This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
четырнадцать 15 .двадцать три 24 .двадцать один 22 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.семнадцать 18 .сто 200 .двенадцать 13 .восемнадцать 19 .пятьсот 600 .девяносто 100 .пятнадцать 16 . 30 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.двести 300 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see. quite similar to English.шестьсот 700 .тринадцать 14 .девятьсот .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.четыреста 500 .двадцать 21 . Here are some examples: 20 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).одиннадцать 12 .пятьдесят 60 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.двадцать два 23 .семьдесят 80 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".шестьдесят 70 .триста 400 .восемьдесят 90 .восемьсот 900 .тридцать 40 .11 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.семьсот 800 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.шестнадцать 17 .сорок 50 .
000 .000 .000.007 2.000 1. Yes and No.1.миллион 1.345 23.тысяча 1.994 1.No Saying Hello. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.812 Please and Thank-You.миллиард For example: 131 . Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") . after somebody says thank-you.008 2.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No". Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.Yes Нет ("nyet") . . 456 219 9. You should always say this after someone thanks you. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct. Да ("da") . you can basically forget the "уй". 0 .564 2.000 .Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .000. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.000.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.
Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . You may also hear people say Пока. You should just learn the whole phrase. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. but we suggest you only use it with friends.Bye (Informal. There are also two words for saying good-bye. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . not the individual words.My name is . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") .. Привет is also commonly used with friends.Pleased to meet you. slang) You should generally use до свидания. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question.Bad Saying Good-Bye. If somebody says Привет to you.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? .. except for the question mark. there is no difference between the question and the statement. put a real questioning expression on your face. However. Вы говорите по-английски? . До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. If all else fails. In order to introduce yourself.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") .How are things? Хорошо спасибо . you may need the following phrases. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. Introducing Yourself.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. There are two forms of this word.. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). and should only be used with friends.Good-bye.. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. Меня зовут . ("min-ya za-voot") .
Russian beetroot soup Суп .Milk Кока-Кола .. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café. пожалуйста.I speak Russian Я понимаю . Скажите. Скажите. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Coca-Cola Лимонад .Juice Борщ .Tell me please.Tea Молоко .I understand Я не понимаю . . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню .Beer Вино .Tell me please. where is a cafe? Скажите. пожалуйста.Water . Скажите.Coffee Чай . пожалуйста. где бар? ...Vodka Пиво .I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Tell me please... You could ask people with the following phrases. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Menu Кофе . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.I speak English Я говорю по-русски . где кафе? ..Я говорю по-английски .Tell me please.Cake Водка .Wine Вода .Soup Торт . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. пожалуйста.Lemonade Сок . где ближайшее кафе? .
How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian.. . Дайте... это кофе..How much is it?. it is gramatically unusual).No. Дайте.What do you want? Я хочу . you can use the following phrase. You can use it to ask the price of something. Дайте. is it coffee? Нет.It is coffee.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order.I want. .Please give me tea. . . кофе ... you will generally get straight vodka.. when you order vodka in russia. Do you have. . (Just learn the whole phrase.. Что это? . Examples: Дайте. Простите. it is tea.? .. пожалуйста. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. Дайте.Please give me coffee with milk.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .... кофе с молоком .Do you have . . У вас есть ..What? Что вы хотите? . Сколько стоит? . or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . кофе с молоком и с сахаром .What is it? Это кофе. это чай.Give me please..? If you want to ask someone if they have something.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. . пожалуйста. пожалуйста.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? . чай.Please give me coffee. пожалуйста .Excuse me.. пожалуйста.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .Be careful.....
"love" is the verb.. her.What does ".You (informal) Он . Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence...) Я-I Ты ." по-русски? . you. In the sentence "I love him"." mean in English? Where is the toilet. Pronouns are words that can replace names.Tell me please.. Here are some useful phrases. Как сказать "." in Russian? Что значит ".21 rubles. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is. and the object is "him".We Вы . It (f) Оно .It (n) Мы . love. they are things you can do. eat.. it. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. The subject is "I". Где Туалет .. Скажите. he.Сколько? . walk.How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль ... Definitions Verbs are action words.You (formal. want.... For example: run.How do you say "." на английском? . him. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".. she.He.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . For example: I.. (Known as the nominative case... It (m) Она .. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. Пожалуйста . or plural) .She.
You (informal) Его .They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". (Example: I work. but not as much. (There are also some irregular verbs). Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. It is the most common.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. Just remember that unlike English. and the second conjugation. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . It (m. Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. (infinitive.I work Ты работаешь .Her. dictionary form) Я работаю . This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". Они работают . or plural) Их . Оно работает . Мы работаем . "ешь".Они . работать .You work. To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть").You (formal.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). it is not too difficult. (infinitive.They work. In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".Us Вас .Me Тебя . "ете" or "ют"). dictionary form) .Him.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). It (f) Нас . "ет". She.He.("yevo") . and once you get the hang of it.You work Он. Both these patterns are quite similar. "ем". "I am working" and "I do work". This happens a little in English. (Known as the accusative case) Меня . Она.We work Вы работаете .To work.To understand. It works. and add the appropriate ending ("ю". he works). You should memorise these pronouns.n) Еѐ .
It understands Мы понимаем .I don't know. Она.You know. говорить . . Она.I don't understand. Вы понимаете . (infinitive.He doesn't understand. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат").You speak. Оно знает . Он.I speak. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). Они знают . Он.They understand. It knows. dictionary form) Я знаю . Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. Ты знаешь . Они понимают . Вы знаете . this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). Мы говорим .You know. For example: Я не знаю . Оно понимает .We speak. Ты понимаешь . Он не понимает .I know.He.He. Он.To speak. She. There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Remember.Я понимаю .We understand.We know. Оно говорит . She.You understand.To know. Знать . Ты говоришь . Я не понимаю . Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. It Speaks.He.You understand. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . She.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . (infinitive.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. which replace "ить". Она.I understand. Мы знаем . dictionary form) Я говорю .They know.
Some examples: Ехать . She. except that "у" replaces "ю".To go (by transport).The dog doesn't speak English. Мы едем . It hears. Я живу .They live.You live.You go (by transport).You live. For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Они говорят .He. Оно живѐт . . Собака не говорит по-английски . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. слышу . Я еду .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски .We don't speak Russian. Вы живѐте . слышишь .They go (by transport). However. Она. Жить .He.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . It lives. Ты живѐшь . Они живут .They speak. Она. Он. (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). слышите .We live. слышит .I go (by transport). Они едут . Ты едешь . слышат .We hear.Вы говорите .I live.You go (by transport).To hear.I hear. Вы едете . слышать .You hear. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. often once you know the stem of the verb.You hear. Он.We go (by transport). Мы живѐм . слышим .He. you can often predict the endings.To live.They hear. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above.I speak English Он говорит по-русски .You speak. It goes (by transport). She. She. Оно едет .
there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. У. There are very few exceptions to these rules. Papa) . If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine.Is Masculine Мужчина . each noun is assigned a gender. “house”. Russian has three genders: masculine.A letter that is not a vowel.E. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . Ы.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling.O. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. But there are five notable exceptions. Example: dog.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. Е.Is Masculine Дядя . From the dictionary form of a noun. this occurs mainly because of physical gender.U in English).I. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. Я. Consonant .(Grandfather) . (A.Is Masculine Кофе . In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. Э. Gender of nouns. Ё. If it is a consonant.Is Masculine Дедушка . unlike many languages.Is Masculine .(Daddy.(Man) . pen. feminine. In the case of other objects like “pen”. In Russian. paper. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender.(Coffee) . (Except ь. ъ because they have no sound). If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. “cup”. The letters А. 4.He is going home Definitions Noun . И and Й.A noun is a thing.I live in London. Vowel . and neuter (neutral). Moscow. Он едет домой . Cases .(Uncle) . Luckily. Ю. as with many other languages. cat. the word is masculine. О. name or place. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. Папа . 3. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. In Russian we use 6 cases. 5. cup. or “й”. it will be in its dictionary form. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.
The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. документ (document). “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. Россия (Russia). .. You may wish to do this to emphasise something.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. so we will take it slowly. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. For example. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar.. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. Greek and German. радио (radio). In fact it was also used in Old English. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. on.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. In Russian there are six cases. and about. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. at. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. Feminine : газета (newspaper). It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first.. (In. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). (Eg. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. брат (brother). The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. Хлеб (bread). and still keep the same meaning.. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words.
An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. the word “I” is the subject. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. “я” or “а”. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. For example. in this case the word “dog”. some remnants of the case system still exist in English.buildings) The Accusative Case. you need to use the accusative case also. In the sentence “I love her”. not plants). In Russian. Russian is very free about word order. without changing the actual meaning. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building .students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. The Nominative Case. . The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. add “ы”.Interestingly. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. so there is nothing special to learn here. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. “ы”. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . especially pronouns. in the nominative case. Russian uses the case for all nouns. However. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal.
replace “ь”. Replace “а” with “у”. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. 2. Feminine Nouns: 1.I love sport. If noun is animate. Надя любит вино . 4. Надя не любит вино . with “я”. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . Я люблю музыку . Ты любишь музыку? . To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю.I love music. add “а”. If noun is animate. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Иван любит чай . add “я”. replace “й”. Он любит Москву . If the noun in inanimate. there is no change.Nadya loves wine.Masculine Nouns: 1. 3.He loves Moscow.I don't like music. Я не люблю музыку .Ivan loves tea. 2.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . Neuter Nouns: 1. . Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate).I love Moscow. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence.Nadya doesn't like wine. Replace “я” with “ю”.
What do you love? However. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning.I love her. Я читаю газету . If you would like. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. . Я слушаю музыку . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". Я читаю журнал .I am listening to the radio.to study Думать . An example could be: Я знаю.I am reading a book.I love you.to work Хотеть . Читать . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .to read. Я еѐ люблю . You can use it to form questions. Слушать . so don't be confused.to watch.I am listening to music.to listen Изучать . Она любит меня .I am watching television. Что ты любишь? . it is probably the conjunction "that". Я слушаю радио . что ты любишь музыку.I love him. .to think Работать . The word "Что" has two uses.I am reading a magazine.I know that you love music. Смотреть ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.
I study Russian.very. Я люблю путешествовать . (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . For example: Я люблю читать .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.Я изучаю русский язык . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". Add : “е”. Где? .Where? Кто? . You can include it into many phrases. 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) .I really love sport. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.How? Почему? . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Я очень люблю Москву .Who? Что? .I really love Moscow. Я хочу купить журнал . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. Я так думаю . (lit: I study the Russian language).I think so! Как вы думаете? .I love to read.Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".I love to travel. For example: Очень .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. Что вы хотите? .I want to buy a magazine.What? Как? .I want tea.
cinema театр .at the post office в саду . Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. even though they are not Russian.I live in Siberia. “е” remains unchanged. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. As with any language.on the street Что на столе? .Feminine Nouns: 1. 2. Я живу в Сибири . 4. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? .I live in Moscow. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces.I live in St.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .Where is she? на вокзале . Here are some tips to help you.in the garden в лесу . „at a concert‟). Petersburg.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш .On the table is a book and a pencil. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. Я живу в Петербурге .theatre . Replace “а” with “е”. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. suburbs and places. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. (Eg. „at work‟.I live in London. Replace “я” with “е”. (Eg.at the station на почте . Replace “о” with “е” 2. (They are in dicionary form) кино . 3. Я живу в Лондоне .in the forest на улице . Exception: Replace “ия”. although these aren‟t precise rules. Using prepositions and the prepositional case. „at a station‟. Replace “ь” with “и”.
park стадион . However. налево .I work at (in) a school.bank гостиница . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.cafe площадь .Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .school библиотека . your answer will involve the prepositional case. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).аптека .hotel музей .library кафе . Куда вы идѐте . you can tell this by the case. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).Straight ahead. prepositions have more than one meaning. прямо . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. but as these words are so important for basic Russian. Both these words are verbs of motion.Straight ahead then to the right.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes.restaurant банк .I am going to school.stadium школа . The first indicates you are going on foot. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. and are grammatically quite complex. we will introduce them now in a simple way. Here are some examples for you to compare.To the left.square ресторан . the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. прямо потом направо .museum больница .pharmacy парк .To the right. So to express „to go‟ in Russian. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. Где вы работаете? . there are actually four ways: . you would use the accusative case. направо .
Он ездит . or repetitively. Вы ездите. Мы ходим.He is going to the hotel.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Мы идѐм. Я часто хожу в кино . in one direction. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Вы идѐте. Он ходит. (Я еду.To go by transport.We go to the cafe every day. Он едет. я иду в университет .We are going to the cafe.To go by transport.I go to the theatre every day.To go on foot. Ты идѐшь в кино? .I am going to school. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон .He is going to London Ездить . in more than one direction.He is going to the hotel by taxi. Я иду в кино .They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Ты едешь.I am going to the university Ходить . Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .We are going to the cafe. or repetitively (Я езжу. Ехать . (Я хожу. Он идѐт.Идти . Вы ходите. Мы едем. Мы едем в кафе . in one direction.I go to school.I am going to the cinema. Они часто ездят в Амстердам .I am going to school. in more than one direction. Вы едете. Ты идѐшь. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Ты ездишь .I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . (Я иду. Ты ходишь. Они идут) Я иду в школу .To go on foot. Мы ездим. Мы идѐм в кафе . Он едет в гостиницу на такси .I am going to the cinema on the metro.
Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. For example we use the words mum and dad.family Just like English.I don't have any children. Мои (pl) . Моя (f).our . Моѐ (n).grandfather Жена . У тебя есть дети? .father Мама . her Наш (m). Мой (m). Наша (f). Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.Do you have children?.his. Here are some Russian phrases you could use.mum Папа .mother Отец .Мать . Еѐ (f) .my Твой (m).wife Муж .husband Тѐтя .grandson Семья .I have a son and a daughter. У меня есть сестра .daughter Сын .grandmother Дедушка . Твоѐ (n). Наше (n).I have a sister.parents Дети . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. Твои (pl) .your Его (m n) ("yevo").brother Дочь .sister Брат .dad Сестра .children Внучка .uncle Родители . У меня есть сын и дочь . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.auntie Дядя . Наши (pl) .son бабушка . У меня есть брат . Твоя (f).I have a brother. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns. Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10. У меня нет детей .granddaughter Внук .
Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3..My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету . Это мой дом . However. Моя мама любит музыку . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт . This is.Ваш (m). Ваши (pl) .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . you may wish to say her name is Anna. For example.his name is Ivan.good morning Добрый день .This is my house Это моя квартира . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. The Russian word Это means 'this is'.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . Ваша (f).your Их . the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .good evening Спокойной ночи .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. Доброе утро .. Ваше (n). Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.good afternoon Добрый вечер .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .
the object that is owned always comes first. 3. 3. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. Replace “ь”. in Russian.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. add “я”. Replace “ь” with “и”. If the noun ends in a consonant. Сестра Анны читает газету .Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. Feminine Nouns: 1. However. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . Replace “о” with “а” 2.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. (This is like using 's in English). (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . pay particular attention to the order of the words. For example.Igor's telephone. 2.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). Брат Адама любит Москву . Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. with “я”.ownership As you can see in the above example. Собака Адама . Replace “е” with “я” For example. Let's have a look at some more examples.Adam's dog. 2. Anna's) Дом Ивана . Using the genitive case . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. Replace “й”. Replace “а” with “ы”. In the phrase "Дом Ивана".Anna's car. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used.Masculine Nouns: 1.Adam's brother loves Moscow. Replace “я” with “и”. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. add “а”. Neuter Nouns: 1.
These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. Using the genitive case . Here are some examples.sentence and uses the nominative case. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.There is no coffee.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.to have As the genitive case relates to possession.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.Ivan isn't here. стакан молока .‟. Нас.He is not home. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is).. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . it is just easier to learn the concept by example. Кофе нет . As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . Here are some examples. Молока нет .A map of the city. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. план города . .She has a dog. Еѐ.A glass of milk. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . Тебя. As we have seen in a previous lesson. Их) Using the genitive case .Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .. Generally. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. Чая нет . Вас. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. (Меня.Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . Ивана нет . but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. This is exactly the same concept as above. Его. У меня есть книга . У нее есть собака. У вас есть кофе? .I have book.There is no tea.There is no milk. Его нет дома .
The genitive case is used after most numbers.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural.numbers. you make a plural by using the letters "и". К. add “ы”. "я" or "а". Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. plurals.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . depending on whether the object is animate or not. in the nominative case. but don‟t worry. "ы". For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case .) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . Ж. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. The Nominative Case . Ш. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. . Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. for example "10 roubles". Ч. Х. quantaties.Using the genitive case .Plural (Subject) In Russian.
Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. but in Russian we use it for all numbers.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals.The books are on the table. let‟s see how to use them. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. девушка . Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”.Anna loves books. or whether you are just using general plurals.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. Анна любит книги . This may feel a little strange at first. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.The Genitive Case . but in the plural form. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation.ш. Ok. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. Книги на столе . These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language.ч. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.марок.англичанок.студентов (students') газета . now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. Here are some examples. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. (марка .девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . . You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money.газет (newspapers') здание . англичанка .щ.
0.one rouble двадцать один рубль .nine dogs десять студентов . 14.3. To help you get used to this concept. then you should use the genitive singular case.. etc) пять рублей .three roubles четыре рубля . одна девушка .ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language.four dollars четыре студента . 3 or 4.6. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.six books семь газет . 21. try using plurals that involve money.three dogs четыре доллара . 103. Here are some examples.8.9.one hundred roubles сто долларов . (example: 22. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.7.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.seven newspapers восемь зданий . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.21 roubles один доллар .4 If the number.four students три газеты . 4) (but not 12. .ten roubles сто рублей . Here are some examples. 61) (but not 11). then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. 13 & 14). три рубля . 12.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.two books три собаки .eight buildings девять собак . The number one declines like an adjective.five roubles десять рублей .four roubles две книги . 42.one girl Я знаю одну девушку . 13. or the last digit of the number is 2.I know one girl один рубль .one hundred dollars шесть книг .
Genitive Singular. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).His name is Boris.4 . Much like “Мне холодно” .As per position in the sentence.So in summary.My name is Vera.9.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.-надцать . Quantity ends in 5.How old are you.7. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction. Quantity ends in 2.Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.6.the dative case..What is his name? Его зовут Борис .I am 23 years old. Как его зовут? . Here are some other common Russian names for men.Nikolay (Коля) Борис .) Quantity not specified .Vladimir (Володя..“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). Николай . Как вас зовут? . Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 . Вова) .8. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? . Как еѐ зовут? . Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟..Boris Владимир .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. Мне восемнадцать лет .3.. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . Quantity ends in 1 .What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .0.Genitive Plural General Quantity .Her name is Alyona. .
Andrey Александр . Шура) Дмитрий .Yekaterina Анастасия .Yelena (Лена) Наталья .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .Sergey Алексей . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .good evening Спокойной ночи . Some of these may be new.Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.and/but (contrasting) . and should only be used when you are in close firendship.Pyotr.Пѐтр . Здравствуйте .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). Спасибо . but try to learn them all.Olga (Оля) Александра .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.good morning Добрый день . Елена .Natalya (Наташа) Мария .Alexander (Саша.and а .good afternoon Добрый вечер . or tender form.Hello Привет . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. Peter. You should be able to remember all of these. Андрей . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. This is like a pet name.Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Thank-You Пожалуйста .Oxana Екатерина . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used. The diminuative is a more personal.Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.
where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . . пожалуйста.them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. onto.There is no tea. it еѐ . . You might also find some new words in these sentences. кофе с молоком и с сахаром. я-I он .My mum loves music. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. In Russian we would use the word "а". coffee with milk and with sugar. . пожалуйста. пожалуйста. behind (+instrumental) из . что ты говоришь по-русски. Что вы хотите? . Скажите. at (+prepositional).towards.Do you have tea? Чая нет.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .about к .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .along.near. from от . it ты .What do you want? Я хочу чай. .but или .with у .you (formal/plural) его . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.Give me please. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".I want tea please. где туалет? . . it их .you (informal) вы . (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.him. об .for (+accusative).Tell me please. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". to за . so you should try to learn them all.from по .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. Он любит говорить по-английски.he.in (+prepositional). For example. to (+accusative) на .но . . Дайте.on.There is no coffee. to (+accusative) о.".out of.I know that you speak Russian. . These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .her.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. У вас есть водка? . во . We will use only common words.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. У вас есть чай? . in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. .
что ты понимаешь. . сколько стоит? . Где? . Я не понимаю. Он едет домой .How much? четыре доллара .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .Do you understand? Я знаю. Он хорошо говорит по-русски.Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. сколько стоит? .Yes.I think that you understand.I know that you understand. .Твой брат говорит по-русски? .Where is the cafe? Кто он? . . Ты понимаешь? . .I am listening to music.He is not home. Я изучаю русский язык .What? Как? . Моя мама любит музыку . сколько стоит? .21 roubles.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.How much? двадцать один рубль . Почему ты не понимаешь? .The dog doesn't speak English. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .I live in London.4 roubles.How much? четыре рубля .Where? Кто? .Where is he? Где кафе? .I am studying the Russian language.What do you think? Где он? . Я очень люблю Москву . .I don't understand. Я слушаю музыку . Я думаю. . сколько стоит? .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.He is going home.I really love Moscow.How? Когда? .I really love sport.Adam's brother loves Moscow.I am reading a magazine. Моя сестра читает газету . He speaks Russian well. Его нет дома .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . Я очень люблю спорт .How much? сто рублей .Does your borther speak Russian? Да.Who is he? Я читаю журнал . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .My sister is reading a newspaper.100 roubles. .Why? Что ты знаешь? .My Mum loves music.Who? Что? .4 dollars. что вы понимаете. Собака не говорит по-английски. Брат Адама любит Москву .I understand. Сестра Анны читает газету .When? Почему? .
Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples.him. Replace "а".me. Replace “я” with “е”. 2.. Тебе . It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. 1. Вам . Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. it. Replace “ь”. 2..you (formal. If the noun ends in a consonant. 3.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. 3. 3. Адам .you (informal).Елене Молоко . Ему (n). add “у”. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “е”.them. Masculine Nouns: 1.Адаму Елена . 2. Replace “й”.Forming the dative case. "о" or a consonant with "ам". If the noun ends in a consonant. . Нам . To create nouns in the dative case. Им .Молоку Вино .us. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. her. or plural). Replace “ия” with “ии”. Мне . Replace “ь” with “и”. Replace “о” with “у” 2. Ему (m). Feminine Nouns: 1. add "ам". with “ю”. add “ю”. 4. Ей (f) .
. the word “Anna” is the indirect object. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object.Give me your address and telephone number. It should be used in the dative case.give! Дайте .Ivan gives flowers to Anna. For this reason. Они дают цветы Елене . Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case.I am helping Ivan. Я помогаю Ивану . you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне . Similarly. . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”.. Мы помогаем маме каждый день . . Я даю цветы Анне .I am helping this girl. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.(you) give Даѐт .(I) give Даѐшь . Here are the conjuctions: Даю .I give flowers to Anna. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case.(you) give Дают .(they) give The command forms of this word include.They give flowers to Elena. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”.. Дайте мне . Я помогаю этой девушке .I am helping Anna.Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something.(we) give Даѐте .Give me .. Дай . Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .(he) gives Даѐм ..give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something.We help mother every day. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.. .
a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. it is like saying “To me it is likable”.) Ей нравится Москва . (lit: children are pleasing to me. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.Звонить . Мне нравится Москва . Как вам нравится . If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like).to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.) Ему нравится Москва . However this verb is used differently. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.I like the children. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns.How do you like . Мне холодно .She likes Moscow.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? .You like Moscow.? Как вам нравится фильм? ... Адаму нравится Москва .I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .? . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. However it is a common word. so it is worth learning now.) Practice using the word нравится.I like your children.She calls Ivan every day.I like the flowers. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case..I really like the flowers.He likes Moscow. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.He is cold (to him its cold) . (The "ся" ending is reflexive). Мне нравятся цветы . Иван звонит Анне каждый день . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love).Ivan calls Anna every day. and it relies on the dative case. it is still worth learning these examples.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . Мне очень нравятся цветы . so it is enough for now just to learn this form.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . Вам нравится Москва . Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.I like Moscow..Adam likes Moscow. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns.
and has too many meanings.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). “ш” or “щ”. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . “ч”. All consonants. then add “ем”. with “ем”. if stressed “ѐм”. add “ем”. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. “ц”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . Replace “ь”.. Except. 4.I am walking towards the station.. 2. to create an exact rule.I am 23 years old.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. add “ом”.Ей холодно .We are going to our friends. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. Мы едем к друзьям . if stressed “ѐм”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Replace “й”. . It is followed by the dative case.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года .
All consonants. Except. 2. “ш” or “щ”.. 1.женой (wife) Иван . Я ем суп ложкой . Иван пишет карандашом .Анной (Anna) студенты .ложкой (spoon) нож . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. The preposition: „с‟ . Replace “а” with “ой”.. 2. Олег режет мясо ножом . 3.With.мужем (husband) жена .. In English these words can have different meanings. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.Ivan writes with a pencil. Accompanied by. 4.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .. if stressed “ѐй”. Replace “ь” with “ью”. Examples.молоком (milk) сметана .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Replace "а". Neuter Nouns: 1. "о" with "ами". . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . add "ами". “ч”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.ножом (knife) муж . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.Feminine Nouns: 1.I eat soup with a spoon. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.карандашом (pencil) ложка . Replace “я” with “ей”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. “ц”.
Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Here are some examples.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. „with you‟. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. In English we would use the word “and”. Мной .Me and you Notes: 1. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. with Ivan”). .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Him Ей . Дайте. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Мы с вами . пожалуйста. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.My husband and I are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком . Иван хочет чай с молоком .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Her . Have a look at the following Russian examples. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Иван с женой идут в кафе. .Ivan and I are going to school. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.Please give me coffee with milk. „with him‟. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . пожалуйста. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). . Pronouns .You Им .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. it is often written as “со”. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .I eat borsh with sour cream. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. However it is followed by the genitive case. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .Ivan wants tea with milk.My wife and I are going to the cafe.Nadya wants tea with lemon. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. 2.Me Тобой . . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .For ease of pronunciation. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.
Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.night ночью .day.at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .winter зимой . For example: лето . .evening вечером .You (plural) Ими .in autumn зима .in summer осень .summer летом . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.in the afternoon вечер . afternoon днѐм . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.Us Вами .It Нами .spring весной .in the evening ночь .autumn осенью .in the morning день .in winter весна .Them Seasons and parts of the day. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .morning утром .Им .
above перед . but it is something to keep in mind.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .to remain as пользоваться . You will learn more about this in a later lesson.Happy birthday С новым годом . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.to be.behind. for между .to seem.under Examples: За этим зданием .to be interested in оказываться .to use. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .control. to be occupied with интересоваться .The lamp is above the table. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.за . was) has no present tense. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.I was a doctor).to turn out to be оставаться .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. быть . govern являться .to be keen on управлять .between над . was заниматься . You don't need to learn these verbs now. . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.in front of под .Behind this building there is a school.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. .to become увлекаться . (Example: Я был врачом . .школа.to be engaged in.Under the table the cat is sitting. . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. . manage. Перед этой школой поверните налево. enjoy становиться/стать . be The verb “Быть” (to be. is. Над столом висит лампа.In front of this school turn to the left. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. Под столом сидит кот. is. beyond.
. Neuter Nouns: 1. then add “ем”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. 1. Олег режет мясо ножом ... In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. 2. add “ем”.. if stressed “ѐм”. 3.Ivan writes with a pencil.. Replace “я” with “ей”. .карандашом (pencil) ложка . “ц”. Иван пишет карандашом . All consonants. Replace “й”. add “ом”. if stressed “ѐм”. Replace "а". add "ами". Я ем суп ложкой . 4.. if stressed “ѐй”. “ч”. Replace “а” with “ой”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. “ш” or “щ”.женой (wife) Иван . Except. All consonants. with “ем”. Examples.Анной (Anna) студенты . “ш” or “щ”. “ч”.ложкой (spoon) нож . If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. 2.Masculine Nouns: 1. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. 2.молоком (milk) сметана . “ц”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Except. Replace “ь” with “ью”.мужем (husband) жена .ножом (knife) муж .Иваном (Ivan) Анна . "о" with "ами". Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. 4. In English these words can have different meanings. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.I eat soup with a spoon.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Replace “ь”. Feminine Nouns: 1.
Дайте. . with Ivan”). кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Accompanied by.Ivan and I are going to school. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. However it is followed by the genitive case. Here are some examples. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Мы с вами . 2. . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.My wife and I are going to the cafe. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Me and you Notes: 1.The preposition: „с‟ .Please give me coffee with milk. . For ease of pronunciation. In English we would use the word “and”. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . пожалуйста. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.I eat borsh with sour cream. Иван с Анной идут в кафе.Instrumental Case . Иван с женой идут в кафе.Nadya wants tea with lemon. . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. пожалуйста.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Pronouns .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Ivan wants tea with milk.My husband and I are going to the cafe. but Russian generally uses “с” (with).I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. кофе с молоком . it is often written as “со”.With.
afternoon днѐм .evening вечером .Him Ей .Us Вами . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .You (plural) Ими .day.in autumn зима . „with him‟.morning утром . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.summer летом .It Нами .at night .Her Им .spring весной .in the morning день . For example: лето .in the evening ночь .night ночью .autumn осенью .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.in winter весна . Мной .winter зимой .You Им .in summer осень . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.Me Тобой . „with you‟.in the afternoon вечер .Them Seasons and parts of the day. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.
the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.under Examples: За этим зданием . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .школа.Behind this building there is a school. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. was заниматься .I was a doctor). govern являться . beyond. .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.In front of this school turn to the left.The lamp is above the table. was) has no present tense. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .to be engaged in. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. is.between над .to become увлекаться . быть . enjoy становиться/стать .to use.Under the table the cat is sitting. .control.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. manage. Под столом сидит кот.to seem. Над столом висит лампа. .in front of под . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. за . for между . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. to be occupied with интересоваться .to turn out to be оставаться . . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. . Перед этой школой поверните налево. (Example: Я был врачом .to remain as пользоваться .Happy birthday С новым годом .above перед .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. but it is something to keep in mind.to be keen on управлять .to be.behind. . is. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. You don't need to learn these verbs now. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. be The verb “Быть” (to be.to be interested in оказываться .
You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. or talk about something that has happened in the past.It knew Они знали . Although this concept differs from English. Он знал .Elena knew Ольга знала .He knew Она знала .I knew (female speaking) Ты знал .They knew Мы знали .You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .I knew (male speaking) Я знала .Dima knew Елена знала . it is conceptually quite easy. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.Vladimir knew Дима знал . In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story. Let's have a look at the past tense now.. In English there are quite a number of different past tenses..We knew Я знал . (ie 1st. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.She knew Оно знало . Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).The dog knew . The same principal also applies in the future tense. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. but in Russian there is simply one. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. 2nd or 3rd person).Olga knew Собака знала . Forming Verbs in Past Tense.. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.
. Я работал два часа .I worked for 2 hours. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. This should help you remember how to form the verbs.I was working Я шѐл . The Imperfective Aspect. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома .I run in the forest every day. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. reversed or repeated actions. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. . You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. consequently each verb has two possible forms.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. use the imperfective also. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. habitual. Ты. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. Я работал каждый день . There are two aspects in Russian. and is not complete. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. so there is no perfective in the present tense.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. . When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time.I worked everyday. (often По-). ongoing. Я работал . but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. When using pronouns such as Я.She wants to buy a book. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. Some tenses in English can indicate this. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.I was home. Simply conjugate them as discussed above.
Саша съел обед за пять минут.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?.She did not eat bananas.I failed to phone.Did you tell him about it? . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. . When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. . Я не жила в Англии. . Perfective: Я не позвонила .We did not watch the movie yesterday. Я не понял. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? .Yesterday we read an interesting article. If you are still unsure which to use. Questions and Aspects. Он не хотел видеть меня. .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . . Я купил кофе . . . что он сказал.I went home.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. . Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. . Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. (but I was expected to).I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .I did not understand what he said. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. . .I did not live in England. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. Она спросила учителя.He did not want to see me.
Я была во многих странах. Я окончила школу.I was not (woman speaking). Они не были . Я не была .I‟ve been to many countries.He read for three hours.They were not.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. The stress moves to the word 'не'. когда мне было 16 лет . Оно не было .At school I started learning English. This is not the case in the past tense. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.We rented a summer house for three months. Он читал три часа.I was (man speaking) Я была . except in the feminine. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.I finished school when I was 16 years old.I‟ve already visited Sweden. Я не был . Я уже посетила Швецию .It was not.I was not (man speaking). . Я был .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. . В школе я начала учить английский. . More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.I was (woman speaking) Он был .She was Оно было .He was Она была . .It was Они были . and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.