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А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
шестьдесят 70 .двадцать два 23 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see. 30 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles. (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).восемьсот 900 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".четырнадцать 15 .тридцать 40 .пятнадцать 16 .сорок 50 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. Here are some examples: 20 .триста 400 .пятьдесят 60 .девяносто 100 .восемнадцать 19 .двести 300 .тринадцать 14 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.двадцать 21 .одиннадцать 12 .семьдесят 80 .сто 200 .восемьдесят 90 .шестьсот 700 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.двадцать три 24 .двенадцать 13 . quite similar to English.двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.семнадцать 18 .семьсот 800 .четыреста 500 .девятьсот .пятьсот 600 .двадцать один 22 .11 .шестнадцать 17 .
You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.миллион 1.000 .000. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".Yes Нет ("nyet") . Да ("da") . .812 Please and Thank-You.994 1.000. Yes and No. You should always say this after someone thanks you.тысяча 1. 456 219 9.000 .1.миллиард For example: 131 .No Saying Hello.000 . after somebody says thank-you. 0 .564 2.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") . Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct. you can basically forget the "уй".000 1.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .345 23.008 2.007 2.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.000.
If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. However. not the individual words. There are also two words for saying good-bye.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. except for the question mark. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English)..Bye (Informal. Привет is also commonly used with friends. put a real questioning expression on your face. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . If all else fails. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.Pleased to meet you. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . If somebody says Привет to you. You may also hear people say Пока. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual.. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. Меня зовут . and should only be used with friends. Introducing Yourself. In order to introduce yourself. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". you may need the following phrases.. ("min-ya za-voot") . Вы говорите по-английски? .My name is . there is no difference between the question and the statement. but we suggest you only use it with friends. You should just learn the whole phrase. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? .Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? ..Do you (formal) speak Russian? .How are things? Хорошо спасибо . There are two forms of this word.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . slang) You should generally use до свидания.Bad Saying Good-Bye. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.Good-bye.
where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Coffee Чай .Tell me please. пожалуйста.Lemonade Сок . где ближайшее кафе? . ..Tell me please. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Tea Молоко .I understand Я не понимаю . Скажите.Soup Торт .Vodka Пиво .Menu Кофе . Скажите.Я говорю по-английски . пожалуйста. you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.Milk Кока-Кола . where is a cafe? Скажите...Tell me please.. пожалуйста.Tell me please.I speak Russian Я понимаю . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню .I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Cake Водка . где бар? . где кафе? .Juice Борщ .Russian beetroot soup Суп . You could ask people with the following phrases.Water .Beer Вино .I speak English Я говорю по-русски . пожалуйста.. Скажите. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.Wine Вода .Coca-Cola Лимонад ..
Please give me coffee with milk..? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .. У вас есть .I want.Give me please. пожалуйста. it is gramatically unusual). when you order vodka in russia.. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. пожалуйста .What is it? Это кофе... How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. it is tea.What do you want? Я хочу . You can use it to ask the price of something. (Just learn the whole phrase. Do you have.? If you want to ask someone if they have something.? .It is coffee.No.. кофе с молоком .. Examples: Дайте.. .Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. Что это? . Сколько стоит? . пожалуйста.Do you have . Дайте... is it coffee? Нет.. . кофе . you can use the following phrase.Excuse me..What? Что вы хотите? . . пожалуйста.Please give me coffee. Дайте. . Простите.Be careful.. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. это чай. .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .. . кофе с молоком и с сахаром ..Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.How much is it?. Дайте. это кофе.Please give me tea.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . Дайте.. . пожалуйста.. you will generally get straight vodka.. чай..
him.He..You (formal.." по-русски? .. or plural) .? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is." in Russian? Что значит "..Tell me please.It (n) Мы . Пожалуйста .She. eat.. you.We Вы ... Скажите.. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. Как сказать ".How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . "love" is the verb.21 rubles. It (f) Оно . The subject is "I". and the object is "him".Сколько? ." mean in English? Where is the toilet. For example: I. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence." на английском? . it..You (informal) Он .. her...How do you say ". walk. Pronouns are words that can replace names. she. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".) Я-I Ты . (Known as the nominative case. Где Туалет .. they are things you can do. want. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M". For example: run.What does ".. love. Here are some useful phrases.. Definitions Verbs are action words.. In the sentence "I love him".How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . he. It (m) Она .
("yevo") . "ем".Russian uses an extra version of the word "you".You (informal) Его . and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. She. It works. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. and the second conjugation. Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать .Они . (Known as the accusative case) Меня .To understand.They work. and once you get the hang of it.n) Еѐ .Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). You should memorise these pronouns. It is the most common. and add the appropriate ending ("ю".You (formal.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence.We work Вы работаете .He. "ете" or "ют"). It (m.Her. Мы работаем . (There are also some irregular verbs). To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть").To work. (infinitive. or plural) Их .You work Он.You work. Оно работает . "I am working" and "I do work". Она. (Example: I work. "ешь".I work Ты работаешь .Me Тебя . Both these patterns are quite similar. (infinitive. it is not too difficult. This happens a little in English. but not as much. It (f) Нас . dictionary form) Я работаю . dictionary form) . работать . Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.Us Вас . Just remember that unlike English.Him. In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". Они работают . he works). "ет".
Remember. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. .You know. dictionary form) Я знаю . Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). Оно понимает . Мы знаем .I don't understand. She.He. Знать .They know.I know.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . Он. Мы говорим . You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . Она.You speak. Ты понимаешь . Оно знает .Я понимаю .I speak. Ты говоришь .He. She. It understands Мы понимаем . Он. (infinitive.We know. For example: Я не знаю . which replace "ить". Оно говорит .He doesn't understand.We understand. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).You understand. Они понимают . Она. Они знают . It knows. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules.I understand. Он не понимает .To speak.They understand. dictionary form) Я говорю . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. Ты знаешь . Я не понимаю . She.I don't know.He.You understand. Он. Она. It Speaks.You know. There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation.To know. Вы знаете . (infinitive.We speak.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. говорить . Вы понимаете .
He. Я живу . Он. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Они едут . Они говорят . Some examples: Ехать .To hear.I speak English Он говорит по-русски .You live. Мы едем . Она.They hear.Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски .You hear. Я еду .We hear. слышите . слышат .You hear. Ты едешь . She. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Оно живѐт . For Example: Я говорю по-английски .They go (by transport). She.We don't speak Russian. Жить . you can often predict the endings.He. слышу . Он.I go (by transport).You speak. Вы едете . слышим .They speak.We live. слышит .You go (by transport). often once you know the stem of the verb.I hear.We go (by transport). .He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . Оно едет . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. However.You go (by transport). She.He. Ты живѐшь .To live. It lives.I live. Собака не говорит по-английски . Они живут . слышишь .They live.To go (by transport).Вы говорите .The dog doesn't speak English. (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). Она. It goes (by transport). Мы живѐм . Вы живѐте . It hears.You live. except that "у" replaces "ю". слышать .
Vowel . each noun is assigned a gender.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. If it is a consonant. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. paper. Consonant . (A. 3. From the dictionary form of a noun. cat. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. Я. ъ because they have no sound). If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case.(Uncle) . When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. 5. Russian has three genders: masculine. Ё.(Daddy.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. cup. the word is masculine. О. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. Papa) .(Man) . Gender of nouns. In Russian we use 6 cases. unlike many languages. But there are five notable exceptions. Папа . as with many other languages. Е. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. Look at the last letter of the word: 2.He is going home Definitions Noun . In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. name or place. it will be in its dictionary form. feminine.(Coffee) . pen. (Except ь. Cases .A letter that is not a vowel.A noun is a thing. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. Э. “cup”.Is Masculine Дедушка . there is no physical meaning attached to the gender.Is Masculine Мужчина . Example: dog. In Russian. In the case of other objects like “pen”. У. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. or “й”.I.U in English). here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1.Is Masculine . There are very few exceptions to these rules. Ю.Is Masculine Дядя .O. И and Й. Ы. and neuter (neutral). “house”.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract.I live in London.E. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . The letters А. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine.(Grandfather) . Он едет домой . Luckily. Moscow.Is Masculine Кофе . 4.
Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. In fact it was also used in Old English. and about. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun... For example. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. Feminine : газета (newspaper). The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). радио (radio). „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. Greek and German.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. and still keep the same meaning.. so we will take it slowly. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. (In. документ (document). . (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. (Eg.. on. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. In Russian there are six cases. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. брат (brother). It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. at. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. Россия (Russia). Хлеб (bread).
“я” or “а”. In English we make a plural by adding “s”.buildings) The Accusative Case.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. Russian is very free about word order. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . not plants).Interestingly. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. so there is nothing special to learn here. without changing the actual meaning. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. In Russian. For example. especially pronouns. “ы”. in this case the word “dog”. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. The Nominative Case. the word “I” is the subject. in the nominative case. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. However. In the sentence “I love her”. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. . This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. add “ы”. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. you need to use the accusative case also. Russian uses the case for all nouns. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.
If noun is animate. 2.Ivan loves tea.I love music. add “а”. Feminine Nouns: 1.Nadya loves wine. 4. . Надя любит вино . Надя не любит вино .I love sport. Я люблю музыку . Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. replace “ь”. If noun is animate. 2. add “я”. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Replace “а” with “у”.He loves Moscow.I don't like music. with “я”. If the noun in inanimate.I love Moscow.Nadya doesn't like wine. Ты любишь музыку? . there is no change. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . replace “й”. Я не люблю музыку . Иван любит чай . To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . Он любит Москву .Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “я” with “ю”. 3. Neuter Nouns: 1.
to study Думать .to watch. Что ты любишь? . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs.I am reading a magazine. Читать . An example could be: Я знаю.What do you love? However.I love you. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. You can use it to form questions. Я читаю газету . Она любит меня . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. .I know that you love music. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.I am watching television. so don't be confused.I am listening to the radio. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.to listen Изучать . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. Я слушаю музыку .I love her. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence.I love him. Смотреть . что ты любишь музыку.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". Я еѐ люблю .I am reading a book. Слушать ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .to read. If you would like. it is probably the conjunction "that".I am listening to music. .to think Работать .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . Я читаю журнал . Я слушаю радио . The word "Что" has two uses.to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .to work Хотеть .
I really love sport.I study Russian.Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. Я так думаю .I love to read.very. For example: Я люблю читать . (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .I want tea.Я изучаю русский язык . Я хочу купить журнал .How? Почему? . Что вы хотите? . Я люблю путешествовать .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .I really love Moscow.I love to travel. Я очень люблю Москву .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.Who? Что? .Where? Кто? .What? Как? . For example: Очень . (lit: I study the Russian language). Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".I think so! Как вы думаете? .I want to buy a magazine. You can include it into many phrases. In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. Add : “е”. Где? . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) .
suburbs and places.I live in Siberia. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1.cinema театр .I live in London. although these aren‟t precise rules.at the post office в саду . Я живу в Петербурге . Я живу в Лондоне . “е” remains unchanged. Replace “а” with “е”. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . Replace “я” with “е”.Where is she? на вокзале . when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. Replace “ь” with “и”. Here are some tips to help you. (They are in dicionary form) кино . even though they are not Russian.in the garden в лесу .Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .in the forest на улице . „at a station‟. Replace “о” with “е” 2.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . As with any language. Exception: Replace “ия”. Using prepositions and the prepositional case. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. Я живу в Сибири . 2.on the street Что на столе? .at the station на почте . Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . 4. „at work‟.theatre . 3.I live in St. (Eg. Petersburg.Feminine Nouns: 1. „at a concert‟).On the table is a book and a pencil. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. (Eg.I live in Moscow. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities.
your answer will involve the prepositional case. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. and are grammatically quite complex. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟.аптека .To the left. but as these words are so important for basic Russian.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . there are actually four ways: .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. The first indicates you are going on foot. Both these words are verbs of motion. you would use the accusative case.library кафе .restaurant банк . налево .stadium школа . Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. направо . Где вы работаете? . прямо потом направо . you can tell this by the case. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. prepositions have more than one meaning.I work at (in) a school. прямо . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport.Straight ahead then to the right.pharmacy парк .cafe площадь .park стадион . we will introduce them now in a simple way.hotel музей .museum больница .I am going to school.school библиотека .Straight ahead. So to express „to go‟ in Russian.bank гостиница .square ресторан . Куда вы идѐте . However. Here are some examples for you to compare.To the right.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).
To go on foot.I go to school.He is going to the hotel.I am going to the cinema. (Я хожу.To go by transport. Ты ходишь. Я иду в кино . Ты едешь. Ехать . (Я иду.We are going to the cafe.We are going to the cafe. in one direction. Вы ездите. or repetitively. Он ездит . Мы идѐм в кафе . Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . Вы идѐте.I am going to school. Мы идѐм. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Ты ездишь . in more than one direction. Мы ездим.He is going to the hotel by taxi. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро .To go on foot.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Он ходит. Ты идѐшь в кино? .I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .I am going to the university Ходить .I am going to the cinema on the metro. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Мы ходим. Он едет. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . in more than one direction.To go by transport. in one direction. or repetitively (Я езжу. Он идѐт. Они часто ездят в Амстердам . (Я еду. Они едут ) Я еду в школу .I am going to school. Они идут) Я иду в школу . Вы ходите. Вы едете. Мы едем.I go to the theatre every day. я иду в университет . Мы едем в кафе . Ты идѐшь.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу .He is going to London Ездить .We go to the cafe every day. Я часто хожу в кино .He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день .Идти .
her Наш (m). У меня есть брат .father Мама . Твоя (f). У меня нет детей . Мои (pl) . Наша (f). Твои (pl) .I have a sister.uncle Родители . Моя (f). Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.grandfather Жена .I don't have any children. Твоѐ (n).granddaughter Внук .I have a son and a daughter.our . Еѐ (f) .your Его (m n) ("yevo").my Твой (m). in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.wife Муж . У меня есть сын и дочь .brother Дочь . Наше (n). Here are some Russian phrases you could use.Do you have children?.sister Брат . Моѐ (n). Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.family Just like English. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.I have a brother.grandson Семья .grandmother Дедушка .husband Тѐтя .daughter Сын . У меня есть сестра . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. У тебя есть дети? . Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10. Мой (m).dad Сестра .mother Отец .mum Папа .children Внучка .auntie Дядя . Наши (pl) .Мать .his.son бабушка .parents Дети . For example we use the words mum and dad.
her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . The Russian word Это means 'this is'.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? ..your Их . the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету . Это мой дом .Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally. Доброе утро . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. For example.This is my house Это моя квартира . you may wish to say her name is Anna. However.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . This is.My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . Ваша (f).goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт . Моя мама любит музыку . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet.his name is Ivan. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know..my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .good evening Спокойной ночи . Ваши (pl) .good morning Добрый день .good afternoon Добрый вечер . Ваше (n).Ваш (m).
Собака Адама . Replace “я” with “и”. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “й”. 2. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . However. Сестра Анны читает газету .Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . 3. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. Using the genitive case . If the noun ends in a consonant. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. (This is like using 's in English). 3. Replace “е” with “я” For example. Брат Адама любит Москву .Adam's brother loves Moscow. Replace “ь” with “и”. with “я”. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences.Masculine Nouns: 1. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. pay particular attention to the order of the words. Anna's) Дом Ивана .Igor's telephone. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . For example.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan).Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. add “а”.Adam's dog. in Russian. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. Feminine Nouns: 1.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". the object that is owned always comes first. add “я”. 2. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. Replace “о” with “а” 2. Let's have a look at some more examples.Anna's car.ownership As you can see in the above example. Replace “ь”. Replace “а” with “ы”.
“Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.Ivan isn't here. Using the genitive case ..Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.A map of the city.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. Here are some examples.There is no coffee. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. Их) Using the genitive case . Его. Generally.I have book. Молока нет . Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. Еѐ. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. Нас. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. Ивана нет .Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't .There is no tea.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . У нее есть собака. This is exactly the same concept as above.There is no milk. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. (Меня. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case.‟. Его нет дома . план города .to have As the genitive case relates to possession.sentence and uses the nominative case. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). Кофе нет . As we have seen in a previous lesson. . The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . У вас есть кофе? .He is not home. Чая нет . (coffee is an indeclinable noun) .She has a dog. У меня есть книга . стакан молока .. Тебя.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Here are some examples.A glass of milk. Вас.
The genitive case is used after most numbers. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. quantaties. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. К. for example "10 roubles".numbers.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. . Ш. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. plurals.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . depending on whether the object is animate or not. but don‟t worry.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г.Plural (Subject) In Russian. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. you make a plural by using the letters "и". "ы". Ч. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. Ж.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) .студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . "я" or "а". add “ы”. Х.Using the genitive case . in the nominative case. The Nominative Case .
but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. or whether you are just using general plurals. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. англичанка . but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation.The books are on the table. (марка .ш. but in the plural form. Анна любит книги . ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.студентов (students') газета . . Here are some examples.щ.марок. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.англичанок. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals.газет (newspapers') здание .The Genitive Case . Ok. but in Russian we use it for all numbers.Anna loves books. This may feel a little strange at first. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”.ч. девушка . The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. Книги на столе .ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . let‟s see how to use them.
You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. (example: 22.9. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.21 roubles один доллар .ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. .one hundred dollars шесть книг .four dollars четыре студента . The number one declines like an adjective. 13.two books три собаки . then you should use the genitive singular case. 4) (but not 12. одна девушка .one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.four students три газеты .6.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.five roubles десять рублей . To help you get used to this concept. or the last digit of the number is 2. Here are some examples.one rouble двадцать один рубль .ten roubles сто рублей . 12. 61) (but not 11). try using plurals that involve money. Here are some examples.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.four roubles две книги .4 If the number. 14.three dogs четыре доллара . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.I know one girl один рубль .one hundred roubles сто долларов .eight buildings девять собак . 103. 3 or 4.. etc) пять рублей . 13 & 14).seven newspapers восемь зданий .six books семь газет .three roubles четыре рубля . 21.3.one girl Я знаю одну девушку .7.8.nine dogs десять студентов . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. три рубля . 42.0. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.
Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.7.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . Quantity ends in 2.Vladimir (Володя. Как еѐ зовут? .the dative case. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .Genitive Plural General Quantity .3.As per position in the sentence.8.) Quantity not specified .0.. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 ..I am 23 years old. Quantity ends in 1 .“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).His name is Boris. . Much like “Мне холодно” .. Мне восемнадцать лет .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.Her name is Alyona. Вова) . Как его зовут? .Genitive Singular. Quantity ends in 5.So in summary. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.Nikolay (Коля) Борис .-надцать .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position. Как вас зовут? .How old are you.6.My name is Vera. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.Boris Владимир . This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.4 . Николай .What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).9.What is his name? Его зовут Борис . Here are some other common Russian names for men.
Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Yelena (Лена) Наталья .Thank-You Пожалуйста .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . Здравствуйте .Hello Привет .Пѐтр .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .and а . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. Шура) Дмитрий .Sergey Алексей .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. The diminuative is a more personal.goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you. Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons. Some of these may be new.Andrey Александр .Yekaterina Анастасия . or tender form. Елена . This is like a pet name. and should only be used when you are in close firendship.and/but (contrasting) . You should be able to remember all of these.Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Olga (Оля) Александра . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. Peter.good evening Спокойной ночи .Natalya (Наташа) Мария .Oxana Екатерина . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').good morning Добрый день . Спасибо . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.good afternoon Добрый вечер . Андрей .Pyotr.Alexander (Саша. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и . but try to learn them all.
towards. У вас есть водка? . We will use only common words.out of. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.with у . Скажите.for (+accusative).Tell me please.in (+prepositional).но . пожалуйста. to (+accusative) о. it их .What do you want? Я хочу чай.I want tea please. to за . . Он любит говорить по-английски. You might also find some new words in these sentences.you (informal) вы .Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. .along. For example. Дайте. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .Give me please. coffee with milk and with sugar. . it еѐ .but или . to (+accusative) на .I know that you speak Russian. об . . во . . onto.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . . in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev.".Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. . In Russian we would use the word "а".or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". У вас есть чай? . что ты говоришь по-русски. пожалуйста.her.them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. кофе с молоком и с сахаром.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.There is no coffee.about к .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.from по .near.My mum loves music. я-I он .you (formal/plural) его . пожалуйста. from от . at (+prepositional). Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. behind (+instrumental) из . где туалет? . it ты . (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.him.on. Что вы хотите? . .Do you have tea? Чая нет.There is no tea.he. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . so you should try to learn them all.
I am studying the Russian language.Why? Что ты знаешь? . Я очень люблю спорт .I live in London. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .How? Когда? .How much? четыре доллара . Он едет домой .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .Yes.I think that you understand.Do you understand? Я знаю.He is not home. . Я изучаю русский язык . Моя мама любит музыку .My Mum loves music. Брат Адама любит Москву .I know that you understand.I really love sport.The dog doesn't speak English. Я очень люблю Москву .I am listening to music. .I really love Moscow. Моя сестра читает газету . сколько стоит? .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . сколько стоит? . что ты понимаешь.What? Как? .4 roubles. He speaks Russian well.How much? четыре рубля . . Его нет дома . сколько стоит? . Я не понимаю.How much? сто рублей .Who? Что? .My sister is reading a newspaper.I understand.Does your borther speak Russian? Да. .100 roubles. Я слушаю музыку .He is going home.Where is he? Где кафе? . сколько стоит? .21 roubles. Ты понимаешь? .I am reading a magazine. .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.I don't understand. Он хорошо говорит по-русски.Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне . Сестра Анны читает газету . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .Твой брат говорит по-русски? .Adam's brother loves Moscow.Where? Кто? .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. .How much? двадцать один рубль .Where is the cafe? Кто он? . . Я думаю.4 dollars.When? Почему? .What do you think? Где он? . что вы понимаете.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. Где? . Собака не говорит по-английски. Почему ты не понимаешь? .
Молоку Вино .Елене Молоко .them. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. . Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. 2..us. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. 3. Ему (n). Ей (f) .Forming the dative case.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case.him. Нам . Replace “ь”. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. Replace “ия” with “ии”. To create nouns in the dative case.me. 2.you (informal). Ему (m). Replace “а” with “е”. Replace “ь” with “и”.Адаму Елена . add “у”. Replace “я” with “е”. "о" or a consonant with "ам". Replace "а". Адам . add "ам". her. Replace “о” with “у” 2. Мне . If the noun ends in a consonant. 3. Им . If the noun ends in a consonant. Masculine Nouns: 1.you (formal. Вам . Тебе .. or plural). 3. 1. 4. it. Replace “й”. add “ю”. with “ю”. 2. Feminine Nouns: 1. Neuter Nouns: 1.
I am helping Anna.I am helping Ivan. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case.. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. Я помогаю Ивану .We help mother every day.Give me .Give me your address and telephone number. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. Дайте мне . . For this reason.. the word “Anna” is the indirect object..(we) give Даѐте .They give flowers to Elena. Они дают цветы Елене ..to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне . In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона.I am helping this girl. .give! Дайте . you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.(they) give The command forms of this word include. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Similarly.(he) gives Даѐм . Мы помогаем маме каждый день .(you) give Дают . Дай .(I) give Даѐшь . Я даю цветы Анне . In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. Here are the conjuctions: Даю . Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged..Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. ..I give flowers to Anna. It should be used in the dative case.Ivan gives flowers to Anna.(you) give Даѐт . Я помогаю этой девушке .give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”.
I really like the flowers. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love).He is cold (to him its cold) . so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. Вам нравится Москва . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.) Practice using the word нравится.) Ему нравится Москва . Мне холодно .She likes Moscow. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? .I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .How do you like .Adam likes Moscow. (The "ся" ending is reflexive).? Как вам нравится фильм? . Как вам нравится . If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). it is still worth learning these examples. Адаму нравится Москва . It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. it is like saying “To me it is likable”.Ivan calls Anna every day.? . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet... so it is worth learning now. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. Мне нравятся цветы .I like the flowers. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. Мне нравится Москва .She calls Ivan every day. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case.I like the children.You like Moscow. and it relies on the dative case. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. so it is enough for now just to learn this form. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. However it is a common word.) Ей нравится Москва .He likes Moscow. (lit: children are pleasing to me. Мне очень нравятся цветы . Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети .to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день .I like Moscow.Звонить ..I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . However this verb is used differently. Иван звонит Анне каждый день . Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns.I like your children. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .
but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. if stressed “ѐм”. add “ем”. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along).We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . “ш” or “щ”. Мы едем к друзьям . if stressed “ѐм”. 4. then add “ем”.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно .I am walking towards the station.. “ч”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. . and has too many meanings. It is followed by the dative case. “ц”.I am 23 years old. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to".. Replace “й”. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. with “ем”. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1.Ей холодно . to create an exact rule. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . Except. add “ом”.We are going to our friends. Replace “ь”.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . Although the use of this proposition is too varied. 2. All consonants.
3. 4.молоком (milk) сметана .Иваном (Ivan) Анна . All consonants.ножом (knife) муж . Я ем суп ложкой .мужем (husband) жена .карандашом (pencil) ложка . Accompanied by.Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “я” with “ей”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.Анной (Anna) студенты ..ложкой (spoon) нож . The preposition: „с‟ ..Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. 2. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Олег режет мясо ножом . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. . Replace "а". “ш” or “щ”. Except. In English these words can have different meanings. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Examples.Ivan writes with a pencil. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . “ц”..женой (wife) Иван . Replace “а” with “ой”. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. "о" with "ами". Иван пишет карандашом . Replace “ь” with “ью”. if stressed “ѐй”. Neuter Nouns: 1. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.With. 1.I eat soup with a spoon. “ч”. 2. add "ами".
Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Иван с женой идут в кафе. . Have a look at the following Russian examples.Nadya wants tea with lemon.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. it is often written as “со”.Me Тобой . 2. пожалуйста. . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .Me and you Notes: 1.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Please give me coffee with milk. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Мы с вами .You Им .Ivan wants tea with milk. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .I eat borsh with sour cream. In English we would use the word “and”. кофе с молоком .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.For ease of pronunciation.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.My husband and I are going to the cafe.Him Ей . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Иван хочет чай с молоком . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. with Ivan”). . . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. „with him‟. Here are some examples. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. пожалуйста.Her . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Pronouns .I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. However it is followed by the genitive case.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. „with you‟. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .My wife and I are going to the cafe. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Дайте. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Мной .Ivan and I are going to school.
Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.You (plural) Ими .Им .morning утром .Us Вами .autumn осенью . For example: лето .in the evening ночь .spring весной .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.summer летом . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.in the morning день .day.in summer осень .in winter весна .winter зимой . . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. afternoon днѐм .evening вечером .in the afternoon вечер . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.night ночью .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .Them Seasons and parts of the day.in autumn зима .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .It Нами .
In front of this school turn to the left.I was a doctor). Под столом сидит кот.behind. .Under the table the cat is sitting. govern являться . enjoy становиться/стать . is. for между .between над . to be occupied with интересоваться . be The verb “Быть” (to be. . is. Над столом висит лампа.to be engaged in.to be. You don't need to learn these verbs now.to become увлекаться .to be interested in оказываться .to remain as пользоваться .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .Behind this building there is a school. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.to be keen on управлять . .The lamp is above the table.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. but it is something to keep in mind.школа. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.above перед . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. beyond. was) has no present tense.to turn out to be оставаться . .to use. Перед этой школой поверните налево.за . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .to seem.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . быть . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. manage. . (Example: Я был врачом .under Examples: За этим зданием .control.in front of под . was заниматься . You will learn more about this in a later lesson.Happy birthday С новым годом .
Replace "а".. In English these words can have different meanings.. . Олег режет мясо ножом . Replace “а” with “ой”. add “ем”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. “ш” or “щ”. 1. 2. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Replace “ь”.I eat soup with a spoon.молоком (milk) сметана . Иван пишет карандашом . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . All consonants. Except. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Я ем суп ложкой . Neuter Nouns: 1..студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. “ц”. Except. 4.Анной (Anna) студенты .Masculine Nouns: 1..мужем (husband) жена . If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. 3. if stressed “ѐм”.Ivan writes with a pencil. “ч”.ложкой (spoon) нож . "о" with "ами". Replace “я” with “ей”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. if stressed “ѐй”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .. then add “ем”. Feminine Nouns: 1. All consonants. Replace “й”. Replace “ь” with “ью”. add "ами". 4. if stressed “ѐм”.карандашом (pencil) ложка .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . “ч”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. “ш” or “щ”. 2..ножом (knife) муж . with “ем”. add “ом”. 2.женой (wife) Иван . Examples. “ц”.
Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.My wife and I are going to the cafe.Ivan and I are going to school. However it is followed by the genitive case. Have a look at the following Russian examples. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.The preposition: „с‟ . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.With. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). it is often written as “со”.Ivan wants tea with milk. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . кофе с молоком . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . 2. Pronouns . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Here are some examples. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Me and you Notes: 1.I eat borsh with sour cream. Мы с вами . For ease of pronunciation. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Дайте. . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. пожалуйста. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Accompanied by. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. пожалуйста.My husband and I are going to the cafe. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.Please give me coffee with milk. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . with Ivan”).Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Иван с женой идут в кафе.Instrumental Case . In English we would use the word “and”.Nadya wants tea with lemon. . . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Анна с мужем идут в кафе.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.
You (plural) Ими .in the evening ночь .evening вечером .spring весной .in autumn зима .Him Ей .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.autumn осенью .Her Им .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. „with him‟.morning утром . afternoon днѐм . Мной .winter зимой .Us Вами .at night . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.Them Seasons and parts of the day.Me Тобой . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.summer летом .in the afternoon вечер .day.in summer осень .in the morning день . „with you‟.It Нами .night ночью . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. For example: лето .You Им .in winter весна .
to use.In front of this school turn to the left. Перед этой школой поверните налево. You don't need to learn these verbs now.behind.Under the table the cat is sitting. за .to be engaged in. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. was) has no present tense. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.to be keen on управлять . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.to remain as пользоваться .школа.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . is. for между .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.to turn out to be оставаться . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.above перед . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. .The lamp is above the table. быть . be The verb “Быть” (to be. You will learn more about this in a later lesson.Behind this building there is a school. govern являться . . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .to seem. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. but it is something to keep in mind.in front of под . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.control. was заниматься . .to be.to become увлекаться . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. Под столом сидит кот. is.between над .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. Над столом висит лампа. (Example: Я был врачом . manage. . enjoy становиться/стать .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .to be interested in оказываться .I was a doctor).under Examples: За этим зданием .Happy birthday С новым годом . . to be occupied with интересоваться . . beyond.
2nd or 3rd person)..We knew Я знал .The dog knew . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал .I knew (male speaking) Я знала ... Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). but in Russian there is simply one.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала . Он знал .Vladimir knew Дима знал . Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.It knew Они знали . To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.Elena knew Ольга знала . Forming Verbs in Past Tense.Olga knew Собака знала . Let's have a look at the past tense now.They knew Мы знали . Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. (ie 1st.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .He knew Она знала . Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. The same principal also applies in the future tense. it is conceptually quite easy. or talk about something that has happened in the past.Dima knew Елена знала . Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English. Although this concept differs from English. In English there are quite a number of different past tenses.She knew Оно знало .Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.
I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. Ты. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses.I was home.I worked everyday. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. so there is no perfective in the present tense. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. . The following sentences are habitual or are repeated.I run in the forest every day. Я работал каждый день . (often По-). There are two aspects in Russian. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian.I worked for 2 hours. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. habitual.She wants to buy a book. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. consequently each verb has two possible forms. . and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. .I was working Я шѐл . Я работал . This should help you remember how to form the verbs. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. use the imperfective also. When using pronouns such as Я. Я работал два часа . Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. reversed or repeated actions. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. The Imperfective Aspect. and is not complete. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. ongoing. Some tenses in English can indicate this. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed.
Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. . .She did not eat bananas. Perfective: Я не позвонила . Я купил кофе . If you are still unsure which to use.He did not want to see me.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. .We did not watch the movie yesterday. Он не хотел видеть меня. Она спросила учителя.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative.I did not understand what he said. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.Did you tell him about it? .I failed to phone.Yesterday we read an interesting article.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? .Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. . . Я не жила в Англии. Я не понял. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. . . . .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets.I went home. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. Questions and Aspects. что он сказал. . Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. (but I was expected to). Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью.I did not live in England. Саша съел обед за пять минут.
.I was not (man speaking). Я был . . .They were not. . Мы сняли дачу на три месяца. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. except in the feminine. Оно не было . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be).I finished school when I was 16 years old. Я окончила школу.I‟ve been to many countries.He was Она была . Я уже посетила Швецию .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.I was (man speaking) Я была .I was (woman speaking) Он был . This is not the case in the past tense.It was Они были .At school I started learning English. В школе я начала учить английский. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.He read for three hours. . Он читал три часа. The stress moves to the word 'не'. Я не была . Я не был . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.It was not.I was not (woman speaking).She was Оно было .We rented a summer house for three months. когда мне было 16 лет . Они не были . Я была во многих странах.I‟ve already visited Sweden.
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