Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)

Хорошо(Good)

Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

тридцать 40 .девяносто 100 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".сорок 50 . (You will need to drop the soft sign. Here are some examples: 20 .пятьдесят 60 .четырнадцать 15 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.шестнадцать 17 .девятьсот .одиннадцать 12 .семьдесят 80 .семнадцать 18 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.двадцать три 24 . 30 .двадцать 21 .11 .двести 300 . quite similar to English. (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian). It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles. the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.двадцать один 22 .сто 200 .шестьсот 700 .триста 400 .восемьсот 900 .пятнадцать 16 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.восемьдесят 90 .шестьдесят 70 .пятьсот 600 .двадцать два 23 .двенадцать 13 .восемнадцать 19 .тринадцать 14 .семьсот 800 .четыреста 500 .

812 Please and Thank-You.000 .000 . The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No". after somebody says thank-you. Yes and No.миллион 1.1.000. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") . Да ("da") .000.тысяча 1.008 2.007 2. you can basically forget the "уй".000 .миллиард For example: 131 . 0 .Yes Нет ("nyet") .No Saying Hello. 456 219 9.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .564 2.994 1.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct. You should always say this after someone thanks you.000 1.000.345 23.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below. .

. If somebody says Привет to you. You should just learn the whole phrase. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . Меня зовут . but we suggest you only use it with friends. In order to introduce yourself. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). Привет is also commonly used with friends. If all else fails. but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? .Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. you may need the following phrases..Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . Introducing Yourself. There are also two words for saying good-bye. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello".Good/Well thank-you Плохо .Bad Saying Good-Bye.Bye (Informal.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . there is no difference between the question and the statement.My name is . Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian.. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") .Good-bye. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. except for the question mark. There are two forms of this word..How are things? Хорошо спасибо . You may also hear people say Пока.Pleased to meet you. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. ("min-ya za-voot") . not the individual words. However. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . slang) You should generally use до свидания. Вы говорите по-английски? .What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. put a real questioning expression on your face. and should only be used with friends. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone.

.Water ... Скажите.I speak Russian Я понимаю . You could ask people with the following phrases.Menu Кофе . где бар? .Russian beetroot soup Суп . пожалуйста.Beer Вино .Coca-Cola Лимонад .Vodka Пиво . where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. .Я говорю по-английски ..Coffee Чай . Скажите. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is..Cake Водка .Lemonade Сок . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню .Tea Молоко . пожалуйста. you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.I understand Я не понимаю .Milk Кока-Кола . Скажите.Soup Торт . пожалуйста.Tell me please. where is a cafe? Скажите. где кафе? .Tell me please. где ближайшее кафе? .Tell me please.Tell me please. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.Juice Борщ . пожалуйста.I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Wine Вода ..

. .Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order.How much is it?.. (Just learn the whole phrase. . when you order vodka in russia.What? Что вы хотите? . You can use it to ask the price of something. .What is it? Это кофе.. Here are some Russian phrases you might need. you will generally get straight vodka.Please give me coffee. is it coffee? Нет...Please give me coffee with milk and sugar... Сколько стоит? . это чай..No. .... . кофе .. . Дайте.Please give me coffee with milk. you can use the following phrase. it is tea. it is gramatically unusual). Дайте.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? ...I want. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . Examples: Дайте. пожалуйста . пожалуйста.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? . пожалуйста. Дайте. Простите..Be careful. У вас есть ..Do you have . кофе с молоком . пожалуйста.Please give me tea.? .It is coffee.. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Give me please.? If you want to ask someone if they have something. Do you have. Что это? . это кофе.Excuse me..What do you want? Я хочу . .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . пожалуйста. Дайте. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. чай. What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are..

(Known as the nominative case.. The subject is "I". Где Туалет .. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".. love.. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".You (formal. eat. her." по-русски? . Definitions Verbs are action words. Here are some useful phrases.How do you say "." mean in English? Where is the toilet.21 rubles. Пожалуйста . Скажите.What does "..It (n) Мы . him.You (informal) Он . they are things you can do. you.How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . he.. she. It (m) Она . want..We Вы . or plural) ... Pronouns are words that can replace names." на английском? . "love" is the verb.How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .Сколько? .. walk.? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is.. For example: run. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. In the sentence "I love him". Как сказать ".) Я-I Ты ." in Russian? Что значит ". it... Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence. and the object is "him"..She. For example: I.Tell me please. It (f) Оно ..He..

Me Тебя . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person.To work. In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". Оно работает . To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). and the second conjugation. It is the most common.Him.To understand.Они . It (m. You should memorise these pronouns. She.You work Он. "ет".They work. работать . Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . It (f) Нас .Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. Just remember that unlike English. "ете" or "ют").Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). he works).They Вы is used as the formal singular "you".("yevo") . The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить".You (formal.You work. "ешь". (Known as the accusative case) Меня . Мы работаем .He.Us Вас .n) Еѐ . dictionary form) . dictionary form) Я работаю . and once you get the hang of it.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". (Example: I work. Both these patterns are quite similar. "I am working" and "I do work". but not as much.We work Вы работаете . Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense.Her.I work Ты работаешь . "ем". (There are also some irregular verbs). Она. (infinitive. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. and add the appropriate ending ("ю".You (informal) Его . This happens a little in English. or plural) Их . It works. it is not too difficult. (infinitive. Они работают .

Оно говорит . Он не понимает .I speak. говорить .To speak. Она. (infinitive. There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Оно понимает . Знать . Я не понимаю .We understand.I understand. (infinitive.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation.I know.He. She.They know. She.We know. Они знают .They understand.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . It understands Мы понимаем .You know. Мы знаем . Она. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation.To know. Он.Я понимаю . For example: Я не знаю . Ты говоришь .You understand.He. Они понимают . Remember. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я).You know. which replace "ить". The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат").He doesn't understand.You understand.I don't understand. Ты понимаешь . Мы говорим . Ты знаешь . She.We speak. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. Вы знаете . Оно знает .You speak.He. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.I don't know. dictionary form) Я говорю . It knows. Он. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). Вы понимаете . dictionary form) Я знаю . Он. . Она. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . It Speaks.

You live. Я живу .You go (by transport).We go (by transport).Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . слышишь . you can often predict the endings.I hear.You speak. Жить .We don't speak Russian. However.We hear.We live. слышите .You go (by transport).They go (by transport). Вы едете . Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Они живут .You live.He. Я еду . Он.I live. She. She. Они говорят . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Он. Ты едешь . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. Она.I speak English Он говорит по-русски . It goes (by transport). Мы едем .To go (by transport). Some examples: Ехать . слышать . Оно живѐт . She.Вы говорите .The dog doesn't speak English. слышу .He. Они едут .He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? .To hear. Оно едет . слышит .I go (by transport). Она. Ты живѐшь . Собака не говорит по-английски . For Example: Я говорю по-английски . слышат .He. Мы живѐм .To live.They hear. слышим . . often once you know the stem of the verb. except that "у" replaces "ю". It lives.They live.They speak.You hear. It hears. Вы живѐте .You hear.

If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. Luckily. И and Й.Is Masculine Кофе . Ы.O. Gender of nouns. Russian has three genders: masculine.(Coffee) . In the case of other objects like “pen”. unlike many languages. Vowel . Папа . Papa) .(Grandfather) .(Man) . it will be in its dictionary form. name or place. paper. The letters А. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. or “й”.E. 5.I live in London. In English we do this by having a strict word-order.A noun is a thing. “house”. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. (A.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. У.(Daddy.He is going home Definitions Noun . If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. Consonant . “cup”. Look at the last letter of the word: 2.Is Masculine Дедушка .(Uncle) . 4.A letter that is not a vowel. Он едет домой . If it is a consonant. ъ because they have no sound).Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. Cases . In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. 3. and neuter (neutral). cat. each noun is assigned a gender. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. But there are five notable exceptions. From the dictionary form of a noun. pen. Ю. Э. Я. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. In Russian we use 6 cases. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them.Is Masculine Мужчина . О. as with many other languages. Ё. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. Example: dog. feminine. There are very few exceptions to these rules. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. the word is masculine. cup. Е.U in English). (Except ь. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. In Russian.I. Moscow.Is Masculine Дядя .Is Masculine .

It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. In Russian there are six cases. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence.. . Россия (Russia). Feminine : газета (newspaper). and still keep the same meaning. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar.. on. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership.. In fact it was also used in Old English. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. so we will take it slowly. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. радио (radio). and about. брат (brother). In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. Greek and German. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. Хлеб (bread). at. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. (In. (Eg. For example. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. документ (document).Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport)..

in this case the word “dog”. especially pronouns. For example. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . In English we make a plural by adding “s”. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. so there is nothing special to learn here. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. Russian is very free about word order. The Nominative Case. without changing the actual meaning. In the sentence “I love her”.Interestingly. the word “I” is the subject. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. not plants). in the nominative case. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. you need to use the accusative case also. “ы”. “я” or “а”. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. Russian uses the case for all nouns.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . . However. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. In Russian. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”.buildings) The Accusative Case. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. add “ы”.

Replace “а” with “у”. 2. Он любит Москву . Neuter Nouns: 1. Надя любит вино . If the noun in inanimate. add “а”. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт . Иван любит чай .Nadya loves wine.I love sport. 4. replace “й”.Masculine Nouns: 1.I don't like music. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson.Ivan loves tea. with “я”. Надя не любит вино . 2.Nadya doesn't like wine.I love Moscow. Я не люблю музыку .He loves Moscow. If noun is animate. 3.I love music. add “я”. Replace “я” with “ю”.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . Feminine Nouns: 1. Ты любишь музыку? . Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. . Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). Я люблю музыку . If noun is animate. replace “ь”. there is no change.

Она любит меня . .I am reading a magazine. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.to work Хотеть .to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .I am listening to the radio. Что ты любишь? . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.What do you love? However. Смотреть . Я еѐ люблю .I love him. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. Я читаю журнал .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . Читать . An example could be: Я знаю. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.I love her."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . so don't be confused.I love you. You can use it to form questions.to study Думать . it is probably the conjunction "that".I am watching television.to think Работать .I am listening to music.I know that you love music. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. Я читаю газету . If you would like.to watch. Слушать .to read. Я слушаю радио .She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . . The word "Что" has two uses.to listen Изучать .I am reading a book. Я слушаю музыку . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. что ты любишь музыку.

For example: Я люблю читать .very.Я изучаю русский язык . (lit: I study the Russian language). Я очень люблю Москву .Where? Кто? .Who? Что? .I want to buy a magazine. Я так думаю . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". Я хочу купить журнал . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Где? . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. Я люблю путешествовать . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". Add : “е”.What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .I think so! Как вы думаете? .I study Russian. For example: Очень . Что вы хотите? .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .I love to read. 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.I want tea. You can include it into many phrases.I love to travel.How? Почему? . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.I really love Moscow.What? Как? .I really love sport.

Replace “о” with “е” 2.in the garden в лесу . although these aren‟t precise rules. „at a station‟. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1.I live in Siberia. Replace “ь” with “и”. Exception: Replace “ия”.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш .I live in London. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? .theatre . As with any language.at the station на почте . „at a concert‟). Here are some tips to help you. suburbs and places. Using prepositions and the prepositional case. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”.I live in Moscow.On the table is a book and a pencil. Я живу в Лондоне .Where is she? на вокзале . „at work‟. Replace “я” with “е”.cinema театр . (Eg.I live in St. Я живу в Петербурге . 4. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. Petersburg.on the street Что на столе? . 2.at the post office в саду .Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . Я живу в Сибири . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. even though they are not Russian.in the forest на улице . 3. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. (Eg. “е” remains unchanged.Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “е”. (They are in dicionary form) кино . As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities.

The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.bank гостиница .hotel музей . So to express „to go‟ in Russian. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.cafe площадь . we will introduce them now in a simple way.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).To the right.restaurant банк . Куда вы идѐте . However. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs.museum больница . направо .library кафе . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport.Straight ahead then to the right.square ресторан .Straight ahead. your answer will involve the prepositional case. прямо потом направо . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). you would use the accusative case. Где вы работаете? .pharmacy парк .I work at (in) a school. you can tell this by the case. but as these words are so important for basic Russian.I am going to school. prepositions have more than one meaning. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.hospital Location and Direction Sometimes. Both these words are verbs of motion. The first indicates you are going on foot.To the left. налево . there are actually four ways: .Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . and are grammatically quite complex.park стадион . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.school библиотека . прямо .stadium школа . Here are some examples for you to compare.аптека .

я иду в университет .They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Ехать . Вы идѐте.I am going to the cinema on the metro.We are going to the cafe.We go to the cafe every day. in more than one direction. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . in one direction.He is going to London Ездить . Ты идѐшь. Он ездит . Мы едем. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Он ходит. Он едет в гостиницу на такси .I go to the theatre every day. Они часто ездят в Амстердам . Мы идѐм.To go on foot. Я часто хожу в кино . Ты идѐшь в кино? . Вы ходите.I am going to the cinema.I am going to school. or repetitively. Мы едем в кафе . Ты едешь.I am going to school.I am going to the university Ходить .He is going to the hotel by taxi. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон .To go by transport.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день .I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .To go on foot. (Я хожу. in one direction. (Я еду. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . Он едет. Они идут) Я иду в школу . Я иду в кино . Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Ты ездишь . Вы ездите.To go by transport. (Я иду.Идти .Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Он идѐт. Мы ездим. Мы идѐм в кафе .He is going to the hotel. in more than one direction. or repetitively (Я езжу. Ты ходишь. Мы ходим. Вы едете.We are going to the cafe.I go to school.

I have a son and a daughter.auntie Дядя .Мать . Еѐ (f) . У меня нет детей .grandmother Дедушка . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.I have a sister. Твоя (f).grandfather Жена . У меня есть сын и дочь .I don't have any children.husband Тѐтя . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.my Твой (m). Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.Do you have children?.his.father Мама .our . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10. У тебя есть дети? .grandson Семья . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. Наше (n).daughter Сын .mum Папа .your Его (m n) ("yevo"). У меня есть сестра .family Just like English.son бабушка . У меня есть брат .wife Муж . For example we use the words mum and dad.brother Дочь . Наша (f).uncle Родители .sister Брат . Моѐ (n). Наши (pl) . Твои (pl) .dad Сестра . her Наш (m).mother Отец . Мой (m).granddaughter Внук .children Внучка .I have a brother. Твоѐ (n).parents Дети . Мои (pl) . Моя (f).

. Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.good evening Спокойной ночи .My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. Ваши (pl) .your Их .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.good morning Добрый день . Это мой дом . Ваше (n).My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету . Доброе утро .This is my house Это моя квартира .his name is Ivan.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. Ваша (f).Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally. This is. The Russian word Это means 'this is'. you may wish to say her name is Anna. For example.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.Ваш (m).goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .good afternoon Добрый вечер . However.. Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. Моя мама любит музыку .

Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. Using the genitive case .ownership As you can see in the above example. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan.Masculine Nouns: 1. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. Let's have a look at some more examples. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. However. in Russian. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны .Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. Сестра Анны читает газету . 3. Replace “о” with “а” 2.Igor's telephone. pay particular attention to the order of the words. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. Replace “ь”. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . If the noun ends in a consonant. For example. add “я”. (This is like using 's in English). Replace “ь” with “и”.Adam's dog.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case.Adam's brother loves Moscow. with “я”.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. 2. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". Replace “й”. Neuter Nouns: 1. 3. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . Собака Адама . (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? .Anna's car. Брат Адама любит Москву . Replace “я” with “и”. Replace “а” with “ы”. the object that is owned always comes first. 2. Replace “е” with “я” For example. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . add “а”. Feminine Nouns: 1. Anna's) Дом Ивана .Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio.

but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.sentence and uses the nominative case.There is no milk. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. As we have seen in a previous lesson. Кофе нет . The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. . The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. This is exactly the same concept as above. Нас.. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. У нее есть собака.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Here are some examples.A map of the city.I have book.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . it is just easier to learn the concept by example.There is no tea.Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case .Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .A glass of milk. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . стакан молока . Вас. Here are some examples. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English.She has a dog. Их) Using the genitive case .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English.‟. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. Тебя. Его. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is).Ivan isn't here. Using the genitive case . (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. Молока нет . Его нет дома . Generally. (Меня.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. У меня есть книга .There is no coffee.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. Ивана нет .to have As the genitive case relates to possession.. план города .He is not home. Чая нет . У вас есть кофе? .there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. Еѐ.

for example "10 roubles". Ш. "я" or "а". К.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . It is quite a bit of information to present all at once.Plural (Subject) In Russian. plurals. in the nominative case. . Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. depending on whether the object is animate or not. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. you make a plural by using the letters "и". Х.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) .) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) .Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . add “ы”. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. "ы". Ч. Ж. quantaties.numbers. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. The genitive case is used after most numbers. First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. The Nominative Case .Using the genitive case . Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. but don‟t worry.

англичанка . Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. or whether you are just using general plurals.студентов (students') газета . let‟s see how to use them. Here are some examples. . Книги на столе .газет (newspapers') здание . Ok. This may feel a little strange at first.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. девушка . These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). Анна любит книги . In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals.марок. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.щ. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money.ч. but in Russian we use it for all numbers. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. but in the plural form.The books are on the table. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine).ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. (марка .англичанок.The Genitive Case . For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.ш. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.Anna loves books. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.

All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. одна девушка .ten roubles сто рублей . Here are some examples. . три рубля . 21.one hundred dollars шесть книг . 13 & 14). then you should use the genitive singular case. 103.8.six books семь газет . or the last digit of the number is 2. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.9. -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.I know one girl один рубль .three roubles четыре рубля . 3 or 4. Here are some examples.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. (example: 22. 61) (but not 11).eight buildings девять собак .6.one rouble двадцать один рубль .4 If the number.four dollars четыре студента .7. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.seven newspapers восемь зданий . To help you get used to this concept. 12.five roubles десять рублей . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. 13.nine dogs десять студентов .four students три газеты . etc) пять рублей . 14.21 roubles один доллар .four roubles две книги .3. try using plurals that involve money.. 42. 4) (but not 12.two books три собаки .one girl Я знаю одну девушку .Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.three dogs четыре доллара .one hundred roubles сто долларов . then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.0. The number one declines like an adjective.

Мне восемнадцать лет .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position. Quantity ends in 1 . Quantity ends in 5.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .0. (Lit: To me there are 16 years). This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.I am 23 years old.the dative case.. Николай .3. .What is his name? Его зовут Борис . Here are some other common Russian names for men.His name is Boris.Nikolay (Коля) Борис .8.Her name is Alyona.Genitive Plural General Quantity .Genitive Singular.What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.4 ..Vladimir (Володя. Как его зовут? .7. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Как вас зовут? .) Quantity not specified . Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.9.As per position in the sentence.. Quantity ends in 2.6. Much like “Мне холодно” .Boris Владимир ..My name is Vera. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 . Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). Вова) .How old are you. Как еѐ зовут? .So in summary.-надцать .I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .

here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Alexander (Саша. Спасибо .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .Andrey Александр .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Pyotr.Mariya (Маша) Ольга . Peter. Андрей .Hello Привет . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.good evening Спокойной ночи . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . but try to learn them all. Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.Natalya (Наташа) Мария . You should be able to remember all of these. Шура) Дмитрий .Пѐтр .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .Yelena (Лена) Наталья . This is like a pet name.Olga (Оля) Александра .and/but (contrasting) .Sergey Алексей . or tender form.Yekaterina Анастасия .Thank-You Пожалуйста . Елена . Здравствуйте . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). Some of these may be new.Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.good afternoon Добрый вечер .good morning Добрый день .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Oxana Екатерина .and а .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро . and should only be used when you are in close firendship. The diminuative is a more personal.

in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. У вас есть водка? .There is no coffee. . coffee with milk and with sugar. We will use only common words.on.My mum loves music.He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. У вас есть чай? . что ты говоришь по-русски. об .about к . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. пожалуйста. In Russian we would use the word "а". во .Do you have tea? Чая нет. onto. it ты .you (informal) вы . For example.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет.Give me please. from от .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . . .he.them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. . .near.". behind (+instrumental) из . it еѐ . You might also find some new words in these sentences. to (+accusative) на . so you should try to learn them all. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.him. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". . at (+prepositional). where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .What do you want? Я хочу чай.in (+prepositional).out of. it их . .I know that you speak Russian. Что вы хотите? . я-I он . (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.with у .Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.her. где туалет? .along. Скажите. пожалуйста.for (+accusative). Он любит говорить по-английски. to за .but или .I want tea please. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . кофе с молоком и с сахаром. пожалуйста.There is no tea. to (+accusative) о.Tell me please.но . Дайте.you (formal/plural) его .from по .towards.

Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне . Моя мама любит музыку . Ты понимаешь? .How? Когда? .I know that you understand. Почему ты не понимаешь? . Я очень люблю спорт . Я не понимаю.Твой брат говорит по-русски? . Где? .Do you understand? Я знаю. Я думаю. Собака не говорит по-английски.Who? Что? . . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио .I understand.When? Почему? .He is not home. . Я изучаю русский язык . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . Сестра Анны читает газету . сколько стоит? .He is going home.I really love Moscow.4 roubles.4 dollars.Who is he? Я читаю журнал .How much? четыре доллара . сколько стоит? .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.100 roubles. . .Where is he? Где кафе? . Я очень люблю Москву .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. .I don't understand.I am reading a magazine.Yes. Он хорошо говорит по-русски.What do you think? Где он? .What? Как? .21 roubles. .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.How much? четыре рубля .My sister is reading a newspaper.I really love sport.I live in London. сколько стоит? . сколько стоит? . что ты понимаешь. Брат Адама любит Москву .Does your borther speak Russian? Да.How much? сто рублей .Why? Что ты знаешь? .Where? Кто? .How much? двадцать один рубль . Он едет домой .I am studying the Russian language.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .Adam's brother loves Moscow.My Mum loves music. Я слушаю музыку . . Его нет дома . Моя сестра читает газету .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . что вы понимаете.The dog doesn't speak English. He speaks Russian well.I think that you understand.I am listening to music.

add “ю”. Replace “а” with “е”. Ему (n). with “ю”.Адаму Елена . Ей (f) . Replace “й”. 3. Нам . Replace “я” with “е”.Forming the dative case. If the noun ends in a consonant.us. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace "а". 2. 2.him. "о" or a consonant with "ам". .Елене Молоко . Тебе . Replace “ь”.you (formal.. If the noun ends in a consonant. To create nouns in the dative case. 1. Neuter Nouns: 1. Им . her. add “у”. it. 3. Мне . 4. or plural).you (informal).them. Адам . Feminine Nouns: 1.. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.Молоку Вино .me. Вам . 2.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Replace “ь” with “и”. 3. Replace “о” with “у” 2. add "ам". Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Ему (m). Replace “ия” with “ии”.

Мы помогаем маме каждый день .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson.We help mother every day. Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”.(they) give The command forms of this word include..(you) give Дают . Дай . Они дают цветы Елене .(he) gives Даѐм . Similarly. It should be used in the dative case. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object.I am helping this girl. For this reason.Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something.(you) give Даѐт .Give me your address and telephone number. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.They give flowers to Elena.(we) give Даѐте .Ivan gives flowers to Anna.I am helping Ivan. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.give! Дайте .. Here are the conjuctions: Даю .. the word “Anna” is the indirect object.(I) give Даѐшь . . Дайте мне .I give flowers to Anna. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. Я помогаю Ивану .Give me .I am helping Anna.. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . Я помогаю этой девушке .. .. Я даю цветы Анне . . Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case.

Мне нравится Москва .? Как вам нравится фильм? .She calls Ivan every day. it is still worth learning these examples..Ivan calls Anna every day. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case.I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно .I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. Вам нравится Москва . it is like saying “To me it is likable”. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. Мне холодно . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet..You like Moscow.I like the children. Мне очень нравятся цветы .How do you like .to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.She likes Moscow. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? . Адаму нравится Москва . so it is worth learning now. Мне нравятся цветы .I like Moscow.) Practice using the word нравится. Как вам нравится . Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. However this verb is used differently. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. However it is a common word. and it relies on the dative case.I like your children. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.I like the flowers.? ..He is cold (to him its cold) . The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети .) Ему нравится Москва . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet.) Мне нравятся ваши дети . (lit: children are pleasing to me.Звонить .Adam likes Moscow. so it is enough for now just to learn this form. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns..He likes Moscow. (The "ся" ending is reflexive). Иван звонит Анне каждый день . To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love).I really like the flowers.) Ей нравится Москва . Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.

Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. It is followed by the dative case.. to create an exact rule. “ц”.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года .Ей холодно . add “ем”. “ш” or “щ”. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along).We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . Replace “ь”. if stressed “ѐм”. “ч”. All consonants. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. add “ом”. 4. Except. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.I am walking towards the station. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. . with “ем”.. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". and has too many meanings.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . Мы едем к друзьям . then add “ем”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. if stressed “ѐм”.We are going to our friends. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу .I am 23 years old. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. Replace “й”. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . 2.

молоком (milk) сметана . Except. add "ами". Neuter Nouns: 1. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. 3. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. In English these words can have different meanings. "о" with "ами".Feminine Nouns: 1. “ш” or “щ”. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Replace “я” with “ей”. All consonants.ложкой (spoon) нож . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. “ц”.Анной (Anna) студенты . Accompanied by.женой (wife) Иван .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife... so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. “ч”. Replace “ь” with “ью”. Replace "а". Я ем суп ложкой . Иван пишет карандашом . Examples. 1. Олег режет мясо ножом . 2. 4. 2.мужем (husband) жена . Replace “а” with “ой”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. The preposition: „с‟ .ножом (knife) муж . if stressed “ѐй”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.I eat soup with a spoon... Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .Ivan writes with a pencil.карандашом (pencil) ложка . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. .With.

So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Ivan wants tea with milk. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . „with him‟.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Here are some examples. . Have a look at the following Russian examples.Me Тобой .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. In English we would use the word “and”. 2. Мной . it is often written as “со”. Иван с женой идут в кафе. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.My wife and I are going to the cafe.Ivan and I are going to school. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .I eat borsh with sour cream. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. but Russian generally uses “с” (with).You Им . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. „with you‟. .Her . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. кофе с молоком . .Me and you Notes: 1. .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.Him Ей . Мы с вами .Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. пожалуйста. Pronouns . Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Nadya wants tea with lemon. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . However it is followed by the genitive case.For ease of pronunciation.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. пожалуйста.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. with Ivan”).Please give me coffee with milk. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.My husband and I are going to the cafe. Дайте.

night ночью .in the evening ночь .Them Seasons and parts of the day.day.summer летом .autumn осенью .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .in summer осень . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.in autumn зима . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.You (plural) Ими .in the afternoon вечер .evening вечером . .Us Вами . For example: лето .winter зимой .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .It Нами .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.spring весной . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.Им . afternoon днѐм .morning утром .in winter весна .in the morning день .

was заниматься . Перед этой школой поверните налево. . to be occupied with интересоваться .школа.to be keen on управлять . .to be interested in оказываться . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.Happy birthday С новым годом . manage.under Examples: За этим зданием . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. be The verb “Быть” (to be.The lamp is above the table. You don't need to learn these verbs now. (Example: Я был врачом .за .control. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. is. . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case .to use. enjoy становиться/стать . Под столом сидит кот.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .behind. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. быть .to be. . .between над .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .to seem.In front of this school turn to the left.to remain as пользоваться . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.I was a doctor).Behind this building there is a school.Under the table the cat is sitting. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.to become увлекаться .to be engaged in. Над столом висит лампа. govern являться .above перед . but it is something to keep in mind. was) has no present tense. for между . is.to turn out to be оставаться . beyond.in front of под .

In English these words can have different meanings.. if stressed “ѐм”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. . “ц”.мужем (husband) жена . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. “ш” or “щ”. 1. 4. 3. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. All consonants. add “ом”. if stressed “ѐм”. then add “ем”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. 2.Masculine Nouns: 1. Feminine Nouns: 1. Except..Анной (Anna) студенты .женой (wife) Иван . Replace “й”. 4.. 2. 2.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. add “ем”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . “ц”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. Except. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Replace "а". “ч”. Neuter Nouns: 1. All consonants.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Replace “а” with “ой”.Ivan writes with a pencil. add "ами". "о" with "ами". Replace “ь” with “ью”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . with “ем”. Иван пишет карандашом ..студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Олег режет мясо ножом .I eat soup with a spoon. Replace “ь”..ложкой (spoon) нож . if stressed “ѐй”.карандашом (pencil) ложка .молоком (milk) сметана .ножом (knife) муж . Я ем суп ложкой . Replace “я” with “ей”. Examples. “ш” or “щ”.. “ч”.

Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. For ease of pronunciation. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Here are some examples. .Instrumental Case . Pronouns .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Please give me coffee with milk. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .The preposition: „с‟ .Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.Ivan and I are going to school. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.With. Мы с вами . Дайте. пожалуйста.My wife and I are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . Accompanied by. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). with Ivan”).I eat borsh with sour cream. пожалуйста. .Nadya wants tea with lemon. However it is followed by the genitive case.My husband and I are going to the cafe. . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Ivan wants tea with milk. it is often written as “со”.Me and you Notes: 1. . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. In English we would use the word “and”. 2. Иван с женой идут в кафе.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Иван хочет чай с молоком . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . Have a look at the following Russian examples. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.

It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.day. Мной . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.in summer осень .night ночью .evening вечером .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.You Им .Them Seasons and parts of the day.winter зимой .summer летом .in the morning день .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . For example: лето .Him Ей . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.spring весной . afternoon днѐм .in winter весна .in the evening ночь .at night . „with you‟.Us Вами .Me Тобой .You (plural) Ими .morning утром .autumn осенью .Her Им . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. „with him‟.in autumn зима .in the afternoon вечер .It Нами .

be The verb “Быть” (to be. Перед этой школой поверните налево. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. .in front of под . was) has no present tense.to seem. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .школа.to be keen on управлять . . enjoy становиться/стать . for между . (Example: Я был врачом . Над столом висит лампа.under Examples: За этим зданием . Под столом сидит кот.In front of this school turn to the left. to be occupied with интересоваться . You don't need to learn these verbs now.to be interested in оказываться . is.above перед .to turn out to be оставаться .Between lunch and dinner drink tea.Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .between над . . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.The lamp is above the table.Happy birthday С новым годом .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.behind.to be. за . but it is something to keep in mind.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. .I was a doctor). . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.Behind this building there is a school. beyond. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. manage.to become увлекаться .to use.Under the table the cat is sitting.to remain as пользоваться . govern являться . is.to be engaged in. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.control. . was заниматься . быть . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.

Olga knew Собака знала .He knew Она знала . In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject.Dima knew Елена знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. it is conceptually quite easy. The same principal also applies in the future tense. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.. Он знал . Although this concept differs from English.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English. (ie 1st. or talk about something that has happened in the past. but in Russian there is simply one. 2nd or 3rd person). Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал .You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was..Vladimir knew Дима знал .She knew Оно знало . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject.We knew Я знал .It knew Они знали .I knew (male speaking) Я знала . Forming Verbs in Past Tense.. Let's have a look at the past tense now. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.They knew Мы знали . Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).Elena knew Ольга знала .The dog knew .

Some tenses in English can indicate this. Я работал . The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. . Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. .I was home. habitual. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. reversed or repeated actions. Ты. When using pronouns such as Я. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. and is not complete.I worked everyday.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу.I was working Я шѐл . You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. (often По-).She wants to buy a book. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. consequently each verb has two possible forms. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. The Imperfective Aspect. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. ongoing. . There are two aspects in Russian.I worked for 2 hours. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.I run in the forest every day. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. use the imperfective also.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. Я работал два часа . This should help you remember how to form the verbs. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. so there is no perfective in the present tense. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. Я работал каждый день .

. Questions and Aspects. .He did not want to see me. . Саша съел обед за пять минут. .Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?.I did not understand what he said. . When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. .She did not eat bananas. Она спросила учителя. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.We did not watch the movie yesterday.Yesterday we read an interesting article.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . . .Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. .I failed to phone.Did you tell him about it? .Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples.I went home. If you are still unsure which to use.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. Я не понял. Я купил кофе . Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. что он сказал. . Я не жила в Англии. Он не хотел видеть меня.I did not live in England. Perfective: Я не позвонила . (but I was expected to). The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?.

He was Она была .At school I started learning English. Он читал три часа. . Они не были . . Оно не было .He read for three hours.She was Оно было .We rented a summer house for three months. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). . Я не была .I‟ve been to many countries.It was Они были .They were not.I‟ve already visited Sweden. В школе я начала учить английский.It was not. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. Я не был . Я был . Я уже посетила Швецию . The stress moves to the word 'не'. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. This is not the case in the past tense. . Я окончила школу. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.I was not (man speaking). More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. except in the feminine.I finished school when I was 16 years old.I was (woman speaking) Он был . . Я была во многих странах.I was (man speaking) Я была .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. когда мне было 16 лет .I was not (woman speaking).

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