Russian letters that are (almost) the same.
А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
quite similar to English. Here are some examples: 20 . (You will need to drop the soft sign. Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.одиннадцать 12 .пятьсот 600 .11 .семьсот 800 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English. 30 .двадцать три 24 .двадцать 21 .тридцать 40 .шестьдесят 70 .восемнадцать 19 .четыреста 500 .шестьсот 700 .сто 200 .четырнадцать 15 .семнадцать 18 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).девятьсот
.сорок 50 .двести 300 .шестнадцать 17 .тринадцать 14 .пятьдесят 60 .двадцать два 23 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.семьдесят 80 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".триста 400 .пятнадцать 16 .восемьдесят 90 .девятнадцать
Russian numbers: 20 and onwards
As you could see.восемьсот 900 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.двенадцать 13 .девяносто 100 .двадцать один 22 .
you can basically forget the "уй".000 .007 2.000. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.345 23.1.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") . Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.000 .миллион 1.ноль
Saying Large Russian Numbers
Try pronouncing the numbers below. 456 219 9.994 1.564 2. You should always say this after someone thanks you.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .000 1.миллиард For example: 131 . 0 .
Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".
Yes and No.Yes Нет ("nyet") .000.
The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. after somebody says thank-you.812
Please and Thank-You.000 .000.тысяча 1. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct. Да ("da") .
not the individual words.Good/Well thank-you Плохо .Bad
Saying Good-Bye. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") .Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. Привет is also commonly used with friends.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. Вы говорите по-английски? . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. If all else fails.Bye (Informal.
Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual.My name is . and should only be used with friends. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . you may need the following phrases. However.. There are two forms of this word. but we suggest you only use it with friends. except for the question mark.
How are you?
The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? .Pleased to meet you.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .
Introducing Yourself. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. there is no difference between the question and the statement. Меня зовут .How are things? Хорошо спасибо ..Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . slang) You should generally use до свидания. You may also hear people say Пока.Good-bye. put a real questioning expression on your face. If somebody says Привет to you.Do you (formal) speak Russian?
. ("min-ya za-voot") .. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . You should just learn the whole phrase. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question.
In order to introduce yourself. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello".
There are also two words for saying good-bye.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") .. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.
Asking about languages
When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English).
Soup Торт . пожалуйста. Скажите.Tell me please.Я говорю по-английски ..Vodka Пиво . где кафе? .Tell me please.Lemonade Сок . пожалуйста..Tell me please. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”..I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Cake Водка . Скажите. You could ask people with the following phrases.Milk Кока-Кола .Russian beetroot soup Суп .I don't understand
Finding a cafe
After a busy day in Russia. you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink..Coffee Чай .Wine Вода .Water
.Tea Молоко . It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Tell me please. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”..Menu Кофе .I speak Russian Я понимаю . пожалуйста. where is a cafe? Скажите. где ближайшее кафе? .. пожалуйста. Скажите.Beer Вино .Juice Борщ . где бар? .I understand Я не понимаю . .Coca-Cola Лимонад . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . where is the nearest cafe?
On the Menu
If you were in a Russian bar or café.
.What? Что вы хотите? ..
Do you have. .. you will generally get straight vodka.Give me please.What do you want? Я хочу . ... Here are some Russian phrases you might need.Be careful.. пожалуйста. это кофе.. это чай.. is it coffee? Нет. Что это? .. You can use it to ask the price of something. ..
У вас есть кофе? . you can use the following phrase.I want.....How much is it?. пожалуйста.It is coffee.Please give me tea..? .
The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian.?
If you want to ask someone if they have something. Сколько стоит? . Дайте. пожалуйста . кофе с молоком . it is tea. пожалуйста.What is it? Это кофе. ..Do you have vodka?
Please give me
When you decide what you will have you will need to order. Дайте.Excuse me. Дайте. У вас есть . . Простите.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Дайте. (Just learn the whole phrase..
Дайте. чай. it is gramatically unusual).Do you have . when you order vodka in russia.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.No. пожалуйста... кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Please give me coffee. .Please give me coffee with milk. кофе .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .
What is it?
Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are.
She. walk. love. It (m) Она ..." in Russian? Что значит ".?
To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.. it.. they are things you can do. For example: run. want..He. The subject is "I".. Где Туалет . him. Pronouns are words that can replace names..We Вы . It (f) Оно . It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian.. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". For example: I. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M"." mean in English?
Where is the toilet.... eat.You (informal) Он ." по-русски? .It (n) Мы . or plural)
. In the sentence "I love him". Скажите. Как сказать "." на английском? .You (formal. "love" is the verb.Tell me please. he.
How do you say?
Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. she..
Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence..21 rubles. Пожалуйста .What does ". you. Here are some useful phrases.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . her.
Verbs are action words. and the object is "him"..) Я-I Ты .Сколько? ..How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль .How do you say ".. (Known as the nominative case.
"ете" or "ют"). or plural) Их . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".Они . Both these patterns are quite similar. It (f) Нас .("yevo") . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence.Him. and the second conjugation. but not as much. dictionary form)
. (There are also some irregular verbs).Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). It works.You work. Они работают . Оно работает . Мы работаем . работать .They work. (Example: I work.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you".
The first conjugation
The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить".Us Вас .Her. Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. Она. "I am working" and "I do work". it is not too difficult.You work Он. (infinitive. dictionary form) Я работаю . She.To work. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. (infinitive. You should memorise these pronouns.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you".He. "ет".You (informal) Его . To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). This happens a little in English.To understand. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . and add the appropriate ending ("ю". (Known as the accusative case) Меня .We work Вы работаете .Me Тебя .I work Ты работаешь .n) Еѐ .Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). he works). It is the most common. "ем".
You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. "ешь". and once you get the hang of it. Just remember that unlike English.You (formal. It (m.
Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules.You understand.We know.Do you understand?
The second conjugation
Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation.To know. Оно понимает . Она. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. Они понимают . Оно знает . Они знают .He.I speak. Он. which replace "ить". dictionary form) Я знаю . Он. It Speaks. (infinitive.We speak.I know.We understand. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). It knows. Я не понимаю . Вы знаете . Мы знаем . You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . Знать .I understand.I don't know. Он не понимает .You speak. Она. It understands Мы понимаем . Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation.He doesn't understand.
.You know. говорить . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Он.They know.They understand. Ты говоришь . She. dictionary form) Я говорю . Мы говорим . Ты понимаешь . Она. Оно говорит . Ты знаешь . Remember.Я понимаю .You understand. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).He.
Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).He.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? .To speak. She.You know. Вы понимаете .I don't understand. For example: Я не знаю . (infinitive. She.
Он.You go (by transport). Вы живѐте . слышит . She. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Мы едем . Оно живѐт . often once you know the stem of the verb. слышите . Вы едете .We live.To go (by transport).
There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian.I go (by transport). слышишь . It lives.Вы говорите .They go (by transport).I live. It goes (by transport).He.I speak English Он говорит по-русски . Они едут .You speak. Он.They live. you can often predict the endings.We hear. слышат .He.
Жить .I hear. слышать . Some examples: Ехать .You go (by transport).He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? .You hear.To live. Ты живѐшь .
For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. слышу . Они живут . It hears. Оно едет .To hear.We don't speak Russian. Собака не говорит по-английски . She.You hear. except that "у" replaces "ю". (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).The dog doesn't speak English.They speak.You live. слышим .They hear. She.You live. Она. Я еду . Я живу . Ты едешь .We go (by transport).He.Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . Мы живѐм . Они говорят .
. Она. However.
cup. each noun is assigned a gender. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. From the dictionary form of a noun. Russian has three genders: masculine.I live in London. There are very few exceptions to these rules.A letter that is not a vowel. У. In Russian we use 6 cases. The letters А. In the case of other objects like “pen”.U in English).(Coffee) . Папа . as with many other languages. 4. “house”. cat.(Man) . ъ because they have no sound). pen.
In Russian. Consonant .Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. Е. Я.O. feminine. and neuter (neutral).Is Masculine Дядя . name or place. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. paper. But there are five notable exceptions. И and Й. Papa) .
Gender of nouns.Is Masculine Мужчина . О.(Daddy.(Uncle) . If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. unlike many languages. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. 3.E.Is Masculine Кофе . 5. (A.(Grandfather) . Moscow.Is Masculine Дедушка . If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. it will be in its dictionary form. or “й”. Cases . In English we do this by having a strict word-order. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. Ы. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. Vowel .I. (Except ь. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. Ю. “cup”. Он едет домой . If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case.A noun is a thing. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. Ё.He is going home
Noun . Example: dog. Luckily. the word is masculine.Is Masculine
. Э. If it is a consonant. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending.
It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. and about. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar.. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. on.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). (Eg.
. and still keep the same meaning. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. In fact it was also used in Old English. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. For example. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. Россия (Russia).. Хлеб (bread). “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. радио (radio). Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. In Russian there are six cases. at. so we will take it slowly. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary.. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed.. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. документ (document). (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. письмо (letter)
Cases in Russian
Russian grammar uses the case system. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Feminine : газета (newspaper). (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. (In. Greek and German. брат (brother). Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian.
the word “I” is the subject. add “ы”. In the sentence “I love her”. without changing the actual meaning. “я” or “а”. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns.buildings)
The Accusative Case. In Russian. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . you need to use the accusative case also. in this case the word “dog”. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student .Interestingly. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. For example. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. (The subject of a sentence)
The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. especially pronouns. Russian uses the case for all nouns. Russian is very free about word order.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. (The object of a sentence)
To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. “ы”. However. not plants). so there is nothing special to learn here. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns.
The Nominative Case. in the nominative case.
. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. you make a plural by using the letters “и”.
2.I love music.Ivan loves tea. with “я”. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . there is no change.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . add “я”. Ты любишь музыку? . Replace “а” with “у”. Он любит Москву . replace “й”. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Я не люблю музыку . replace “ь”.Nadya doesn't like wine. Надя любит вино .I don't like music. Replace “я” with “ю”. Feminine Nouns: 1. If noun is animate. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. 4.
Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Иван любит чай . Я люблю музыку . If the noun in inanimate.
.He loves Moscow. add “а”.Masculine Nouns: 1. 3. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Neuter Nouns: 1. If noun is animate. 2.Nadya loves wine.I love Moscow. Надя не любит вино .I love sport.
Что ты любишь? . Слушать .I love her.I am reading a book. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .
Using other Russian verbs
To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. что ты любишь музыку. so don't be confused. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Она любит меня . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here.to watch.to read.What do you love? However.I am reading a magazine. Я слушаю музыку . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .to study Думать .to work Хотеть . Я читаю журнал .I am watching television. Смотреть . Я слушаю радио . Я еѐ люблю .to want
Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence.I am listening to the radio. If you would like."I love you" in Russian
You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . Я читаю газету . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. An example could be: Я знаю.I love you. it is probably the conjunction "that". You can use it to form questions.to listen Изучать .to think Работать .I know that you love music.She loves me
The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?".I love him.I am listening to music. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. The word "Что" has two uses.
I really love sport. For example: Очень . Я так думаю .Where? Кто? . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .Я изучаю русский язык . Я хочу купить журнал .
You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.I love to travel. In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.I want tea.I study Russian. Что вы хотите? . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”)
.I want to buy a magazine. Я люблю путешествовать .What? Как? . Где? . Я очень люблю Москву .very.How? Почему? .I really love Moscow. For example: Я люблю читать . (lit: I study the Russian language).I think so! Как вы думаете? . You can include it into many phrases.I love to read.What do you want?
Sometime you will want to talk about an action. In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . Add : “е”.
A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".Why?
Forming the prepositional case
To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.Who? Что? .
it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. 3. 4.On the table is a book and a pencil. suburbs and places.theatre
.I live in Moscow. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. Replace “о” with “е” 2. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. „at a station‟. Petersburg.in the garden в лесу . even though they are not Russian.cinema театр .Feminine Nouns: 1. Я живу в Сибири .on the street
Что на столе? .Where is she? на вокзале .in the forest на улице . (They are in dicionary form) кино . „at work‟. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . „at a concert‟).I live in Siberia. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English.I live in St. Replace “я” with “е”. (Eg. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Replace “а” with “е”.at the post office в саду . although these aren‟t precise rules. 2.I live in London.
As with any language. Exception: Replace “ия”. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings.
Using prepositions and the prepositional case. Here are some tips to help you.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .
Here are some names of other useful places.at the station на почте .What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . Replace “ь” with “и”. (Eg. “е” remains unchanged. Я живу в Лондоне . You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . Я живу в Петербурге .
аптека .cafe площадь .bank гостиница . but as these words are so important for basic Russian.square ресторан . прямо потом направо .stadium школа . and are grammatically quite complex. The first indicates you are going on foot. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. Куда вы идѐте .To the left.school библиотека . prepositions have more than one meaning. you can tell this by the case. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.
Going Places in Russian
In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. However.restaurant банк .park стадион .hospital
Location and Direction
Sometimes. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. Both these words are verbs of motion. there are actually four ways:
. we will introduce them now in a simple way. your answer will involve the prepositional case. направо .I am going to school. налево . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.library кафе . the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟.Straight ahead. прямо .To the right.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .hotel музей . Here are some examples for you to compare.museum больница .I work at (in) a school.pharmacy парк .
Где вы работаете? .Straight ahead then to the right. So to express „to go‟ in Russian. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). you would use the accusative case. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport.
Мы едем. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Ты ходишь. Он ходит.
Ехать . in one direction. Мы ходим. Мы идѐм. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . in one direction. Вы идѐте.I go to school. Ты идѐшь. in more than one direction.To go by transport.We are going to the cafe. or repetitively.He is going to the hotel by taxi.To go on foot. Мы ездим. Вы ездите. Он ездит .I am going to the cinema on the metro.I am going to school. Ты идѐшь в кино? .
(Я еду.To go by transport. Я часто хожу в кино . in more than one direction. Мы едем в кафе . Они едут ) Я еду в школу .He is going to the hotel.Идти . Они часто ездят в Амстердам . Ты едешь. Мы идѐм в кафе .I am going to school.I am going to the cinema.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .
(Я хожу.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . or repetitively
(Я езжу.I am going to the university
Ходить .We are going to the cafe.
(Я иду.They often go to Amsterdam
Russian Family Words
Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family:
.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . Я иду в кино . Они идут) Я иду в школу .He is going to London
Ездить . (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Вы ходите. Он едет.I go to the theatre every day. Вы едете. я иду в университет . Он идѐт.We go to the cafe every day. Ты ездишь .To go on foot.
Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.his.
Basic russian phrases
Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. У меня есть сын и дочь .I don't have any children.brother Дочь . Твоя (f). Наша (f).husband Тѐтя . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns. Моѐ (n).sister Брат . Твои (pl) . Еѐ (f) .Мать .I have a sister.our
In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now.grandson Семья . У меня есть брат .granddaughter Внук . For example we use the words mum and dad.children Внучка . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. Моя (f).wife Муж . Мои (pl) . Мой (m).uncle Родители .father Мама .auntie Дядя .Do you have children?. Наши (pl) .mother Отец .your Его (m n) ("yevo").daughter Сын .dad Сестра . У меня есть сестра .family Just like English.mum Папа . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.I have a brother. her Наш (m).son бабушка .I have a son and a daughter. Твоѐ (n). У тебя есть дети? .grandfather Жена . Наше (n).grandmother Дедушка .parents Дети .my Твой (m). У меня нет детей .
My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. Ваша (f).Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. Ваше (n).
The Russian word Это means 'this is'. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. Доброе утро .My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету . the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual. Ваши (pl) .
This is.good evening Спокойной ночи . you may wish to say her name is Anna.. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .your Их .Is this your apartment?
Finally.Ваш (m). Моя мама любит музыку .This is my house Это моя квартира . However.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .good morning Добрый день .goodnight (when going to bed)
Forming the genitive case
.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .good afternoon Добрый вечер .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns..his name is Ivan.My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . For example. Это мой дом .
Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). add “я”.Igor's telephone. 3. Anna's) Дом Ивана .
Using the genitive case . Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. 2. in Russian. (This is like using 's in English). Replace “а” with “ы”. Replace “я” with “и”. 2. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. pay particular attention to the order of the words. add “а”. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". Replace “ь”.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper.
1. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the
. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . Replace “е” with “я” For example. However. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan.Adam's brother loves Moscow. with “я”.
1. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . Let's have a look at some more examples.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's)
In the above examples.
Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. Replace “о” with “а” 2. Брат Адама любит Москву . 3. For example. Replace “й”. Replace “ь” with “и”. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Сестра Анны читает газету . Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. Собака Адама . (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . If the noun ends in a consonant.ownership
As you can see in the above example.Anna's car.Adam's dog. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . the object that is owned always comes first. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan.
Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .there is not
The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. план города .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Его.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .There is no tea. Тебя.There is no coffee. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.I have book. Вас. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.
Using the genitive case .. .‟. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. Его нет дома .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English.
Pronouns of the genitive case
The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. Кофе нет . This is exactly the same concept as above. У меня есть книга .A glass of milk.He is not home.. Еѐ. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.to have
As the genitive case relates to possession. (coffee is an indeclinable noun)
. As we have seen in a previous lesson.There is no milk. Ивана нет .Does Ivan have tea?
Using the genitive case . Их)
Using the genitive case . Generally. У нее есть собака.sentence and uses the nominative case.A map of the city.of
The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. (Меня.Ivan isn't here. Here are some examples. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. Молока нет . Чая нет . Нас. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is).She has a dog. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. У вас есть кофе? . стакан молока . Here are some examples. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't .Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.
First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural.
The genitive case is used after most numbers.Plural (Subject)
In Russian. for example "10 roubles".
.Using the genitive case .Plural (Direct Object)
For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. Х. in the nominative case. but don‟t worry. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules.
The Nominative Case .студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . you make a plural by using the letters "и".) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . "я" or "а". "ы". you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. Ч.здания (buildings)
The Accusative Case . plurals. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. Ж. add “ы”.numbers. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. quantaties. This will be covered in the next lesson
Forming Plurals. Ш. depending on whether the object is animate or not.
These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).
.The Genitive Case .ч. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. let‟s see how to use them.газет (newspapers') здание . Here are some examples.The books are on the table.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент .
The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. Анна любит книги . but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. but in Russian we use it for all numbers. This may feel a little strange at first. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. Ok. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й.ш. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. Книги на столе .Plural (Possession)
The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.щ.
Plurals with numbers
In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. девушка .англичанок. or whether you are just using general plurals. (марка . Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. but in the plural form.марок.зданий (buildings')
General use of plurals.Anna loves books.студентов (students') газета . In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. англичанка .
one hundred roubles сто долларов .4
If the number.eight buildings девять собак . All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.two books три собаки .8.three roubles четыре рубля .Numbers ending in : 1
If the number is 1.one girl Я знаю одну девушку .nine dogs десять студентов . You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. To help you get used to this concept. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.four students три газеты . 42. 12.7. 3 or 4.9.six books семь газет . 14. 21.ten roubles сто рублей .I know one girl один рубль .one hundred dollars шесть книг .6.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. 61) (but not 11). etc) пять рублей . три рубля . or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1. The number one declines like an adjective. 13. 13 & 14). 4) (but not 12. then you should use the genitive singular case.three dogs четыре доллара .one rouble двадцать один рубль .0.four roubles две книги .four dollars четыре студента . 103. or the last digit of the number is 2. Here are some examples.3.five roubles десять рублей .one dollar
Numbers ending in : 2. (example: 22. try using plurals that involve money.21 roubles один доллар . -надцать
If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. одна девушка .three newspapers
Numbers ending in : 5.
.seven newspapers восемь зданий .. Here are some examples.
0.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .4 .Boris Владимир . This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.His name is Boris.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). Как вас зовут? .
Expressing Your Age in Russian
When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. Quantity ends in 2. .6.
Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.My name is Vera.Genitive Plural General Quantity .Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.What is his name? Его зовут Борис .How old are you.So in summary. Here are some other common Russian names for men. Как еѐ зовут? .Genitive Singular.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .
Quantity ends in 1 . In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? . Как его зовут? .) Quantity not specified .As per position in the sentence. (Lit: To me there are 16 years). Вова)
.Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position..I am 23 years old. Мне восемнадцать лет .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.-надцать . You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .9..Vladimir (Володя.8.7. Quantity ends in 5.
Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.the dative case.Nikolay (Коля) Борис .Her name is Alyona...3. Much like “Мне холодно” . Николай .
There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Andrey Александр .Пѐтр .
Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.and/but (contrasting)
.and а . This is like a pet name.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .Sergey Алексей .Olga (Оля) Александра . but try to learn them all.Alexander (Саша. Some of these may be new.Please (and You're Welcome)
Really Small Russian Words
To help you remember.Pyotr.Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . Спасибо .goodnight (when going to bed)
Please and Thank-You
Never forget please and thank-you.Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Oxana Екатерина .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Natalya (Наташа) Мария . The diminuative is a more personal.good afternoon Добрый вечер . Peter.good morning Добрый день . Здравствуйте . Елена .Yelena (Лена) Наталья . or tender form.Hello Привет . and should only be used when you are in close firendship. Андрей . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt. You should be able to remember all of these.Yekaterina Анастасия .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана . Шура) Дмитрий .good evening Спокойной ночи .Thank-You Пожалуйста . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').
out of. it ты . to за .he.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .from по .Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.them
Using the Russian Language
Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences.Tell me please. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".What do you want? Я хочу чай. Скажите. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. We will use only common words. so you should try to learn them all.near. пожалуйста.There is no tea. кофе с молоком и с сахаром.you (informal) вы .My mum loves music.along. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. it их . Он любит говорить по-английски. .him. во .towards.for (+accusative). я-I он . Дайте. to (+accusative) на . For example. coffee with milk and with sugar.in (+prepositional). что ты говоришь по-русски. . об . У вас есть чай? . . Что вы хотите? . behind (+instrumental) из . . пожалуйста. to (+accusative) о. You might also find some new words in these sentences. . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. У вас есть водка? .I know that you speak Russian. (also used with languages)
You should already know these pronouns. at (+prepositional). In Russian we would use the word "а". it еѐ .about к .Give me please.you (formal/plural) его . .".Do you have tea? Чая нет.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but".but или .
.I want tea please.her. где туалет? . Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . пожалуйста. onto.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .on.но .with у . from от . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.There is no coffee.
What? Как? . сколько стоит? .I know that you understand.21 roubles.Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. Его нет дома .I am listening to music. Где? . Сестра Анны читает газету .Where is he? Где кафе? .Does your borther speak Russian? Да.My sister is reading a newspaper.What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . Я слушаю музыку .I don't understand.What do you think? Где он? . Моя сестра читает газету .I really love sport.My Mum loves music. сколько стоит? .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. Ты понимаешь? .He is going home. . Я не понимаю. что вы понимаете.I really love Moscow.He is not home.Yes.When? Почему? .I think that you understand. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . сколько стоит? .I am reading a magazine.How much? четыре доллара .I live in London.4 roubles.I understand. Моя мама любит музыку .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .Why? Что ты знаешь? .How much? четыре рубля .
.How much? двадцать один рубль . . Почему ты не понимаешь? .How? Когда? .Do you understand? Я знаю.4 dollars. Я думаю. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . что ты понимаешь. Я очень люблю Москву . He speaks Russian well.Where? Кто? . сколько стоит? . .How much? сто рублей .Who? Что? . Он хорошо говорит по-русски. Брат Адама любит Москву .100 roubles. Я очень люблю спорт .I am studying the Russian language. . Я изучаю русский язык .Where is the cafe? Кто он? .Твой брат говорит по-русски? . . .Adam's brother loves Moscow. Он едет домой .The dog doesn't speak English. Собака не говорит по-английски.
Мне . "о" or a consonant with "ам". Адам .us.Адаму Елена . Replace “о” with “у” 2. Им . 3. Replace “й”.
To create nouns in the dative case. her. Ей (f) .Forming the dative case. Тебе .
1. Replace “а” with “е”.
1. If the noun ends in a consonant. it.
1.Молоку Вино . Replace “ь” with “и”. 2..you (formal.Елене Молоко . 1.
. 2. Replace “ия” with “ии”. Replace "а". 3. Вам . or plural).you (informal).. Replace “е” with “ю”
Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. 3. If the noun ends in a consonant. Replace “я” with “е”. Ему (m). with “ю”. add “ю”. 2. Нам . Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. add “у”. Replace “ь”.
It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. Ему (n).me.Вину
Pronouns of the Dative Case.them. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. add "ам". 4.him.
In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. Дайте мне . . For this reason.(you) give Даѐт . ..(you) give Дают . Я помогаю Ивану ..Give me your address and telephone number. Я даю цветы Анне .
. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне .I am helping Anna.. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. Мы помогаем маме каждый день .I give flowers to Anna. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .give! Дайте .(they) give The command forms of this word include. Дай ..I am helping this girl. Я помогаю этой девушке . Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона..I am helping Ivan.We help mother every day. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”.Give me . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.(he) gives Даѐм ..(I) give Даѐшь .They give flowers to Elena. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations. Они дают цветы Елене . Here are the conjuctions: Даю .
Other uses of the dative case meaning “to”
There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. It should be used in the dative case. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Similarly.Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects
The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .(we) give Даѐте .Ivan gives flowers to Anna. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. the word “Anna” is the indirect object.
(lit: children are pleasing to me.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети .) Ему нравится Москва . so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.
In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love).) Ей нравится Москва . so it is worth learning now. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet.
Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns.? Как вам нравится фильм? .) Practice using the word нравится.. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns.I like the flowers.Adam likes Moscow. and it relies on the dative case. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. (The "ся" ending is reflexive).to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день .) Мне нравятся ваши дети .? . Адаму нравится Москва . Как вам нравится .How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . it is still worth learning these examples. Мне нравится Москва .I like Moscow.Ivan calls Anna every day.She calls Ivan every day.He is cold (to him its cold)
. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. Иван звонит Анне каждый день ..He likes Moscow. Мне холодно . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.You like Moscow... (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.I like the children.She likes Moscow. so it is enough for now just to learn this form. This is verb is also a reflexive verb. Вам нравится Москва . However this verb is used differently. However it is a common word.How do you like .I like your children. Мне нравятся цветы . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.Звонить . it is like saying “To me it is likable”.I really like the flowers. Мне очень нравятся цветы .
Replace “й”. “ч”.We are going to our friends. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . and has too many meanings. “ш” or “щ”. It is followed by the dative case.I am 23 years old. Replace “ь”. 4.
Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns:
1. to create an exact rule. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case.I am bored (to me its boring)
The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет .
.Ей холодно . All consonants. add “ем”. if stressed “ѐм”. then add “ем”.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . if stressed “ѐм”. “ц”.I am walking towards the station.
More Dative Case
A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.
The preposition "к" (towards/to)
In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to".. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). 2. with “ем”..We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . add “ом”.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . Except. Мы едем к друзьям .
“ш” or “щ”.молоком (milk) сметана . 4.женой (wife) Иван . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. 3.карандашом (pencil) ложка .мужем (husband) жена . Я ем суп ложкой .
The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. 2. 1.
Examples. Accompanied by. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Replace "а". All consonants. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. add "ами".
The preposition: „с‟ . 2.ложкой (spoon) нож . Except.Анной (Anna) студенты . "о" with "ами".. Otherwise replace with "ями"
молоко .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Олег режет мясо ножом . Add “м”
Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.ножом (knife) муж .Ivan writes with a pencil.студентами (students)
Using the Intrumental Case: By means of
The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.I eat soup with a spoon..With. In English these words can have different meanings. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. if stressed “ѐй”.
Иван пишет карандашом .. Replace “я” with “ей”. “ц”. Replace “а” with “ой”.
. Replace “ь” with “ью”.Feminine Nouns:
1.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.. “ч”.
2. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Ivan wants tea with milk.Me Тобой .Her
. it is often written as “со”. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Дайте.Ivan and I are going to school. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .Him Ей . Иван с женой идут в кафе. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.You Им .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Nadya wants tea with lemon. „with you‟. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. кофе с молоком . Мы с вами .My husband and I are going to the cafe. Иван хочет чай с молоком .I love pancakes with caviar
In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. пожалуйста.
Pronouns . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.Me and you
Notes: 1. . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.
More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. „with him‟. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .I eat borsh with sour cream. In English we would use the word “and”. Here are some examples. пожалуйста.
Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.For ease of pronunciation.Instrumental Case
Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. with Ivan”). However it is followed by the genitive case. Мной .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.Please give me coffee with milk.My wife and I are going to the cafe. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.
in the evening ночь .morning утром .
The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.Us Вами .Them
Seasons and parts of the day. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.in the afternoon вечер .winter зимой .evening вечером .day.It Нами .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .
The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .autumn осенью .summer летом .in the morning день .Им . For example: лето .night ночью .You (plural) Ими .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.in autumn зима .
Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.in winter весна .
Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. afternoon днѐм .spring весной .in summer осень .
manage. .in front of под .за . but it is something to keep in mind.The lamp is above the table.
Important Russian Expressions
Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .to turn out to be оставаться . (Example: Я был врачом . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. Под столом сидит кот.to be.above перед .Happy new year
Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .to be keen on управлять .behind. .I was a doctor). . beyond. You don't need to learn these verbs now.Behind this building there is a school. быть .control. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.under Examples: За этим зданием .
The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. enjoy становиться/стать . is. .
Forming the Russian Instrumental Case
. was) has no present tense. to be occupied with интересоваться .школа. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.to remain as пользоваться . is.Under the table the cat is sitting.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. govern являться .Happy birthday С новым годом .between над . Перед этой школой поверните налево.to become увлекаться . be The verb “Быть” (to be. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. was заниматься .to use. Над столом висит лампа.In front of this school turn to the left.to be interested in оказываться . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.to seem.to be engaged in. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. for между . .
if stressed “ѐм”. Replace “ь” with “ью”..
1. add “ем”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Otherwise replace with "ями"
молоко . “ц”. 2.мужем (husband) жена .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. “ш” or “щ”. 2. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. "о" with "ами".Анной (Anna) студенты .
.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . “ш” or “щ”.ножом (knife) муж .студентами (students)
Using the Intrumental Case: By means of
The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.
Иван пишет карандашом . if stressed “ѐм”. Except. Replace “я” with “ей”. Я ем суп ложкой .I eat soup with a spoon. Replace "а". Replace “ь”.ложкой (spoon) нож . 4. with “ем”.
Examples.женой (wife) Иван . “ц”.молоком (milk) сметана . All consonants. 3. add "ами". 2.Masculine Nouns:
1. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. “ч”. Except..
1. 4. Add “м”
Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. add “ом”.. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. “ч”. Replace “й”. Replace “а” with “ой”. In English these words can have different meanings.. All consonants. Олег режет мясо ножом .карандашом (pencil) ложка . If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.Ivan writes with a pencil..сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . then add “ем”.. 1. if stressed “ѐй”.
Иван с женой идут в кафе. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. .My husband and I are going to the cafe. Have a look at the following Russian examples.I eat borsh with sour cream.
Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. пожалуйста. with Ivan”). Дайте. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. it is often written as “со”. . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Me and you
Notes: 1. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Accompanied by.
The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. 2.My wife and I are going to the cafe. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .Nadya wants tea with lemon.
Pronouns . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. For ease of pronunciation. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.Instrumental Case
.The preposition: „с‟ . Мы с вами .Ivan wants tea with milk. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .With. However it is followed by the genitive case. In English we would use the word “and”. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Please give me coffee with milk. . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .I love pancakes with caviar
In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Here are some examples. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Иван хочет чай с молоком .Ivan and I are going to school.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. пожалуйста.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.
More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .
afternoon днѐм . „with you‟.Him Ей . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.Us Вами . For example: лето .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.
Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.Me Тобой .It Нами .summer летом .You (plural) Ими . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.in summer осень .Them
Seasons and parts of the day.winter зимой .in the morning день .autumn осенью .spring весной . Мной .in the afternoon вечер .at night
.in winter весна .in the evening ночь .Her Им .in spring
The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .day. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. „with him‟.evening вечером .You Им .in autumn зима .morning утром .night ночью .
beyond.to become увлекаться .to remain as пользоваться .to be engaged in.
The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . быть .Happy birthday С новым годом . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.
. Над столом висит лампа. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. . .Happy new year
Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.Under the table the cat is sitting.behind.control.to be interested in оказываться .to seem. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. .under Examples: За этим зданием . but it is something to keep in mind.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.Behind this building there is a school. govern являться .to use. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. . was) has no present tense. .The lamp is above the table. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.
Important Russian Expressions
Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .between над . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. was заниматься .above перед .in front of под . be The verb “Быть” (to be.In front of this school turn to the left. is. manage.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. enjoy становиться/стать . to be occupied with интересоваться .
Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.I was a doctor). Под столом сидит кот.
The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.школа.to be keen on управлять . You don't need to learn these verbs now. for между .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. Перед этой школой поверните налево. за . (Example: Я был врачом .to turn out to be оставаться . is.to be.
it is conceptually quite easy.Dima knew Елена знала .
Forming Verbs in Past Tense.Russian Past Tense
In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.The dog knew
. Although this concept differs from English. but in Russian there is simply one. Он знал . 2nd or 3rd person). In English there are quite a number of different past tenses.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. The same principal also applies in the future tense. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.
In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense...He knew Она знала . Let's have a look at the past tense now. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. or talk about something that has happened in the past.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .Vladimir knew Дима знал .Elena knew Ольга знала .Olga knew Собака знала . Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). (ie 1st.It knew Они знали .I knew (female speaking) Ты знал .They knew Мы знали .I knew (male speaking) Я знала ..We knew Я знал .She knew Оно знало .
Some tenses in English can indicate this. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. (often По-). Simply conjugate them as discussed above.I was home. . There are two aspects in Russian.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. ongoing. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. . You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb.
The Perfective Aspect
Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. use the imperfective also. so there is no perfective in the present tense. and is not complete. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. This should help you remember how to form the verbs.I worked for 2 hours. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished.
The Imperfective Aspect. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. reversed or repeated actions.
.I run in the forest every day. Ты. Я работал каждый день .
The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. Я работал . Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect.I worked everyday. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. habitual. When using pronouns such as Я.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. consequently each verb has two possible forms.
Aspects in the past
In Russian there is a concept know as aspect.She wants to buy a book. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . By definition something in the present tense is happening now. Я работал два часа .I was working Я шѐл . and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective.
Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.
Что ты делал вчера?.He did not want to see me.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. . (but I was expected to).We did not watch the movie yesterday.
Я не позвонила .I did not live in England. .She asked the teacher
Aspects and the negative.
The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.
Она не ела бананы. .Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. что он сказал.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. Я не понял.I failed to phone.I went home.
When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully.Did you tell him about it?
. Я не жила в Англии. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. .Yesterday we read an interesting article. If you are still unsure which to use.Did you run yesterday morning?
Ты понял этот фильм? .Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? .I did not understand what he said. Она спросила учителя. .I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . Саша съел обед за пять минут. . . Он не хотел видеть меня. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened.
Questions and Aspects. .She did not eat bananas. Я купил кофе . . . .
and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.At school I started learning English.I was (man speaking) Я была .He was Она была . Он читал три часа. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.
Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. .They were
Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. Я был .It was Они были .She was Оно было . except in the feminine.Saying “Was”
You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. Я не была .He read for three hours.
. Я не был . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). Я окончила школу. Они не были . This is not the case in the past tense.I finished school when I was 16 years old. The stress moves to the word 'не'. когда мне было 16 лет . . . Оно не было . Мы сняли дачу на три месяца. Я уже посетила Швецию .I‟ve been to many countries.It was not.I was not (woman speaking). В школе я начала учить английский.They were not.I was (woman speaking) Он был .We rented a summer house for three months.I was not (man speaking). Я была во многих странах.I‟ve already visited Sweden. .