Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)


Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

quite similar to English.девяносто 100 .двенадцать 13 .триста 400 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.девятьсот . 30 .пятнадцать 16 .11 .одиннадцать 12 .четыреста 500 .восемнадцать 19 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).восемьсот 900 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles. Here are some examples: 20 .двадцать два 23 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.пятьдесят 60 .двадцать один 22 .шестьсот 700 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.двадцать 21 .сто 200 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.семьдесят 80 .шестнадцать 17 .восемьдесят 90 .шестьдесят 70 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.тридцать 40 .тринадцать 14 .пятьсот 600 .семьсот 800 .четырнадцать 15 .семнадцать 18 .двести 300 .двадцать три 24 .сорок 50 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.

Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .000. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. 0 . you can basically forget the "уй".994 1.1.000 .000 .миллиард For example: 131 .008 2.007 2.000 1.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below. Yes and No.564 2.000. after somebody says thank-you. 456 219 9.000.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".No Saying Hello.000 . Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.тысяча 1. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") . Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No". Да ("da") .812 Please and Thank-You. . You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.миллион 1. You should always say this after someone thanks you.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.Yes Нет ("nyet") .345 23. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.

When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? .Do you (formal) speak Russian? . You may also hear people say Пока.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . You should just learn the whole phrase. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . Меня зовут . There are two forms of this word.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. Вы говорите по-английски? . You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. not the individual words. put a real questioning expression on your face..Bad Saying Good-Bye. slang) You should generally use до свидания. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello".Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . However.. If all else fails. In order to introduce yourself. There are also two words for saying good-bye. except for the question mark. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. there is no difference between the question and the statement.Bye (Informal. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . ("min-ya za-voot") . How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . and should only be used with friends...Pleased to meet you. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English).How are things? Хорошо спасибо . Привет is also commonly used with friends. but we suggest you only use it with friends. If somebody says Привет to you. Introducing Yourself. you may need the following phrases. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone.My name is .Good-bye.

Скажите. Скажите.I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia. Скажите.Tell me please. где кафе? .Coca-Cola Лимонад .Russian beetroot soup Суп .. пожалуйста.Tell me please.I understand Я не понимаю .Tea Молоко .Я говорю по-английски . You could ask people with the following phrases. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Beer Вино . где бар? . где ближайшее кафе? . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.I speak Russian Я понимаю . where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.Lemonade Сок . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню ..Milk Кока-Кола ... where is a cafe? Скажите.Wine Вода .. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Tell me please.Vodka Пиво . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink..Cake Водка . пожалуйста.Tell me please.I speak English Я говорю по-русски . пожалуйста.Menu Кофе .Coffee Чай . .Soup Торт . пожалуйста.Water .Juice Борщ .

Give me please.. is it coffee? Нет. Дайте. пожалуйста. Простите.. .Excuse me.. кофе с молоком . . (Just learn the whole phrase.What do you want? Я хочу . пожалуйста. У вас есть .? If you want to ask someone if they have something. it is tea.It is coffee... Here are some Russian phrases you might need.Please give me coffee with milk..Please give me coffee.. пожалуйста . it is gramatically unusual). What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. это кофе.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . . это чай.. пожалуйста.Please give me tea.. Дайте.. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. пожалуйста..No.Do you have ..? . кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Be careful.. Что это? . кофе . .. .How much is it?. you can use the following phrase.. Дайте. you will generally get straight vodka. when you order vodka in russia.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . You can use it to ask the price of something.What is it? Это кофе.. . чай. .. Сколько стоит? . Do you have.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order.What? Что вы хотите? .. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .I want.. Examples: Дайте.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Дайте.

) Я-I Ты .. Пожалуйста . her.Tell me please.21 rubles." mean in English? Where is the toilet..What does ". The subject is "I"... where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".. For example: run. It (m) Она . him. Скажите.It (n) Мы .. Где Туалет .He.Сколько? ..She..You (formal. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence. and the object is "him". In the sentence "I love him". they are things you can do.How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . Definitions Verbs are action words...How do you say ". he. For example: I. she.." in Russian? Что значит ". eat." по-русски? .. want. "love" is the verb. It (f) Оно . How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? . The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". love. it. walk. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. Как сказать "." на английском? .You (informal) Он ... Pronouns are words that can replace names. Here are some useful phrases. or plural) . (Known as the nominative case. you..We Вы .? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is..

or plural) Их . Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject.I work Ты работаешь . It (m.We work Вы работаете .n) Еѐ . Мы работаем . She. This happens a little in English. "ет". Они работают . "I am working" and "I do work". he works).You (informal) Его .Us Вас . Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.He.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". and the second conjugation. (There are also some irregular verbs). (infinitive.Him.Me Тебя . dictionary form) . (Known as the accusative case) Меня . it is not too difficult.To work. It is the most common.Они .They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". "ешь". Оно работает . Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать .You work Он.You work.You (formal. To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). and once you get the hang of it. "ете" or "ют"). Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить".Her. (Example: I work. You should memorise these pronouns. "ем". It works. but not as much. dictionary form) Я работаю . (infinitive.To understand. and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. Just remember that unlike English.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). Она.("yevo") . This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. and add the appropriate ending ("ю". работать . It (f) Нас .They work. Both these patterns are quite similar. In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work".

Оно понимает .He.I know. Она. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules.We know. Я не понимаю . Вы знаете .I speak. It knows. Они понимают . говорить . Ты знаешь .He.He doesn't understand.Я понимаю . Remember.To know.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . .You know. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? .To speak.You understand.I don't know. dictionary form) Я знаю . Ты понимаешь . Вы понимаете . Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). She. Они знают . Он.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. Она.You know. dictionary form) Я говорю . (infinitive. which replace "ить". Оно знает . Ты говоришь .You speak. Он.I understand. (infinitive.We understand. Он. It Speaks.They know. Она. She. Он не понимает . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.He. Знать . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Мы говорим . For example: Я не знаю . The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат").I don't understand. She. Оно говорит . Мы знаем .We speak. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).They understand.You understand. It understands Мы понимаем .

She.I live. Оно живѐт . Вы живѐте . Я еду . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). For Example: Я говорю по-английски . It hears.You live. слышат . you can often predict the endings. It lives.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction.You go (by transport).You hear. Они едут . Ты живѐшь . Ты едешь .He.They speak. Он. слышим .You live.They hear. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above.You hear. Они живут .We hear.They live. Она. Вы едете . She.To go (by transport).We go (by transport). Some examples: Ехать .We live.You speak. except that "у" replaces "ю". often once you know the stem of the verb.He. Жить .They go (by transport). Мы едем .I speak English Он говорит по-русски . However.We don't speak Russian. Я живу .To hear.Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . слышишь . Он.To live. Оно едет .The dog doesn't speak English. Собака не говорит по-английски . слышите .I go (by transport). слышу . She. Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. слышит .I hear. слышать . Мы живѐм .He. . Они говорят .Вы говорите .You go (by transport). Она. It goes (by transport).

In Russian. О.Is Masculine Дядя . In English we do this by having a strict word-order. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender.I live in London. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. cup. (Except ь. Э. and neuter (neutral). However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.Is Masculine Дедушка . In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender.O. 4. There are very few exceptions to these rules. Cases . “cup”.(Uncle) .(Grandfather) . (A. From the dictionary form of a noun. Gender of nouns. cat. Russian has three genders: masculine. Ё. paper. feminine. each noun is assigned a gender. But there are five notable exceptions. “house”. this occurs mainly because of physical gender.(Daddy. Ю. The letters А.Is Masculine Кофе .E.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. Он едет домой . Я.U in English). When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. If it is a consonant.I. 5. Example: dog. In Russian we use 6 cases. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them.(Man) . here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1.Is Masculine Мужчина . it will be in its dictionary form. If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. pen. or “й”. Luckily. Consonant .(Coffee) . In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. as with many other languages. name or place. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. И and Й. Moscow. the word is masculine. Е. ъ because they have no sound). 3. Papa) . in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. In the case of other objects like “pen”. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . Ы.A noun is a thing.A letter that is not a vowel. Vowel .Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence.He is going home Definitions Noun . Папа . If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. У. unlike many languages.Is Masculine .

(“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. брат (brother).Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. (In. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. Хлеб (bread).. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. and about.. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. In fact it was also used in Old English. so we will take it slowly. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. at.. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. документ (document).) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). . “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. Greek and German. and still keep the same meaning. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. In Russian there are six cases. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. For example. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words.. (Eg. радио (radio). Россия (Russia). Feminine : газета (newspaper). on. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English.

“ы”. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. However. add “ы”. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. especially pronouns.Interestingly. in the nominative case. you need to use the accusative case also. In Russian. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. For example. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . not plants). (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. . Russian uses the case for all nouns. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural.buildings) The Accusative Case. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. “я” or “а”. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. without changing the actual meaning. The Nominative Case. so there is nothing special to learn here. Russian is very free about word order. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. In the sentence “I love her”. in this case the word “dog”. the word “I” is the subject. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.

Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate).Masculine Nouns: 1. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. 4. add “а”. replace “ь”. Я люблю музыку . replace “й”. there is no change. 2. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. with “я”.Nadya doesn't like wine. Replace “а” with “у”.He loves Moscow.Nadya loves wine. Надя любит вино . 3.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . If noun is animate. Replace “я” with “ю”. If the noun in inanimate.Ivan loves tea. Надя не любит вино . Он любит Москву .I don't like music.I love Moscow.I love sport. Ты любишь музыку? . If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. . Feminine Nouns: 1. add “я”. Я не люблю музыку . 2. If noun is animate. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. Neuter Nouns: 1.I love music. Иван любит чай . Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт .

to work Хотеть . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.I know that you love music.I love him.What do you love? However. Я слушаю радио . . Она любит меня . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". Что ты любишь? .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the think Работать .I am reading a book. Я слушаю музыку .I am listening to music. Слушать .to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор . Я еѐ люблю . Смотреть . You can use it to form watch.I love you. it is probably the conjunction "that". .I love her.I am watching television. The word "Что" has two study Думать ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . Читать . An example could be: Я знаю.I am reading a magazine. so don't be confused.I am listening to the radio. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.to listen Изучать . Я читаю газету . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . что ты любишь музыку. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. Я читаю журнал . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. If you would like.

(or really) Я очень люблю спорт . Add : “е”.I love to read.What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. Я так думаю .I think so! Как вы думаете? . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.I study Russian. In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.How? Почему? .I want tea. Я хочу купить журнал . Что вы хотите? .I love to travel.I really love Moscow. (lit: I study the Russian language). For example: Очень . You can include it into many phrases.very. Где? .What? Как? .Я изучаю русский язык .What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.I really love sport. Я очень люблю Москву . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".I want to buy a magazine. Я люблю путешествовать .Who? Что? .Where? Кто? . For example: Я люблю читать .

I live in Siberia. „at a concert‟). As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities.Feminine Nouns: 1. 4. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . (Eg. suburbs and the forest на улице . Replace “о” with “е” 2. Replace “ь” with “и”.Where is she? на вокзале .in the garden в лесу . „at a station‟.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . “е” remains the station на почте . The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. As with any language. Я живу в Петербурге . Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English.I live in St.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . (Eg. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. although these aren‟t precise rules. even though they are not Russian. Replace “я” with “е”. 3.on the street Что на столе? . Я живу в Лондоне .On the table is a book and a pencil. Exception: Replace “ия”. „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Using prepositions and the prepositional case.cinema театр .theatre . Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. Я живу в Сибири . Petersburg.I live in Moscow. (They are in dicionary form) кино . „at work‟.at the post office в саду . Replace “а” with “е”. 2. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. Here are some tips to help you.I live in London.

you can tell this by the case. Где вы работаете? .Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . налево .park стадион .Straight ahead. Куда вы идѐте . прямо потом направо . there are actually four ways: .library кафе . The first indicates you are going on foot. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs.аптека .To the right. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). So to express „to go‟ in гостиница .school библиотека .stadium школа .Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.hotel музей . Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. прямо . However.I work at (in) a school. Here are some examples for you to compare. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).square ресторан . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. you would use the accusative case. your answer will involve the prepositional Location and Direction площадь .To the банк . and are grammatically quite complex. but as these words are so important for basic Russian. prepositions have more than one meaning. Both these words are verbs of motion.Straight ahead then to the right. we will introduce them now in a simple way.I am going to school. направо .museum больница . You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in парк .

I am going to the cinema. in more than one direction. Ты ездишь .To go on foot. Он ездит .Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Ты идѐшь в кино? . Мы идѐм.We go to the cafe every day. Я часто хожу в кино . Мы идѐм в кафе . Ты ходишь. Он ходит.I go to school.We are going to the cafe.We are going to the cafe. я иду в университет . Они едут ) Я еду в школу .I go to the theatre every day. (Я хожу. Вы ездите.He is going to London Ездить .He is going to the hotel. Мы едем в кафе . in one direction. (Я иду. or repetitively (Я езжу. Мы едем. Ехать . Он едет. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Они идут) Я иду в школу . in more than one direction. Мы ездим. Вы едете. Мы ходим.To go by transport. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон .I am going to school. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . (Я еду.I am going to school. Вы идѐте. or repetitively.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро .To go on foot.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день . Ты едешь.I am going to the university Ходить . Я иду в кино . Он идѐт. Ты идѐшь. in one direction.He is going to the hotel by taxi. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .Идти .They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Вы ходите.I am going to the cinema on the metro. Они часто ездят в Амстердам .To go by transport.

son бабушка .parents Дети . Твоя (f).I don't have any children. in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. Твои (pl) . У меня есть сестра .mum Папа .dad Сестра .uncle Родители . Моя (f).I have a brother.I have a son and a daughter. У меня есть брат .his.grandson Семья .wife Муж . Еѐ (f) . Наша (f). Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns. У тебя есть дети? . For example we use the words mum and dad.grandmother Дедушка . her Наш (m). Наше (n).I have a Just like English. Мой (m). Мои (pl) . Here are some Russian phrases you could use. Наши (pl) .granddaughter Внук .brother Дочь .mother Отец .Мать .grandfather Жена .our .my Твой (m).daughter Сын .Do you have children?.your Его (m n) ("yevo").husband Тѐтя . Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10. Моѐ (n). У меня нет детей . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. Твоѐ (n). Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. У меня есть сын и дочь .sister Брат .father Мама .children Внучка .auntie Дядя .

the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.good evening Спокойной ночи . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт . The Russian word Это means 'this is'.My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт . This is.good morning Добрый день ..his name is Ivan.Ваш (m). However. Моя мама любит музыку . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. you may wish to say her name is Anna.Is this your apartment? Common greetings name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. Ваши (pl) . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . Ваше (n)..Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. Ваша (f). Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. Это мой дом .your Их .her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . For example.good afternoon Добрый вечер .This is my house Это моя квартира . Доброе утро .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .

(lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . add “я”.ownership As you can see in the above example. Replace “а” with “ы”.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. in Russian.Adam's dog. Сестра Анны читает газету . (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . Replace “й”. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". Replace “о” with “а” 2. Replace “я” with “и”.Igor's telephone. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. Replace “ь” with “и”. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. 2. For example.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. Neuter Nouns: 1. Anna's) Дом Ивана . 3. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. (This is like using 's in English). 2. add “а”. Replace “ь”.Anna's car. Feminine Nouns: 1.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. pay particular attention to the order of the words.Adam's brother loves Moscow.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Replace “е” with “я” For example. Using the genitive case . in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . Собака Адама . the object that is owned always comes first. However. Let's have a look at some more examples. Брат Адама любит Москву . some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan.Masculine Nouns: 1. with “я”. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. If the noun ends in a consonant. 3.

To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). Here are some examples. Тебя. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . Ивана нет .A map of the city. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. Вас..There is no have As the genitive case relates to possession.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. план города .Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. This is exactly the same concept as above.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Его нет дома ..There is no milk. Generally. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . У вас есть кофе? . (Меня.Ivan isn't here. As we have seen in a previous lesson.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . стакан молока . Using the genitive case . Их) Using the genitive case . except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.I have book. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case.There is no tea. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't .Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here.A glass of milk. Нас. Чая нет . . У нее есть собака. Молока нет . Его. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. Еѐ. У меня есть книга . Кофе нет . Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.sentence and uses the nominative case. Here are some examples.She has a dog.‟.He is not home.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .

Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . . Х.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. The genitive case is used after most numbers.Using the genitive case .газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. "ы".) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . Ж. Ш. Ч. for example "10 roubles". in the nominative case. К. plurals. depending on whether the object is animate or not. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. The Nominative Case . add “ы”. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals.Plural (Subject) In Russian. but don‟t worry.numbers. you make a plural by using the letters "и". "я" or "а". quantaties.

девушка . англичанка .марок.англичанок. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. or whether you are just using general plurals. Here are some examples. (марка . For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.The Genitive Case .ч.щ. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. This may feel a little strange at first. .газет (newspapers') здание . but in the plural form. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). but in Russian we use it for all numbers. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент .Anna loves books.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. let‟s see how to use them.ш. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. Книги на столе . Анна любит книги .The books are on the table. Ok.студентов (students') газета .

4) (but not 12.five roubles десять рублей . 21. 13. 3 or hundred roubles сто долларов .8. . The number one declines like an adjective.three roubles четыре рубля . then you should use the genitive singular case.four dollars четыре студента .one girl Я знаю одну девушку . or the last digit of the number is 2.nine dogs десять студентов . три рубля . then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. 13 & 14). You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.21 roubles один доллар . 61) (but not 11).eight buildings девять собак .six books семь газет .ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. try using plurals that involve money.3. 12.4 If the number. 42. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive rouble двадцать один рубль .three dogs четыре доллара .9. 14. одна девушка .four students три газеты .I know one girl один рубль .7.ten roubles сто рублей .one hundred dollars шесть книг .0. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. (example: 22. To help you get used to this concept.6.four roubles две книги .. Here are some examples. etc) пять рублей .seven newspapers восемь зданий .two books три собаки . Here are some dollar Numbers ending in : 2. 103.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.

What is his name? Его зовут Борис ..8.9.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).) Quantity not specified ..Genitive Singular.I am 23 years old.His name is Boris.How old are you.Her name is Alyona. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.-надцать . Quantity ends in 2.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Here are some other common Russian names for men.6. Как еѐ зовут? .Vladimir (Володя.0. Как вас зовут? .. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 . Quantity ends in 5.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . Quantity ends in 1 .As per position in the sentence. Мне восемнадцать лет . Как его зовут? .the dative case.So in summary.7.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. Николай . .3.Boris Владимир . Much like “Мне холодно” . Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.4 . (Lit: To me there are 16 years)..Nikolay (Коля) Борис .My name is Vera. Вова) . In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? . Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.Genitive Plural General Quantity .

Thank-You Пожалуйста .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Yekaterina Анастасия . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .good afternoon Добрый вечер .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember. Андрей .good evening Спокойной ночи . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used. Some of these may be new.Hello Привет .Olga (Оля) Александра .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . Спасибо .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .Andrey Александр .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . Елена .Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Natalya (Наташа) Мария . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt. The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.and а .Pyotr.and/but (contrasting) .Пѐтр .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана . The diminuative is a more personal. Здравствуйте . but try to learn them all. Шура) Дмитрий . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). or tender form.Yelena (Лена) Наталья .Oxana Екатерина . and should only be used when you are in close firendship. Peter.Alexander (Саша.Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. You should be able to remember all of these. Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women. This is like a pet name.Sergey Алексей .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.good morning Добрый день .

Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .from по . it ты . from от . Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. пожалуйста (+prepositional). to за .I know that you speak Russian.What do you want? Я хочу чай. it их . пожалуйста. it еѐ .Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. во (informal) вы . . where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. coffee with milk and with sugar. У вас есть водка? . пожалуйста.My mum loves music. . For (formal/plural) его . Дайте. где туалет? .Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.". У вас есть чай? . .но .There is no coffee. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". я-I он .them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. onto. to (+accusative) на .along.There is no tea.Do you have tea? Чая нет.for (+accusative). Он любит говорить по-английски. You might also find some new words in these sentences.but или .he. об . In Russian we would use the word "а".towards. We will use only common words. кофе с молоком и с сахаром.Give me please. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.her. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.near. Скажите.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". . at (+prepositional). .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. Что вы хотите? .out of. behind (+instrumental) из . .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . . что ты говоришь по-русски. Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.with у .I want tea please. to (+accusative) о. .about к .Tell me please. so you should try to learn them all.

Почему ты не понимаешь? . Я очень люблю спорт .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. сколько стоит? . Моя сестра читает газету . Моя мама любит музыку .I am studying the Russian language. Где? . .4 dollars.He is going home.Твой брат говорит по-русски? .How? Когда? . Ты понимаешь? . . Его нет дома .I don't understand.Adam's brother loves Moscow. Он едет домой .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . сколько стоит? .100 roubles. .What? Как? .I know that you understand.Where is he? Где кафе? .Who? Что? .21 roubles.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.How much? сто рублей .The dog doesn't speak English.Where? Кто? .How much? двадцать один рубль .When? Почему? .He is not home.I am reading a magazine. Я не понимаю. . что ты понимаешь.Where is the cafe? Кто он? . . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . сколько стоит? .Why? Что ты знаешь? .Do you understand? Я знаю.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. Я очень люблю Москву .What do you think? Где он? .I am listening to music. Брат Адама любит Москву . сколько стоит? .My sister is reading a newspaper. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .I think that you understand.I live in London.I understand. He speaks Russian well. Он хорошо говорит по-русски. Я слушаю музыку .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .My Mum loves music.Does your borther speak Russian? Да.Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне . что вы понимаете. . Я изучаю русский язык .How much? четыре доллара .4 roubles. Собака не говорит по-английски.I really love sport. .How much? четыре рубля .I really love Moscow. Я думаю. Сестра Анны читает газету .Yes.

add “ю”. 3.Елене Молоко .you (formal. Replace “ь”. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples.Forming the dative If the noun ends in a consonant. Neuter Nouns: 1. 3. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Нам . with “ю”. or plural). Replace "а". Адам . 2. .you (informal). 2. add "ам". Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “й”. 2. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. Вам . it. Replace “я” with “е”..Адаму Елена .Молоку Вино .Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. 1. Ему (n).. 4. Мне . Ей (f) . add “у”. Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “ия” with “ии”. her. Ему (m). "о" or a consonant with "ам". To create nouns in the dative case. Replace “а” with “е”. Replace “о” with “у” 2.him. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. If the noun ends in a consonant. Replace “ь” with “и”. Тебе . Им .

For this reason. . . (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object.We help mother every day. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson.Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case.give! Дайте . In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.(they) give The command forms of this word include..Ivan gives flowers to Anna. It should be used in the dative case. the word “Anna” is the indirect object. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Дайте мне . Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. Я даю цветы Анне . Мы помогаем маме каждый день . In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. Similarly.(you) give Дают . Я помогаю Ивану ..I am helping Anna..I am helping this girl.. Я помогаю этой девушке .I give flowers to Anna.(I) give Даѐшь . Here are the conjuctions: Даю . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.(we) give Даѐте . you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.Give me your address and telephone number. Дай .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .(you) give Даѐт . In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.I am helping Ivan. . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.Give me .(he) gives Даѐм .. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. Они дают цветы Елене ..They give flowers to Elena.

Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. Адаму нравится Москва . Как вам нравится . However this verb is used differently.He likes Moscow..? Как вам нравится фильм? . and it relies on the dative case. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). it is still worth learning these examples. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. it is like saying “To me it is likable”.Ivan calls Anna every day. This is verb is also a reflexive verb. so it is worth learning now.How do you like .You like Moscow.I really like the flowers.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .? .I like your children.) Ей нравится Москва .. (lit: children are pleasing to me.I like the flowers. Иван звонит Анне каждый день . Мне холодно .I like Moscow. Мне очень нравятся цветы .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . Мне нравится Москва . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case.She calls Ivan every day. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. However it is a common word.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . Вам нравится Москва .Звонить . It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns.I like the children. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love).I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .) Ему нравится Москва . You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. (The "ся" ending is reflexive).Adam likes call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.) Practice using the word нравится.She likes Moscow. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. so it is enough for now just to learn this form.He is cold (to him its cold) . Мне нравятся цветы .How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? .

Мы едем к друзьям . Replace “ь”. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. . Although the use of this proposition is too varied.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . if stressed “ѐм”. “ц”. Replace “й”. “ч”. with “ем”. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . to create an exact rule.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section.We are going to our friends. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. add “ем”. add “ом”. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to".. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). and has too many meanings. All consonants.I am 23 years old.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . It is followed by the dative case. if stressed “ѐм”. 2. “ш” or “щ”. Except. 4. then add “ем”.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно .Ей холодно .I am walking towards the station. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”..

Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.мужем (husband) жена . Иван пишет карандашом . 3. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. 4. “ц”.With. add "ами". Neuter Nouns: 1. “ш” or “щ”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . All consonants.Ivan writes with a pencil. Examples. Я ем суп ложкой . "о" with "ами". Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . 2. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.карандашом (pencil) ложка . Except.ложкой (spoon) нож . Replace “ь” with “ью”.. Accompanied by..Иваном (Ivan) Анна .. Replace “я” with “ей”.Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace "а". If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. 1.женой (wife) Иван .Анной (Anna) студенты ..ножом (knife) муж . The preposition: „с‟ . 2.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Replace “а” with “ой”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. if stressed “ѐй”. .I eat soup with a spoon. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. In English these words can have different meanings. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.молоком (milk) сметана . Олег режет мясо ножом . Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. “ч”.

My wife and I are going to the cafe. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.You Им .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . пожалуйста.Him Ей . Мы с вами . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .My husband and I are going to the cafe. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Here are some examples. Pronouns . „with him‟.Me and you Notes: 1.Please give me coffee with milk. Анна с мужем идут в кафе.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. with Ivan”). „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.Her .For ease of pronunciation. пожалуйста. Дайте.I eat borsh with sour cream. . Have a look at the following Russian examples. кофе с молоком . but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. . Мной . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Ivan wants tea with milk. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. „with you‟. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Иван с женой идут в кафе. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Иван хочет чай с молоком . .Me Тобой . 2. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. In English we would use the word “and”. However it is followed by the genitive case. .Ivan and I are going to school.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.Nadya wants tea with lemon. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. it is often written as “со”.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.

Them Seasons and parts of the day. afternoon днѐм .morning утром .night ночью .in the evening ночь . For example: лето .summer летом .Us Вами .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .winter зимой .autumn осенью .in autumn зима .evening вечером .spring весной . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .Им .in summer осень .in the morning день . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.day. .in winter весна .in the afternoon вечер .You (plural) Ими . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.It Нами .

Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .to be engaged in. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. Под столом сидит кот.Behind this building there is a school.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.above перед . .between над .to be interested in оказываться .to use. was заниматься . быть .control.школа.Under the table the cat is be.Happy birthday С новым годом become увлекаться . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. govern являться . (Example: Я был врачом . is. but it is something to keep in be keen on управлять . You don't need to learn these verbs now.I was a doctor). was) has no present seem. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.The lamp is above the table. for между .to turn out to be оставаться . manage. beyond. Над столом висит лампа. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. You will learn more about this in a later lesson.за .in front of под . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. Перед этой школой поверните налево. . . to be occupied with интересоваться . is.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. . enjoy становиться/стать .under Examples: За этим зданием .In front of this school turn to the left. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . be The verb “Быть” (to be. .to remain as пользоваться . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.

Replace “я” with “ей”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Replace “ь” with “ью”. 2. then add “ем”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .Masculine Nouns: 1. add "ами". 4. Except. add “ем”.. Examples. .Анной (Anna) студенты . Replace “а” with “ой”.. Except. 2. 2. “ц”. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “й”. with “ем”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. “ч”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .ложкой (spoon) нож . if stressed “ѐй”. All consonants. “ш” or “щ”. “ч”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.I eat soup with a spoon.карандашом (pencil) ложка . “ш” or “щ”. Replace “ь”.мужем (husband) жена . 4. 1.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. In English these words can have different meanings.Ivan writes with a pencil. 3. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.женой (wife) Иван . if stressed “ѐм”. Иван пишет карандашом . “ц”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Олег режет мясо ножом .молоком (milk) сметана . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Feminine Nouns: 1.. if stressed “ѐм”. All consonants.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.ножом (knife) муж . add “ом”. Replace "а". Я ем суп ложкой .. "о" with "ами"..

Instrumental Case . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. кофе с молоком . . Дайте. . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . Here are some examples. with Ivan”). .Please give me coffee with milk. Accompanied by.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.With. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. For ease of pronunciation.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. However it is followed by the genitive case.My wife and I are going to the cafe. Have a look at the following Russian examples.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Ivan and I are going to school. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). пожалуйста. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.My husband and I are going to the cafe. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Иван хочет чай с молоком .I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Pronouns .Nadya wants tea with lemon. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. пожалуйста.Ivan wants tea with milk. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. 2. In English we would use the word “and”. .I eat borsh with sour cream.Me and you Notes: 1. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Иван с женой идут в кафе. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .The preposition: „с‟ . it is often written as “со”. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Мы с вами .

Him Ей .It Нами .autumn осенью .You (plural) Ими .in the afternoon вечер . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. afternoon днѐм .Me Тобой .Her Им .Them Seasons and parts of the day.spring весной . Мной .morning утром .winter зимой . „with you‟.in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .Us Вами .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.evening вечером .in winter весна .day.You Им .at night .night ночью . For example: лето .in the evening ночь . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.in autumn зима .in the morning день .summer летом . „with him‟. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the summer осень .

beyond.Under the table the cat is sitting.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .школа. . is. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. . was) has no present tense.Behind this building there is a be keen on управлять .to be engaged in.control. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . .under Examples: За этим зданием . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.I was a doctor). You will learn more about this in a later lesson. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. за . Перед этой школой поверните налево.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .behind. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. (Example: Я был врачом . but it is something to keep in mind.Happy birthday С новым годом . Под столом сидит кот. You don't need to learn these verbs now. .in front of под . was заниматься . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. Над столом висит лампа.to remain as пользоваться . be The verb “Быть” (to be. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. is. быть . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. govern являться .Between lunch and dinner drink become увлекаться . for между .The lamp is above the table.between над .to turn out to be оставаться .above перед .to be interested in оказываться .to seem. to be occupied with интересоваться . enjoy становиться/стать .In front of this school turn to the left. . manage.

Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.It knew Они знали .I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . but in Russian there is simply one. In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject.Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story. The same principal also applies in the future tense. Let's have a look at the past tense now. it is conceptually quite easy. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.They knew Мы знали .Dima knew Елена знала . Он знал . (ie 1st.He knew Она знала . Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject.The dog knew ..Olga knew Собака знала . or talk about something that has happened in the past.She knew Оно знало . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала ...Elena knew Ольга знала . Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). Forming Verbs in Past Tense.Vladimir knew Дима знал . Although this concept differs from English.I knew (male speaking) Я знала .You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.We knew Я знал . 2nd or 3rd person).

and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. reversed or repeated actions. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. so there is no perfective in the present tense. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Я работал . The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. and is not complete.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”.I was working Я шѐл . . Let's start by looking at what each aspect means.I run in the forest every day. Я работал два часа . If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs.She wants to buy a book. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. When using pronouns such as Я. use the imperfective also. The Imperfective Aspect. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. Ты. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. By definition something in the present tense is happening now.I worked everyday. .I worked for 2 hours. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. habitual. .I was home. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. Я работал каждый день .I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. Some tenses in English can indicate this. There are two aspects in Russian. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. (often По-). Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. consequently each verb has two possible forms. ongoing. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned.

She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative.I did not live in England. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Она спросила учителя. . Я не жила в Англии. Questions and Aspects. . Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.She did not eat bananas.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . Я не понял.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets.Did you tell him about it? . . Perfective: Я не позвонила . The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.He did not want to see me. .Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. .I went home.I did not understand what he said.I failed to phone.We did not watch the movie yesterday.Yesterday we read an interesting article. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. .I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . . Он не хотел видеть меня.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . If you are still unsure which to use. Саша съел обед за пять минут.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. Я купил кофе . . (but I was expected to). . Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. . что он сказал.

I was not (woman speaking).I was (man speaking) Я была . Я уже посетила Швецию .We rented a summer house for three months. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. Я не был . Он читал три часа. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. Я был .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.I was (woman speaking) Он был . Я окончила школу.They were not. .It was Они были . . This is not the case in the past tense.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.He was Она была . .I finished school when I was 16 years old.I was not (man speaking). Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.I‟ve already visited Sweden. . Оно не было . The stress moves to the word 'не'. Я не была .At school I started learning English. Я была во многих странах. когда мне было 16 лет . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be).It was not.I‟ve been to many countries. В школе я начала учить английский. . except in the feminine.She was Оно было .He read for three hours. Они не были .

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