk) сметана . “ц”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Except.
I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. 2.My husband and I are going to the cafe. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Иван хочет чай с молоком . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.Him Ей . кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Ivan and I are going to school. „with him‟. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Her . . However it is followed by the genitive case.Nadya wants tea with lemon.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.You Им . with Ivan”). Анна с мужем идут в кафе. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Мы с вами . Pronouns . Have a look at the following Russian examples. Мной .Please give me coffee with milk. .Me and you Notes: 1. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. In English we would use the word “and”.For ease of pronunciation. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Ivan wants tea with milk. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. „with you‟. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Here are some examples. пожалуйста. Дайте.Me Тобой . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.I eat borsh with sour cream.My wife and I are going to the cafe. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. кофе с молоком . . . Иван с женой идут в кафе. пожалуйста. it is often written as “со”.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.
afternoon днѐм .in the afternoon вечер .in autumn зима . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.evening вечером .You (plural) Ими .in the evening ночь .winter зимой .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .morning утром .Им .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.night ночью .in the morning день .day.in winter весна .spring весной . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.It Нами . .Us Вами .summer летом .in summer осень . For example: лето . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.Them Seasons and parts of the day.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .autumn осенью .
Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . enjoy становиться/стать . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.to become увлекаться . was) has no present tense. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.за . to be occupied with интересоваться . . (Example: Я был врачом . but it is something to keep in mind.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .to remain as пользоваться . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.in front of под .under Examples: За этим зданием . быть . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. for между . was заниматься .between над . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. . You don't need to learn these verbs now.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. .The lamp is above the table. .to be keen on управлять .to turn out to be оставаться .школа.to be engaged in.Under the table the cat is sitting. be The verb “Быть” (to be.Behind this building there is a school.I was a doctor).Happy birthday С новым годом . Перед этой школой поверните налево. manage. beyond.to be. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.above перед .In front of this school turn to the left. .to seem. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.to be interested in оказываться .behind. is.to use.control. Под столом сидит кот. Над столом висит лампа. govern являться . is.
. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. Feminine Nouns: 1. Олег режет мясо ножом . “ц”. Except. Replace "а". add "ами". add “ом”. Replace “ь”. “ч”.мужем (husband) жена . Я ем суп ложкой .студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.ножом (knife) муж .Ivan writes with a pencil. 2. if stressed “ѐй”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. then add “ем”.. Replace “й”.Masculine Nouns: 1.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .карандашом (pencil) ложка ..ложкой (spoon) нож . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. with “ем”. Replace “а” with “ой”. 4. 2.. "о" with "ами". Examples. “ш” or “щ”. Replace “ь” with “ью”. “ц”. if stressed “ѐм”.женой (wife) Иван . if stressed “ѐм”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. 3. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “я” with “ей”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. 2. Except. “ч”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. In English these words can have different meanings. “ш” or “щ”.молоком (milk) сметана . 4. . All consonants. 1. Иван пишет карандашом .Анной (Anna) студенты .I eat soup with a spoon. All consonants. add “ем”.
Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. with Ivan”). it is often written as “со”. Have a look at the following Russian examples. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Here are some examples. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.I eat borsh with sour cream. For ease of pronunciation. пожалуйста. Иван с женой идут в кафе. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Pronouns . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Ivan wants tea with milk. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.Ivan and I are going to school. Иван хочет чай с молоком . In English we would use the word “and”. кофе с молоком . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Мы с вами . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. However it is followed by the genitive case. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .My wife and I are going to the cafe. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .My husband and I are going to the cafe. .Nadya wants tea with lemon. Accompanied by. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.With. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Me and you Notes: 1.The preposition: „с‟ . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. . Дайте. 2. пожалуйста.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .Please give me coffee with milk.Instrumental Case .
Him Ей .autumn осенью .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .in the evening ночь .in summer осень .Me Тобой .in winter весна . afternoon днѐм . For example: лето .in the afternoon вечер . Мной . „with him‟. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.day. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.Them Seasons and parts of the day.at night .You (plural) Ими . „with you‟.winter зимой .in autumn зима .night ночью .spring весной .You Им .evening вечером .summer летом .morning утром .Us Вами . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.in the morning день .It Нами .Her Им . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.
Between lunch and dinner drink tea. is.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.to turn out to be оставаться .I was a doctor). but it is something to keep in mind. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.behind. to be occupied with интересоваться .Under the table the cat is sitting. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.in front of под .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .control.The lamp is above the table. for между . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.to be interested in оказываться . (Example: Я был врачом .Behind this building there is a school. .to use.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . за . .above перед . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. is. manage. enjoy становиться/стать .to seem. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.to be keen on управлять . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. was заниматься . Под столом сидит кот. Над столом висит лампа. govern являться . beyond.In front of this school turn to the left. . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. Перед этой школой поверните налево. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. You don't need to learn these verbs now. . was) has no present tense.Happy birthday С новым годом .to remain as пользоваться .to become увлекаться .to be.to be engaged in. . be The verb “Быть” (to be.under Examples: За этим зданием . . быть . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.between над .школа.
The same principal also applies in the future tense.Olga knew Собака знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses.We knew Я знал .Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.Vladimir knew Дима знал .Dima knew Елена знала . Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not.. Forming Verbs in Past Tense.They knew Мы знали .It knew Они знали .You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . (ie 1st.Elena knew Ольга знала . but in Russian there is simply one. or talk about something that has happened in the past.The dog knew . Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. Although this concept differs from English. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. Он знал .. 2nd or 3rd person).She knew Оно знало . In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала . Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). it is conceptually quite easy. Let's have a look at the past tense now. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.He knew Она знала ..I knew (male speaking) Я знала .
consequently each verb has two possible forms. Я работал . There are two aspects in Russian. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. so there is no perfective in the present tense. and is not complete. When using pronouns such as Я. Some tenses in English can indicate this. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. reversed or repeated actions.I worked for 2 hours. Ты. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.I run in the forest every day. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. habitual. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb.I worked everyday. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. . ongoing. (often По-). If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . Я работал два часа .You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”.I was home.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу.She wants to buy a book. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. use the imperfective also.I was working Я шѐл . and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. . The Imperfective Aspect. . but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. Я работал каждый день .
.Did you tell him about it? .She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. Саша съел обед за пять минут. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. Она спросила учителя. .He did not want to see me.I did not live in England. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. Questions and Aspects. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?.We did not watch the movie yesterday. . If you are still unsure which to use. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. .Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . Я купил кофе . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. . Он не хотел видеть меня. . Я не жила в Англии. (but I was expected to). .I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. что он сказал. . Perfective: Я не позвонила .Yesterday we read an interesting article.I went home. .I failed to phone.She did not eat bananas.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.I did not understand what he said. Я не понял. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. .
Я был . Они не были .I‟ve already visited Sweden. .I was (man speaking) Я была . . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be).At school I started learning English. Я была во многих странах. Оно не было . Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.He was Она была .It was Они были .Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. Я не была . В школе я начала учить английский. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.It was not. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.I was not (woman speaking).We rented a summer house for three months. Я окончила школу. . Я уже посетила Швецию . This is not the case in the past tense. Я не был . except in the feminine.I‟ve been to many countries.They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.I finished school when I was 16 years old.He read for three hours.They were not. Он читал три часа. .I was (woman speaking) Он был . .I was not (man speaking). когда мне было 16 лет .She was Оно было . The stress moves to the word 'не'.
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