Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)

Хорошо(Good)

Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

пятьсот 600 .семьдесят 80 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.восемьдесят 90 .триста 400 .тринадцать 14 .сорок 50 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.шестьдесят 70 .двадцать один 22 .двести 300 .девятьсот . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.11 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".четырнадцать 15 .одиннадцать 12 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.двенадцать 13 .девяносто 100 .двадцать три 24 .шестьсот 700 .восемнадцать 19 .двадцать два 23 .семьсот 800 .пятьдесят 60 .семнадцать 18 .четыреста 500 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles. quite similar to English.тридцать 40 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. Here are some examples: 20 .двадцать 21 .пятнадцать 16 .сто 200 .восемьсот 900 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).шестнадцать 17 . 30 .

Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".000 .000 1.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.тысяча 1. Yes and No.345 23. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .1.миллион 1. 456 219 9.миллиард For example: 131 . Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.007 2.000. 0 . . Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.564 2. you can basically forget the "уй".сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.008 2.000 . after somebody says thank-you.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.000.812 Please and Thank-You.No Saying Hello.Yes Нет ("nyet") . You should always say this after someone thanks you. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.000 .994 1. Да ("da") .000.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .

which is appropriate in formal or informal situations.Bye (Informal. You should just learn the whole phrase. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. Вы говорите по-английски? . There are also two words for saying good-bye.Pleased to meet you. you may need the following phrases. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". There are two forms of this word. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . but we suggest you only use it with friends.How are things? Хорошо спасибо .. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. Меня зовут . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. If somebody says Привет to you. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. You may also hear people say Пока. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . not the individual words.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") ..My name is . However.Good-bye. slang) You should generally use до свидания.. and should only be used with friends.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first.Bad Saying Good-Bye.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . ("min-ya za-voot") . there is no difference between the question and the statement. Привет is also commonly used with friends. Introducing Yourself. put a real questioning expression on your face. In order to introduce yourself. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. except for the question mark.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . If all else fails.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") .Do you (formal) speak Russian? .. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.

.I speak Russian Я понимаю .Russian beetroot soup Суп . где кафе? .Menu Кофе . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.I understand Я не понимаю . где бар? .Soup Торт . Скажите. where is a cafe? Скажите.Milk Кока-Кола .Tell me please. пожалуйста.Lemonade Сок .Beer Вино .Coffee Чай .Water .I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.. here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню .. пожалуйста. где ближайшее кафе? .Tea Молоко .I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Cake Водка .Я говорю по-английски . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.Juice Борщ .Wine Вода .. Скажите. . where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Tell me please. You could ask people with the following phrases. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is. пожалуйста.Tell me please..Vodka Пиво . where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.Coca-Cola Лимонад .Tell me please. пожалуйста. Скажите..

I want..It is coffee. . Сколько стоит? .Give me please. . пожалуйста.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. пожалуйста.? ...Excuse me. пожалуйста. it is gramatically unusual)..Be careful..? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian..Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. кофе с молоком . you will generally get straight vodka. .How much is it?. Do you have. Examples: Дайте..Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .. . Простите. Дайте.Please give me coffee with milk. ... чай. пожалуйста .. is it coffee? Нет. Here are some Russian phrases you might need..Do you have . (Just learn the whole phrase. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .What do you want? Я хочу ..What is it? Это кофе. . You can use it to ask the price of something.What? Что вы хотите? . это кофе. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. it is tea.. you can use the following phrase. Дайте. Что это? . это чай. when you order vodka in russia. пожалуйста.? If you want to ask someone if they have something. ..Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .. У вас есть . Дайте.Please give me coffee.No. кофе .Please give me tea. Дайте..

. him.What does ".. Как сказать ". It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. and the object is "him". she..Сколько? . her. "love" is the verb. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". It (m) Она .. love. Скажите.? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.21 rubles..." in Russian? Что значит ".She.He. you. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.) Я-I Ты .How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . want. they are things you can do.. Here are some useful phrases.. Где Туалет .How do you say ".." по-русски? . walk.We Вы . eat. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".Tell me please. Pronouns are words that can replace names.You (formal..It (n) Мы ." на английском? . In the sentence "I love him"... he. Пожалуйста ." mean in English? Where is the toilet.You (informal) Он .. For example: I.. (Known as the nominative case. The subject is "I". or plural) ..How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . Definitions Verbs are action words. It (f) Оно . For example: run. it. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”..

(infinitive. Both these patterns are quite similar. (There are also some irregular verbs).You (formal. and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. "ешь".Me Тебя . and once you get the hang of it.I work Ты работаешь . It (m. работать . Они работают .We work Вы работаете . dictionary form) Я работаю . Мы работаем .Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). (Known as the accusative case) Меня .Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". (infinitive. Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.You work Он.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you".Her. Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject.n) Еѐ . This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. This happens a little in English. "ет". The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". Она. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать .You work.To understand. and add the appropriate ending ("ю".To work. or plural) Их . Оно работает . You should memorise these pronouns. "ете" or "ют").You (informal) Его . "I am working" and "I do work". it is not too difficult. (Example: I work. It is the most common. Just remember that unlike English.He. Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. he works). dictionary form) .Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). and the second conjugation.Us Вас . but not as much.Him. It works. To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). It (f) Нас .They work.Они . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".("yevo") . She. "ем".

Remember.We understand. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). It knows. Она. Она. (infinitive. Они понимают .I know.You understand. Вы понимаете . Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. Он. dictionary form) Я говорю .He doesn't understand. (infinitive. Оно понимает .I don't understand. Ты знаешь .He.I speak. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . Он не понимает . She. Мы знаем .Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. It Speaks.You speak. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат").You know.We speak. She. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.You understand.You know. which replace "ить". dictionary form) Я знаю .Do you know? Ты понимаешь? .To speak.We know. She. There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Он.I understand. Оно говорит . Я не понимаю .To know.He. Она. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). Ты понимаешь .I don't know. Оно знает .Я понимаю .They know. Они знают . Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation.They understand. .He. Он. It understands Мы понимаем . Вы знаете . Мы говорим . Ты говоришь . говорить . Знать . For example: Я не знаю .

I speak English Он говорит по-русски . Я живу . слышишь . Some examples: Ехать . слышите . Жить .They speak.The dog doesn't speak English.Вы говорите .You hear. слышим . often once you know the stem of the verb. слышат .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски .I go (by transport). It goes (by transport).You go (by transport). Собака не говорит по-английски . Они говорят .To live. Ты живѐшь . Она. Оно едет .You go (by transport). (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).I hear. She. Они едут . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. Они живут . It hears. слышать . Мы живѐм . It lives. .I live. However.To hear. Мы едем .They live. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. She.To go (by transport). Я еду .They go (by transport).We live. For Example: Я говорю по-английски . She. Вы едете . Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction.You live.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . except that "у" replaces "ю".We don't speak Russian.We go (by transport).You live.You speak. Оно живѐт .We hear.They hear.He.He. you can often predict the endings.He. Она. Он. Ты едешь . Вы живѐте . слышит . Он.You hear. слышу .

There are very few exceptions to these rules. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. cup. Э. each noun is assigned a gender. But there are five notable exceptions. О. as with many other languages. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. In Russian we use 6 cases. Е. ъ because they have no sound). Он едет домой .(Coffee) . “house”. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. Ё. and neuter (neutral). When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence.U in English). Vowel .Is Masculine Дедушка . In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender.E. Gender of nouns.(Uncle) . there is no physical meaning attached to the gender.A letter that is not a vowel. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. 4. From the dictionary form of a noun.Is Masculine Мужчина . Papa) . feminine.(Grandfather) .Is Masculine . However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. Moscow.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. Я. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. Ю. 5. paper. (Except ь. Папа .O. Luckily. Cases .Is Masculine Дядя . The letters А.A noun is a thing. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. name or place. (A. If it is a consonant. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . the word is masculine. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. Consonant . Look at the last letter of the word: 2. or “й”.I live in London. “cup”. У.He is going home Definitions Noun . it will be in its dictionary form. Russian has three genders: masculine. cat. И and Й. Ы.(Man) . If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. unlike many languages. pen.I. In the case of other objects like “pen”.(Daddy. 3. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them.Is Masculine Кофе . In Russian. Example: dog.

The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. брат (brother). „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. In Russian there are six cases. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now.. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. For example. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. Greek and German. so we will take it slowly.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). at. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. (Eg. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. on. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. . (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. and about.. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership.. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Россия (Russia). Хлеб (bread). Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. радио (radio). Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. документ (document).. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). (In. and still keep the same meaning. In fact it was also used in Old English. Feminine : газета (newspaper). and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian.

students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . so there is nothing special to learn here. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. in the nominative case. you need to use the accusative case also. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. The Nominative Case. For example. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. in this case the word “dog”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.buildings) The Accusative Case. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. the word “I” is the subject. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. without changing the actual meaning. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal.Interestingly. Russian is very free about word order. “ы”. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. especially pronouns. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. add “ы”. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. In the sentence “I love her”. In Russian. However. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. . This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. Russian uses the case for all nouns. “я” or “а”. not plants).newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . you make a plural by using the letters “и”. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”.

there is no change.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву .Nadya loves wine. If noun is animate. Надя не любит вино . If the noun in inanimate. Replace “а” with “у”.Ivan loves tea. Иван любит чай .I love music. 4. Neuter Nouns: 1. replace “й”.Nadya doesn't like wine. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence.Masculine Nouns: 1. add “а”.I love sport.I love Moscow. 2. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). If noun is animate. 3. replace “ь”. Я люблю музыку . Надя любит вино .He loves Moscow. Ты любишь музыку? .I don't like music. add “я”. 2. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Он любит Москву . To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. Replace “я” with “ю”. Feminine Nouns: 1. Я не люблю музыку . with “я”. .

Слушать . .to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .I am listening to the radio. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. что ты любишь музыку.to work Хотеть . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs.I am watching television. Я слушаю музыку . The word "Что" has two uses. it is probably the conjunction "that".I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . You can use it to form questions. Я читаю газету . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. .I am listening to music.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". Я еѐ люблю . Я читаю журнал . An example could be: Я знаю.I am reading a book. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.I am reading a magazine.I love him.I love you.I love her.I know that you love music.to read.to listen Изучать .to think Работать .What do you love? However. Что ты любишь? ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю .to watch. so don't be confused. If you would like. Читать . Я слушаю радио . Она любит меня . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. Смотреть .to study Думать .

Я хочу купить журнал .I love to travel.Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.I want tea. You can include it into many phrases.very. For example: Очень .How? Почему? .I want to buy a magazine.What? Как? .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. Что вы хотите? .I think so! Как вы думаете? . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.I study Russian. Я люблю путешествовать . Я так думаю . For example: Я люблю читать .I love to read. Add : “е”.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .I really love Moscow.Who? Что? . Я очень люблю Москву .Where? Кто? . Где? . (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . (lit: I study the Russian language).Я изучаю русский язык .I really love sport. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.

Feminine Nouns: 1. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English.at the post office в саду . (Eg.On the table is a book and a pencil. suburbs and places.Where is she? на вокзале .I live in St.I live in London.in the forest на улице . even though they are not Russian. (They are in dicionary form) кино . although these aren‟t precise rules. Petersburg. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Replace “о” with “е” 2. „at work‟. Replace “а” with “е”. Я живу в Сибири .in the garden в лесу .Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . (Eg.theatre . Я живу в Лондоне . Here are some tips to help you. Replace “я” with “е”. „at a concert‟). Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. As with any language.I live in Siberia. 2. Replace “ь” with “и”. Exception: Replace “ия”. „at a station‟. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? .on the street Что на столе? . “е” remains unchanged.at the station на почте .I live in Moscow. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. 3. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. 4. Using prepositions and the prepositional case. Я живу в Петербурге .cinema театр .What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш .

the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. prepositions have more than one meaning.I work at (in) a school.To the left. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.museum больница .аптека .school библиотека . Here are some examples for you to compare. your answer will involve the prepositional case. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). but as these words are so important for basic Russian. направо . you can tell this by the case. Где вы работаете? . and are grammatically quite complex.library кафе .square ресторан .pharmacy парк . Куда вы идѐте . налево . прямо потом направо . However.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . So to express „to go‟ in Russian.stadium школа .bank гостиница . The first indicates you are going on foot.restaurant банк .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. there are actually four ways: .hotel музей . Both these words are verbs of motion. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. we will introduce them now in a simple way.Straight ahead.cafe площадь . you would use the accusative case.I am going to school. прямо . When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).park стадион .Straight ahead then to the right.To the right.

To go on foot.We are going to the cafe.I go to school.I go to the theatre every day. Он ездит .We go to the cafe every day. (Я иду.To go on foot. in more than one direction. Я часто хожу в кино . in more than one direction. Мы идѐм в кафе . Он едет. Мы едем в кафе . Он ходит. Мы ходим. Они едут ) Я еду в школу .They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . (Я хожу.We are going to the cafe. Вы ездите. Вы идѐте. (Я еду.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Вы едете.To go by transport. Он едет в гостиницу на такси .He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Ехать . Ты ходишь. Мы идѐм.I am going to the university Ходить .Идти . Они идут) Я иду в школу . or repetitively. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро .I am going to school. Вы ходите. Ты едешь. Мы ездим.To go by transport. Они часто ездят в Амстердам .I am going to the cinema on the metro.He is going to London Ездить . Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Ты ездишь . я иду в университет . Ты идѐшь.He is going to the hotel by taxi. or repetitively (Я езжу. Он идѐт.I am going to the cinema. Я иду в кино . in one direction.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .I am going to school. in one direction.He is going to the hotel. Мы едем. Ты идѐшь в кино? .

Наша (f). her Наш (m). Мой (m). У меня есть сестра . Наши (pl) . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.I have a brother. Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10. Мои (pl) .grandson Семья .sister Брат .father Мама .Мать . У меня нет детей .husband Тѐтя .son бабушка .I don't have any children.grandfather Жена .parents Дети .daughter Сын .dad Сестра . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. Твоѐ (n).uncle Родители .granddaughter Внук .I have a sister. Моя (f).your Его (m n) ("yevo"). Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns. У тебя есть дети? .children Внучка .mum Папа . For example we use the words mum and dad. У меня есть сын и дочь .auntie Дядя .brother Дочь .our . Моѐ (n).wife Муж . У меня есть брат . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. Еѐ (f) .family Just like English.mother Отец .grandmother Дедушка .Do you have children?.my Твой (m).I have a son and a daughter.his. Твоя (f). Твои (pl) . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. Наше (n).

Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.his name is Ivan.your Их .My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case . Это мой дом .Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally. Моя мама любит музыку . Ваши (pl) .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. The Russian word Это means 'this is'.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet.This is my house Это моя квартира . the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual. However. This is. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . Ваше (n).Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .Ваш (m).My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .good afternoon Добрый вечер . Ваша (f). you may wish to say her name is Anna.good evening Спокойной ночи . For example. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна ..good morning Добрый день . Доброе утро .

Adam's brother loves Moscow. For example. 3. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Собака Адама . Using the genitive case . Feminine Nouns: 1. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna.ownership As you can see in the above example. Replace “а” with “ы”. Anna's) Дом Ивана . Replace “о” with “а” 2. Neuter Nouns: 1.Igor's telephone. Replace “я” with “и”. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. However. Let's have a look at some more examples. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . If the noun ends in a consonant.Adam's dog.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. add “а”. pay particular attention to the order of the words. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. 2. Replace “ь” with “и”. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. Брат Адама любит Москву . in Russian.Masculine Nouns: 1. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". with “я”. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? .Anna's car.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. the object that is owned always comes first. (This is like using 's in English). Сестра Анны читает газету . 3. 2. Replace “ь”. add “я”. Replace “й”. Replace “е” with “я” For example.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English.

These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. У вас есть кофе? . Его. As we have seen in a previous lesson.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .I have book. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. стакан молока . Молока нет . Ивана нет . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. Чая нет .He is not home. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is).Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . Тебя.There is no tea.. Еѐ. Here are some examples. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. . There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. Его нет дома . Вас.A glass of milk..of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Их) Using the genitive case .She has a dog.A map of the city.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . This is exactly the same concept as above.Ivan isn't here. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.There is no coffee. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.to have As the genitive case relates to possession. Generally. Using the genitive case .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case.‟.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . Нас. У нее есть собака. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. (Меня. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. Here are some examples.There is no milk. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Кофе нет . план города . У меня есть книга . As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't .sentence and uses the nominative case.

Ч. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. you make a plural by using the letters "и". First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. "ы". . in the nominative case. quantaties. plurals. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural.numbers. К.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. Х. for example "10 roubles". Ш. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. Ж. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . depending on whether the object is animate or not. The Nominative Case . Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . but don‟t worry. "я" or "а".Plural (Subject) In Russian.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . add “ы”. The genitive case is used after most numbers.Using the genitive case .

For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. let‟s see how to use them. .Anna loves books. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.The Genitive Case . ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. англичанка . These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).щ. This may feel a little strange at first. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. Анна любит книги . (марка . In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . or whether you are just using general plurals. девушка .ч. Here are some examples.ш. Ok.марок.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. Книги на столе . but in Russian we use it for all numbers. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.The books are on the table.студентов (students') газета . You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money.газет (newspapers') здание . Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.англичанок. but in the plural form.

ten roubles сто рублей . 13 & 14).one dollar Numbers ending in : 2. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1. 21.three roubles четыре рубля .6. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.0.9.four students три газеты . (example: 22. try using plurals that involve money.two books три собаки . then you should use the genitive singular case. etc) пять рублей .five roubles десять рублей . Here are some examples.nine dogs десять студентов .four dollars четыре студента .21 roubles один доллар . then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. or the last digit of the number is 2.one hundred roubles сто долларов .8. . To help you get used to this concept. 61) (but not 11). Here are some examples.7. 4) (but not 12. 42.3.. 3 or 4. три рубля . 12.seven newspapers восемь зданий .I know one girl один рубль . 103. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. 14.one girl Я знаю одну девушку . одна девушка .4 If the number.six books семь газет . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.one rouble двадцать один рубль . The number one declines like an adjective. 13.one hundred dollars шесть книг .four roubles две книги .eight buildings девять собак .three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.three dogs четыре доллара .ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language.

0..) Quantity not specified .His name is Boris. Как еѐ зовут? .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. Here are some other common Russian names for men.-надцать .How old are you...6.Vladimir (Володя. . Как его зовут? . In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? . Much like “Мне холодно” . You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 ..Nikolay (Коля) Борис .Genitive Plural General Quantity .7.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна . Quantity ends in 2.4 .8. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).As per position in the sentence.Her name is Alyona.Genitive Singular.3. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.9.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . Вова) .My name is Vera. Quantity ends in 5.Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.Boris Владимир .So in summary. Николай . Как вас зовут? .I am 23 years old. Quantity ends in 1 . Мне восемнадцать лет .“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.the dative case. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.What is his name? Его зовут Борис . Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.

good afternoon Добрый вечер . or tender form. Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Hello Привет . Шура) Дмитрий .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .Thank-You Пожалуйста .Pyotr.Natalya (Наташа) Мария .good morning Добрый день .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women. (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').Пѐтр .Andrey Александр .Alexander (Саша.good evening Спокойной ночи .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Oxana Екатерина . Елена .Olga (Оля) Александра . but try to learn them all. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и . Some of these may be new. There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.and а .Sergey Алексей . Здравствуйте .Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.and/but (contrasting) . The diminuative is a more personal. and should only be used when you are in close firendship. The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Yekaterina Анастасия . This is like a pet name. here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . Peter.Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . Андрей . Спасибо .Yelena (Лена) Наталья . You should be able to remember all of these.

the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".you (formal/plural) его . . to (+accusative) о.но . coffee with milk and with sugar. У вас есть чай? . об . to (+accusative) на . it их . onto.Tell me please. где туалет? .him.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.towards. at (+prepositional). in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. .My mum loves music. что ты говоришь по-русски. so you should try to learn them all. .along. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .There is no tea. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. Скажите.her.He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". You might also find some new words in these sentences.There is no coffee. я-I он .".for (+accusative). from от .you (informal) вы . кофе с молоком и с сахаром. пожалуйста.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет.Give me please. behind (+instrumental) из .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. Что вы хотите? .I want tea please.What do you want? Я хочу чай.I know that you speak Russian.with у . пожалуйста. We will use only common words. Дайте. In Russian we would use the word "а". . it ты . У вас есть водка? . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . . .Do you have tea? Чая нет.but или . . пожалуйста.he. to за .near.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . .out of.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. it еѐ .about к .on.in (+prepositional). For example. во . (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.from по . Он любит говорить по-английски. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.

I am studying the Russian language. Моя сестра читает газету .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .Where? Кто? .100 roubles. . сколько стоит? .I really love sport.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. сколько стоит? .Adam's brother loves Moscow.I am listening to music.Where is he? Где кафе? .Твой брат говорит по-русски? .I am reading a magazine. .Why? Что ты знаешь? . Я слушаю музыку . .21 roubles.My sister is reading a newspaper.How much? двадцать один рубль . Сестра Анны читает газету . Где? .4 dollars.I know that you understand.I think that you understand. Собака не говорит по-английски.Who is he? Я читаю журнал . .My Mum loves music. Почему ты не понимаешь? . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . сколько стоит? .How much? сто рублей . сколько стоит? . . Я изучаю русский язык . Брат Адама любит Москву . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . . Я не понимаю.He is not home.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .Do you understand? Я знаю.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.How? Когда? . Я думаю. что вы понимаете.I don't understand.When? Почему? . .How much? четыре доллара . Я очень люблю спорт . Моя мама любит музыку .What do you think? Где он? . He speaks Russian well. Он едет домой .I understand. Его нет дома .The dog doesn't speak English. Ты понимаешь? .Yes.He is going home.Who? Что? .Does your borther speak Russian? Да. что ты понимаешь. Он хорошо говорит по-русски.4 roubles.How much? четыре рубля .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.What? Как? .I really love Moscow.I live in London. Я очень люблю Москву .

2. Ему (m). "о" or a consonant with "ам". Вам . Replace “ия” with “ии”. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. add “ю”. Masculine Nouns: 1. Нам . Тебе . 3. Адам . 3.him. it. add “у”. If the noun ends in a consonant. 3. 2.us. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. If the noun ends in a consonant.Елене Молоко .you (informal). 4. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. her. Replace “ь” with “и”. To create nouns in the dative case. . Feminine Nouns: 1. add "ам".me. or plural). Neuter Nouns: 1.Молоку Вино .Forming the dative case. Replace “а” with “е”.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Replace “я” with “е”. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.. Мне . Им . Replace “ь”.you (formal.Адаму Елена . with “ю”. Replace “й”. Ему (n). Ей (f) . Replace “о” with “у” 2. Replace "а".them.. 1. 2.

Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object..I give flowers to Anna. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations. It should be used in the dative case. .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”... Я помогаю Ивану . Similarly. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case.Give me .give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson.(you) give Даѐт .Give me your address and telephone number. ..Ivan gives flowers to Anna. For this reason.. Я даю цветы Анне . Here are the conjuctions: Даю .(I) give Даѐшь . Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case.(he) gives Даѐм . .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .(they) give The command forms of this word include.I am helping Ivan. Дайте мне . you need to be able to recognise cases effectively. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. Мы помогаем маме каждый день . the word “Anna” is the indirect object..give! Дайте .We help mother every day.They give flowers to Elena. Я помогаю этой девушке .(you) give Дают . In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.I am helping Anna. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. Дай .I am helping this girl. Они дают цветы Елене . (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”.(we) give Даѐте . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.

to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день .I like the children. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case. Мне очень нравятся цветы . You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. This is verb is also a reflexive verb. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.I like your children. it is still worth learning these examples. (The "ся" ending is reflexive). Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something.) Ей нравится Москва .I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .You like Moscow. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.He is cold (to him its cold) .How do you like . Вам нравится Москва .How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . Мне нравятся цветы .? Как вам нравится фильм? . However this verb is used differently.He likes Moscow. and it relies on the dative case. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. Как вам нравится .I really like the flowers.? .) Мне нравятся ваши дети .She likes Moscow.Adam likes Moscow. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her..I like Moscow. Иван звонит Анне каждый день . Адаму нравится Москва .) Practice using the word нравится. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. (lit: children are pleasing to me.. it is like saying “To me it is likable”.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети .I like the flowers.Ivan calls Anna every day. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet.. so it is worth learning now.She calls Ivan every day..Звонить .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . However it is a common word. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns.) Ему нравится Москва . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. Мне нравится Москва . Мне холодно . The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. so it is enough for now just to learn this form.

The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). “ш” or “щ”. Except. All consonants. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . . “ц”. 2.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section.. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . if stressed “ѐм”. Although the use of this proposition is too varied.I am walking towards the station. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. add “ом”.Ей холодно .She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . Replace “ь”.I am 23 years old. add “ем”. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". Мы едем к друзьям . Replace “й”.We are going to our friends. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. if stressed “ѐм”.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. to create an exact rule. 4.. with “ем”. and has too many meanings. “ч”. then add “ем”. It is followed by the dative case.

Examples.. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.. 3.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. add "ами".I eat soup with a spoon. Replace “ь” with “ью”.карандашом (pencil) ложка .мужем (husband) жена .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. . Иван пишет карандашом . “ш” or “щ”. Олег режет мясо ножом .молоком (milk) сметана . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.женой (wife) Иван . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.ложкой (spoon) нож . “ч”.. “ц”. Я ем суп ложкой . Replace "а".студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Replace “а” with “ой”..Анной (Anna) студенты .Feminine Nouns: 1. Accompanied by. Replace “я” with “ей”. 1.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . In English these words can have different meanings. 2. "о" with "ами". Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . All consonants.ножом (knife) муж .With. Except. 2. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. 4. The preposition: „с‟ . Neuter Nouns: 1. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.Ivan writes with a pencil. if stressed “ѐй”.

it is often written as “со”. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. In English we would use the word “and”. Анна с мужем идут в кафе.Ivan and I are going to school.My husband and I are going to the cafe. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Мной . Pronouns .Ivan wants tea with milk. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.You Им . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . . . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. „with him‟. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.My wife and I are going to the cafe. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Her . with Ivan”). пожалуйста. Дайте. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.Him Ей . but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Please give me coffee with milk. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Have a look at the following Russian examples.Nadya wants tea with lemon. кофе с молоком . However it is followed by the genitive case. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . „with you‟. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.For ease of pronunciation.I eat borsh with sour cream. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Me Тобой . Here are some examples.Me and you Notes: 1.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Иван с женой идут в кафе. 2. Мы с вами . пожалуйста.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.

Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. afternoon днѐм .morning утром .in winter весна .spring весной .in autumn зима .day.It Нами .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .in the afternoon вечер .in summer осень .in the evening ночь .Them Seasons and parts of the day.autumn осенью .night ночью . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.in the morning день .Us Вами . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .summer летом .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.evening вечером .Им .winter зимой . . For example: лето .You (plural) Ими .

Forming the Russian Instrumental Case .to become увлекаться . Перед этой школой поверните налево. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. manage.between над .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .I was a doctor). Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. be The verb “Быть” (to be.to remain as пользоваться .The lamp is above the table.за .to seem. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. for между .control. beyond.школа.to turn out to be оставаться . is. . was заниматься .behind. .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.above перед . . is. Над столом висит лампа.Under the table the cat is sitting. govern являться . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. enjoy становиться/стать .to be engaged in. быть .to be keen on управлять . but it is something to keep in mind. to be occupied with интересоваться . was) has no present tense.to use.Behind this building there is a school.In front of this school turn to the left. .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. (Example: Я был врачом .Happy birthday С новым годом . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. . Под столом сидит кот. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .to be interested in оказываться .under Examples: За этим зданием .in front of под . You don't need to learn these verbs now.to be.

. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .ложкой (spoon) нож .Masculine Nouns: 1. All consonants.карандашом (pencil) ложка . add “ом”. then add “ем”. Replace “й”. with “ем”. Олег режет мясо ножом . 4. Replace "а". In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.. 1. if stressed “ѐм”. if stressed “ѐм”. Except. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. if stressed “ѐй”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. “ц”.женой (wife) Иван . add "ами". 2.ножом (knife) муж ..Oleg cuts the meat with a knife..Анной (Anna) студенты . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. "о" with "ами". “ч”. 2. Replace “я” with “ей”. Replace “ь”. 3. All consonants. In English these words can have different meanings. Except. “ш” or “щ”..мужем (husband) жена .Ivan writes with a pencil. Иван пишет карандашом . “ч”. “ш” or “щ”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. 2. add “ем”.I eat soup with a spoon. Replace “а” with “ой”. Neuter Nouns: 1... Feminine Nouns: 1.молоком (milk) сметана . Replace “ь” with “ью”. “ц”. Examples.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Я ем суп ложкой .Иваном (Ivan) Анна . 4.

кофе с молоком .Please give me coffee with milk. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. .Me and you Notes: 1.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. пожалуйста. but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Иван хочет чай с молоком .My husband and I are going to the cafe. . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Иван с женой идут в кафе. In English we would use the word “and”.Instrumental Case . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. However it is followed by the genitive case. Дайте. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.Nadya wants tea with lemon. Have a look at the following Russian examples.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. 2. . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Accompanied by.The preposition: „с‟ .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.Ivan and I are going to school.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . пожалуйста.Ivan wants tea with milk. . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . Here are some examples.My wife and I are going to the cafe. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.I eat borsh with sour cream. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Pronouns . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.With. For ease of pronunciation. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . with Ivan”). It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. it is often written as “со”.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Мы с вами .

„with him‟. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.night ночью .Me Тобой .at night .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.in the afternoon вечер .day.Her Им . „with you‟. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.in the morning день .autumn осенью .in summer осень .winter зимой . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.evening вечером .It Нами . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.Them Seasons and parts of the day.spring весной .in autumn зима .summer летом .in the evening ночь .Him Ей . For example: лето .You Им .Us Вами .You (plural) Ими .in winter весна .morning утром . afternoon днѐм .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . Мной .

under Examples: За этим зданием . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . beyond. Над столом висит лампа. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.control. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.to be engaged in.to be keen on управлять .above перед . enjoy становиться/стать . . .behind. быть . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.to be.The lamp is above the table.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.Under the table the cat is sitting. is.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. Перед этой школой поверните налево. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. .between над . was) has no present tense.In front of this school turn to the left.Happy birthday С новым годом . You don't need to learn these verbs now.to remain as пользоваться .to be interested in оказываться .Behind this building there is a school. . be The verb “Быть” (to be. for между .I was a doctor). (Example: Я был врачом .to become увлекаться . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. за . but it is something to keep in mind. .to seem.to turn out to be оставаться . Под столом сидит кот.to use. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. is. . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. manage.школа.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. to be occupied with интересоваться . govern являться . was заниматься .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .in front of под .

You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .They knew Мы знали .Vladimir knew Дима знал . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. Although this concept differs from English.. Он знал . Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. Forming Verbs in Past Tense..The dog knew . it is conceptually quite easy.She knew Оно знало .You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).He knew Она знала .We knew Я знал .I knew (female speaking) Ты знал .Elena knew Ольга знала .I knew (male speaking) Я знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses.It knew Они знали . You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.Olga knew Собака знала . or talk about something that has happened in the past. but in Russian there is simply one. Let's have a look at the past tense now.. (ie 1st.Dima knew Елена знала . The same principal also applies in the future tense. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. 2nd or 3rd person). Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject.

There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. reversed or repeated actions. When using pronouns such as Я. Я работал . Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect.She wants to buy a book.I was home. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день.I worked for 2 hours. Ты. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. and is not complete.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. consequently each verb has two possible forms. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. Я работал два часа . so there is no perfective in the present tense. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective.I was working Я шѐл . . . If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . (often По-). habitual. There are two aspects in Russian. Some tenses in English can indicate this. ongoing. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. . use the imperfective also. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”.I worked everyday. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. The Imperfective Aspect. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses.I run in the forest every day. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. Я работал каждый день . Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs.

I went home.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?.I did not understand what he said.I did not live in England.He did not want to see me. .I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . .She did not eat bananas. . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. что он сказал. . Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. .Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . Я купил кофе . Questions and Aspects.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. . When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Он не хотел видеть меня. Я не жила в Англии.We did not watch the movie yesterday.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. . try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. .Did you tell him about it? . Я не понял. Саша съел обед за пять минут. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.Yesterday we read an interesting article. If you are still unsure which to use. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью.I failed to phone.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . Она спросила учителя. . Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. . . Perfective: Я не позвонила . (but I was expected to).

We rented a summer house for three months.He was Она была . The stress moves to the word 'не'. Я не был . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be).He read for three hours. когда мне было 16 лет . .She was Оно было . Оно не было . except in the feminine.I finished school when I was 16 years old. Они не были . .It was not. Я была во многих странах.They were not.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.I was (man speaking) Я была . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. . В школе я начала учить английский. Я окончила школу. This is not the case in the past tense. .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.I‟ve already visited Sweden. .I was (woman speaking) Он был .I was not (woman speaking).It was Они были . Я уже посетила Швецию .At school I started learning English. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. Я не была . Я был .I‟ve been to many countries.I was not (man speaking). Он читал три часа.

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