Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)

Хорошо(Good)

Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

сто 200 .восемьдесят 90 .двадцать три 24 .девяносто 100 .шестьдесят 70 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian). or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".тридцать 40 .четыреста 500 .восемнадцать 19 .триста 400 .восемьсот 900 .пятьсот 600 .семнадцать 18 .шестнадцать 17 .одиннадцать 12 . 30 . quite similar to English.семьсот 800 .семьдесят 80 .шестьсот 700 .сорок 50 .двадцать два 23 .11 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.тринадцать 14 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way. Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.пятнадцать 16 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.двадцать один 22 .девятьсот .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.двадцать 21 .пятьдесят 60 . Here are some examples: 20 .двести 300 .четырнадцать 15 .двенадцать 13 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.

345 23.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.564 2. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.000 1.миллион 1.миллиард For example: 131 .000 . The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. You should always say this after someone thanks you.000. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".007 2. .сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0. 0 .000 .Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".812 Please and Thank-You. 456 219 9.No Saying Hello. after somebody says thank-you.008 2.000.000 .Yes Нет ("nyet") . Yes and No. Да ("da") . You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. you can basically forget the "уй".994 1.000. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.1. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .тысяча 1.

What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . put a real questioning expression on your face. but we suggest you only use it with friends. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. except for the question mark. you may need the following phrases.Bad Saying Good-Bye. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? .Good-bye. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. and should only be used with friends..Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . not the individual words. Привет is also commonly used with friends. There are two forms of this word. If somebody says Привет to you. You may also hear people say Пока.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. Вы говорите по-английски? .My name is . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. If all else fails. there is no difference between the question and the statement.. slang) You should generally use до свидания. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") .Do you (formal) speak Russian? .Pleased to meet you. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . However. Меня зовут . In order to introduce yourself. ("min-ya za-voot") .. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? ..Good/Well thank-you Плохо .Bye (Informal. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.How are things? Хорошо спасибо . Introducing Yourself. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . You should just learn the whole phrase. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . There are also two words for saying good-bye. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello".

Russian beetroot soup Суп . where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.Lemonade Сок .Menu Кофе . где кафе? . Скажите.Beer Вино . где бар? .Coca-Cola Лимонад .Tell me please.Vodka Пиво . пожалуйста..Я говорю по-английски .I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Water .Milk Кока-Кола .Wine Вода .. you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Tell me please.Soup Торт .Cake Водка .I understand Я не понимаю ..I speak Russian Я понимаю . where is a cafe? Скажите.Tell me please. пожалуйста. пожалуйста. Скажите. .Tell me please. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”. пожалуйста..Coffee Чай . где ближайшее кафе? .Tea Молоко .I speak English Я говорю по-русски . Скажите. here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . You could ask people with the following phrases...Juice Борщ .

you will generally get straight vodka. это кофе. .? . Дайте..... it is gramatically unusual)..How much is it?. пожалуйста. пожалуйста ... Сколько стоит? .. you can use the following phrase.It is coffee. пожалуйста. кофе .I want. это чай.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar..No.. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . пожалуйста. чай.Give me please.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .. пожалуйста. Дайте.. . У вас есть .What do you want? Я хочу ... or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . is it coffee? Нет.Please give me coffee with milk. кофе с молоком .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .Be careful....? If you want to ask someone if they have something. Дайте. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. Что это? . . (Just learn the whole phrase. it is tea..Please give me coffee.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .. .What is it? Это кофе. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. . .Please give me tea. Дайте. Простите. Do you have. . Examples: Дайте.Excuse me.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. You can use it to ask the price of something.What? Что вы хотите? .Do you have . when you order vodka in russia.

" на английском? . where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".How do you say "..We Вы . you.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . (Known as the nominative case. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian..It (n) Мы . For example: I..You (informal) Он . eat.You (formal... Где Туалет . it.. him. and the object is "him". Here are some useful phrases. love.. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". Pronouns are words that can replace names.21 rubles.Сколько? . Пожалуйста . How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. Definitions Verbs are action words.She. her. The subject is "I". want. "love" is the verb. walk...? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is..) Я-I Ты .. For example: run." in Russian? Что значит ". Как сказать ".. It (m) Она .Tell me please.. they are things you can do.What does ".. she. or plural) . In the sentence "I love him".How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . he.He." по-русски? . Скажите. It (f) Оно ." mean in English? Where is the toilet..

"I am working" and "I do work".You work Он. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. it is not too difficult.You (informal) Его . It (m.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work).He.Us Вас . работать .To work. (infinitive. She. (Known as the accusative case) Меня . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. (Example: I work. It works.Her.Me Тебя . and add the appropriate ending ("ю". Мы работаем . dictionary form) . Just remember that unlike English.Him. It is the most common. This happens a little in English. dictionary form) Я работаю . or plural) Их . Оно работает . Она.Они .You (formal. Они работают . and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. and the second conjugation.You work.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать .("yevo") . "ем". In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". It (f) Нас .I work Ты работаешь . "ете" or "ют"). he works). "ет". To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). You should memorise these pronouns.n) Еѐ .To understand. "ешь". Both these patterns are quite similar.We work Вы работаете . Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. but not as much. and once you get the hang of it.They work.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". (infinitive. (There are also some irregular verbs). The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить".

Они знают .We speak. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . Ты понимаешь . She.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . Она.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. dictionary form) Я знаю . Она. Знать . (infinitive. Я не понимаю .You understand. Оно говорит . Оно знает .You understand. Ты знаешь . Ты говоришь . Мы говорим . Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation.They understand. Они понимают . Вы знаете . Он не понимает . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation.You know. It understands Мы понимаем . говорить .We understand.I know.I don't understand. Оно понимает . Remember.He.You know.He doesn't understand.To know.I don't know. Он. Мы знаем . For example: Я не знаю . Он. dictionary form) Я говорю . She. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).You speak. She.He. (infinitive.I speak. Вы понимаете . Она.I understand.He. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. It Speaks.We know.Я понимаю .They know. It knows. which replace "ить". . Он.To speak.

Вы живѐте . слышишь . For Example: Я говорю по-английски .I go (by transport). She. Мы живѐм .The dog doesn't speak English. Они говорят .They live. It goes (by transport).To hear. Она.We go (by transport).You hear.We don't speak Russian.You live.You hear.I speak English Он говорит по-русски . It hears.We live. Мы едем .To go (by transport). Ты едешь . Собака не говорит по-английски . Я живу .They go (by transport).Вы говорите . Я еду . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). Она.You speak. слышим . слышу .You live. you can often predict the endings.He.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . Он.He. She.You go (by transport).They hear. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Они едут . Оно живѐт .They speak.Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски .To live. Оно едет .You go (by transport). She. Они живут .I hear. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above.We hear. слышать . However. .I live. Вы едете .He. слышат . It lives. слышите . Ты живѐшь . except that "у" replaces "ю". Some examples: Ехать . Жить . often once you know the stem of the verb. Он. слышит . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian.

О. Moscow. Я. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case.A letter that is not a vowel. 4.Is Masculine Кофе . In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. Papa) . Э. Ы. Russian has three genders: masculine. Ю. From the dictionary form of a noun. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. Luckily. cat.(Grandfather) . In English we do this by having a strict word-order. Vowel . and neuter (neutral).(Coffee) . there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. Consonant . И and Й.(Man) .Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. name or place. Папа . In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender.(Daddy. У.Is Masculine Мужчина . There are very few exceptions to these rules. (Except ь.A noun is a thing.I. pen. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. as with many other languages. feminine. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. 5. Gender of nouns. the word is masculine.Is Masculine Дедушка . In the case of other objects like “pen”. Он едет домой .Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. Е. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.I live in London. The letters А. Example: dog.(Uncle) . this occurs mainly because of physical gender. or “й”. cup. But there are five notable exceptions. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling.O.E. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. paper. unlike many languages. 3. “cup”. In Russian. it will be in its dictionary form. If it is a consonant. Ё.Is Masculine Дядя . each noun is assigned a gender.U in English). (A. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне .Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract.He is going home Definitions Noun .Is Masculine . “house”. In Russian we use 6 cases. ъ because they have no sound). Cases . If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter.

(Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. документ (document). and still keep the same meaning. (In. (Eg. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. at. радио (radio). To indicate each case we change the ending of word. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. For example. Хлеб (bread). so we will take it slowly. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). . It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. брат (brother). “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. Greek and German. In Russian there are six cases. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. and about. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟.. Feminine : газета (newspaper). (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. Россия (Russia).Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian... The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. In fact it was also used in Old English. on.. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun.

The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. In the sentence “I love her”. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. without changing the actual meaning. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object.Interestingly. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. especially pronouns. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. In Russian. so there is nothing special to learn here. in the nominative case. Russian uses the case for all nouns. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. “я” or “а”. .newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building .students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . the word “I” is the subject. add “ы”. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. you need to use the accusative case also. For example. “ы”. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. not plants). The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural.buildings) The Accusative Case. However. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. The Nominative Case. in this case the word “dog”. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. Russian is very free about word order. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case.

I love music. 3. add “я”. Ты любишь музыку? . If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . If noun is animate. with “я”. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. 2. add “а”. Feminine Nouns: 1. If the noun in inanimate. Я люблю музыку .He loves Moscow. .I don't like music.I love sport. Neuter Nouns: 1. Я не люблю музыку . Replace “а” with “у”. Replace “я” with “ю”. Он любит Москву . replace “й”. 4. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence.Nadya loves wine. Надя не любит вино . Иван любит чай . replace “ь”.Ivan loves tea.I love Moscow. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. Надя любит вино . If noun is animate.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . there is no change.Nadya doesn't like wine. 2. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate).Masculine Nouns: 1.

I am listening to the radio. it is probably the conjunction "that". Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Я слушаю музыку .to work Хотеть .I am watching television.to think Работать . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. so don't be confused.I am listening to music.I know that you love music.to study Думать .I love her. Я читаю журнал .I am reading a book. Я еѐ люблю . Смотреть . You can use it to form questions. The word "Что" has two uses. что ты любишь музыку. An example could be: Я знаю.I am reading a magazine.I love you. Слушать . . Я слушаю радио .I love him.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . Что ты любишь? . Читать . Она любит меня . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . Я читаю газету .What do you love? However.to read."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . .to watch.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?".to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .to listen Изучать . If you would like. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence.

Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.I think so! Как вы думаете? .Я изучаю русский язык . Что вы хотите? .I study Russian. Я хочу купить журнал .I want tea. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. For example: Я люблю читать .Where? Кто? . (lit: I study the Russian language). You can include it into many phrases. Я люблю путешествовать .I want to buy a magazine. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . Где? . For example: Очень . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.Who? Что? . Я очень люблю Москву .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .I love to travel.very. In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.I love to read.I really love sport.How? Почему? . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". Add : “е”.I really love Moscow. 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) .What? Как? . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. Я так думаю .

As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. Я живу в Петербурге . Я живу в Сибири . 4. Replace “ь” with “и”. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? .in the garden в лесу . Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English.I live in Siberia.I live in St. 3. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces.Feminine Nouns: 1.I live in Moscow. suburbs and places.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . (Eg. (They are in dicionary form) кино . As with any language. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1.on the street Что на столе? .I live in London. „at a concert‟). Exception: Replace “ия”. Replace “я” with “е”. Replace “а” with “е”. “е” remains unchanged. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places.cinema театр .in the forest на улице . Petersburg. even though they are not Russian. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . Я живу в Лондоне . The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. although these aren‟t precise rules. Here are some tips to help you. „at work‟.Where is she? на вокзале .at the post office в саду .On the table is a book and a pencil. (Eg. 2.at the station на почте .theatre . Using prepositions and the prepositional case. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . „at a station‟. Replace “о” with “е” 2.

However.bank гостиница . прямо потом направо . Both these words are verbs of motion. you would use the accusative case. we will introduce them now in a simple way. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). прямо . and are grammatically quite complex. prepositions have more than one meaning.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .I am going to school.To the right. Here are some examples for you to compare. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs.restaurant банк .museum больница . налево .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes.school библиотека .аптека .park стадион . направо .I work at (in) a school.stadium школа .library кафе . Где вы работаете? .Straight ahead.Straight ahead then to the right. Куда вы идѐте . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. there are actually four ways: .pharmacy парк . You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. your answer will involve the prepositional case. So to express „to go‟ in Russian. but as these words are so important for basic Russian. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.cafe площадь .To the left.hotel музей . When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. The first indicates you are going on foot. you can tell this by the case. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟.square ресторан .

in one direction.He is going to the hotel by taxi. Ты ездишь . Ехать . or repetitively (Я езжу.I am going to the cinema on the metro.To go by transport.To go on foot.He is going to the hotel. Мы ездим.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . я иду в университет . Ты ходишь. Они часто ездят в Амстердам . Он идѐт.We are going to the cafe. (Я иду. in more than one direction.I am going to the university Ходить . Вы идѐте.I am going to school. in one direction.To go on foot. Они идут) Я иду в школу . Вы едете. or repetitively. Мы ходим. Мы идѐм в кафе . Я иду в кино . Мы идѐм.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день . (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Мы едем в кафе . (Я еду. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Он едет.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Вы ходите.I go to school. in more than one direction. Он ездит . Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон .I go to the theatre every day.I am going to school.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Мы едем. Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Он ходит.Идти .He is going to London Ездить . (Я хожу. Вы ездите. Ты идѐшь.We are going to the cafe. Ты едешь.We go to the cafe every day.I am going to the cinema. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . Ты идѐшь в кино? .To go by transport. Я часто хожу в кино .

daughter Сын .grandson Семья .father Мама . Твоя (f). У меня есть сын и дочь .dad Сестра . Наша (f).our .his.your Его (m n) ("yevo"). in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.parents Дети .uncle Родители .granddaughter Внук . Мой (m). Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.I don't have any children. У меня есть сестра .my Твой (m). Наше (n).Мать .I have a brother.Do you have children?. У меня есть брат . Наши (pl) . For example we use the words mum and dad. У тебя есть дети? . Твоѐ (n).mum Папа . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.grandmother Дедушка .auntie Дядя . her Наш (m).children Внучка . Моѐ (n).I have a son and a daughter. Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.sister Брат .husband Тѐтя . Еѐ (f) .grandfather Жена .son бабушка .I have a sister. Here are some Russian phrases you could use. Твои (pl) .mother Отец .family Just like English. У меня нет детей .brother Дочь . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.wife Муж . Мои (pl) . Моя (f).

. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.This is my house Это моя квартира . you may wish to say her name is Anna.My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. Ваше (n).my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. The Russian word Это means 'this is'. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .good morning Добрый день .Ваш (m).My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .his name is Ivan. However. Ваша (f). This is. Доброе утро . For example.Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .good evening Спокойной ночи . Это мой дом . Моя мама любит музыку .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .your Их .good afternoon Добрый вечер .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. Ваши (pl) . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again..goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .

Using the genitive case . Let's have a look at some more examples. pay particular attention to the order of the words. Neuter Nouns: 1.Igor's telephone. However. add “а”. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. Replace “ь”. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. Anna's) Дом Ивана .ownership As you can see in the above example.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. Replace “а” with “ы”.Adam's dog. Feminine Nouns: 1. Брат Адама любит Москву .Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. Replace “й”. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. In the phrase "Дом Ивана".Masculine Nouns: 1. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Сестра Анны читает газету . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. in Russian. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . the object that is owned always comes first. Replace “ь” with “и”. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. Replace “я” with “и”. 2. with “я”. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? .Adam's brother loves Moscow. Собака Адама . Replace “е” with “я” For example. For example. If the noun ends in a consonant. (This is like using 's in English).Anna's car. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . 2. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. 3. 3. Replace “о” with “а” 2. add “я”.

Вас. it is just easier to learn the concept by example.sentence and uses the nominative case. Generally. Их) Using the genitive case . As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't .. Кофе нет . (Меня. Here are some examples. This is exactly the same concept as above. Here are some examples. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. Нас.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . Using the genitive case .There is no tea. Чая нет . To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.He is not home. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. Тебя. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. Его. Его нет дома .I have book.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Молока нет .. Еѐ.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning.She has a dog. стакан молока .There is no coffee.to have As the genitive case relates to possession. У нее есть собака.There is no milk. У меня есть книга . У вас есть кофе? .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. .Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. As we have seen in a previous lesson.Ivan isn't here.‟. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) .A map of the city.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . Ивана нет . The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained.A glass of milk. план города . Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.

) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. for example "10 roubles". First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. Х.Using the genitive case . in the nominative case. К.Plural (Subject) In Russian. The genitive case is used after most numbers. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. you make a plural by using the letters "и". Ч. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. plurals. depending on whether the object is animate or not.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . "ы". Ж. quantaties.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . but don‟t worry. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural.numbers. Ш. The Nominative Case . "я" or "а". Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. . add “ы”. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . It is quite a bit of information to present all at once.

Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine).газет (newspapers') здание . Ok. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. but in Russian we use it for all numbers. let‟s see how to use them. but in the plural form. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.щ. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. This may feel a little strange at first.англичанок. .Anna loves books.ч. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.ш. or whether you are just using general plurals. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. девушка . англичанка . Книги на столе .ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). Here are some examples. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation.The books are on the table. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.марок. Анна любит книги .девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.студентов (students') газета .The Genitive Case .зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. (марка .

8. Here are some examples. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.ten roubles сто рублей .eight buildings девять собак .one rouble двадцать один рубль . 14.six books семь газет . три рубля .four students три газеты . or the last digit of the number is 2. (example: 22. then you should use the genitive singular case. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. 12.one girl Я знаю одну девушку .one hundred dollars шесть книг . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. 13 & 14).five roubles десять рублей .two books три собаки . 3 or 4. одна девушка . .seven newspapers восемь зданий .4 If the number. etc) пять рублей . 4) (but not 12.one hundred roubles сто долларов . 61) (but not 11). or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.four dollars четыре студента .21 roubles один доллар .7.four roubles две книги .nine dogs десять студентов .three dogs четыре доллара . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1. The number one declines like an adjective.9. 21.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2. try using plurals that involve money.3. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.6. 13. 103.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. Here are some examples.I know one girl один рубль ..three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5. To help you get used to this concept. 42.0.three roubles четыре рубля .

.I am 23 years old. Как вас зовут? . Here are some other common Russian names for men. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something..What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .. Quantity ends in 1 .Boris Владимир . Как его зовут? . Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. Вова) ..So in summary.How old are you. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .As per position in the sentence.Genitive Plural General Quantity . Как еѐ зовут? .Vladimir (Володя.7.My name is Vera. Quantity ends in 5. Николай .3. .His name is Boris.6.Genitive Singular.Nikolay (Коля) Борис .I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . (Lit: To me there are 16 years).Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Мне восемнадцать лет .) Quantity not specified . Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.Her name is Alyona.-надцать . Quantity ends in 2. Much like “Мне холодно” .8.9.0. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .What is his name? Его зовут Борис .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.the dative case.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).4 .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.

Alexander (Саша. here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.and а . You should be able to remember all of these. Здравствуйте .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Oxana Екатерина .good morning Добрый день . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. and should only be used when you are in close firendship.Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . Елена .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Andrey Александр .Yekaterina Анастасия .Mariya (Маша) Ольга . but try to learn them all.Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . Спасибо .good afternoon Добрый вечер . Шура) Дмитрий .Natalya (Наташа) Мария .good evening Спокойной ночи . The diminuative is a more personal.Hello Привет .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.and/but (contrasting) .Thank-You Пожалуйста . or tender form.Yelena (Лена) Наталья . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и . Андрей . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used. (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). Some of these may be new.Pyotr.Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Пѐтр . This is like a pet name.Sergey Алексей . Peter.Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Olga (Оля) Александра .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .

Give me please. Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. . У вас есть водка? . .но . onto.from по . кофе с молоком и с сахаром.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. Дайте.There is no coffee. пожалуйста. coffee with milk and with sugar.Do you have tea? Чая нет.I know that you speak Russian.out of. We will use only common words. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns. во . to (+accusative) о. at (+prepositional). Что вы хотите? .towards.He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences.My mum loves music.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .her.for (+accusative). For example. In Russian we would use the word "а".or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". я-I он . . so you should try to learn them all.in (+prepositional). to (+accusative) на .with у . Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.him. .but или .near.you (informal) вы . These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .There is no tea. .Tell me please. пожалуйста. . Скажите. . где туалет? . it их . from от .Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. У вас есть чай? . to за . in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev.on.I want tea please. behind (+instrumental) из . it ты .". . it еѐ . пожалуйста.about к . что ты говоришь по-русски. Он любит говорить по-английски.he.What do you want? Я хочу чай. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.you (formal/plural) его .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . You might also find some new words in these sentences. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". об .along.

What do you think? Где он? .He is going home. . Он хорошо говорит по-русски. . Я не понимаю.I don't understand. .He is not home.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. Я думаю.Why? Что ты знаешь? .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .The dog doesn't speak English.Who? Что? . Ты понимаешь? . .How much? четыре доллара .100 roubles.I am reading a magazine. сколько стоит? .I understand.4 dollars.Who is he? Я читаю журнал . Его нет дома .What? Как? .How? Когда? . что ты понимаешь. Я слушаю музыку . Сестра Анны читает газету . Собака не говорит по-английски. Моя сестра читает газету . Я очень люблю Москву .I think that you understand.Where is he? Где кафе? .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . сколько стоит? .Adam's brother loves Moscow. Почему ты не понимаешь? . Я изучаю русский язык .Твой брат говорит по-русски? . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .21 roubles. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . сколько стоит? .Where is the cafe? Кто он? .I really love sport.Where? Кто? . .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. Он едет домой .I know that you understand. Брат Адама любит Москву .My Mum loves music.When? Почему? . Моя мама любит музыку .I live in London.I really love Moscow. что вы понимаете.I am listening to music. Я очень люблю спорт .4 roubles.Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.My sister is reading a newspaper. Где? .I am studying the Russian language.How much? четыре рубля .Do you understand? Я знаю.Does your borther speak Russian? Да.How much? двадцать один рубль .How much? сто рублей . He speaks Russian well. . .Yes. сколько стоит? .

It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. it. Адам .Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. If the noun ends in a consonant. "о" or a consonant with "ам".Forming the dative case. If the noun ends in a consonant.you (formal. 1. Ей (f) . Feminine Nouns: 1. add "ам". add “ю”.Адаму Елена . with “ю”. Им . 2. . 2. To create nouns in the dative case. Ему (n).them. 3.him. Вам . Мне .. Replace “о” with “у” 2. Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “й”. add “у”.Елене Молоко . Neuter Nouns: 1. Нам . Ему (m). her. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Тебе . 2. or plural). Replace “ь” with “и”.you (informal).Молоку Вино . Replace "а". 3. Replace “ия” with “ии”.us. 3. Replace “а” with “е”.me.. 4. Replace “я” with “е”. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. Replace “ь”.

. Они дают цветы Елене . In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.(they) give The command forms of this word include.. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case.I give flowers to Anna. Я помогаю Ивану .give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson..Give me your address and telephone number.I am helping this girl. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . Similarly.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .Give me .(you) give Дают .(we) give Даѐте .(he) gives Даѐм .. the word “Anna” is the indirect object.I am helping Anna. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. Дайте мне . you need to be able to recognise cases effectively. For this reason. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations. Мы помогаем маме каждый день .. It should be used in the dative case.. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. Я даю цветы Анне .We help mother every day.Ivan gives flowers to Anna..(I) give Даѐшь . Дай .(you) give Даѐт . .I am helping Ivan. . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. Я помогаю этой девушке . In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. Here are the conjuctions: Даю .give! Дайте .They give flowers to Elena.

How do you like . Мне холодно . (lit: children are pleasing to me. Мне очень нравятся цветы .. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case..She likes Moscow. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. so it is worth learning now. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something.Adam likes Moscow. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.) Ей нравится Москва .I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . it is like saying “To me it is likable”. Мне нравится Москва .) Ему нравится Москва .You like Moscow. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like).He is cold (to him its cold) .I like the children. and it relies on the dative case.? Как вам нравится фильм? . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. However it is a common word.I like your children. Иван звонит Анне каждый день .) Practice using the word нравится.Ivan calls Anna every day.? .Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . Адаму нравится Москва . It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . Как вам нравится . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet..I really like the flowers.He likes Moscow. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. Вам нравится Москва . (The "ся" ending is reflexive). The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. Мне нравятся цветы .How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. it is still worth learning these examples.I like Moscow.. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. However this verb is used differently.Звонить .to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . so it is enough for now just to learn this form.She calls Ivan every day. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.I like the flowers.

I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . if stressed “ѐм”. All consonants. if stressed “ѐм”..I am 23 years old. and has too many meanings. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). then add “ем”.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . It is followed by the dative case. Except. Replace “й”. 2. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. “ч”. Мы едем к друзьям .Ей холодно . “ц”. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. 4.. “ш” or “щ”.We are going to our friends. add “ом”. add “ем”.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . with “ем”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . Replace “ь”.I am walking towards the station. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. . to create an exact rule. Although the use of this proposition is too varied.

Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Иван пишет карандашом . “ч”. Neuter Nouns: 1. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.Feminine Nouns: 1.женой (wife) Иван .ложкой (spoon) нож . add "ами"..карандашом (pencil) ложка . Я ем суп ложкой . 2.. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Replace “а” with “ой”. Accompanied by. All consonants.мужем (husband) жена ..студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Replace "а". Олег режет мясо ножом . Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Examples. In English these words can have different meanings. “ш” or “щ”.With.ножом (knife) муж . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.молоком (milk) сметана . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Replace “ь” with “ью”. The preposition: „с‟ . if stressed “ѐй”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . “ц”. Except. Replace “я” with “ей”. "о" with "ами". 4. 3.. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. .Анной (Anna) студенты . If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. 1.Ivan writes with a pencil. 2.I eat soup with a spoon.

Pronouns .Me and you Notes: 1. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Иван с женой идут в кафе. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. it is often written as “со”. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Мной . „with him‟. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Me Тобой . Надя хочет чай с лимоном .My wife and I are going to the cafe. In English we would use the word “and”.I eat borsh with sour cream. „with you‟. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Her . 2. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.Ivan and I are going to school. Мы с вами . Анна с мужем идут в кафе.You Им . Have a look at the following Russian examples.Ivan wants tea with milk.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. . Here are some examples.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.For ease of pronunciation.Please give me coffee with milk. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Дайте.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. with Ivan”). .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.My husband and I are going to the cafe. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. . пожалуйста. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). пожалуйста. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . However it is followed by the genitive case.Nadya wants tea with lemon. . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Him Ей .

Them Seasons and parts of the day. .spring весной .day. afternoon днѐм .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.Им .in winter весна .It Нами .Us Вами .in the afternoon вечер .autumn осенью . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .night ночью .in summer осень .in the evening ночь .in the morning день . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.winter зимой .You (plural) Ими .morning утром . For example: лето .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.in autumn зима . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.evening вечером .summer летом .

быть . .за . is. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.Behind this building there is a school.to use.under Examples: За этим зданием . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. was заниматься . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. beyond. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. be The verb “Быть” (to be. to be occupied with интересоваться .I was a doctor). Forming the Russian Instrumental Case .to be engaged in.The lamp is above the table.to become увлекаться . manage. .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . Над столом висит лампа.In front of this school turn to the left. for между . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . You don't need to learn these verbs now. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. .школа.above перед .to be interested in оказываться . Под столом сидит кот.to be. but it is something to keep in mind.behind.to seem. enjoy становиться/стать . . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. (Example: Я был врачом .to turn out to be оставаться .Happy birthday С новым годом . govern являться .to remain as пользоваться . is. was) has no present tense.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. .to be keen on управлять .in front of под . Перед этой школой поверните налево. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.control.Under the table the cat is sitting.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.between над .

. if stressed “ѐм”.мужем (husband) жена . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. 2. with “ем”. All consonants. Replace "а". 3.. add “ем”.. “ш” or “щ”. Я ем суп ложкой . . Replace “ь”. Иван пишет карандашом . Олег режет мясо ножом . Except.. Examples.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . add “ом”. Except.Ivan writes with a pencil. 1. 2.Masculine Nouns: 1.ножом (knife) муж .ложкой (spoon) нож . if stressed “ѐм”. 2. Feminine Nouns: 1.Анной (Anna) студенты .карандашом (pencil) ложка . “ц”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Neuter Nouns: 1. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. if stressed “ѐй”.молоком (milk) сметана . 4. 4. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. “ц”.женой (wife) Иван . Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. “ш” or “щ”.I eat soup with a spoon. Replace “ь” with “ью”. add "ами". Replace “а” with “ой”. All consonants.. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. "о" with "ами".. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. Replace “я” with “ей”. “ч”. In English these words can have different meanings. Replace “й”. then add “ем”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . “ч”.

Instrumental Case . 2.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .My wife and I are going to the cafe.Me and you Notes: 1. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. Иван с женой идут в кафе.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Nadya wants tea with lemon. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Дайте.Ivan and I are going to school. Here are some examples.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Ivan wants tea with milk. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .The preposition: „с‟ . пожалуйста. it is often written as “со”. with Ivan”). Мы с вами . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Иван хочет чай с молоком . Иван с Анной идут в кафе.I eat borsh with sour cream.My husband and I are going to the cafe. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Pronouns . пожалуйста. Accompanied by. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.With. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. . In English we would use the word “and”. . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.Please give me coffee with milk.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. For ease of pronunciation. However it is followed by the genitive case. кофе с молоком . .

autumn осенью .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .spring весной .at night . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.summer летом .in winter весна .Us Вами .Me Тобой .Them Seasons and parts of the day. „with him‟.You (plural) Ими .in autumn зима .Her Им .You Им .evening вечером . For example: лето .morning утром . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.winter зимой . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Мной . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.night ночью .in the evening ночь .in the morning день .It Нами .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. „with you‟.day. afternoon днѐм .in summer осень .Him Ей .in the afternoon вечер .

for между . is. .Under the table the cat is sitting. Перед этой школой поверните налево. enjoy становиться/стать . за . (Example: Я был врачом . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. . . быть .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .above перед . is. was) has no present tense.In front of this school turn to the left. Под столом сидит кот.to use.to turn out to be оставаться . govern являться . .behind.to be engaged in.The lamp is above the table. to be occupied with интересоваться .to remain as пользоваться . Над столом висит лампа. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .to be interested in оказываться .in front of под .Behind this building there is a school.to be keen on управлять . beyond. manage.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.to become увлекаться . You don't need to learn these verbs now.under Examples: За этим зданием .to be.школа. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. be The verb “Быть” (to be. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. . but it is something to keep in mind.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.Happy birthday С новым годом . was заниматься . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .control. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.to seem.I was a doctor).between над . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.

Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story..Elena knew Ольга знала . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.I knew (male speaking) Я знала .Vladimir knew Дима знал .It knew Они знали . To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. In English there are quite a number of different past tenses..You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала . it is conceptually quite easy. (ie 1st.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .Olga knew Собака знала . but in Russian there is simply one. 2nd or 3rd person). Let's have a look at the past tense now. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject.. The same principal also applies in the future tense.He knew Она знала .I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.Dima knew Елена знала . Although this concept differs from English. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. or talk about something that has happened in the past.The dog knew . Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).They knew Мы знали . Он знал . Forming Verbs in Past Tense.She knew Оно знало . You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings.We knew Я знал .

The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. (often По-). reversed or repeated actions. ongoing. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. Ты. There are two aspects in Russian. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective.I was home. . By definition something in the present tense is happening now. and is not complete. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. Some tenses in English can indicate this. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. Я работал каждый день . If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома .I worked for 2 hours. habitual. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. When using pronouns such as Я.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. The Imperfective Aspect. . use the imperfective also. Я работал . The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. Simply conjugate them as discussed above.I was working Я шѐл .You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. consequently each verb has two possible forms. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished.She wants to buy a book. . Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. Я работал два часа . There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses.I run in the forest every day. so there is no perfective in the present tense.I worked everyday. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect.

We did not watch the movie yesterday. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. что он сказал.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative.I did not live in England.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. . The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. Она спросила учителя.I did not understand what he said. . Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью.Yesterday we read an interesting article. . try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits.He did not want to see me.Did you tell him about it? .I failed to phone. Questions and Aspects.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . Я не понял. .I went home. (but I was expected to). . . . Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. Он не хотел видеть меня. . Perfective: Я не позвонила . .Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? .Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Я купил кофе . . Я не жила в Англии. . If you are still unsure which to use.She did not eat bananas. Саша съел обед за пять минут.

. когда мне было 16 лет .At school I started learning English.I‟ve been to many countries. The stress moves to the word 'не'. .He read for three hours. В школе я начала учить английский.I‟ve already visited Sweden.I was (man speaking) Я была . Я была во многих странах.I was not (woman speaking). Он читал три часа. Я уже посетила Швецию . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be).They were not. Я был .It was Они были . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. Они не были .I was not (man speaking). .I finished school when I was 16 years old. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.He was Она была .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. Я не была .Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. Я окончила школу. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца. . . Оно не было . Я не был .We rented a summer house for three months. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.It was not.I was (woman speaking) Он был . This is not the case in the past tense. except in the feminine.She was Оно было .

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