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А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
двадцать два 23 .сорок 50 .шестьсот 700 .четырнадцать 15 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.пятьсот 600 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).восемьдесят 90 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.11 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.двадцать 21 .тринадцать 14 .пятнадцать 16 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.шестнадцать 17 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see. Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.девятьсот .семнадцать 18 .сто 200 .восемьсот 900 . Here are some examples: 20 . quite similar to English.двадцать один 22 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".триста 400 .тридцать 40 .четыреста 500 .двадцать три 24 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.шестьдесят 70 .семьсот 800 .восемнадцать 19 .двести 300 .одиннадцать 12 .двенадцать 13 . 30 .девяносто 100 .пятьдесят 60 .семьдесят 80 .
you can basically forget the "уй". 0 .000.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") . Да ("da") .994 1. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".007 2.345 23. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. after somebody says thank-you. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below. Yes and No.Yes Нет ("nyet") .000 .812 Please and Thank-You.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.No Saying Hello.тысяча 1. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.564 2. .000. You should always say this after someone thanks you. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.008 2.1.000 .000 1.миллион 1.миллиард For example: 131 .000.000 . 456 219 9.
You should just learn the whole phrase.Pleased to meet you. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . If somebody says Привет to you. ("min-ya za-voot") .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody.. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. There are also two words for saying good-bye. Introducing Yourself.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. In order to introduce yourself.Bad Saying Good-Bye. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") .How are things? Хорошо спасибо . (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . except for the question mark. there is no difference between the question and the statement. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. but we suggest you only use it with friends.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . not the individual words. You may also hear people say Пока..Bye (Informal.. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.Good-bye. Привет is also commonly used with friends. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". put a real questioning expression on your face. Меня зовут . Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. slang) You should generally use до свидания. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English).Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. you may need the following phrases.. and should only be used with friends. However. If all else fails. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . Вы говорите по-английски? .Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . There are two forms of this word. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question.My name is . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.
I speak Russian Я понимаю ..I understand Я не понимаю .Water . where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café. where is a cafe? Скажите.Soup Торт .Coca-Cola Лимонад . где бар? .Tell me please.Beer Вино ..Tea Молоко . Скажите.Coffee Чай . где кафе? ..Tell me please. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. Скажите.. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Lemonade Сок . . пожалуйста.I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Wine Вода . пожалуйста.Milk Кока-Кола .Я говорю по-английски . Скажите.Tell me please.Cake Водка .Vodka Пиво .Russian beetroot soup Суп . пожалуйста.Menu Кофе .I speak English Я говорю по-русски . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. You could ask people with the following phrases.. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”. пожалуйста.Tell me please. где ближайшее кафе? ..Juice Борщ .
or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . is it coffee? Нет. У вас есть .. . What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. Сколько стоит? .How much is it?.Please give me coffee with milk. Examples: Дайте.What is it? Это кофе.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? . пожалуйста. .Give me please. Do you have.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .What? Что вы хотите? . .. .. Дайте.It is coffee.. пожалуйста .? . пожалуйста.. кофе с молоком . пожалуйста..I want. .. Дайте. it is tea. it is gramatically unusual).Please give me tea.. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. .Do you have .No. чай. you can use the following phrase. ...? If you want to ask someone if they have something. you will generally get straight vodka... Дайте.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order.. (Just learn the whole phrase. Дайте. Что это? ..Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? ... Простите. кофе . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . пожалуйста.What do you want? Я хочу . How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian... это кофе.Please give me coffee.Be careful. when you order vodka in russia.. You can use it to ask the price of something.Excuse me. это чай.
In the sentence "I love him". It (f) Оно . Где Туалет . Пожалуйста .Tell me please.. him.. (Known as the nominative case." in Russian? Что значит ". "love" is the verb. or plural) . love. it. walk. It (m) Она .She.. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. Definitions Verbs are action words. and the object is "him".? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is. Here are some useful phrases.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .How do you say ". It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. eat.You (informal) Он .How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль .21 rubles." на английском? .He.. Как сказать ". For example: I.It (n) Мы . her. want.You (formal.We Вы .Сколько? .. they are things you can do. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M"." mean in English? Where is the toilet. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.. Pronouns are words that can replace names.) Я-I Ты ..What does "..... she.... For example: run. Скажите. The subject is "I". he.." по-русски? . you.
(Known as the accusative case) Меня . It (m.You (formal.n) Еѐ . (infinitive. (infinitive.You (informal) Его .Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). dictionary form) . "I am working" and "I do work".Us Вас . "ем".Они . he works).Him.They work. This happens a little in English.We work Вы работаете .("yevo") . It (f) Нас . and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person.I work Ты работаешь . Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. but not as much.To understand. To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). It is the most common. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. (There are also some irregular verbs). and the second conjugation.You work Он. She. Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. and add the appropriate ending ("ю". it is not too difficult. "ете" or "ют"). dictionary form) Я работаю .He. Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. Both these patterns are quite similar.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work).To work.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". It works. or plural) Их .You work. Она. работать . Оно работает . You should memorise these pronouns. "ет". Они работают . Just remember that unlike English.Her. "ешь". In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать .They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". Мы работаем .Me Тебя . and once you get the hang of it. (Example: I work.
dictionary form) Я знаю . Вы понимаете . Он.We understand. Они понимают . Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules.You understand. Она. Remember.He. Ты говоришь .You know. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).You understand. Оно говорит .I don't understand. Он не понимает . Мы знаем . Ты знаешь . Они знают . She.To know. Мы говорим . говорить . The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат").You know. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . (infinitive.You speak.He doesn't understand. dictionary form) Я говорю . Ты понимаешь . Он.I don't know. She.They know.I speak. (infinitive.I understand.We speak.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. Я не понимаю . For example: Я не знаю . It understands Мы понимаем .He. . Она.They understand. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.I know. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . It Speaks.He. Вы знаете .To speak.We know. Знать . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Оно понимает . Оно знает . It knows. Она. which replace "ить".Я понимаю . She. Он.
You speak. слышите . слышит .To hear. Они едут .You live. She. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Он.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? .They go (by transport). Мы живѐм . except that "у" replaces "ю". Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian.I go (by transport).He.They live. She.You go (by transport). For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Some examples: Ехать .I live. . It goes (by transport). However. Оно едет .Вы говорите . It hears.He. It lives.We don't speak Russian.The dog doesn't speak English. Ты живѐшь . Он.You hear. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Она. Они говорят . Вы живѐте .He. She. слышу . слышат . Я живу . Жить .They hear. Вы едете . слышишь . Я еду . Мы едем .We hear. often once you know the stem of the verb.To live.You go (by transport).You live. Она.We go (by transport).We live.To go (by transport).I hear. Они живут .They speak. слышим . you can often predict the endings. слышать . Оно живѐт . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).You hear.I speak English Он говорит по-русски . Собака не говорит по-английски .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . Ты едешь .
И and Й. Luckily.I. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. 4.I live in London.Is Masculine Дедушка .Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. or “й”. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. But there are five notable exceptions. cat. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. (A. Ё. as with many other languages.(Grandfather) . Russian has three genders: masculine. If it is a consonant.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. Э.(Daddy. У. (Except ь. Он едет домой . Vowel . the word is masculine. In the case of other objects like “pen”. О.Is Masculine Мужчина .A noun is a thing. There are very few exceptions to these rules. Look at the last letter of the word: 2.Is Masculine . The letters А. 5. Cases . Ы. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. Папа . In English we do this by having a strict word-order. it will be in its dictionary form. name or place.He is going home Definitions Noun . Ю.Is Masculine Кофе . In Russian we use 6 cases. In Russian. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender.A letter that is not a vowel.(Man) . Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . Papa) . If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. “cup”. Я. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. paper. and neuter (neutral). this occurs mainly because of physical gender. ъ because they have no sound). “house”. 3.Is Masculine Дядя . pen. each noun is assigned a gender. Consonant . unlike many languages. Gender of nouns.(Coffee) . From the dictionary form of a noun. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. Example: dog.U in English).E. cup. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. Е.O. Moscow. feminine.(Uncle) .Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence.
To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. Greek and German. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. документ (document).. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. at. Россия (Russia). . (In. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. Хлеб (bread). It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. радио (radio). In Russian there are six cases.. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. and about. брат (brother). “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. and still keep the same meaning. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. (Eg. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. Feminine : газета (newspaper). In fact it was also used in Old English. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. on. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar.. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. The case system is also used in languages like Latin.. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. so we will take it slowly. For example.
not plants). An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. without changing the actual meaning. However. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. add “ы”. so there is nothing special to learn here. you need to use the accusative case also. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . In Russian.Interestingly. in this case the word “dog”. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. Russian uses the case for all nouns. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. The Nominative Case. In the sentence “I love her”. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. especially pronouns.buildings) The Accusative Case. . Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . For example. “я” or “а”. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. in the nominative case.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . Russian is very free about word order. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. the word “I” is the subject. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. “ы”. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural.
Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . 2. If noun is animate. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. with “я”. Надя любит вино . Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence.I don't like music. replace “й”. 4. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. 3.I love music. Replace “я” with “ю”.He loves Moscow. add “а”. Иван любит чай . replace “ь”. 2.Ivan loves tea. Replace “а” with “у”.Nadya doesn't like wine.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . If noun is animate. Я люблю музыку .I love sport. If the noun in inanimate. add “я”. Он любит Москву . there is no change. Feminine Nouns: 1.I love Moscow.Nadya loves wine.Masculine Nouns: 1. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Neuter Nouns: 1. Ты любишь музыку? . Я не люблю музыку . Надя не любит вино . .
This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Я слушаю радио . Я еѐ люблю . Я слушаю музыку .What do you love? However."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning.I know that you love music. Я читаю газету . The word "Что" has two uses.I love you. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. .to work Хотеть .I am reading a magazine. Слушать .I am listening to music. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. . Читать . Я читаю журнал .I love him.I am reading a book. Что ты любишь? .to read.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . Смотреть . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. An example could be: Я знаю. If you would like.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". Она любит меня . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here.I am watching television.to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .to think Работать .I am listening to the radio. что ты любишь музыку. it is probably the conjunction "that". Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.to watch.to study Думать . so don't be confused.I love her. You can use it to form questions.to listen Изучать . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .
I really love sport.How? Почему? .very.Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. Я так думаю . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".Where? Кто? . Что вы хотите? . (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . (lit: I study the Russian language).What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . Где? . For example: Я люблю читать . Я очень люблю Москву . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".What? Как? . Я люблю путешествовать . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.I study Russian. For example: Очень . You can include it into many phrases. In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. Add : “е”.I love to read.I think so! Как вы думаете? .Who? Что? .I really love Moscow.I want to buy a magazine.What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.I love to travel.I want tea. Я хочу купить журнал .Я изучаю русский язык .
Feminine Nouns: 1.in the forest на улице .in the garden в лесу . although these aren‟t precise rules. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. Я живу в Петербурге . suburbs and places. Replace “а” with “е”. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . Petersburg. (Eg. Я живу в Лондоне . Using prepositions and the prepositional case.cinema театр . Replace “о” with “е” 2. Exception: Replace “ия”. 2. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. „at a station‟. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. (Eg. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings.I live in London. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . „at work‟. Replace “я” with “е”. As with any language. „at a concert‟).Where is she? на вокзале .theatre . even though they are not Russian. (They are in dicionary form) кино . As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .I live in St.at the station на почте .I live in Siberia. Я живу в Сибири . Other Places Here are some names of other useful places.on the street Что на столе? . 3. Here are some tips to help you. 4.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Replace “ь” with “и”. “е” remains unchanged.at the post office в саду .On the table is a book and a pencil.I live in Moscow.
pharmacy парк . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. prepositions have more than one meaning.restaurant банк . So to express „to go‟ in Russian.Straight ahead then to the right. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).museum больница . you can tell this by the case.school библиотека . and are grammatically quite complex. направо . The first indicates you are going on foot. there are actually four ways: .Straight ahead. налево . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. Где вы работаете? .cafe площадь . the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. we will introduce them now in a simple way. your answer will involve the prepositional case.stadium школа .park стадион .I am going to school. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. Here are some examples for you to compare. Куда вы идѐте .To the right.аптека . you would use the accusative case.library кафе .I work at (in) a school.hospital Location and Direction Sometimes.square ресторан .Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .bank гостиница . Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.To the left. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. Both these words are verbs of motion. прямо . прямо потом направо . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. However. but as these words are so important for basic Russian.hotel музей .
Вы ходите.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . in one direction.To go by transport. in more than one direction. Ты ходишь.I am going to the cinema on the metro. (Я еду.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день .I am going to school. я иду в университет . Ты едешь. Они часто ездят в Амстердам . Вы идѐте.To go on foot.I am going to the cinema. Он ездит . Мы едем. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Мы едем в кафе . Я часто хожу в кино .To go by transport. Я иду в кино .We are going to the cafe. Он ходит.He is going to the hotel by taxi. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .We go to the cafe every day.He is going to London Ездить . (Я иду. Ты ездишь . in one direction. Он едет. Ехать .We are going to the cafe. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Мы идѐм. Вы едете. in more than one direction. Мы ходим. Ты идѐшь в кино? . Он едет в гостиницу на такси .I go to the theatre every day.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Вы ездите. Они едут ) Я еду в школу . or repetitively (Я езжу. Мы ездим.He is going to the hotel.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .I am going to school. Они идут) Я иду в школу .I go to school. or repetitively. Мы идѐм в кафе .I am going to the university Ходить . (Я хожу.To go on foot. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Он идѐт. Ты идѐшь.Идти .
I don't have any children.sister Брат .children Внучка .Do you have children?. in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.grandmother Дедушка .brother Дочь .I have a brother.auntie Дядя .son бабушка . Твои (pl) .our . У меня есть брат . У меня есть сын и дочь .I have a sister. For example we use the words mum and dad. Твоѐ (n).uncle Родители . her Наш (m). Еѐ (f) .mum Папа .Мать . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.my Твой (m).wife Муж .granddaughter Внук . Моя (f).I have a son and a daughter. У меня есть сестра . Наше (n). Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. Наша (f).dad Сестра .your Его (m n) ("yevo").father Мама . Твоя (f).parents Дети . Моѐ (n).daughter Сын .mother Отец .grandfather Жена . У меня нет детей . Наши (pl) .grandson Семья . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.his. У тебя есть дети? .husband Тѐтя . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.family Just like English. Мой (m). Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. Мои (pl) . Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.
you may wish to say her name is Anna. This is. For example. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .Ваш (m).This is my house Это моя квартира .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case ..good afternoon Добрый вечер .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. The Russian word Это means 'this is'. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .your Их . Ваша (f). Ваши (pl) .her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .his name is Ivan. Ваше (n). Моя мама любит музыку . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. Доброе утро .My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт ..good evening Спокойной ночи . However.Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт . Это мой дом .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .good morning Добрый день . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet.
The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. Replace “е” with “я” For example. Собака Адама .ownership As you can see in the above example. 3. Neuter Nouns: 1. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря .Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. Replace “ь”.Masculine Nouns: 1. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . If the noun ends in a consonant. Replace “а” with “ы”. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. Брат Адама любит Москву . add “я”. 2. with “я”. Using the genitive case . Сестра Анны читает газету .Igor's telephone. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). Feminine Nouns: 1. 3. in Russian. However.Anna's car. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Anna's) Дом Ивана . add “а”. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Let's have a look at some more examples. Replace “й”. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . Replace “о” with “а” 2. the object that is owned always comes first. Replace “я” with “и”.Adam's dog. pay particular attention to the order of the words.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. 2.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. (This is like using 's in English).Adam's brother loves Moscow. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. For example. Replace “ь” with “и”.
. У меня есть книга .A map of the city.sentence and uses the nominative case. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). Его.There is no milk.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. Его нет дома . Нас.. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. Молока нет . it is just easier to learn the concept by example. Их) Using the genitive case . except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. This is exactly the same concept as above.He is not home. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . Тебя.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .There is no coffee. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.to have As the genitive case relates to possession. Вас. Generally. Ивана нет . Here are some examples. У нее есть собака. план города . Using the genitive case . Чая нет .of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. У вас есть кофе? ..there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. Еѐ. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained.Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't .She has a dog. (Меня.‟.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. Here are some examples. стакан молока . “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case.I have book.A glass of milk.There is no tea. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case.Ivan isn't here. As we have seen in a previous lesson. Кофе нет .
Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. quantaties. The Nominative Case . This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . but don‟t worry. in the nominative case. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural.Using the genitive case . Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. The genitive case is used after most numbers. plurals. "я" or "а". Ш.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . depending on whether the object is animate or not.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) .здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . Х.numbers. К. add “ы”. "ы". . Ч. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. for example "10 roubles".Plural (Subject) In Russian. Ж. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. you make a plural by using the letters "и".
.The books are on the table. (марка . For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. or whether you are just using general plurals. but in Russian we use it for all numbers. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. Анна любит книги . Here are some examples.студентов (students') газета .Anna loves books.ч. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. Ok. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. but in the plural form.англичанок. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. This may feel a little strange at first.марок. Книги на столе . Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.щ.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.газет (newspapers') здание . let‟s see how to use them. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. англичанка .Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine).The Genitive Case .ш. девушка .
4 If the number. 61) (but not 11). одна девушка .four dollars четыре студента .9. три рубля . 21.I know one girl один рубль . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language.one girl Я знаю одну девушку .. 42.five roubles десять рублей .one hundred roubles сто долларов .six books семь газет . To help you get used to this concept.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.8. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.21 roubles один доллар . (example: 22. 13 & 14). 13. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.three roubles четыре рубля . 14. Here are some examples. The number one declines like an adjective.seven newspapers восемь зданий .two books три собаки .Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.one rouble двадцать один рубль .three dogs четыре доллара .one dollar Numbers ending in : 2. 12.6.0. then you should use the genitive singular case. 4) (but not 12.one hundred dollars шесть книг . 3 or 4.nine dogs десять студентов . All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. or the last digit of the number is 2.four students три газеты .ten roubles сто рублей . Here are some examples.eight buildings девять собак .3.four roubles две книги . try using plurals that involve money. 103. . etc) пять рублей .7. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.
My name is Vera.Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.0. Вова) . Much like “Мне холодно” . You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .the dative case.Her name is Alyona.So in summary.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.-надцать . (Lit: To me there are 16 years).Nikolay (Коля) Борис . Как еѐ зовут? .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.8. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.As per position in the sentence.How old are you. Мне восемнадцать лет .“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года ..4 .What is his name? Его зовут Борис .What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна . Как его зовут? ..Vladimir (Володя.3.6.Boris Владимир . Quantity ends in 5.7.. Николай .9.Genitive Plural General Quantity . Quantity ends in 2. Как вас зовут? .His name is Boris.I am 23 years old. Here are some other common Russian names for men.Genitive Singular. Quantity ends in 1 . . In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? . Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.) Quantity not specified .
Thank-You Пожалуйста .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .Andrey Александр .good evening Спокойной ночи . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you. Елена .Alexander (Саша. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used. Шура) Дмитрий .Hello Привет .Пѐтр .and/but (contrasting) . Андрей .good morning Добрый день .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана . and should only be used when you are in close firendship.Pyotr.Oxana Екатерина . This is like a pet name. The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. The diminuative is a more personal. Peter. You should be able to remember all of these. or tender form.Olga (Оля) Александра . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.good afternoon Добрый вечер . Some of these may be new. here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Mariya (Маша) Ольга . Здравствуйте .Natalya (Наташа) Мария . but try to learn them all.Yelena (Лена) Наталья .Sergey Алексей .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .Yekaterina Анастасия .and а . Спасибо .
.with у . где туалет? . кофе с молоком и с сахаром. to за .out of.но . it еѐ .What do you want? Я хочу чай. to (+accusative) на . У вас есть чай? . coffee with milk and with sugar. . я-I он .he.". You might also find some new words in these sentences. at (+prepositional). . во .or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but".along.her.towards. пожалуйста. что ты говоришь по-русски.in (+prepositional).you (formal/plural) его .near. . In Russian we would use the word "а". .I know that you speak Russian. For example.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .There is no tea. to (+accusative) о.Do you have tea? Чая нет. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".My mum loves music.He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. . onto. Дайте. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. . .you (informal) вы . it их .Give me please. from от . behind (+instrumental) из . in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. it ты . Что вы хотите? .for (+accusative). We will use only common words. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.Tell me please.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. У вас есть водка? . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. so you should try to learn them all. пожалуйста.him.on. пожалуйста.from по . Скажите. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .about к .There is no coffee. об .but или .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Он любит говорить по-английски.I want tea please. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.
Adam's brother loves Moscow. Моя мама любит музыку . Ты понимаешь? .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне . Я думаю. He speaks Russian well.Твой брат говорит по-русски? .4 dollars.21 roubles. Моя сестра читает газету .I am reading a magazine.I think that you understand. . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Я изучаю русский язык .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.How much? четыре рубля . .Where? Кто? .I am studying the Russian language.I really love sport. .I understand.I really love Moscow.Yes.My sister is reading a newspaper. что вы понимаете. сколько стоит? . сколько стоит? .What? Как? . что ты понимаешь. сколько стоит? .Why? Что ты знаешь? .How much? сто рублей .4 roubles. Я не понимаю.Who? Что? .How much? четыре доллара . Я очень люблю Москву . .Does your borther speak Russian? Да. Почему ты не понимаешь? . Он хорошо говорит по-русски. . Я слушаю музыку .When? Почему? .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .100 roubles. Сестра Анны читает газету .What do you think? Где он? .I live in London. Брат Адама любит Москву . Его нет дома .Where is the cafe? Кто он? .The dog doesn't speak English. Собака не говорит по-английски. Где? . Я очень люблю спорт .He is not home.My Mum loves music.Where is he? Где кафе? . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .I know that you understand.How? Когда? . .I don't understand.I am listening to music. Он едет домой .He is going home. .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . сколько стоит? .How much? двадцать один рубль .Do you understand? Я знаю.
add “ю”. it. Replace “ь” with “и”. "о" or a consonant with "ам". Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Replace "а". 3. Feminine Nouns: 1. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. If the noun ends in a consonant. Тебе . add “у”. . her.Адаму Елена . Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “о” with “у” 2. Replace “ия” with “ии”. 2. If the noun ends in a consonant. Replace “я” with “е”.him. Мне . Адам ..me. Replace “й”. 3. To create nouns in the dative case. Replace “а” with “е”.us. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples.them. Ему (n). 2. or plural).Елене Молоко . Ему (m).you (informal).you (formal. Replace “ь”.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. with “ю”. 2. 4. Нам . Им . Ей (f) . 3.Молоку Вино . add "ам". 1. Neuter Nouns: 1. Вам .. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form.Forming the dative case.
We help mother every day.(you) give Дают . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. For this reason. Они дают цветы Елене . . Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .(he) gives Даѐм .. It should be used in the dative case.I am helping this girl. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson.(you) give Даѐт .(they) give The command forms of this word include.They give flowers to Elena. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations. Дайте мне . Я даю цветы Анне .I am helping Ivan.I am helping Anna.(I) give Даѐшь .Ivan gives flowers to Anna.Give me your address and telephone number. Мы помогаем маме каждый день .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне . Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. . Я помогаю этой девушке . Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. Here are the conjuctions: Даю .I give flowers to Anna.give! Дайте .Give me .. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. Я помогаю Ивану . Дай ... the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. . Similarly... The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. the word “Anna” is the indirect object. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне .(we) give Даѐте . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.
Адаму нравится Москва . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet.Ivan calls Anna every day. However this verb is used differently.She likes Moscow.? Как вам нравится фильм? .You like Moscow. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. (The "ся" ending is reflexive). This is verb is also a reflexive verb. However it is a common word. so it is worth learning now. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.I like the children.I like your children.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . Вам нравится Москва .) Ему нравится Москва . Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. Как вам нравится .) Ей нравится Москва . (lit: children are pleasing to me..) Мне нравятся ваши дети .She calls Ivan every day.I like Moscow. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. and it relies on the dative case.. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. Мне нравятся цветы . You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). Иван звонит Анне каждый день . The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.He is cold (to him its cold) .I really like the flowers.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. it is like saying “To me it is likable”..I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .? ..How do you like . it is still worth learning these examples.He likes Moscow. so it is enough for now just to learn this form. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something.I like the flowers. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.) Practice using the word нравится. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.Звонить . Мне очень нравятся цветы . Мне холодно .to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.Adam likes Moscow. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. Мне нравится Москва .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно .
if stressed “ѐм”. All consonants. Мы едем к друзьям .We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . then add “ем”.Ей холодно .We are going to our friends.. “ц”. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). . if stressed “ѐм”. add “ем”.I am walking towards the station. 2. add “ом”. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Except.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". Replace “й”. and has too many meanings. to create an exact rule. Replace “ь”.. It is followed by the dative case. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . Although the use of this proposition is too varied.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case.I am 23 years old. with “ем”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. “ш” or “щ”. 4.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. “ч”.
“ч”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. 2.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.. 2. The preposition: „с‟ . .. 3.. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.карандашом (pencil) ложка .I eat soup with a spoon.With. Replace “я” with “ей”.женой (wife) Иван . Иван пишет карандашом . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. 4.Feminine Nouns: 1. add "ами". “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Олег режет мясо ножом . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3..Ivan writes with a pencil. Examples. if stressed “ѐй”. Я ем суп ложкой . Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. “ц”. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Except. Replace “ь” with “ью”. “ш” or “щ”. All consonants. "о" with "ами". Accompanied by. In English these words can have different meanings.молоком (milk) сметана . 1.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .мужем (husband) жена .студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Neuter Nouns: 1. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. Replace "а".ножом (knife) муж . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .Анной (Anna) студенты .ложкой (spoon) нож . Replace “а” with “ой”.
This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Иван с женой идут в кафе. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .Me Тобой . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . 2. Мной . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. „with him‟.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. .Him Ей .You Им . пожалуйста. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.I eat borsh with sour cream. „with you‟. it is often written as “со”. Have a look at the following Russian examples. кофе с молоком .Her . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. with Ivan”). Pronouns . However it is followed by the genitive case. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Please give me coffee with milk. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.For ease of pronunciation.Nadya wants tea with lemon.My husband and I are going to the cafe. . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .Ivan wants tea with milk. . Мы с вами . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Ivan and I are going to school.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . In English we would use the word “and”. Дайте.My wife and I are going to the cafe. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. пожалуйста. Here are some examples. .Me and you Notes: 1. Иван хочет чай с молоком . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Анна с мужем идут в кафе.
.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.day. For example: лето .It Нами .Us Вами .in summer осень .Им .in autumn зима . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.You (plural) Ими . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.in winter весна .autumn осенью .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .winter зимой .in the morning день .in the evening ночь .spring весной .evening вечером . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.Them Seasons and parts of the day.in the afternoon вечер .morning утром . afternoon днѐм . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.summer летом .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .night ночью .
I was a doctor).In front of this school turn to the left.школа.to use. .Behind this building there is a school. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. Под столом сидит кот.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . is.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.за . is. . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case .control.to be engaged in.Happy birthday С новым годом . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. .to be. was) has no present tense. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.Under the table the cat is sitting. to be occupied with интересоваться . . for между .to seem.to turn out to be оставаться .to become увлекаться .in front of под .under Examples: За этим зданием . (Example: Я был врачом .Between lunch and dinner drink tea.to be interested in оказываться . manage.behind. enjoy становиться/стать . but it is something to keep in mind.above перед .between над . was заниматься . You don't need to learn these verbs now. Над столом висит лампа. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. Перед этой школой поверните налево. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . govern являться .to be keen on управлять . beyond. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. be The verb “Быть” (to be. быть .to remain as пользоваться .The lamp is above the table. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.
If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.I eat soup with a spoon.. All consonants. “ш” or “щ”.ножом (knife) муж .мужем (husband) жена . “ч”. if stressed “ѐм”. Олег режет мясо ножом .. 1. Examples. Иван пишет карандашом . 4. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. “ц”. All consonants. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .Анной (Anna) студенты . 2. “ш” or “щ”. Feminine Nouns: 1. 3. "о" with "ами". Replace “я” with “ей”. add “ем”. 2.женой (wife) Иван .. “ч”. if stressed “ѐй”. Я ем суп ложкой . add "ами".Ivan writes with a pencil.ложкой (spoon) нож . Replace “й”. Replace “а” with “ой”.. Replace “ь”. 4. with “ем”. if stressed “ѐм”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. In English these words can have different meanings. .молоком (milk) сметана .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Replace "а". Except.. “ц”.карандашом (pencil) ложка .Masculine Nouns: 1.. Except. Replace “ь” with “ью”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. 2. then add “ем”. add “ом”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Neuter Nouns: 1.
The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.Instrumental Case . For ease of pronunciation. кофе с молоком . However it is followed by the genitive case. with Ivan”). . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Дайте. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. it is often written as “со”.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Мы с вами . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. пожалуйста. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. In English we would use the word “and”. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Me and you Notes: 1.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. .Ivan wants tea with milk.I eat borsh with sour cream.With. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Иван с Анной идут в кафе.Nadya wants tea with lemon. 2. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Accompanied by. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .My wife and I are going to the cafe.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. but Russian generally uses “с” (with).My husband and I are going to the cafe. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . пожалуйста.Ivan and I are going to school. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Иван с женой идут в кафе. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . . Иван хочет чай с молоком . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .The preposition: „с‟ . Pronouns .Please give me coffee with milk. . Here are some examples.
Them Seasons and parts of the day.day.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .in autumn зима .Him Ей .autumn осенью .in the evening ночь .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.Me Тобой .spring весной .in the afternoon вечер .You Им .in winter весна . For example: лето . „with you‟. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.in summer осень .night ночью .in the morning день .at night . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.evening вечером .winter зимой . afternoon днѐм .Her Им .morning утром .summer летом . Мной . „with him‟.Us Вами .It Нами .You (plural) Ими . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.
to use. is. enjoy становиться/стать . быть .to seem. is. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. govern являться .to be interested in оказываться . .above перед . . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.Under the table the cat is sitting. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.школа.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. .Behind this building there is a school. . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.in front of под .to be engaged in.The lamp is above the table. . Над столом висит лампа. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. за . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. for между . (Example: Я был врачом .behind. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. You don't need to learn these verbs now. manage.to be. was) has no present tense. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.Happy birthday С новым годом .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. to be occupied with интересоваться .In front of this school turn to the left.under Examples: За этим зданием . be The verb “Быть” (to be.I was a doctor).to turn out to be оставаться . was заниматься .to become увлекаться . but it is something to keep in mind.between над . Под столом сидит кот.control.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . . Перед этой школой поверните налево.to remain as пользоваться .to be keen on управлять . beyond.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.
Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. Although this concept differs from English. Forming Verbs in Past Tense.It knew Они знали . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. but in Russian there is simply one.The dog knew . Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). Let's have a look at the past tense now.Dima knew Елена знала . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings.She knew Оно знало . To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.We knew Я знал . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . or talk about something that has happened in the past.He knew Она знала . In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.I knew (male speaking) Я знала . 2nd or 3rd person).. (ie 1st. it is conceptually quite easy.They knew Мы знали .You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .Vladimir knew Дима знал .Elena knew Ольга знала . Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English. Он знал . Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject.Olga knew Собака знала . The same principal also applies in the future tense. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story..You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .
but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. consequently each verb has two possible forms. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. reversed or repeated actions. The Imperfective Aspect. Ты. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. . and is not complete. Я работал каждый день . and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. Я работал два часа .I worked everyday. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. habitual.I run in the forest every day. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. . Let's start by looking at what each aspect means.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. When using pronouns such as Я. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete.She wants to buy a book. (often По-). Я работал . There are two aspects in Russian. The perfective and the imperfective aspect.I was working Я шѐл . Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. ongoing. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. use the imperfective also. so there is no perfective in the present tense. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb.I was home. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated.I worked for 2 hours. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. . Some tenses in English can indicate this. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian.
. что он сказал. Я не жила в Англии.Did you tell him about it? . Questions and Aspects. .I did not live in England. . Она спросила учителя.I went home.We did not watch the movie yesterday. . . .She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. .Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . . .She did not eat bananas. Саша съел обед за пять минут. . The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. (but I was expected to).I failed to phone. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened.I did not understand what he said. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.Yesterday we read an interesting article.He did not want to see me.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Perfective: Я не позвонила . Я купил кофе . . Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. Я не понял. Он не хотел видеть меня. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . If you are still unsure which to use.
Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. except in the feminine. Я была во многих странах. Я уже посетила Швецию .I was not (woman speaking).I was (woman speaking) Он был .They were not. Я окончила школу. Я был . . . The stress moves to the word 'не'. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). . This is not the case in the past tense.He read for three hours. . More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.At school I started learning English. Они не были .We rented a summer house for three months.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. Я не был .I was (man speaking) Я была .I was not (man speaking).It was Они были . В школе я начала учить английский. Я не была . Оно не было . когда мне было 16 лет . Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.It was not.I‟ve already visited Sweden.She was Оно было .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.He was Она была .I finished school when I was 16 years old.I‟ve been to many countries. Он читал три часа. .
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