Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)


Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.шестьдесят 70 .двадцать один 22 .семьсот 800 . 30 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way. quite similar to English.тридцать 40 .семьдесят 80 .двадцать 21 .четыреста 500 .сто 200 .восемьсот 900 .пятнадцать 16 .двадцать два 23 .четырнадцать 15 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".девятьсот .одиннадцать 12 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.11 .пятьсот 600 .тринадцать 14 .шестнадцать 17 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.двадцать три 24 .восемьдесят 90 .сорок 50 .девяносто 100 . Here are some examples: 20 .восемнадцать 19 .пятьдесят 60 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.триста 400 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see. (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).семнадцать 18 .двенадцать 13 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.двести 300 .шестьсот 700 .

456 219 9. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .1.No Saying Hello.345 23.миллиард For example: 131 . Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.000.564 2.994 1.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. Yes and No. 0 .000. you can basically forget the "уй".007 2.000 1. . You should always say this after someone thanks you.000 .Yes Нет ("nyet") . after somebody says thank-you.000.008 2. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.000 .812 Please and Thank-You.000 .ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.тысяча 1.миллион 1. Да ("da") .Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .

My name is . You should just learn the whole phrase. If all else fails. There are also two words for saying good-bye.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . but we suggest you only use it with friends. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". In order to introduce yourself. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. and should only be used with friends. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") .Bye (Informal.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. ("min-ya za-voot") . keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). not the individual words. put a real questioning expression on your face. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. Меня зовут . However. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.Bad Saying Good-Bye. you may need the following phrases..Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . there is no difference between the question and the statement. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . except for the question mark. Introducing Yourself..Do you (formal) speak Russian? ..Pleased to meet you. Привет is also commonly used with friends. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. If somebody says Привет to you. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . slang) You should generally use до свидания.How are things? Хорошо спасибо . You may also hear people say Пока.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. Вы говорите по-английски? . The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question..Good-bye. There are two forms of this word.

. You could ask people with the following phrases.Tell me please.Menu Кофе .Coffee Чай .Tell me please. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.Lemonade Сок .Tell me please. Скажите. Скажите. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.I speak Russian Я понимаю . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. где кафе? .Water .. пожалуйста. пожалуйста.Juice Борщ ..Russian beetroot soup Суп . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . где ближайшее кафе? .Milk Кока-Кола .Cake Водка .. where is a cafe? Скажите.Tea Молоко .Wine Вода . пожалуйста.Tell me please.I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Soup Торт .. где бар? . where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Coca-Cola Лимонад .Vodka Пиво .Beer Вино ..I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.. Скажите.Я говорю по-английски .I understand Я не понимаю . пожалуйста.

No. Дайте. это чай. У вас есть . it is tea. кофе с молоком . пожалуйста.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . .How much is it?. (Just learn the whole phrase.Please give me coffee with milk.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order.. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are...Please give me tea.Give me please..? If you want to ask someone if they have something. пожалуйста .. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. you can use the following phrase.I want. ..Do you have . Examples: Дайте.. You can use it to ask the price of something.? . Дайте. .What do you want? Я хочу .. . or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . это кофе.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Что это? ... . кофе . Дайте.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .What is it? Это кофе. пожалуйста. пожалуйста.. Простите... . пожалуйста.It is coffee. чай. when you order vodka in russia..Be careful. you will generally get straight vodka.Please give me coffee. is it coffee? Нет... кофе с молоком и с сахаром ...Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. .. Сколько стоит? . Do you have.Excuse me. Дайте.What? Что вы хотите? . it is gramatically unusual).

." по-русски? . It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. want.. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".Сколько? .She..21 rubles. she. you. It (f) Оно . it...How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . eat." mean in English? Where is the toilet. love.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .. or plural) . Пожалуйста .? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.... The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". Pronouns are words that can replace names..It (n) Мы .." in Russian? Что значит ". For example: run.How do you say ".. "love" is the verb. and the object is "him". they are things you can do.We Вы . Here are some useful phrases.Tell me please. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence..You (informal) Он . he.What does ".) Я-I Ты . Definitions Verbs are action words. Скажите... him. (Known as the nominative case. It (m) Она . The subject is "I". Где Туалет . How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. her. For example: I." на английском? . walk.You (formal. In the sentence "I love him".. Как сказать ".He.

("yevo") .Они .n) Еѐ . Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . dictionary form) Я работаю . (Example: I work. This happens a little in English.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". (Known as the accusative case) Меня .They Вы is used as the formal singular "you".Us Вас . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence.To work. dictionary form) . Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. Мы работаем . he works).We work Вы работаете . In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". Они работают . "ешь".You work Он. (There are also some irregular verbs). (infinitive. It is the most common.To understand. Она. It (f) Нас . работать . It works.Her. Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.I work Ты работаешь . Just remember that unlike English. and add the appropriate ending ("ю".You (formal. (infinitive. and once you get the hang of it. but not as much.They work.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I").You work. "I am working" and "I do work". "ет".Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить".Me Тебя . To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). Оно работает . it is not too difficult.Him.He. and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. and the second conjugation.You (informal) Его . Both these patterns are quite similar. "ете" or "ют"). "ем". You should memorise these pronouns. She. It (m. or plural) Их . This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation.

Ты говоришь . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.You speak. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation.You know. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). Ты знаешь .You understand. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. She. For example: Я не знаю . The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). Мы знаем . (infinitive.You understand. She.You know.I speak. Он.To speak. dictionary form) Я знаю . . She. Он не понимает . говорить .I don't understand. Они знают . It Speaks.I don't know.He doesn't understand.He. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? .We speak. Вы понимаете . It understands Мы понимаем . Оно понимает . Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).To know. Оно говорит .He.I understand. Мы говорим .Do you know? Ты понимаешь? .They know.We know. dictionary form) Я говорю .We understand. (infinitive.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. Она.They understand. Он. Вы знаете . Remember. It knows.Я понимаю . Оно знает . Она.I know. Я не понимаю . which replace "ить". Он. Ты понимаешь .He. Она. Они понимают . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Знать .

Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Мы живѐм .I speak English Он говорит по-русски .He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? .They live. Я живу . слышит . Они живут . Ты едешь .You live.Вы говорите . Мы едем . Она. Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian.To live.You go (by transport). except that "у" replaces "ю".They hear. It goes (by transport). Оно едет . It lives.We hear.I live. Ты живѐшь . For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Вы живѐте . Some examples: Ехать . слышу . Вы едете .They go (by transport).We live.You live. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. She. However. слышать . Жить . Оно живѐт . you can often predict the endings.We don't speak Russian.To go (by transport). слышим . Она. Он.He. Они говорят . слышите . слышишь .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . She.You hear. often once you know the stem of the verb. Собака не говорит по-английски .You hear. Они едут .He.You go (by transport).We go (by transport).I hear.The dog doesn't speak English. слышат . She.He.They speak.You speak. Я еду . .I go (by transport). (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).To hear. It hears. Он.

Is Masculine Дядя . Gender of nouns. Он едет домой .Is Masculine Дедушка . In the case of other objects like “pen”. У. Cases . it will be in its dictionary form.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. and neuter (neutral). ъ because they have no sound). “cup”. From the dictionary form of a noun. Moscow. И and Й. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. feminine.I.I live in London. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. But there are five notable exceptions. In English we do this by having a strict word-order.Is Masculine Мужчина . In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. Consonant . unlike many languages. If it is a consonant. Example: dog. the word is masculine. name or place. paper. each noun is assigned a gender. Папа . In Russian.Is Masculine . 5.(Man) . Ы.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. Е. or “й”.Is Masculine Кофе .(Daddy.E. (Except ь. 3.O.A noun is a thing. Papa) .(Uncle) .He is going home Definitions Noun . there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. The letters А. as with many other languages. Ё. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. Russian has three genders: masculine.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract.U in English).(Grandfather) . Vowel . О. cup. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. (A. pen. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . Э. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. In Russian we use 6 cases. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. “house”.A letter that is not a vowel. 4. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. cat. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. Ю. Luckily. There are very few exceptions to these rules. Я.(Coffee) .

Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). You may wish to do this to emphasise something.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. so we will take it slowly. In Russian there are six cases. Россия (Russia). документ (document). and still keep the same meaning. Feminine : газета (newspaper). (In. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. брат (brother). Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. and about. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. In fact it was also used in Old English. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. Хлеб (bread). Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. . The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. at. on.. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. радио (radio). „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟.. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. (Eg. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. For example. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. Greek and German. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian... “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟.

Russian uses the case for all nouns.Interestingly. not plants). This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. . add “ы”. “я” or “а”.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . In English we make a plural by adding “s”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. In the sentence “I love her”. The Nominative Case. in the nominative case. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. in this case the word “dog”. the word “I” is the subject. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. “ы”. without changing the actual meaning. However. so there is nothing special to learn here. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. Russian is very free about word order. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. some remnants of the case system still exist in English.buildings) The Accusative Case. you need to use the accusative case also. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. In Russian. For example. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. especially pronouns.

Ivan loves tea. 3.I love sport. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . If noun is animate. Надя любит вино . Replace “а” with “у”.Nadya loves wine. Он любит Москву . Replace “я” with “ю”. 4. replace “й”. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Я не люблю музыку . Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. If the noun in inanimate. replace “ь”. Ты любишь музыку? . there is no change. If noun is animate.Nadya doesn't like wine.Masculine Nouns: 1. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. add “а”. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. 2. Надя не любит вино .I love music. Иван любит чай . 2.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву .I love Moscow.I don't like music. Я люблю музыку . . If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Feminine Nouns: 1. Neuter Nouns: 1.He loves Moscow. with “я”. add “я”.

. Читать . Я еѐ люблю . it is probably the conjunction "that". if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. Я читаю газету . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . Я слушаю радио .I am watching television. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". The word "Что" has two want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .I love him.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .I love her. Что ты любишь? . Я читаю журнал . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. Слушать .I am listening to music. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking listen Изучать .I love study Думать .to work Хотеть . Смотреть ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . An example could be: Я знаю. что ты любишь музыку. If you would like.I am listening to the radio. You can use it to form think Работать . Она любит меня . Я слушаю музыку .to watch. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. so don't be confused. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. .I know that you love music.I am reading a book.What do you love? However.I am reading a read.

What? Как? .I study Russian.What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.I think so! Как вы думаете? . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.Where? Кто? . Я хочу купить журнал . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Что вы хотите? . Я люблю путешествовать . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . Где? .I really love sport. Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. For example: Очень . Я так думаю . For example: Я люблю читать . Я очень люблю Москву . You can include it into many phrases. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .How? Почему? . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.I want tea.I love to travel.I love to read.Я изучаю русский язык .I really love Moscow.I want to buy a magazine.Who? Что? . Add : “е”.very. (lit: I study the Russian language).

I live in . Replace “я” with “е”.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . Petersburg. (Eg. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1.I live in the forest на улице . Replace “а” with “е”. 3. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”.cinema театр . Я живу в Лондоне . although these aren‟t precise the station на почте . “е” remains unchanged. Exception: Replace “ия”.Where is she? на вокзале . 4.I live in Siberia. „at a station‟. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. Я живу в Сибири . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. 2. suburbs and places.Feminine Nouns: 1. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. As with any language. Using prepositions and the prepositional case.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . Replace “о” with “е” 2. Replace “ь” with “и”. Я живу в Петербурге . (They are in dicionary form) кино . You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . even though they are not Russian. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? .at the post office в саду .On the table is a book and a pencil. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. Here are some tips to help you. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. „at work‟. (Eg. „at a concert‟).in the garden в лесу .I live in Moscow.on the street Что на столе? .

прямо потом направо . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. Где вы работаете? .I work at (in) a school. Both these words are verbs of motion. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).bank гостиница . but as these words are so important for basic Russian. your answer will involve the prepositional площадь .school библиотека . we will introduce them now in a simple way.hotel музей . The first indicates you are going on foot.To the left. you would use the accusative case.library кафе .restaurant банк . налево .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.Straight ahead.park стадион .square ресторан .stadium школа .pharmacy парк . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. there are actually four ways: . you can tell this by the case. However.To the right. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . Here are some examples for you to compare. направо . and are grammatically quite complex.Straight ahead then to the right. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. prepositions have more than one больница . So to express „to go‟ in Russian. Куда вы идѐте . When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. прямо .I am going to school.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .аптека . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs.

or repetitively (Я езжу. Мы идѐм в кафе . (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Мы едем. in more than one direction. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .We are going to the cafe. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Ты ездишь .I go to school. Он едет. in one direction.To go by transport. Он ездит .He is going to the hotel by taxi.I am going to school.To go by transport.I go to the theatre every day.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Ехать .I am going to the cinema on the metro. Я часто хожу в кино . (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Вы ездите. Вы ходите.I am going to the university Ходить . Он идѐт. (Я еду.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .We go to the cafe every day.I am going to school. Он ходит.To go on foot. (Я хожу. in one direction. Мы ходим.Идти .Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Они идут) Я иду в школу . Мы идѐм. Ты идѐшь в кино? . Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Мы едем в кафе . Вы едете.We are going to the cafe. Ты ходишь. Ты идѐшь. я иду в университет . Я иду в кино . in more than one direction. Вы идѐте.He is going to London Ездить .I am going to the cinema. Они часто ездят в Амстердам .He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . (Я иду.To go on foot. Мы ездим. Они едут ) Я еду в школу . or repetitively.He is going to the hotel. Ты едешь.

uncle Родители . Наши (pl) .sister Брат . Моѐ (n).I don't have any children. Наша (f).daughter Сын .family Just like English.I have a brother. For example we use the words mum and dad.Мать . Твоя (f). Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.grandfather Жена . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. Here are some Russian phrases you could use. Наше (n).mother Отец .our .parents Дети . Твоѐ (n). У меня есть брат . У меня есть сын и дочь .mum Папа .wife Муж .grandson Семья .I have a Дочь . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.Do you have children?. her Наш (m). У тебя есть дети? . Моя (f).I have a son and a daughter.son бабушка .children Внучка . У меня нет детей . Мой (m).husband Тѐтя . У меня есть сестра .your Его (m n) ("yevo").my Твой (m).granddaughter Внук .father Мама .grandmother Дедушка .auntie Дядя . Твои (pl) . Еѐ (f) .his. Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them Сестра . Мои (pl) .

good afternoon Добрый вечер .Ваш (m).his name is Ivan.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .good morning Добрый день . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . This is. Ваше (n).My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету ..My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . Доброе утро . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns..This is my house Это моя квартира .Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally. However. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.good evening Спокойной ночи . Моя мама любит музыку .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . The Russian word Это means 'this is'. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. For example.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. Ваша (f).goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .your Их .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . Это мой дом . the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual. you may wish to say her name is Anna.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . Ваши (pl) .

For example.Masculine Nouns: 1. (This is like using 's in English). 3. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Replace “й”. If the noun ends in a consonant.Adam's dog.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). 2. add “я”. in Russian.Anna's car. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". pay particular attention to the order of the words. with “я”. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “е” with “я” For example.ownership As you can see in the above example. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. However. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. Собака Адама .Adam's brother loves Moscow. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. Let's have a look at some more examples.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. Anna's) Дом Ивана . 2. Брат Адама любит Москву . Сестра Анны читает газету . Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. the object that is owned always comes first. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “ы”. Replace “о” with “а” 2. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the .Igor's telephone. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . Replace “ь” with “и”. add “а”. Replace “я” with “и”. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Replace “ь”. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. Using the genitive case . 3. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples.

Нас.She has a dog.I have book. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .A map of the city. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained.sentence and uses the nominative case. This is exactly the same concept as above. Молока нет . план города . To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). Ивана нет . Его нет дома .of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English.. Generally.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . Using the genitive case . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. Его. Here are some examples. Вас. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. У вас есть кофе? . When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here.There is no coffee. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . Их) Using the genitive case . У меня есть книга .There is no milk.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .‟. Еѐ. Тебя. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. (Меня. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case.Ivan isn't here. Кофе нет .A glass of milk..Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . As we have seen in a previous lesson. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. Чая нет .There is no tea. Here are some examples. У нее есть собака.He is not home.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .to have As the genitive case relates to possession. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . . “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. стакан молока .there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning.

you make a plural by using the letters "и". depending on whether the object is animate or not. The genitive case is used after most numbers. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. . Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. Ч.numbers. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. "я" or "а". but don‟t worry. plurals.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. quantaties. Ш.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . Х. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. The Nominative Case .Plural (Subject) In Russian.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt.Using the genitive case . add “ы”.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . Ж. К. "ы". For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. for example "10 roubles". Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. in the nominative case. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) .

Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”.марок. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. Книги на столе . Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.The books are on the table. Ok.газет (newspapers') здание .The Genitive Case . девушка .ч. let‟s see how to use them. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals.англичанок. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. or whether you are just using general plurals. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.щ. .зданий (buildings') General use of plurals.Anna loves books.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. This may feel a little strange at first.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. but in Russian we use it for all numbers. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. (марка . but in the plural form.студентов (students') газета . Here are some examples. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. Анна любит книги .девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент .ш. англичанка . These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).

ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. The number one declines like an adjective.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.21 roubles один доллар .9. 3 or 4. 13 & 14).one hundred roubles сто долларов .seven newspapers восемь зданий . then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. To help you get used to this concept.four students три газеты . Here are some examples. одна девушка .Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.eight buildings девять собак . (example: girl Я знаю одну девушку . 4) (but not 12. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.. dollar Numbers ending in : 2. Here are some examples.three roubles четыре рубля .ten roubles сто рублей .one hundred dollars шесть книг . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. etc) пять рублей .six books семь газет .8.five roubles десять рублей . or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: rouble двадцать один рубль . try using plurals that involve money.0. 12.6. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. три рубля .four roubles две книги .I know one girl один рубль .four dollars четыре студента .three dogs четыре доллара .7.two books три собаки . 61) (but not 11). You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. 14.3. .nine dogs десять студентов . or the last digit of the number is 2. then you should use the genitive singular case. 103.4 If the number. 21. 42.

Как еѐ зовут? .3.Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.) Quantity not specified ... Much like “Мне холодно” .My name is Vera. Мне восемнадцать лет ..Genitive Plural General Quantity .. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.-надцать .Nikolay (Коля) Борис .As per position in the sentence.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . .7. (Lit: To me there are 16 years). Вова) . Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. Quantity ends in 1 .0.How old are you.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).6. Quantity ends in 2.Genitive Singular.What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. Как вас зовут? .Boris Владимир .I am 23 years old. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .Vladimir (Володя.So in summary.Her name is Alyona. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? . Here are some other common Russian names for men.8. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна . Как его зовут? .4 .the dative case. Quantity ends in 5. Николай .His name is Boris.What is his name? Его зовут Борис .9.

Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . You should be able to remember all of these. Шура) Дмитрий .Olga (Оля) Александра .Pyotr.Hello Привет . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Sergey Алексей . Some of these may be new.Andrey Александр . This is like a pet name.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .good afternoon Добрый вечер .and а .good evening Спокойной ночи .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women. here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. Андрей .Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Oxana Екатерина .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .Yekaterina Анастасия . but try to learn them all. or tender form. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и . Peter.Yelena (Лена) Наталья .good morning Добрый день . Спасибо .Thank-You Пожалуйста .Alexander (Саша.Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .and/but (contrasting) .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана . Здравствуйте .Пѐтр . Елена .Natalya (Наташа) Мария . The diminuative is a more personal.goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you. (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons. and should only be used when you are in close firendship. There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.

Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. Скажите. onto.но . in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. We will use only common words.I want tea please. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. from от .There is no coffee. Что вы хотите? . .him. . .What do you want? Я хочу чай.out of. Дайте.you (informal) вы . it еѐ . so you should try to learn them all. .My mum loves music.Do you have tea? Чая нет. пожалуйста. to за .but или .There is no tea. In Russian we would use the word "а". об . coffee with milk and with sugar. У вас есть водка? .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences.near. behind (+instrumental) из . Он любит говорить по-английски. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".her.for (+accusative). где туалет? . (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.about к . кофе с молоком и с сахаром. to (+accusative) о. У вас есть чай? . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.he.".along. .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . it их . пожалуйста. пожалуйста. at (+prepositional).Tell me please.towards. .in (+prepositional).on. . во . You might also find some new words in these sentences.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .Give me please.with у .I know that you speak Russian. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . For (formal/plural) его . я-I он . что ты говоришь по-русски.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. it ты . to (+accusative) на . .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .from по .

.21 roubles.What? Как? . Я очень люблю Москву .Where is the cafe? Кто он? .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. Моя сестра читает газету . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .4 roubles.Who is he? Я читаю журнал .Do you understand? Я знаю. Он хорошо говорит по-русски. Моя мама любит музыку . Собака не говорит по-английски.I am listening to music.I live in London.I don't understand.My sister is reading a newspaper.Твой брат говорит по-русски? .Yes.I really love Moscow.How much? четыре доллара .Does your borther speak Russian? Да.My Mum loves music.Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .I understand. Брат Адама любит Москву . Почему ты не понимаешь? .I know that you understand.4 dollars. сколько стоит? . что вы понимаете. что ты понимаешь.I am studying the Russian language. . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . Я изучаю русский язык .The dog doesn't speak English.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.I am reading a magazine.How much? сто рублей .How? Когда? .What do you think? Где он? .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. Я думаю.How much? четыре рубля .When? Почему? . .Where is he? Где кафе? . Я очень люблю спорт . сколько стоит? . Ты понимаешь? . Я слушаю музыку .Adam's brother loves Moscow. .Where? Кто? .Why? Что ты знаешь? .He is not home. сколько стоит? . .I think that you understand. Где? . He speaks Russian well. Он едет домой . Его нет дома . Сестра Анны читает газету .He is going home.I really love sport.100 roubles. сколько стоит? .Who? Что? . . . Я не понимаю.What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .How much? двадцать один рубль .

It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. Feminine Nouns: (informal). add “у”.Адаму Елена . Neuter Nouns: 1. 1. Replace “а” with “е”.them. Ему (n).us. 2.Молоку Вино .. Мне . To create nouns in the dative Masculine Nouns: 1.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Им . add "ам". If the noun ends in a consonant. .you (formal. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form.Елене Молоко . "о" or a consonant with "ам". Replace “ь”. Replace “я” with “е”. Replace “ь” with “и”. 4. or plural). 2.Forming the dative case. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. add “ю”.him. Replace “о” with “у” 2. 3. Replace “й”. Нам .. her. Вам . it. Ей (f) . 2. Ему (m). 3. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. If the noun ends in a consonant. Тебе . 3. with “ю”. Replace “ия” with “ии”. Replace "а". Адам .

(we) give Даѐте .Give me your address and telephone number. Дайте мне .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something.(they) give The command forms of this word include. the word “Anna” is the indirect object.(you) give Дают .They give flowers to Elena. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. Я помогаю этой девушке .give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. . Я помогаю Ивану .I am helping Ivan. Они дают цветы Елене . Most of these involve giving something or communicating something.I am helping Anna. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . It should be used in the dative case. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . Here are the conjuctions: Даю . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object.Ivan gives flowers to Anna.We help mother every day. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона.give! Дайте .(you) give Даѐт .. Дай .. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. Мы помогаем маме каждый день .(he) gives Даѐм ..(I) give Даѐшь ..I am helping this girl. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”.. . Similarly. For this help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне . In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.Give me .I give flowers to Anna.. Я даю цветы Анне .

. Мне нравится Москва .I like Moscow. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.How do you like .Ivan calls Anna every day.I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . it is still worth learning these examples. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson..) Ему нравится Москва . This is verb is also a reflexive verb.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . However it is a common word.) Ей нравится Москва . It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.You like call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . However this verb is used differently.? Как вам нравится фильм? . Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. (lit: children are pleasing to me.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .Adam likes Moscow. so it is worth learning now.Звонить .I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . Мне очень нравятся цветы . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.She calls Ivan every day.? . Адаму нравится Москва . Мне нравятся цветы . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. Как вам нравится .She likes Moscow. Мне холодно .) Practice using the word нравится. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like)..I like the children. (The "ся" ending is reflexive).I like the flowers.I like your children.He is cold (to him its cold) . Вам нравится Москва . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. Иван звонит Анне каждый день . Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case..I really like the flowers. so it is enough for now just to learn this form. it is like saying “To me it is likable”. and it relies on the dative case.He likes Moscow.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети .

Although the use of this proposition is too varied.I am walking towards the station.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . if stressed “ѐм”.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . It is followed by the dative case. and has too many meanings. add “ом”. if stressed “ѐм”. “ш” or “щ”. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case.Ей холодно .We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . Replace “ь”. 2. Replace “й”. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). with “ем”. add “ем”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . Мы едем к друзьям ..We are going to our friends. Except. 4. All consonants.I am 23 years old.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. then add “ем”. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. to create an exact rule. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. . “ц”. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". “ч”.. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.

4. “ч”.ножом (knife) муж . The preposition: „с‟ .молоком (milk) сметана . In English these words can have different meanings.женой (wife) Иван . Replace “я” with “ей”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Accompanied by.I eat soup with a spoon.карандашом (pencil) ложка . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Replace "а". “ц”.Ivan writes with a pencil.Анной (Anna) студенты . Replace “ь” with “ью”. 3. 2. "о" with "ами". replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.мужем (husband) жена . 1. Neuter Nouns: 1.. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.With...Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. 2. Олег режет мясо ножом .Feminine Nouns: 1. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . .ложкой (spoon) нож . Examples. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Replace “а” with “ой”. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. add "ами". Иван пишет карандашом . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. “ш” or “щ”. All consonants. if stressed “ѐй”..Иваном (Ivan) Анна . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Except. Я ем суп ложкой .

but Russian generally uses “с” (with). It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.Ivan wants tea with milk. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Here are some examples. 2. . Иван хочет чай с молоком .Ivan and I are going to school.My wife and I are going to the cafe. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. Мной .My husband and I are going to the cafe. In English we would use the word “and”. „with him‟. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.For ease of pronunciation. .Me Тобой . кофе с молоком . Pronouns . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.You Им .Me and you Notes: 1.Her . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. . „with you‟. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Мы с вами . Иван с женой идут в кафе. . Дайте.Please give me coffee with milk. it is often written as “со”.Him Ей . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . пожалуйста. with Ivan”). Анна с мужем идут в кафе.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.I eat borsh with sour cream.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.Nadya wants tea with lemon. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. пожалуйста. However it is followed by the genitive case. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .

at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .summer летом .in the evening ночь .in summer осень . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.Us Вами . For example: лето .It Нами .evening вечером .winter зимой .Им . .Them Seasons and parts of the day. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.in winter весна .autumn осенью the morning день .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.morning утром .in autumn зима .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .spring весной .You (plural) Ими . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. afternoon днѐм .in the afternoon вечер .night ночью .

to be interested in оказываться . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. enjoy становиться/стать . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . is. manage.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.In front of this school turn to the left. be The verb “Быть” (to be. be keen on управлять . was) has no present be engaged in.above перед . (Example: Я был врачом . .to use. You will learn more about this in a later lesson.control.behind. . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. for между . but it is something to keep in mind.за .between над .to turn out to be оставаться . You don't need to learn these verbs remain as пользоваться .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.I was a doctor). However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.The lamp is above the seem. быть .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. govern являться .under Examples: За этим зданием . Под столом сидит кот. was заниматься .in front of под . . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . . beyond.Under the table the cat is sitting. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. . Перед этой школой поверните налево. to be occupied with интересоваться . Над столом висит лампа.школа.to become увлекаться .Happy birthday С новым годом .Behind this building there is a be.

add “ем”.I eat soup with a spoon. with “ем”. then add “ем”. Я ем суп ложкой . Neuter Nouns: 1. “ш” or “щ”. if stressed “ѐм”. 3. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. . “ш” or “щ”.Анной (Anna) студенты .ложкой (spoon) нож . 2.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Replace "а". Replace “й”.. if stressed “ѐй”.Ivan writes with a pencil.. Replace “а” with “ой”.ножом (knife) муж . 1. 4.карандашом (pencil) ложка . add "ами". In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Replace “ь”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Examples.Masculine Nouns: 1.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. "о" with "ами". All consonants. if stressed “ѐм”.. Иван пишет карандашом .женой (wife) Иван . If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. Replace “я” with “ей”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Олег режет мясо ножом . 2.молоком (milk) сметана . Except. add “ом”.. “ч”. Except. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . “ц”..мужем (husband) жена . 2. All consonants. Feminine Nouns: 1. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. “ч”. 4. In English these words can have different meanings.. “ц”. Replace “ь” with “ью”.

Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. it is often written as “со”. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Accompanied by. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.Please give me coffee with milk. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Here are some examples. with Ivan”). . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Ivan and I are going to school. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Иван с Анной идут в кафе.With. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. For ease of pronunciation.Nadya wants tea with lemon. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. However it is followed by the genitive case. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .My wife and I are going to the cafe.My husband and I are going to the cafe. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. 2.I eat borsh with sour cream. Мы с вами . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.The preposition: „с‟ . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. In English we would use the word “and”. Иван с женой идут в кафе. . кофе с молоком .Instrumental Case . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Дайте. пожалуйста.Me and you Notes: 1. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. . Pronouns . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Ivan wants tea with milk. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. пожалуйста.

morning утром . „with him‟.Him Ей .You Им .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental „with you‟. Мной .winter зимой .in autumn зима .autumn осенью .in summer осень .in the morning день . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.summer летом . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.Us Вами .Me Тобой . afternoon днѐм .in winter весна . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.Them Seasons and parts of the day.evening вечером .night ночью .spring весной . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . For example: лето .in the afternoon вечер .Her Им .at night .in the evening ночь .It Нами .You (plural) Ими .

to turn out to be оставаться . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.The lamp is above the table. .to be keen on управлять . to be occupied with интересоваться . but it is something to keep in mind. . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.above перед . быть .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. Над столом висит лампа. . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.Behind this building there is a school.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . beyond. manage. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .Happy birthday С новым годом . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. was заниматься . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. is. за . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. .школа. Под столом сидит кот. You will learn more about this in a later lesson.Under the table the cat is sitting. .to be engaged in.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .In the evening I eat borsh with sour remain as пользоваться . be The verb “Быть” (to be. (Example: Я был врачом .to be interested in оказываться . for между . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. govern являться .control.In front of this school turn to the left.behind.under Examples: За этим зданием . was) has no present tense.between над .to front of под .to seem.I was a doctor). You don't need to learn these verbs now. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. Перед этой школой поверните налево. enjoy становиться/стать . .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. become увлекаться .to use.

Vladimir knew Дима знал . You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).We knew Я знал .Elena knew Ольга знала . Although this concept differs from English. it is conceptually quite easy. 2nd or 3rd person).. or talk about something that has happened in the past.They knew Мы знали .You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story. Forming Verbs in Past Tense. The same principal also applies in the future tense.She knew Оно знало . Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not.It knew Они знали . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. Он знал ..I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. but in Russian there is simply one.Dima knew Елена знала .Olga knew Собака знала .I knew (male speaking) Я знала . (ie 1st. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. Let's have a look at the past tense now.The dog knew .. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.He knew Она знала . Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.

Ты. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. habitual. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective.I worked everyday. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time.I worked for 2 hours. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated.I was home. By definition something in the present tense is happening now.She wants to buy a book. Я работал . Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. reversed or repeated actions. consequently each verb has two possible forms. (often По-). The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. There are two aspects in Russian. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses.I run in the forest every day. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. ongoing. . use the imperfective also. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. The Imperfective Aspect. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. . and is not complete. Some tenses in English can indicate this. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. When using pronouns such as Я. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу.I was working Я шѐл . Я работал каждый день . Я работал два часа . so there is no perfective in the present tense. . If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома .

.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .He did not want to see me.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. . Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. Он не хотел видеть меня. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. . Я не понял. (but I was expected to). . Саша съел обед за пять минут.Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.She did not eat bananas. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.I did not understand what he said. . . .Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . Я не жила в Англии.Did you tell him about it? . . If you are still unsure which to use.Yesterday we read an interesting article. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.I failed to phone. .Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . Questions and Aspects. Я купил кофе . Она спросила учителя. . что он сказал.I did not live in England. . Perfective: Я не позвонила .I went home.We did not watch the movie yesterday. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened.

Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.He was Она была . Я был .I‟ve already visited Sweden. . .I was (woman speaking) Он был .I was not (man speaking).We rented a summer house for three months.At school I started learning English. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be).He read for three hours. This is not the case in the past tense. Я окончила школу. Оно не было .It was Они были . and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.I was (man speaking) Я была .I‟ve been to many countries.They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.I was not (woman speaking). . когда мне было 16 лет . Я не была . . Я была во многих странах.It was not. Я уже посетила Швецию .She was Оно было . The stress moves to the word 'не'. . Он читал три часа. Они не были . Я не был . except in the feminine. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. В школе я начала учить английский. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.They were not.I finished school when I was 16 years old.

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