Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)

Хорошо(Good)

Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

двадцать три 24 .двести 300 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.шестьсот 700 . 30 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. (You will need to drop the soft sign.девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see. Here are some examples: 20 .двенадцать 13 .пятьсот 600 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".шестьдесят 70 .одиннадцать 12 .тридцать 40 . quite similar to English. Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.тринадцать 14 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.сорок 50 .двадцать один 22 .семьсот 800 .семнадцать 18 .семьдесят 80 .четырнадцать 15 .восемнадцать 19 .девятьсот .четыреста 500 .11 .двадцать 21 .восемьсот 900 .двадцать два 23 .пятнадцать 16 .восемьдесят 90 .пятьдесят 60 .девяносто 100 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles. (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).шестнадцать 17 .сто 200 .триста 400 .

тысяча 1. You should always say this after someone thanks you.миллиард For example: 131 .000 .007 2.994 1. 0 .сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.564 2.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". after somebody says thank-you.1. 456 219 9.000.000 .008 2. Да ("da") .000 . you can basically forget the "уй".Yes Нет ("nyet") . Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") . .345 23. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. Yes and No.000.812 Please and Thank-You.000. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.миллион 1.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.000 1.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") . Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".No Saying Hello. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.

What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . If somebody says Привет to you.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . You may also hear people say Пока. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.. except for the question mark. There are two forms of this word. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.. However. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") ..Pleased to meet you. There are also two words for saying good-bye. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . If all else fails. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") .How are things? Хорошо спасибо . Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") .Bye (Informal. put a real questioning expression on your face.. Вы говорите по-английски? . Привет is also commonly used with friends. You should just learn the whole phrase.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. you may need the following phrases.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . there is no difference between the question and the statement. ("min-ya za-voot") . slang) You should generally use до свидания. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. Introducing Yourself. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". and should only be used with friends. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . Меня зовут .Good-bye. In order to introduce yourself. not the individual words.My name is .Bad Saying Good-Bye. but we suggest you only use it with friends.

Скажите.Vodka Пиво .Lemonade Сок ..Beer Вино . пожалуйста. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.Soup Торт ..Water .Coffee Чай .Tell me please.Menu Кофе . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia. where is a cafe? Скажите.Juice Борщ .I speak English Я говорю по-русски ...Milk Кока-Кола .Wine Вода . . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . где бар? .Tell me please. пожалуйста.. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Russian beetroot soup Суп .I understand Я не понимаю .Я говорю по-английски . где кафе? .Tea Молоко . It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is. где ближайшее кафе? .Coca-Cola Лимонад . пожалуйста.Tell me please.Cake Водка . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. Скажите..I speak Russian Я понимаю .Tell me please. пожалуйста. Скажите. You could ask people with the following phrases.

. you can use the following phrase. пожалуйста.Please give me coffee with milk.. это чай.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .Do you have . . .How much is it?. Что это? ... it is gramatically unusual). пожалуйста.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .. when you order vodka in russia...Please give me coffee.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. you will generally get straight vodka..It is coffee. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . это кофе. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are.Give me please.I want. You can use it to ask the price of something. Дайте.? ...Be careful..What is it? Это кофе. кофе . (Just learn the whole phrase. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Excuse me. Сколько стоит? . ..What do you want? Я хочу . .. . Here are some Russian phrases you might need.What? Что вы хотите? . How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian.. кофе с молоком .. Дайте. У вас есть . is it coffee? Нет. Простите. . пожалуйста.No. Examples: Дайте..Please give me tea.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. Do you have.? If you want to ask someone if they have something.. пожалуйста .. .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .. it is tea. Дайте. чай. Дайте. пожалуйста.

and the object is "him"..How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . she. It (m) Она ." на английском? . Pronouns are words that can replace names.It (n) Мы ...How do you say "..You (formal.. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. they are things you can do.She.What does ".." mean in English? Where is the toilet..21 rubles. walk. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M"... him.Сколько? .We Вы ..You (informal) Он . Как сказать "." in Russian? Что значит ".Tell me please. Скажите. Где Туалет . For example: I. For example: run.. you. Here are some useful phrases.? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.He. Definitions Verbs are action words. eat.. It (f) Оно . In the sentence "I love him". or plural) . love." по-русски? . her.. Пожалуйста . The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .) Я-I Ты . Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence. "love" is the verb.. he. want. (Known as the nominative case. it. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”... The subject is "I".

Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). Just remember that unlike English. (Example: I work. "ет". or plural) Их .To understand. "ем". dictionary form) . It (m.To work. and the second conjugation. and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person.Him. You should memorise these pronouns. Мы работаем .Они . "I am working" and "I do work".You work Он. he works). To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". "ешь".Us Вас .Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. (There are also some irregular verbs). Она. (Known as the accusative case) Меня .You work. It works. and once you get the hang of it.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you".You (informal) Его . dictionary form) Я работаю . (infinitive.We work Вы работаете .You (formal.I work Ты работаешь . but not as much. Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. Both these patterns are quite similar.("yevo") . This happens a little in English.He. Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. (infinitive. работать .Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). It (f) Нас . and add the appropriate ending ("ю".Her.Me Тебя . She. "ете" or "ют").n) Еѐ . Они работают . it is not too difficult. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . It is the most common.They work. Оно работает .

He doesn't understand. Мы знаем .To speak. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. For example: Я не знаю . It understands Мы понимаем . (infinitive. Ты знаешь . dictionary form) Я знаю . Она. There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Он.He. Он. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). Они знают .I don't understand. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . говорить .Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation.I know. Я не понимаю . (infinitive. Вы знаете .You know. It knows.You understand.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? .You speak. Оно говорит .You understand. It Speaks. She. Она.You know.I don't know. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. Она.We speak.They understand.To know. which replace "ить". She. Он не понимает .We know. She.I speak. Ты понимаешь .We understand.I understand. Он. Оно понимает . Мы говорим . dictionary form) Я говорю .They know. Знать . . this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). Они понимают . Ты говоришь . Remember.He.Я понимаю . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.He. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). Оно знает . Вы понимаете .

слышишь . Она. Она. Вы едете . Мы едем . Вы живѐте . She.He. слышит . . Some examples: Ехать .We go (by transport).You live.To go (by transport). Жить . It hears.The dog doesn't speak English. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Мы живѐм .He. слышать .To hear. It lives. Я живу . слышим .We don't speak Russian. слышите .They go (by transport). Он. Ты едешь . Они едут .They live. Они говорят .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).I go (by transport).He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? .We hear. Собака не говорит по-английски . However. Я еду .You go (by transport). She.I live. For Example: Я говорю по-английски . you can often predict the endings.We live.They hear. except that "у" replaces "ю".Вы говорите . often once you know the stem of the verb.He. Они живут .You hear.You hear. She. It goes (by transport). Ты живѐшь . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. слышат . Оно живѐт .You speak.You live.I speak English Он говорит по-русски .I hear. слышу .They speak. Он.To live. Оно едет .You go (by transport).

Ё. Cases .(Daddy.U in English). Е. cup. In the case of other objects like “pen”. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . or “й”. Consonant .A noun is a thing. Папа .I. Example: dog. There are very few exceptions to these rules.Is Masculine Дядя . the word is masculine. Ю. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. Он едет домой . as with many other languages. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. Luckily.I live in London. 4. Papa) . Э. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. paper.Is Masculine .(Man) . И and Й. “house”. In Russian we use 6 cases. Russian has three genders: masculine. Moscow. From the dictionary form of a noun. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. Ы. 3. pen. (Except ь. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. it will be in its dictionary form. ъ because they have no sound). Я.E. (A. 5. cat. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence.(Coffee) .O. and neuter (neutral). If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. name or place. The letters А. In Russian. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.(Grandfather) .He is going home Definitions Noun . But there are five notable exceptions.Is Masculine Дедушка . Vowel . If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. unlike many languages. У. “cup”. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. О.A letter that is not a vowel. Gender of nouns. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. each noun is assigned a gender. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. If it is a consonant.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract.(Uncle) .Is Masculine Кофе . this occurs mainly because of physical gender. feminine.Is Masculine Мужчина .

In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟.. Хлеб (bread). and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership.. Greek and German. Feminine : газета (newspaper).Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). so we will take it slowly. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. In fact it was also used in Old English. For example. документ (document). In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. (In. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. . Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. and about. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. Россия (Russia). (Eg. In Russian there are six cases. радио (radio). Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. on.. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. at.. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. and still keep the same meaning. брат (brother). Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence.

especially pronouns. the word “I” is the subject. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. add “ы”. In Russian. The Nominative Case. For example. “я” or “а”. without changing the actual meaning. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural.Interestingly. not plants). in the nominative case. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. so there is nothing special to learn here. in this case the word “dog”. you need to use the accusative case also. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. . The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building .buildings) The Accusative Case. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. “ы”. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. Russian is very free about word order. Russian uses the case for all nouns. In the sentence “I love her”. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. However.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper .

Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . Neuter Nouns: 1. Я люблю музыку . If noun is animate. . Replace “а” with “у”. 4. add “я”. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. If noun is animate.Ivan loves tea. add “а”. Надя не любит вино . Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. with “я”.I don't like music. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Feminine Nouns: 1. replace “ь”. Ты любишь музыку? .He loves Moscow.Nadya doesn't like wine. Надя любит вино .I love music. Он любит Москву . 2. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant.Nadya loves wine. Иван любит чай . Replace “я” with “ю”.I love Moscow. there is no change. 3.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву .Masculine Nouns: 1. 2. Я не люблю музыку . If the noun in inanimate.I love sport. replace “й”.

Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .to study Думать . If you would like.to read. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .I am reading a magazine. Я еѐ люблю .I love her.I am listening to the radio. You can use it to form questions.to listen Изучать . Она любит меня . Читать ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . . Что ты любишь? .to work Хотеть . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. Я читаю газету . . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. The word "Что" has two uses. что ты любишь музыку.I am reading a book. it is probably the conjunction "that".to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор . Я слушаю радио . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.to watch. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.I am watching television.I love you.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". so don't be confused. Я читаю журнал .What do you love? However.I love him. Смотреть . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. Я слушаю музыку .I know that you love music. An example could be: Я знаю. Слушать .to think Работать .I am listening to music.

I think so! Как вы думаете? . Я хочу купить журнал .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".Where? Кто? . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.I want tea. You can include it into many phrases.I study Russian. Где? . (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .What? Как? .very. Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". For example: Очень .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .How? Почему? .I want to buy a magazine. Я люблю путешествовать .I really love Moscow.I love to travel.Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. Я очень люблю Москву . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.Who? Что? .I really love sport.I love to read. For example: Я люблю читать . Я так думаю .Я изучаю русский язык . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. Add : “е”. (lit: I study the Russian language). 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . Что вы хотите? .

Replace “я” with “е”. (Eg.in the forest на улице . Replace “а” with “е”.at the post office в саду . Petersburg. (Eg. Replace “о” with “е” 2. Я живу в Лондоне . suburbs and places. Я живу в Сибири . 2. Here are some tips to help you.I live in London. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . Replace “ь” with “и”. Я живу в Петербурге . 4. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .I live in St. although these aren‟t precise rules. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . As with any language. Exception: Replace “ия”. even though they are not Russian.Where is she? на вокзале . As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities.I live in Siberia.at the station на почте . when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places.Feminine Nouns: 1. (They are in dicionary form) кино . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English.cinema театр .in the garden в лесу .On the table is a book and a pencil.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . “е” remains unchanged. „at a concert‟). 3.on the street Что на столе? . „at work‟. Using prepositions and the prepositional case.I live in Moscow. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1.theatre . „at a station‟.

there are actually four ways: .Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .school библиотека . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).Straight ahead. налево . Both these words are verbs of motion.Straight ahead then to the right. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. Куда вы идѐте .cafe площадь .restaurant банк .Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .hotel музей .museum больница . but as these words are so important for basic Russian. prepositions have more than one meaning. However.I work at (in) a school. and are grammatically quite complex. The first indicates you are going on foot. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.аптека . So to express „to go‟ in Russian.bank гостиница . Где вы работаете? . направо .stadium школа .To the left.square ресторан . When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). you would use the accusative case. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. your answer will involve the prepositional case.I am going to school. you can tell this by the case. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.pharmacy парк . прямо потом направо .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. прямо .library кафе . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs.To the right.park стадион . Here are some examples for you to compare. we will introduce them now in a simple way.

I am going to the university Ходить .I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .To go by transport. Я иду в кино . Ты идѐшь в кино? . я иду в университет . Вы ходите. (Я иду. Ты ходишь. Он ездит .He is going to London Ездить . (Я хожу. in one direction. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .I am going to school.To go by transport. Мы идѐм в кафе .He is going to the hotel. Ты едешь.To go on foot.We are going to the cafe. Вы едете. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Они идут) Я иду в школу . (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Мы идѐм. (Я еду. Вы идѐте.I go to the theatre every day. Ехать .I am going to the cinema. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Они часто ездят в Амстердам .I go to school. Мы едем в кафе . or repetitively.We are going to the cafe. Мы ходим.To go on foot. Он идѐт.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . in more than one direction. Он едет. in more than one direction.I am going to the cinema on the metro. Вы ездите. in one direction. Ты ездишь .We go to the cafe every day.I am going to school.Идти .He is going to the hotel by taxi. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Я часто хожу в кино . Мы ездим. Мы едем. Они едут ) Я еду в школу . or repetitively (Я езжу. Ты идѐшь.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день .They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Он ходит.

Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10. У меня есть брат . У тебя есть дети? . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.Do you have children?. Мои (pl) . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.sister Брат .I have a son and a daughter.children Внучка . У меня есть сестра . Мой (m).I don't have any children. Твоя (f). in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.brother Дочь .my Твой (m).grandson Семья .wife Муж .I have a brother.grandmother Дедушка . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. Наши (pl) .mum Папа . Наше (n).our .grandfather Жена . У меня нет детей . Твоѐ (n).I have a sister.your Его (m n) ("yevo"). For example we use the words mum and dad.granddaughter Внук .uncle Родители .father Мама . her Наш (m). Твои (pl) . Моя (f).mother Отец .dad Сестра . Наша (f). Моѐ (n).son бабушка .parents Дети . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.husband Тѐтя .family Just like English. У меня есть сын и дочь . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.Мать .daughter Сын .auntie Дядя . Еѐ (f) .his.

Моя мама любит музыку .My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету . However.Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. For example.her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . Доброе утро . Ваши (pl) .. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. The Russian word Это means 'this is'. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case . you may wish to say her name is Anna.your Их . This is.his name is Ivan. Это мой дом . Ваша (f).good afternoon Добрый вечер . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт . Ваше (n).My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .good evening Спокойной ночи . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.Ваш (m).This is my house Это моя квартира .. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .good morning Добрый день .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.

3.Masculine Nouns: 1.Anna's car. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). However. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . Let's have a look at some more examples. Replace “а” with “ы”. in Russian. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. 2. Anna's) Дом Ивана . For example. Replace “ь”. Replace “й”. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . Using the genitive case . The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. 3.Igor's telephone. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples.Adam's brother loves Moscow.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “о” with “а” 2. (This is like using 's in English). In the phrase "Дом Ивана". Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. 2. the object that is owned always comes first. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan.ownership As you can see in the above example. Replace “ь” with “и”. add “а”. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . add “я”. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. pay particular attention to the order of the words. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Сестра Анны читает газету . some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Брат Адама любит Москву . Feminine Nouns: 1. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. If the noun ends in a consonant. Replace “е” with “я” For example. Собака Адама . Replace “я” with “и”.Adam's dog. with “я”. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns.

of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟.There is no coffee. Тебя. Here are some examples. Кофе нет . (coffee is an indeclinable noun) .Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . план города . The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. As we have seen in a previous lesson. Еѐ. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . (Меня. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.A map of the city. Нас.sentence and uses the nominative case. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case.‟. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . У вас есть кофе? .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Here are some examples.Ivan isn't here. This is exactly the same concept as above. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.to have As the genitive case relates to possession.. Чая нет . Его. У меня есть книга .There is no milk.He is not home.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. it is just easier to learn the concept by example.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Вас. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.She has a dog.. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. . У нее есть собака. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. Их) Using the genitive case . Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.I have book. Generally.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . Его нет дома .A glass of milk. стакан молока . Молока нет .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. Ивана нет . Using the genitive case .There is no tea.

plurals. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. but don‟t worry. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. The Nominative Case . depending on whether the object is animate or not.Plural (Subject) In Russian. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. in the nominative case. . К. Х. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . you make a plural by using the letters "и". Ж. Ч. "я" or "а". Ш. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. add “ы”. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. quantaties. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) .Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . "ы". for example "10 roubles". The genitive case is used after most numbers.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) .numbers.Using the genitive case . First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt.

In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.студентов (students') газета . or whether you are just using general plurals. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. but in Russian we use it for all numbers. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. .зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. (марка .The Genitive Case . Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.щ. Here are some examples. Ok. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).The books are on the table. let‟s see how to use them. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. девушка . англичанка . but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money.англичанок. Книги на столе .Anna loves books.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й.газет (newspapers') здание . This may feel a little strange at first.ш. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.марок. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language.ч. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . but in the plural form. Анна любит книги .

one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.one girl Я знаю одну девушку . etc) пять рублей .two books три собаки .nine dogs десять студентов . or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1. 13 & 14).one hundred dollars шесть книг .3.I know one girl один рубль . All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.four roubles две книги . then you should use the genitive singular case.seven newspapers восемь зданий .8.six books семь газет . одна девушка . Here are some examples.21 roubles один доллар . try using plurals that involve money. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. 42.three dogs четыре доллара .9.one hundred roubles сто долларов ..6. три рубля . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.three roubles четыре рубля . 21. 103. 3 or 4. or the last digit of the number is 2. The number one declines like an adjective. 4) (but not 12.7. 14.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. To help you get used to this concept.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.four dollars четыре студента .five roubles десять рублей .4 If the number.one rouble двадцать один рубль .four students три газеты . . Here are some examples. 61) (but not 11).0. 12. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural. (example: 22.ten roubles сто рублей .eight buildings девять собак . 13.

. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .So in summary.Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.7.How old are you.Vladimir (Володя.Boris Владимир ..Genitive Plural General Quantity .4 .My name is Vera. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Вова) .“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).His name is Boris. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.Genitive Singular.. Как вас зовут? .What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна . Quantity ends in 2.What is his name? Его зовут Борис . Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something. Николай .) Quantity not specified . Here are some other common Russian names for men.As per position in the sentence.-надцать .8.. .Her name is Alyona. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns. Quantity ends in 1 .3.0. Much like “Мне холодно” .I am 23 years old. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).9. Quantity ends in 5. Мне восемнадцать лет . Как его зовут? .6.the dative case.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .Nikolay (Коля) Борис . Как еѐ зовут? .

Oxana Екатерина .Pyotr. Здравствуйте .Alexander (Саша.Yekaterina Анастасия . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').Natalya (Наташа) Мария .Hello Привет .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. Спасибо . Шура) Дмитрий . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .good afternoon Добрый вечер .Thank-You Пожалуйста .good morning Добрый день .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Пѐтр . Андрей .good evening Спокойной ночи .Andrey Александр .and/but (contrasting) .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you. and should only be used when you are in close firendship. Peter.and а .Yelena (Лена) Наталья .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Sergey Алексей .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. Елена . The diminuative is a more personal. but try to learn them all.Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used. This is like a pet name.Mariya (Маша) Ольга . You should be able to remember all of these. Some of these may be new.Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Olga (Оля) Александра .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons. or tender form.

with у . . У вас есть водка? .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. кофе с молоком и с сахаром. где туалет? . . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.in (+prepositional).but или . У вас есть чай? .". at (+prepositional).out of. Скажите.on. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns. We will use only common words. во . it еѐ . я-I он . In Russian we would use the word "а".Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. For example. to (+accusative) на . from от .you (formal/plural) его . что ты говоришь по-русски.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". об . in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. You might also find some new words in these sentences. .There is no tea.Do you have tea? Чая нет. пожалуйста. Дайте. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. behind (+instrumental) из .What do you want? Я хочу чай.for (+accusative).him.Give me please.about к .но . These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .along.My mum loves music. пожалуйста. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".her.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .from по .I want tea please. it ты .Tell me please.I know that you speak Russian. to за .towards.near.There is no coffee. пожалуйста. Он любит говорить по-английски. .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences.you (informal) вы . . it их . so you should try to learn them all. coffee with milk and with sugar. . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Что вы хотите? . . to (+accusative) о. onto.he.

Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.I really love sport.21 roubles. Моя сестра читает газету .Твой брат говорит по-русски? .I am studying the Russian language. . Я изучаю русский язык .He is going home. Я очень люблю спорт . Брат Адама любит Москву . Почему ты не понимаешь? . Он хорошо говорит по-русски.My Mum loves music.My sister is reading a newspaper.How much? двадцать один рубль .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .How? Когда? . . Ты понимаешь? . сколько стоит? .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. Я не понимаю.I think that you understand. Я очень люблю Москву .How much? четыре рубля .I am listening to music.The dog doesn't speak English. Где? .How much? сто рублей . что ты понимаешь. Его нет дома .100 roubles.He is not home.4 roubles. .Adam's brother loves Moscow. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .Who? Что? . Сестра Анны читает газету .Yes.What do you think? Где он? .I don't understand.I really love Moscow.Where? Кто? . сколько стоит? . He speaks Russian well.How much? четыре доллара .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. .Does your borther speak Russian? Да.Where is he? Где кафе? . Я думаю.What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . что вы понимаете. .Do you understand? Я знаю.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .I understand.I know that you understand.I live in London. Моя мама любит музыку . . Я слушаю музыку .What? Как? .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .I am reading a magazine.4 dollars. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . сколько стоит? . Он едет домой . . сколько стоит? .Why? Что ты знаешь? . Собака не говорит по-английски.When? Почему? .

Им . 3. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.him.Адаму Елена .Елене Молоко .you (formal.Молоку Вино . or plural). Адам . 2. Replace “а” with “е”. 2. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. If the noun ends in a consonant. Neuter Nouns: 1.me. add "ам". 4. Masculine Nouns: 1.. "о" or a consonant with "ам". Мне . Replace "а". Ему (n). Replace “й”. 3. with “ю”. it. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. 1.them. add “ю”.. Replace “ь”. Нам . 3.you (informal). Ей (f) . Тебе . 2. Replace “о” with “у” 2. Feminine Nouns: 1. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Ему (m). If the noun ends in a consonant. Вам .us. To create nouns in the dative case. add “у”.Forming the dative case. Replace “ия” with “ии”. her.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Replace “ь” with “и”. . Replace “я” with “е”.

Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. Я помогаю этой девушке .Give me your address and telephone number..We help mother every day. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . Дай . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.Ivan gives flowers to Anna. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. Дайте мне .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. the word “Anna” is the indirect object. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.(you) give Дают . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. .I am helping this girl. .I am helping Anna.give! Дайте .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне . .(we) give Даѐте .Give me ..(I) give Даѐшь .I give flowers to Anna.. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.(they) give The command forms of this word include. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.They give flowers to Elena. Here are the conjuctions: Даю . Similarly. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. Они дают цветы Елене . Я помогаю Ивану . It should be used in the dative case.(he) gives Даѐм .. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something.I am helping Ivan. Я даю цветы Анне . For this reason. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”..give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson..(you) give Даѐт . Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . Мы помогаем маме каждый день .

I like the flowers. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.Ivan calls Anna every day.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .? . However it is a common word. Вам нравится Москва ..I like Moscow. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.Звонить .How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.. Адаму нравится Москва . it is like saying “To me it is likable”. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день .) Ей нравится Москва . Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.I like your children.You like Moscow. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. Мне холодно . (The "ся" ending is reflexive).He is cold (to him its cold) . Иван звонит Анне каждый день .She likes Moscow. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.Adam likes Moscow.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . and it relies on the dative case. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns.I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно .He likes Moscow. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.) Ему нравится Москва .How do you like . If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). Мне очень нравятся цветы . (lit: children are pleasing to me.She calls Ivan every day.. it is still worth learning these examples. Мне нравится Москва .I really like the flowers. so it is enough for now just to learn this form.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. so it is worth learning now. Мне нравятся цветы . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. Как вам нравится .I like the children. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love).) Practice using the word нравится.. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. However this verb is used differently.? Как вам нравится фильм? .

I am walking towards the station. “ш” or “щ”. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . add “ем”. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. Except. “ц”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). to create an exact rule. with “ем”. if stressed “ѐм”. 4. “ч”. Replace “й”. . if stressed “ѐм”.We are going to our friends. add “ом”.. Мы едем к друзьям . You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case.Ей холодно . (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.I am 23 years old. then add “ем”.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . 2. Replace “ь”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу .She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно .I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . and has too many meanings. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. All consonants. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". It is followed by the dative case. Although the use of this proposition is too varied..

Replace "а". if stressed “ѐй”. Neuter Nouns: 1. Examples. In English these words can have different meanings..Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. 2..Иваном (Ivan) Анна ..ножом (knife) муж . 3. Replace “я” with “ей”.карандашом (pencil) ложка .мужем (husband) жена . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. “ш” or “щ”. . Except.. "о" with "ами". Олег режет мясо ножом . add "ами". Accompanied by. 1. 4. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Replace “а” with “ой”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. “ч”.ложкой (spoon) нож . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Я ем суп ложкой . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.I eat soup with a spoon.женой (wife) Иван .Анной (Anna) студенты . 2. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. The preposition: „с‟ .Feminine Nouns: 1.With. All consonants.молоком (milk) сметана .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Replace “ь” with “ью”. Иван пишет карандашом .Ivan writes with a pencil. “ц”.

.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. пожалуйста. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Дайте. кофе с молоком . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.Me and you Notes: 1. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Иван с Анной идут в кафе.I eat borsh with sour cream.For ease of pronunciation. „with you‟.You Им . but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Me Тобой . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. .Ivan and I are going to school. Here are some examples. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Мы с вами .My wife and I are going to the cafe. Have a look at the following Russian examples.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. However it is followed by the genitive case.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. 2. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.My husband and I are going to the cafe. In English we would use the word “and”. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.Please give me coffee with milk.Nadya wants tea with lemon.Ivan wants tea with milk. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . „with him‟. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. with Ivan”). Pronouns . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. it is often written as “со”. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Мной .Her . пожалуйста. Иван с женой идут в кафе.Him Ей .

in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .autumn осенью . .in the morning день .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.It Нами .You (plural) Ими .morning утром .in summer осень . afternoon днѐм .night ночью .summer летом .winter зимой .in the afternoon вечер .Them Seasons and parts of the day.day. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. For example: лето . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .in winter весна . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.spring весной .in autumn зима .Им .in the evening ночь .Us Вами . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.evening вечером .

Над столом висит лампа. .to be interested in оказываться .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. for между . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.школа. You don't need to learn these verbs now.above перед .to be keen on управлять . is.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. be The verb “Быть” (to be. is. was) has no present tense. . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.to be. (Example: Я был врачом .In front of this school turn to the left. to be occupied with интересоваться .Under the table the cat is sitting. manage. Перед этой школой поверните налево. was заниматься .за .behind.to be engaged in. быть .I was a doctor).to turn out to be оставаться . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.control.Happy birthday С новым годом .in front of под . . beyond.The lamp is above the table. govern являться . Под столом сидит кот. enjoy становиться/стать . .Behind this building there is a school.to seem. but it is something to keep in mind.to become увлекаться .to use.to remain as пользоваться .between над .under Examples: За этим зданием .

if stressed “ѐй”. 2. All consonants. 4.. with “ем”.Анной (Anna) студенты . Олег режет мясо ножом . Examples. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Replace "а". Except.. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. 3. if stressed “ѐм”. “ц”. 2.мужем (husband) жена . add “ом”. 2. then add “ем”.. Except. Neuter Nouns: 1. 4.Ivan writes with a pencil. .. Я ем суп ложкой . “ш” or “щ”. Replace “й”. Feminine Nouns: 1.карандашом (pencil) ложка . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. add “ем”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Replace “я” with “ей”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.молоком (milk) сметана .студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. “ц”. if stressed “ѐм”. 1.I eat soup with a spoon.. All consonants.. Replace “а” with “ой”. Иван пишет карандашом . "о" with "ами". If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . “ч”. “ш” or “щ”.ложкой (spoon) нож .Иваном (Ivan) Анна .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.Masculine Nouns: 1.ножом (knife) муж . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Replace “ь”. In English these words can have different meanings.женой (wife) Иван . Replace “ь” with “ью”. add "ами". “ч”.

Мы с вами . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. Иван с Анной идут в кафе.Please give me coffee with milk. Pronouns .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. In English we would use the word “and”. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Дайте. For ease of pronunciation.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Me and you Notes: 1. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Ivan wants tea with milk. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. it is often written as “со”.My husband and I are going to the cafe.Ivan and I are going to school. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.My wife and I are going to the cafe. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. . . Иван с женой идут в кафе. пожалуйста.With. Accompanied by.The preposition: „с‟ . However it is followed by the genitive case. Have a look at the following Russian examples.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. with Ivan”). It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Here are some examples. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. кофе с молоком . пожалуйста. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Instrumental Case . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.I eat borsh with sour cream.Nadya wants tea with lemon. 2. .

„with you‟.in the morning день .in winter весна . Мной . „with him‟. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.autumn осенью .Us Вами . afternoon днѐм .You (plural) Ими .day.spring весной .evening вечером . For example: лето .winter зимой . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.at night .Her Им .Him Ей .in the evening ночь .night ночью .summer летом .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.Me Тобой .in autumn зима .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .in the afternoon вечер .morning утром .It Нами .You Им .Them Seasons and parts of the day.in summer осень .

under Examples: За этим зданием . but it is something to keep in mind. govern являться .to be interested in оказываться . be The verb “Быть” (to be. manage.to seem. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.to be engaged in.in front of под . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.to be keen on управлять .I was a doctor).above перед .to remain as пользоваться .The lamp is above the table.to turn out to be оставаться . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . was заниматься . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.to use. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. . to be occupied with интересоваться .control.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.between над . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. for между . за . Под столом сидит кот. быть .Under the table the cat is sitting.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . (Example: Я был врачом . .Happy birthday С новым годом .In front of this school turn to the left.to be. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. was) has no present tense.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. enjoy становиться/стать . . . You don't need to learn these verbs now.Behind this building there is a school.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. is. .школа.behind.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. beyond. Перед этой школой поверните налево. . Над столом висит лампа.to become увлекаться . is.

I knew (male speaking) Я знала . Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.Elena knew Ольга знала .She knew Оно знало ..Olga knew Собака знала . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. but in Russian there is simply one.He knew Она знала . Forming Verbs in Past Tense. (ie 1st. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English. 2nd or 3rd person).They knew Мы знали . To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. In English there are quite a number of different past tenses.Dima knew Елена знала .You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала . The same principal also applies in the future tense.We knew Я знал .You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. it is conceptually quite easy. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. Он знал . Let's have a look at the past tense now.It knew Они знали .The dog knew . You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings..Vladimir knew Дима знал . or talk about something that has happened in the past. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . Although this concept differs from English.

reversed or repeated actions. There are two aspects in Russian. When using pronouns such as Я. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.I worked everyday.I was working Я шѐл . and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. ongoing. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. Я работал каждый день . Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. use the imperfective also. consequently each verb has two possible forms. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. (often По-). Some tenses in English can indicate this. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs.I run in the forest every day.I was home. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian.I worked for 2 hours. habitual. Я работал два часа . Ты. . . Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. . The Imperfective Aspect. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. and is not complete. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. Я работал . Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”.She wants to buy a book. so there is no perfective in the present tense.

. Я не понял.I went home. . . Perfective: Я не позвонила .She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. . When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Саша съел обед за пять минут.He did not want to see me. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. Она спросила учителя. . что он сказал.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. . try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits.I did not understand what he said.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. Я купил кофе . Я не жила в Англии. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? .She did not eat bananas.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? .Did you tell him about it? .I failed to phone. . Он не хотел видеть меня. . Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples.I did not live in England. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets.We did not watch the movie yesterday. (but I was expected to). If you are still unsure which to use. .Yesterday we read an interesting article. Questions and Aspects.

Я была во многих странах. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца. В школе я начала учить английский. Я был .She was Оно было . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.I was (woman speaking) Он был .I finished school when I was 16 years old.It was not. .We rented a summer house for three months. Он читал три часа.I‟ve been to many countries.I was not (woman speaking). Я окончила школу.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.He read for three hours.They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). .He was Она была .It was Они были .I‟ve already visited Sweden. Я не была . .I was not (man speaking). The stress moves to the word 'не'. . Оно не было . This is not the case in the past tense. . Они не были . Я уже посетила Швецию . Я не был .They were not.At school I started learning English. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.I was (man speaking) Я была . когда мне было 16 лет . except in the feminine.

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