Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)

Хорошо(Good)

Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

30 .одиннадцать 12 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.пятьсот 600 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.четыреста 500 .сто 200 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way. quite similar to English.двадцать 21 .шестьсот 700 .четырнадцать 15 . (You will need to drop the soft sign. Here are some examples: 20 .семнадцать 18 .тринадцать 14 .шестьдесят 70 .семьсот 800 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.пятнадцать 16 .двадцать один 22 .шестнадцать 17 .11 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.девятьсот .тридцать 40 .девяносто 100 .двести 300 .восемьдесят 90 .триста 400 .сорок 50 .восемнадцать 19 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).пятьдесят 60 .двенадцать 13 .двадцать два 23 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".семьдесят 80 .двадцать три 24 .восемьсот 900 .

0 .000 .000 .812 Please and Thank-You.No Saying Hello. Да ("da") . Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .345 23.008 2.миллиард For example: 131 .994 1. 456 219 9.000 .007 2. Yes and No.000.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.000. after somebody says thank-you. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.564 2.Yes Нет ("nyet") . The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.тысяча 1.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") . .миллион 1.1.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.000 1. You should always say this after someone thanks you.000. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No". you can basically forget the "уй". Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.

You should just learn the whole phrase. Меня зовут . not the individual words. slang) You should generally use до свидания. put a real questioning expression on your face.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . which is appropriate in formal or informal situations.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. If all else fails.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . except for the question mark.My name is . Introducing Yourself.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. Вы говорите по-английски? . Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . and should only be used with friends. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question.Bad Saying Good-Bye. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian.How are things? Хорошо спасибо .. In order to introduce yourself. Привет is also commonly used with friends.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . but we suggest you only use it with friends. There are two forms of this word.Bye (Informal. you may need the following phrases. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . ("min-ya za-voot") . You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual.. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . there is no difference between the question and the statement. You may also hear people say Пока.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone.Pleased to meet you.. There are also two words for saying good-bye. However. If somebody says Привет to you. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.Good-bye. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.

пожалуйста. пожалуйста.Tell me please. где кафе? .Water . где ближайшее кафе? .Coca-Cola Лимонад . Скажите. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.Juice Борщ .Cake Водка .Coffee Чай .I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Soup Торт . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.Lemonade Сок . пожалуйста.Я говорю по-английски .Beer Вино . . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . Скажите....Tell me please.I speak English Я говорю по-русски . где бар? . It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Tea Молоко . Скажите.Tell me please. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Russian beetroot soup Суп . where is a cafe? Скажите.Wine Вода .Milk Кока-Кола .I understand Я не понимаю .Menu Кофе .. you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.Tell me please.. You could ask people with the following phrases.. пожалуйста.Vodka Пиво .I speak Russian Я понимаю .

кофе .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . пожалуйста.. you will generally get straight vodka.. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. when you order vodka in russia. Дайте. пожалуйста.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar..Please give me coffee with milk..What do you want? Я хочу . (Just learn the whole phrase. .. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . У вас есть .Be careful. это чай..Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . . it is tea... . Examples: Дайте.Give me please.Do you have .? ...How much is it?. .. пожалуйста. Дайте.. чай.Excuse me. Простите.What is it? Это кофе.Please give me tea.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? . Что это? .. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. Do you have. это кофе. пожалуйста .Please give me coffee. кофе с молоком . пожалуйста. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .It is coffee...? If you want to ask someone if they have something. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. . You can use it to ask the price of something.What? Что вы хотите? .I want. is it coffee? Нет. Сколько стоит? . you can use the following phrase. . . Дайте.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order... Дайте. it is gramatically unusual)..No..

.. they are things you can do. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”..It (n) Мы . love. For example: run. Pronouns are words that can replace names.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? ." на английском? .. eat. (Known as the nominative case. Definitions Verbs are action words.21 rubles. Где Туалет . her." mean in English? Where is the toilet. For example: I.How do you say ". it...) Я-I Ты . In the sentence "I love him". he. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence. It (f) Оно .." по-русски? . Скажите. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M"....You (formal.Tell me please..What does ". want. "love" is the verb." in Russian? Что значит ". Here are some useful phrases. him. Пожалуйста .How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль ...She. she. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. The subject is "I".. It (m) Она .We Вы . and the object is "him".He.You (informal) Он .Сколько? .. you. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". Как сказать ". or plural) . walk..? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.

Они работают . or plural) Их . You should memorise these pronouns.I work Ты работаешь .You work Он.Her. (There are also some irregular verbs). (Known as the accusative case) Меня .Me Тебя . "ешь". It is the most common. Оно работает .n) Еѐ . (Example: I work. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". Она. and add the appropriate ending ("ю". It (f) Нас . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. "I am working" and "I do work".Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). and the second conjugation.Us Вас .They work. This happens a little in English. "ем". "ет". and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person.We work Вы работаете .("yevo") . She.Him. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . but not as much.To understand.You (formal.To work. работать .Они . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". Мы работаем . Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. dictionary form) Я работаю .He. (infinitive. dictionary form) .You (informal) Его . it is not too difficult. Just remember that unlike English.You work. Both these patterns are quite similar. and once you get the hang of it. he works). It (m.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I").They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". It works. "ете" or "ют"). Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). (infinitive.

I don't know. Она. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. Мы говорим . She. There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Remember. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.We speak. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. It Speaks. dictionary form) Я говорю .To speak.We know. which replace "ить".He. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . (infinitive. (infinitive. Они знают . Они понимают . . Вы понимаете .He.You know. For example: Я не знаю . It knows.I don't understand.You speak. Мы знаем . Ты понимаешь . Оно знает .I understand. Ты знаешь . Ты говоришь . She.They know. Я не понимаю . Вы знаете .I speak. Он. Оно говорит . Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).We understand.To know.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . Он.I know.They understand. говорить . Он. It understands Мы понимаем .You know. Знать . Он не понимает . The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат").He.You understand. She. Оно понимает .You understand.He doesn't understand. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. dictionary form) Я знаю .Я понимаю . Она. Она.

They hear.We live. She.They go (by transport). It goes (by transport).To go (by transport).He. She. you can often predict the endings. .To live. Оно живѐт . except that "у" replaces "ю".I speak English Он говорит по-русски . Он.You hear. Ты живѐшь .You live.We go (by transport). Они говорят . Вы живѐте . слышать . often once you know the stem of the verb. слышу .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . Они живут .You hear.You go (by transport).Вы говорите . Они едут . Оно едет .You live. It lives. It hears. Я живу . Вы едете . Он. слышишь .I hear.I live.You speak. Я еду .They speak.He.He. слышат . For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Мы едем . Она. She.We hear. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Мы живѐм .The dog doesn't speak English. Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. However. Жить .They live. слышите . Some examples: Ехать .You go (by transport). Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. слышит . Она. (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). Ты едешь . Собака не говорит по-английски . слышим .To hear.We don't speak Russian.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? .I go (by transport).

name or place. But there are five notable exceptions. Moscow. Он едет домой .A letter that is not a vowel. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. unlike many languages. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case.(Grandfather) . Ю.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. “house”.Is Masculine Мужчина . When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. Papa) . Ё. and neuter (neutral). 4.(Man) . If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. Russian has three genders: masculine. If it is a consonant.I live in London. Э.U in English). 3. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender.(Uncle) . From the dictionary form of a noun. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. In Russian.Is Masculine Кофе .Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. each noun is assigned a gender. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. it will be in its dictionary form. (A. И and Й. О.Is Masculine . the word is masculine. Consonant .A noun is a thing. The letters А. pen. 5. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. ъ because they have no sound).(Coffee) . this occurs mainly because of physical gender. In Russian we use 6 cases. Vowel . paper. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. Example: dog. Gender of nouns. In the case of other objects like “pen”. (Except ь. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. Cases . There are very few exceptions to these rules. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine.(Daddy. Е. У. Ы.I. cup. Я. Папа . as with many other languages.He is going home Definitions Noun . or “й”. feminine.E. “cup”. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1.O. cat. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling.Is Masculine Дядя .Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. Luckily. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне .Is Masculine Дедушка .

It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. and about. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. (Eg. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. and still keep the same meaning. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. Feminine : газета (newspaper). Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. . You may wish to do this to emphasise something. For example. Хлеб (bread). радио (radio). In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building).. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar.. so we will take it slowly. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system.. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. (In. In fact it was also used in Old English. документ (document). Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. In Russian there are six cases. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. Россия (Russia). Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Greek and German. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. брат (brother).Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership..) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. at. on.

“ы”. “я” or “а”.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . the word “I” is the subject. so there is nothing special to learn here. Russian is very free about word order. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. in this case the word “dog”. you need to use the accusative case also. For example. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. Russian uses the case for all nouns. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. In Russian.Interestingly. The Nominative Case. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. in the nominative case. without changing the actual meaning. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. . It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . In the sentence “I love her”. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. add “ы”. However. not plants).buildings) The Accusative Case. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. especially pronouns. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.

Masculine Nouns: 1.I love music.Nadya loves wine.He loves Moscow. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Надя любит вино . 2. add “а”.I love Moscow. replace “й”. Надя не любит вино . Он любит Москву . there is no change. 3. . Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). replace “ь”. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. add “я”. If the noun in inanimate. Я не люблю музыку . Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “у”.I love sport. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . with “я”. If noun is animate. 4. Я люблю музыку .Ivan loves tea.Nadya doesn't like wine. If noun is animate. Ты любишь музыку? . Иван любит чай .Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. 2.I don't like music. Replace “я” with “ю”. Neuter Nouns: 1.

I love you. The word "Что" has two uses.to think Работать .to study Думать .I am reading a magazine. Смотреть . Она любит меня .I am watching television.I am reading a book."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . You can use it to form questions. . If you would like.to watch. . Слушать . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. что ты любишь музыку. Я еѐ люблю . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here.I know that you love music. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. it is probably the conjunction "that".to work Хотеть . Я слушаю музыку . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .to read.I love him. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор . Я слушаю радио . Я читаю журнал .I am listening to the radio.I am listening to music. Читать . Что ты любишь? . so don't be confused.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . An example could be: Я знаю. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence.What do you love? However. Я читаю газету . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs.to listen Изучать .I love her.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?".

You can include it into many phrases. In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. (lit: I study the Russian language).I really love Moscow. In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.I really love sport. Я люблю путешествовать .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.Я изучаю русский язык . Где? .What? Как? .I study Russian. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .Who? Что? . Add : “е”. For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".I want tea.I think so! Как вы думаете? . For example: Очень .Where? Кто? .How? Почему? . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.I want to buy a magazine.I love to travel. Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". It sometimes replaces the word "really" also.I love to read. Я очень люблю Москву . Что вы хотите? .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) .very. Я хочу купить журнал . For example: Я люблю читать .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . Я так думаю .

Replace “а” with “е”.at the post office в саду . As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? .cinema театр . Я живу в Петербурге . Here are some tips to help you. although these aren‟t precise rules. (They are in dicionary form) кино . „at a concert‟).Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. Я живу в Сибири . As with any language. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”.I live in St.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . Using prepositions and the prepositional case.I live in Siberia. „at a station‟. even though they are not Russian. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. suburbs and places. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. (Eg.at the station на почте . Petersburg. 2.Feminine Nouns: 1.On the table is a book and a pencil.on the street Что на столе? . „at work‟. Replace “о” with “е” 2.in the garden в лесу . Exception: Replace “ия”.in the forest на улице . (Eg.theatre . Я живу в Лондоне . 3. 4.I live in London. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? .I live in Moscow. “е” remains unchanged. Replace “ь” with “и”. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “я” with “е”.Where is she? на вокзале .

when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).square ресторан .Straight ahead then to the right. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.stadium школа . You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. Куда вы идѐте . you would use the accusative case.bank гостиница . but as these words are so important for basic Russian. прямо потом направо . we will introduce them now in a simple way. The first indicates you are going on foot. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). prepositions have more than one meaning. прямо . Both these words are verbs of motion. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. Here are some examples for you to compare. there are actually four ways: . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . your answer will involve the prepositional case.hotel музей .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. However. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. you can tell this by the case.restaurant банк .Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .park стадион .I am going to school.To the right.museum больница . the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. So to express „to go‟ in Russian.library кафе .Straight ahead.I work at (in) a school.pharmacy парк .cafe площадь .school библиотека . направо . налево . and are grammatically quite complex. Где вы работаете? .аптека .To the left.

Ты ходишь.I am going to school.I am going to school.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . or repetitively (Я езжу. Они идут) Я иду в школу . Они часто ездят в Амстердам . Вы идѐте.To go on foot. Он идѐт.I go to school. (Я иду. Ты едешь. Мы едем. Ты идѐшь в кино? .To go by transport.I go to the theatre every day. in one direction.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день . Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Вы ездите. Он едет.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Мы идѐм.I am going to the cinema on the metro. Они едут ) Я еду в школу .Идти .He is going to the hotel. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .I am going to the cinema. in more than one direction.We are going to the cafe. (Я еду. Мы идѐм в кафе . Он ездит .He is going to London Ездить . Мы ездим. in more than one direction.He is going to the hotel by taxi. (Я хожу. in one direction. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон .To go on foot.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Мы ходим. Вы едете. я иду в университет . or repetitively. Я часто хожу в кино .To go by transport.We go to the cafe every day.We are going to the cafe. Ехать . Я иду в кино . Ты идѐшь. Ты ездишь .I am going to the university Ходить . Мы едем в кафе . (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Он ходит. Вы ходите.

Еѐ (f) .I don't have any children. Наши (pl) . Мой (m). Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.wife Муж .my Твой (m).Do you have children?. Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. For example we use the words mum and dad. Наше (n).grandfather Жена . Твоя (f).granddaughter Внук .son бабушка .mum Папа .Мать .husband Тѐтя .our .grandson Семья .uncle Родители .I have a son and a daughter. Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.sister Брат . her Наш (m).mother Отец . Моѐ (n). Твои (pl) .daughter Сын .his.grandmother Дедушка . У меня нет детей . У меня есть сестра .family Just like English. У тебя есть дети? . Мои (pl) .your Его (m n) ("yevo").children Внучка . Моя (f).dad Сестра . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. У меня есть сын и дочь . Твоѐ (n). Наша (f).parents Дети .I have a brother.auntie Дядя .brother Дочь . У меня есть брат . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.father Мама . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.I have a sister. Here are some Russian phrases you could use.

Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . Моя мама любит музыку .Ваш (m).her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . However.Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. For example.good morning Добрый день . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.This is my house Это моя квартира . The Russian word Это means 'this is'.your Их .Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally. you may wish to say her name is Anna.his name is Ivan.This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .good afternoon Добрый вечер .. Ваша (f).goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .good evening Спокойной ночи . Ваши (pl) .. This is. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual. Доброе утро .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету . Это мой дом . Ваше (n).

Replace “й”. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Anna's) Дом Ивана . with “я”. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. If the noun ends in a consonant. (This is like using 's in English). Replace “о” with “а” 2. add “а”. Replace “а” with “ы”.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . Сестра Анны читает газету . add “я”. pay particular attention to the order of the words. 2. 3. 2. For example. Replace “ь” with “и”.Igor's telephone. Using the genitive case . Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “я” with “и”. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . the object that is owned always comes first. However. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. Let's have a look at some more examples. 3. Replace “е” with “я” For example.ownership As you can see in the above example. Брат Адама любит Москву . some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. Neuter Nouns: 1. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences.Adam's dog.Masculine Nouns: 1.Adam's brother loves Moscow. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). Replace “ь”. Собака Адама . Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. in Russian.Anna's car.

‟. Его. (Меня. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. Generally.sentence and uses the nominative case.She has a dog. план города .A map of the city.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. У вас есть кофе? . Вас.A glass of milk. Here are some examples.I have book. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. Молока нет . As we have seen in a previous lesson. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.. стакан молока .. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. Его нет дома . У нее есть собака.There is no milk. Here are some examples. Их) Using the genitive case .to have As the genitive case relates to possession.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . This is exactly the same concept as above. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . Кофе нет . it is just easier to learn the concept by example. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. Using the genitive case . Чая нет . These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Еѐ. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case.Ivan isn't here. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning.He is not home. У меня есть книга . Ивана нет . except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English.There is no coffee. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. . Нас. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .There is no tea.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . Тебя.Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is).

add “ы”. . you make a plural by using the letters "и". but don‟t worry. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. Х. "ы". for example "10 roubles". Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. quantaties. Ш.Using the genitive case . The Nominative Case . Ж.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. depending on whether the object is animate or not.Plural (Subject) In Russian.numbers.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . plurals. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. The genitive case is used after most numbers. in the nominative case.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) .) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . К.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. Ч. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. "я" or "а".

now that we understand when to use counting-plurals.ч. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. This may feel a little strange at first. Here are some examples.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. or whether you are just using general plurals.марок.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. Ok.The Genitive Case .англичанок. but in Russian we use it for all numbers. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. (марка . е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.газет (newspapers') здание . Анна любит книги .девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . англичанка . let‟s see how to use them. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.Anna loves books.ш.The books are on the table. девушка .студентов (students') газета . Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). . but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. Книги на столе . For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.щ. but in the plural form.

one rouble двадцать один рубль . одна девушка .4 If the number. 14.six books семь газет .one hundred dollars шесть книг . Here are some examples.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.ten roubles сто рублей .Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.three roubles четыре рубля . then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.nine dogs десять студентов .one girl Я знаю одну девушку .five roubles десять рублей . 13.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.6.four dollars четыре студента .9. (example: 22..one hundred roubles сто долларов . Here are some examples. три рубля .21 roubles один доллар . To help you get used to this concept. try using plurals that involve money. 3 or 4. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. 12. etc) пять рублей .0.8.7.eight buildings девять собак . 103.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5. 42.I know one girl один рубль . then you should use the genitive singular case. .four roubles две книги . 4) (but not 12. 21. or the last digit of the number is 2.three dogs четыре доллара . All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.seven newspapers восемь зданий . 13 & 14). The number one declines like an adjective.two books три собаки .four students три газеты .3. 61) (but not 11).

Николай . Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .8.How old are you. Much like “Мне холодно” . Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.9. Quantity ends in 5.-надцать .6. Вова) . .Genitive Singular.Nikolay (Коля) Борис . This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.What is his name? Его зовут Борис ..0. Here are some other common Russian names for men.the dative case.Her name is Alyona.7. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .So in summary.Boris Владимир .) Quantity not specified ..Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Как вас зовут? .As per position in the sentence.I am 23 years old. Quantity ends in 1 .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.His name is Boris.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года ..Vladimir (Володя. Как еѐ зовут? . Quantity ends in 2.My name is Vera. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна . Мне восемнадцать лет .4 .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).Genitive Plural General Quantity ..3. Как его зовут? .

good afternoon Добрый вечер .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Andrey Александр .and а .Natalya (Наташа) Мария . Peter. The diminuative is a more personal. Some of these may be new.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . You should be able to remember all of these. Андрей . This is like a pet name.Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .and/but (contrasting) . and should only be used when you are in close firendship. Здравствуйте . or tender form.Pyotr. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Olga (Оля) Александра .Yekaterina Анастасия . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Hello Привет . Елена . but try to learn them all.Mariya (Маша) Ольга .good morning Добрый день . Шура) Дмитрий .Пѐтр .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').Oxana Екатерина .good evening Спокойной ночи .Thank-You Пожалуйста . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .Yelena (Лена) Наталья . Спасибо .Alexander (Саша.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Sergey Алексей .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .

Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . it еѐ . it их . во .Tell me please. . об . from от .you (informal) вы .Do you have tea? Чая нет.on. behind (+instrumental) из . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.towards.but или .he.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". at (+prepositional).with у . .him. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". onto.in (+prepositional).about к .for (+accusative). by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.What do you want? Я хочу чай. Скажите. For example. coffee with milk and with sugar.There is no coffee. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. We will use only common words. In Russian we would use the word "а". У вас есть чай? . These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .from по . . Он любит говорить по-английски. You might also find some new words in these sentences. to за .Give me please. . .I want tea please.He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . . to (+accusative) о. Дайте. . где туалет? . пожалуйста.".но . so you should try to learn them all.near.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет.out of. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.My mum loves music.There is no tea. я-I он . пожалуйста.them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. пожалуйста. it ты . to (+accusative) на .along.you (formal/plural) его . У вас есть водка? . кофе с молоком и с сахаром. .her. что ты говоришь по-русски. Что вы хотите? .I know that you speak Russian.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.

I don't understand. Брат Адама любит Москву . сколько стоит? .He is not home.Yes. сколько стоит? .I think that you understand.21 roubles. Я слушаю музыку .He is going home. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .Твой брат говорит по-русски? . .How much? двадцать один рубль .Do you understand? Я знаю.What? Как? . Собака не говорит по-английски. Я очень люблю спорт . . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . Сестра Анны читает газету . .My sister is reading a newspaper.What do you think? Где он? .Where? Кто? .Adam's brother loves Moscow.Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.Where is he? Где кафе? .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .How? Когда? . .When? Почему? . Моя мама любит музыку .I really love Moscow. сколько стоит? . Почему ты не понимаешь? . . .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.Why? Что ты знаешь? .How much? сто рублей . сколько стоит? .How much? четыре доллара .Does your borther speak Russian? Да. Моя сестра читает газету .I live in London. Ты понимаешь? . Я думаю.100 roubles. что ты понимаешь. Я не понимаю.The dog doesn't speak English.4 dollars.I am reading a magazine.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .I know that you understand. Я очень люблю Москву . He speaks Russian well. . Я изучаю русский язык .My Mum loves music.What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .I really love sport.I understand. Где? .4 roubles.I am studying the Russian language.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.Who is he? Я читаю журнал . Он хорошо говорит по-русски. Его нет дома .How much? четыре рубля . что вы понимаете. Он едет домой .I am listening to music.Who? Что? .

with “ю”. 2.Молоку Вино .me. her. Им . Replace “а” with “е”. add "ам". Нам . .Forming the dative case. Ей (f) . If the noun ends in a consonant. or plural).Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Neuter Nouns: 1. Мне . 1.him. it. Replace "а".them. If the noun ends in a consonant.Адаму Елена . Replace “о” with “у” 2. Replace “ия” with “ии”. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Masculine Nouns: 1..us. 2. add “у”. Replace “ь”. Вам . Тебе .you (formal. 3. Replace “й”.Елене Молоко . Feminine Nouns: 1. To create nouns in the dative case. Ему (n). Адам . 4. add “ю”. 2.. 3. Replace “я” with “е”. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. "о" or a consonant with "ам". Replace “ь” with “и”. Ему (m).you (informal). Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. 3.

. Они дают цветы Елене . For this reason. .I am helping this girl.Give me . Similarly.(they) give The command forms of this word include. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . the word “Anna” is the indirect object. . In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне . Дайте мне .Give me your address and telephone number. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона.(you) give Дают . Я даю цветы Анне .give! Дайте .(I) give Даѐшь .(he) gives Даѐм . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object.They give flowers to Elena. .(we) give Даѐте .. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case.I am helping Anna. Я помогаю этой девушке .. Мы помогаем маме каждый день . For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. Я помогаю Ивану ..(you) give Даѐт . Дай . Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.I am helping Ivan.Ivan gives flowers to Anna. It should be used in the dative case.We help mother every day. Here are the conjuctions: Даю ..give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.I give flowers to Anna.. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне .

) Ей нравится Москва ...Звонить . and it relies on the dative case. However this verb is used differently. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet.? Как вам нравится фильм? .) Мне нравятся ваши дети . Мне очень нравятся цветы . Мне холодно . Как вам нравится .I like Moscow.) Ему нравится Москва .? .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . so it is enough for now just to learn this form. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. (The "ся" ending is reflexive). Адаму нравится Москва . so it is worth learning now.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . However it is a common word.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети .I really like the flowers. Иван звонит Анне каждый день .I like your children. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. Вам нравится Москва . Мне нравятся цветы .She calls Ivan every day.Ivan calls Anna every day. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.I like the flowers. it is still worth learning these examples. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.How do you like .He is cold (to him its cold) .) Practice using the word нравится.I like the children.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . (lit: children are pleasing to me. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). it is like saying “To me it is likable”.He likes Moscow.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.You like Moscow.. Мне нравится Москва . Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.She likes Moscow.Adam likes Moscow. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns.

add “ем”. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to".I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет .I am 23 years old. and has too many meanings. 4. if stressed “ѐм”. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. if stressed “ѐм”. then add “ем”. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . “ц”. Except. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.. Replace “й”..We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно .I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . add “ом”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. to create an exact rule. “ш” or “щ”. “ч”. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along).I am walking towards the station. Replace “ь”. . Мы едем к друзьям .We are going to our friends. All consonants. 2. It is followed by the dative case.Ей холодно . with “ем”.

Анной (Anna) студенты . 1.карандашом (pencil) ложка . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. 4.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. 2. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.. “ц”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Олег режет мясо ножом .I eat soup with a spoon. Replace “я” with “ей”. Иван пишет карандашом .. 3.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .Иваном (Ivan) Анна .мужем (husband) жена . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Я ем суп ложкой .. Replace "а". “ч”.молоком (milk) сметана . Neuter Nouns: 1. Examples. 2. add "ами".ложкой (spoon) нож . If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. if stressed “ѐй”. In English these words can have different meanings. .ножом (knife) муж . "о" with "ами". Accompanied by. Except. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.. All consonants. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.женой (wife) Иван . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.Ivan writes with a pencil.With. The preposition: „с‟ . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .Feminine Nouns: 1. “ш” or “щ”. Replace “а” with “ой”. Replace “ь” with “ью”.

The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. кофе с молоком . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. .For ease of pronunciation. 2.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Me Тобой . пожалуйста. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Мной . Have a look at the following Russian examples.Me and you Notes: 1. Мы с вами .You Им .I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. . .Nadya wants tea with lemon.Ivan and I are going to school. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . „with you‟. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .My husband and I are going to the cafe. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. In English we would use the word “and”. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .I eat borsh with sour cream.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.Her . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. However it is followed by the genitive case. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. it is often written as “со”. Дайте.My wife and I are going to the cafe. Here are some examples. Pronouns .Please give me coffee with milk.Him Ей .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. „with him‟. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Иван с женой идут в кафе. .Ivan wants tea with milk.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Иван хочет чай с молоком . пожалуйста.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. with Ivan”). Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.

in winter весна .summer летом . For example: лето . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.Them Seasons and parts of the day.morning утром .It Нами . .You (plural) Ими .night ночью .Us Вами . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.day. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.spring весной .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .in autumn зима .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .in the afternoon вечер .in summer осень .in the evening ночь . afternoon днѐм . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.in the morning день .Им .evening вечером .autumn осенью .winter зимой .

Перед этой школой поверните налево.The lamp is above the table. Под столом сидит кот.to be engaged in. enjoy становиться/стать .за .above перед .школа. Над столом висит лампа. govern являться .Behind this building there is a school.under Examples: За этим зданием . was заниматься .to seem. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.to turn out to be оставаться . .to be interested in оказываться . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . beyond. manage.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. быть . .In front of this school turn to the left. was) has no present tense. but it is something to keep in mind. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. . . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.Under the table the cat is sitting.to use. to be occupied with интересоваться . be The verb “Быть” (to be. for между .in front of под .behind.Happy birthday С новым годом . . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .I was a doctor). As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.control.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.between над . is.to become увлекаться . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.to be keen on управлять . (Example: Я был врачом . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. is. You don't need to learn these verbs now.to be.to remain as пользоваться .

In English these words can have different meanings. “ц”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Replace “ь”.ножом (knife) муж . Я ем суп ложкой . Replace "а".ложкой (spoon) нож . 2. All consonants.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . with “ем”. Examples. 1. if stressed “ѐм”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Иван пишет карандашом . 2. if stressed “ѐм”. Replace “а” with “ой”. Except. Replace “й”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. Replace “я” with “ей”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . "о" with "ами"..Ivan writes with a pencil. Replace “ь” with “ью”. Feminine Nouns: 1.. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Олег режет мясо ножом .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. “ш” or “щ”. “ч”. add "ами". “ц”.I eat soup with a spoon.Masculine Nouns: 1. 4.Анной (Anna) студенты .карандашом (pencil) ложка .мужем (husband) жена ..студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. add “ем”. Except. then add “ем”.молоком (milk) сметана .. if stressed “ѐй”. Neuter Nouns: 1. “ч”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.. 3. 2..женой (wife) Иван . 4. add “ом”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. “ш” or “щ”. All consonants.

For ease of pronunciation. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Дайте. . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). пожалуйста.Ivan wants tea with milk.With.I eat borsh with sour cream. кофе с молоком .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. . In English we would use the word “and”. with Ivan”).Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Pronouns . Мы с вами . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Иван с женой идут в кафе.The preposition: „с‟ . . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.Please give me coffee with milk. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. пожалуйста. . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. However it is followed by the genitive case. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Иван хочет чай с молоком . it is often written as “со”. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .My wife and I are going to the cafe. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Me and you Notes: 1.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Ivan and I are going to school. 2.My husband and I are going to the cafe. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Nadya wants tea with lemon. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .Instrumental Case . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Accompanied by. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Here are some examples. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .

Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.Them Seasons and parts of the day.Him Ей .Us Вами .in autumn зима .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .in winter весна .day.Her Им .in summer осень .in the morning день .in the afternoon вечер .summer летом .spring весной . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. For example: лето .in the evening ночь .evening вечером .at night .It Нами .You (plural) Ими . „with you‟.winter зимой . Мной .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. „with him‟.night ночью .Me Тобой . afternoon днѐм .autumn осенью .You Им .morning утром . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.

the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.to be keen on управлять . Под столом сидит кот. за . . enjoy становиться/стать .in front of под .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .above перед .to seem.between над . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.The lamp is above the table.школа. . .behind. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. was) has no present tense.to turn out to be оставаться .to be. but it is something to keep in mind. .In front of this school turn to the left. быть . You don't need to learn these verbs now.Under the table the cat is sitting. be The verb “Быть” (to be.Happy birthday С новым годом .to be interested in оказываться .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .to use. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. manage.to remain as пользоваться . govern являться .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.control. to be occupied with интересоваться .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.to become увлекаться .Behind this building there is a school.I was a doctor). (Example: Я был врачом . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. is. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. beyond.to be engaged in.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. for между . . Перед этой школой поверните налево. was заниматься . Над столом висит лампа.under Examples: За этим зданием . . is. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .

It knew Они знали .I knew (male speaking) Я знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not.Dima knew Елена знала . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject.She knew Оно знало ..They knew Мы знали .We knew Я знал . Он знал .I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . Forming Verbs in Past Tense.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . it is conceptually quite easy..You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .Vladimir knew Дима знал . (ie 1st. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. Let's have a look at the past tense now. The same principal also applies in the future tense. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story. but in Russian there is simply one. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject.The dog knew . or talk about something that has happened in the past.He knew Она знала .Olga knew Собака знала . In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.Elena knew Ольга знала . Although this concept differs from English. 2nd or 3rd person). Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know)..

reversed or repeated actions. There are two aspects in Russian. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed.I worked for 2 hours. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. consequently each verb has two possible forms. Я работал каждый день . use the imperfective also. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. habitual. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. and is not complete. Ты. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. The Imperfective Aspect. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. Я работал . Я бегаю в лесу каждый день.She wants to buy a book. so there is no perfective in the present tense. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . . (often По-).I was working Я шѐл .You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”.I worked everyday. . ongoing. Я работал два часа .I was home. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned.I run in the forest every day. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. Some tenses in English can indicate this. . but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. When using pronouns such as Я. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. The perfective and the imperfective aspect.

What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . . .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. . . The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.He did not want to see me. If you are still unsure which to use. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . Я не понял.I did not understand what he said. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Perfective: Я не позвонила .We did not watch the movie yesterday. . . Я купил кофе . .She did not eat bananas. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. . . Саша съел обед за пять минут. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. Он не хотел видеть меня. Она спросила учителя. Я не жила в Англии.I failed to phone. (but I was expected to).She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? .Yesterday we read an interesting article.I did not live in England.I went home.Did you tell him about it? . что он сказал.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. Questions and Aspects.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. . .

.She was Оно было .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. . Я окончила школу.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.I was (woman speaking) Он был . except in the feminine.He was Она была . Оно не было .I‟ve been to many countries. В школе я начала учить английский.It was not. The stress moves to the word 'не'. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца. . Я не была . Я уже посетила Швецию .At school I started learning English. .It was Они были . Я был .I was not (man speaking).I was (man speaking) Я была . Он читал три часа.I was not (woman speaking). These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). Я была во многих странах.I‟ve already visited Sweden. . когда мне было 16 лет . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.They were not.We rented a summer house for three months.I finished school when I was 16 years old.He read for three hours. Я не был . Они не были . This is not the case in the past tense.

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