Russian letters that are (almost) the same.

А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")

Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".

Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").

Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".

New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".

Pronunciation Symbols
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)

A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.

А ("a") Я ("ya")

Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.

Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.

A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)

Хорошо(Good)

Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)

Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.

Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.

quite similar to English.шестьсот 700 . 30 .девятьсот .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see. Here are some examples: 20 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian). the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.двадцать два 23 .11 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.сорок 50 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".пятьсот 600 .двести 300 .одиннадцать 12 .восемьдесят 90 .четыреста 500 .двенадцать 13 .семьдесят 80 .девяносто 100 .пятьдесят 60 .шестьдесят 70 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.сто 200 .двадцать один 22 .восемьсот 900 .шестнадцать 17 .четырнадцать 15 .семьсот 800 .семнадцать 18 .пятнадцать 16 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.тридцать 40 .восемнадцать 19 .тринадцать 14 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.триста 400 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.двадцать 21 .двадцать три 24 .

345 23. . Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you. after somebody says thank-you.1.008 2.000 1.000.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") . You should always say this after someone thanks you. Да ("da") . Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".000.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".007 2.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.тысяча 1.000 .000 . 456 219 9. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. you can basically forget the "уй".миллион 1. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.564 2.812 Please and Thank-You.000. Yes and No.994 1.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.No Saying Hello. 0 .Yes Нет ("nyet") . Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .000 .миллиард For example: 131 .

How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . Вы говорите по-английски? .Pleased to meet you. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. there is no difference between the question and the statement.Bye (Informal..Do you (formal) speak Russian? .. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. You may also hear people say Пока.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . and should only be used with friends. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . but we suggest you only use it with friends.How are things? Хорошо спасибо . When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . There are also two words for saying good-bye. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. If all else fails. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). Меня зовут . put a real questioning expression on your face. slang) You should generally use до свидания. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual. Introducing Yourself.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? .Good/Well thank-you Плохо . There are two forms of this word. except for the question mark.. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . you may need the following phrases.Good-bye. However. If somebody says Привет to you.Bad Saying Good-Bye. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. ("min-ya za-voot") . You should just learn the whole phrase. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . Привет is also commonly used with friends. In order to introduce yourself. not the individual words.When you are in Russia and you meet somebody.. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it.My name is .Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .

Beer Вино . Скажите.Milk Кока-Кола . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”. где кафе? .Tea Молоко . пожалуйста.. where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”. где ближайшее кафе? ..Menu Кофе .Tell me please.Juice Борщ .. where is a cafe? Скажите. you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.Russian beetroot soup Суп .I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia. пожалуйста.Tell me please.Lemonade Сок .Soup Торт .Я говорю по-английски .Cake Водка . .Coca-Cola Лимонад . Скажите.Coffee Чай . пожалуйста.Vodka Пиво .I speak English Я говорю по-русски . где бар? .Tell me please. пожалуйста. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.I understand Я не понимаю ... here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . You could ask people with the following phrases.Water . Скажите..I speak Russian Я понимаю .Tell me please.Wine Вода . where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.

. when you order vodka in russia.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .Give me please.What do you want? Я хочу .Do you have .Be careful... пожалуйста. Что это? . . Examples: Дайте. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . .Please give me tea. Дайте. . Дайте.. У вас есть .Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order..? . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . пожалуйста . чай. кофе . Do you have... What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are.. Here are some Russian phrases you might need... это чай. it is tea.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar..No..Excuse me... пожалуйста.How much is it?... Простите. пожалуйста.? If you want to ask someone if they have something. кофе с молоком ..It is coffee.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . . it is gramatically unusual).What is it? Это кофе. you can use the following phrase. Сколько стоит? ..Please give me coffee. пожалуйста. Дайте. . . Дайте. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. (Just learn the whole phrase. You can use it to ask the price of something.What? Что вы хотите? . is it coffee? Нет. you will generally get straight vodka. это кофе.. .? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .Please give me coffee with milk.I want.

You (informal) Он . In the sentence "I love him". The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж". and the object is "him". Definitions Verbs are action words. her. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".She.. walk. Here are some useful phrases. or plural) . Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль . The subject is "I".. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. they are things you can do." mean in English? Where is the toilet." по-русски? ." на английском? . For example: run. it. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”.... him.You (formal.. Пожалуйста .Tell me please." in Russian? Что значит ". It (f) Оно .How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .How do you say ". Как сказать ".. love. she. "love" is the verb.21 rubles.He. want.. It (m) Она .. For example: I.) Я-I Ты ... (Known as the nominative case. you.. Скажите.Сколько? ....? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is. Где Туалет ..It (n) Мы . he.What does ". Pronouns are words that can replace names.We Вы . eat.

In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". (infinitive. "ет".You (informal) Его . it is not too difficult.Us Вас . It works. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". "ешь". or plural) Их .Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). Оно работает . "I am working" and "I do work". Just remember that unlike English.("yevo") . This happens a little in English.He.I work Ты работаешь . To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). It is the most common. and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. (infinitive. Они работают . работать . Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject.You work Он. Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. and the second conjugation.You work. "ем".n) Еѐ .Her.We work Вы работаете . and add the appropriate ending ("ю". Она. She.To understand. Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . dictionary form) Я работаю . (There are also some irregular verbs).They Вы is used as the formal singular "you".Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). You should memorise these pronouns.Him. (Known as the accusative case) Меня .They work. dictionary form) . (Example: I work. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить". and once you get the hang of it.You (formal. but not as much.Me Тебя .To work. It (m. Мы работаем . he works). Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. "ете" or "ют").Они . It (f) Нас . Both these patterns are quite similar.

She. For example: Я не знаю . dictionary form) Я говорю . Ты говоришь .I don't understand. There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. It knows.He. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). dictionary form) Я знаю .You understand. Ты знаешь . She. Ты понимаешь . говорить .To speak.We speak. Мы знаем .They understand.He.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . Вы понимаете . She. Они понимают .They know.To know. Remember. Оно знает . Мы говорим . Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. .You know. Он.We know. Знать . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. Он. Оно понимает . Он.I know. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).I speak. Она.He.You speak. Они знают . Она.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. Вы знаете . Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. (infinitive. Я не понимаю .We understand.You understand.I don't know.Я понимаю . which replace "ить".You know.He doesn't understand. Оно говорит .I understand. (infinitive. Она. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). It Speaks. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . Он не понимает . It understands Мы понимаем .

Ты едешь . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). For Example: Я говорю по-английски . слышу .You live. Она. Ты живѐшь . Они едут .To go (by transport).You hear.You live. you can often predict the endings. Вы едете .You hear. слышишь . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Жить . Оно едет .They live.They speak. Они говорят . except that "у" replaces "ю". However. Мы едем .To live.We live. Он.We don't speak Russian. Оно живѐт .He. It hears.He. слышит .You speak. Собака не говорит по-английски . слышим . She. Я еду .I live. Она.We hear.Вы говорите . слышат . Some examples: Ехать . It goes (by transport).He.You go (by transport).The dog doesn't speak English.Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . She. She. слышите .To hear. Он. Я живу .They go (by transport).I hear.I go (by transport).He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . It lives.They hear. . слышать . Мы живѐм . Вы живѐте .You go (by transport).We go (by transport). often once you know the stem of the verb. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. Они живут .I speak English Он говорит по-русски .

И and Й. Э. (Except ь. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1.Is Masculine Мужчина . In English we do this by having a strict word-order.(Daddy. cup.Is Masculine Дедушка .U in English). as with many other languages. If it is a consonant.(Grandfather) . In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. Папа . name or place. “cup”. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. But there are five notable exceptions. Он едет домой .A noun is a thing. Cases . Example: dog. cat. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them.He is going home Definitions Noun . 4. In Russian. and neuter (neutral). ъ because they have no sound). If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. There are very few exceptions to these rules. Russian has three genders: masculine. The letters А. У. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. Vowel . Consonant . From the dictionary form of a noun. each noun is assigned a gender. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . Look at the last letter of the word: 2. (A.Is Masculine . it will be in its dictionary form. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. paper.A letter that is not a vowel.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. In the case of other objects like “pen”. pen. Papa) . О. In Russian we use 6 cases. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter. Luckily. or “й”.O. 3. Е.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. 5. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. unlike many languages. Gender of nouns.I. Я. the word is masculine.(Man) . Ю.Is Masculine Кофе . feminine. Ы.E.I live in London. Moscow. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender.(Coffee) .Is Masculine Дядя .Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. Ё. “house”.(Uncle) .

Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. on.. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. (Eg. (In. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. In Russian there are six cases. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). You may wish to do this to emphasise something. Feminine : газета (newspaper). and still keep the same meaning. at. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. ..Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). Greek and German.. For example. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. In fact it was also used in Old English.. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. радио (radio). документ (document). Хлеб (bread). (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. брат (brother). The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. Россия (Russia). and about. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. so we will take it slowly. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟.

For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. “ы”. the word “I” is the subject. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. some remnants of the case system still exist in English. not plants). It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. For example. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first.Interestingly.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . without changing the actual meaning.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . In Russian.buildings) The Accusative Case. you need to use the accusative case also. in the nominative case. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. The Nominative Case. so there is nothing special to learn here. In the sentence “I love her”. Russian is very free about word order. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. in this case the word “dog”. Russian uses the case for all nouns. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. However. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . . especially pronouns. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. add “ы”. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. “я” or “а”.

Я люблю музыку .He loves Moscow. 3. If the noun in inanimate. . Надя любит вино .Nadya loves wine. Replace “я” with “ю”.Ivan loves tea.I love music. Я не люблю музыку . Иван любит чай . replace “й”. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт .I love sport. Ты любишь музыку? . replace “ь”. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. 2. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Он любит Москву . with “я”. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю.I don't like music. Надя не любит вино . If noun is animate. add “я”. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). 2. add “а”. Replace “а” with “у”. Neuter Nouns: 1.Masculine Nouns: 1. 4. If noun is animate.Nadya doesn't like wine. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Feminine Nouns: 1.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . there is no change.I love Moscow.

. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . You can use it to form questions.to think Работать .I am listening to music. An example could be: Я знаю.I love him. Я слушаю музыку . . Я читаю журнал . Что ты любишь? .I am reading a book.to read. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.I love her. Смотреть .What do you love? However.She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?".to watch. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here.I know that you love music.I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . Слушать . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. Она любит меня . Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. If you would like.I am reading a magazine.I love you. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. The word "Что" has two uses. Я читаю газету .to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .to study Думать . it is probably the conjunction "that". Я слушаю радио . Я еѐ люблю .I am listening to the radio.to listen Изучать .to work Хотеть . so don't be confused. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю . Читать . что ты любишь музыку.I am watching television.

It sometimes replaces the word "really" also.Where? Кто? . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". Я хочу купить журнал .What? Как? . (lit: I study the Russian language).I want to buy a magazine. (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.I love to travel.very. Я очень люблю Москву .I love to read.I want tea. Add : “е”. Я так думаю . Где? .I study Russian.Who? Что? . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". Что вы хотите? . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.I really love Moscow.I think so! Как вы думаете? .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. For example: Я люблю читать . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) .Я изучаю русский язык .How? Почему? .I really love sport. Я люблю путешествовать . For example: Очень . In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. You can include it into many phrases.

Exception: Replace “ия”.Where is she? на вокзале .I live in Moscow.theatre . Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. 3. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “я” with “е”. Petersburg.I live in St.I live in London.in the forest на улице . „at a station‟. “е” remains unchanged. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . Replace “ь” with “и”.at the post office в саду . Я живу в Петербурге . Я живу в Сибири .What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . Я живу в Лондоне . (They are in dicionary form) кино .On the table is a book and a pencil.on the street Что на столе? . The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. although these aren‟t precise rules.Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “о” with “е” 2. (Eg. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. „at a concert‟). even though they are not Russian. Here are some tips to help you.cinema театр . „at work‟. suburbs and places. (Eg. Replace “а” with “е”.at the station на почте . Using prepositions and the prepositional case.in the garden в лесу .Where do you live? Я живу в Москве . 4. As with any language. 2.I live in Siberia.

The first indicates „to go in one direction‟. Куда вы идѐте .Straight ahead. Here are some examples for you to compare.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу . but as these words are so important for basic Russian. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.stadium школа . your answer will involve the prepositional case.I work at (in) a school.hospital Location and Direction Sometimes.Straight ahead then to the right. The first indicates you are going on foot.hotel музей .To the left.bank гостиница . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. there are actually four ways: . we will introduce them now in a simple way. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. you can tell this by the case. прямо . and are grammatically quite complex. you would use the accusative case.cafe площадь . Где вы работаете? . So to express „to go‟ in Russian. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. However.museum больница . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. Both these words are verbs of motion. прямо потом направо .restaurant банк .To the right.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе .park стадион .pharmacy парк .аптека .I am going to school.school библиотека . направо .library кафе . налево . prepositions have more than one meaning. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).square ресторан . Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.

They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Они идут) Я иду в школу . Мы идѐм в кафе .I go to school. Ты ездишь . in more than one direction.I am going to school. Ты ходишь.I am going to the cinema. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . Он ходит. in one direction.We go to the cafe every day. or repetitively (Я езжу.I go to the theatre every day.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Вы ходите.To go on foot. Мы едем в кафе . (Я иду. in one direction.To go by transport. or repetitively.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день . Вы едете. (Я хожу.We are going to the cafe.I am going to the cinema on the metro. Мы ходим. Ты едешь.We are going to the cafe.I am going to the university Ходить . Ехать . Мы едем. Мы ездим. Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Я иду в кино . Он едет.To go on foot. Ты идѐшь. Он идѐт. Я часто хожу в кино .He is going to London Ездить . (Я еду. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .He is going to the hotel. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Вы ездите.I am going to school. Мы идѐм. Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Он ездит . я иду в университет .He is going to the hotel by taxi.To go by transport.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . Они часто ездят в Амстердам .Идти . Ты идѐшь в кино? . in more than one direction. Вы идѐте.

auntie Дядя .his. У меня есть брат .wife Муж . For example we use the words mum and dad.mother Отец . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. Наши (pl) . Твоѐ (n).sister Брат .uncle Родители . Еѐ (f) . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.I have a brother. Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10. Твоя (f).granddaughter Внук .I have a son and a daughter.our . Твои (pl) .father Мама . Моѐ (n).daughter Сын .grandmother Дедушка .parents Дети .son бабушка . You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns. У меня нет детей . Наша (f).husband Тѐтя . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. Наше (n). her Наш (m). У меня есть сестра .my Твой (m).Мать .your Его (m n) ("yevo").children Внучка .I have a sister.brother Дочь .grandson Семья .dad Сестра .mum Папа .family Just like English. У тебя есть дети? . Моя (f).Do you have children?.grandfather Жена . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents. Мой (m).I don't have any children. У меня есть сын и дочь . Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. Мои (pl) .

my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .good evening Спокойной ночи . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. Доброе утро .your Их .My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .This is my house Это моя квартира .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.his name is Ivan. This is. However.good morning Добрый день .. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual. The Russian word Это means 'this is'.. Ваша (f). For example.Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. Ваше (n). Это мой дом . Моя мама любит музыку .good afternoon Добрый вечер .Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .Ваш (m).their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally. you may wish to say her name is Anna. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна . Ваши (pl) . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.

2. the object that is owned always comes first. For example. add “я”. If the noun ends in a consonant. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. Replace “ь”. in Russian. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . Replace “о” with “а” 2. Сестра Анны читает газету . (This is like using 's in English). add “а”. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. 3. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . 2. Using the genitive case .ownership As you can see in the above example. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. Replace “а” with “ы”. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. Replace “ь” with “и”.Igor's telephone. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". Neuter Nouns: 1.Anna's car. with “я”. Replace “я” with “и”.Masculine Nouns: 1.Adam's dog. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Anna's) Дом Ивана .Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны .Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. pay particular attention to the order of the words. Брат Адама любит Москву .Adam's brother loves Moscow. However. Replace “й”. Собака Адама . 3. Replace “е” with “я” For example. Feminine Nouns: 1.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. Let's have a look at some more examples.

‟. Вас. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is).There is no tea. Их) Using the genitive case . Ивана нет . but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. (Меня.A glass of milk.sentence and uses the nominative case. У меня есть книга .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. Еѐ.There is no milk..Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case .She has a dog.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case. Here are some examples. стакан молока .of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .Ivan isn't here.There is no coffee.A map of the city. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . Тебя.to have As the genitive case relates to possession. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. Using the genitive case . план города . Молока нет . As we have seen in a previous lesson. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. . Generally. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. У нее есть собака. Его нет дома . У вас есть кофе? . Его. Нас. This is exactly the same concept as above. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . Чая нет .He is not home. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. it is just easier to learn the concept by example.I have book.. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. Кофе нет .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. Here are some examples.

The Nominative Case . "ы". First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. К. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. Х. but don‟t worry.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) .) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . . add “ы”. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. Ш. plurals. depending on whether the object is animate or not.Plural (Subject) In Russian. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г.numbers.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. Ч.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. you make a plural by using the letters "и".студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . The genitive case is used after most numbers. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. for example "10 roubles". Ж. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. in the nominative case.Using the genitive case . "я" or "а". quantaties.

англичанка .Anna loves books.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.марок. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.студентов (students') газета . let‟s see how to use them. Here are some examples. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.газет (newspapers') здание . but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). This may feel a little strange at first. девушка . Книги на столе . but in the plural form.англичанок. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money.ч. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). but in Russian we use it for all numbers. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language. (марка . For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. Ok. Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.щ. .The books are on the table.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.The Genitive Case . or whether you are just using general plurals.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент .зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation.ш. Анна любит книги .

four dollars четыре студента . 14.five roubles десять рублей .8. 103. одна девушка .four students три газеты . 12.0.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. . then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.eight buildings девять собак .one hundred dollars шесть книг . 4) (but not 12.three dogs четыре доллара .three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5. (example: 22.. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.one girl Я знаю одну девушку .3.6.one rouble двадцать один рубль . 13.7.ten roubles сто рублей .three roubles четыре рубля . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.seven newspapers восемь зданий . Here are some examples. 61) (but not 11). три рубля . 13 & 14).I know one girl один рубль . 21. Here are some examples.one hundred roubles сто долларов . etc) пять рублей . 3 or 4. then you should use the genitive singular case.4 If the number. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. 42. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. try using plurals that involve money.nine dogs десять студентов .9.six books семь газет .21 roubles один доллар .two books три собаки . To help you get used to this concept.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.four roubles две книги . or the last digit of the number is 2. The number one declines like an adjective.

3. .) Quantity not specified .6.Nikolay (Коля) Борис . Much like “Мне холодно” .7. Here are some other common Russian names for men.So in summary. Quantity ends in 2.Genitive Plural General Quantity .Vladimir (Володя. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns. Как вас зовут? . Николай .As per position in the sentence. Как еѐ зовут? .What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .9.Her name is Alyona.How old are you. Quantity ends in 1 .“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something. Вова) .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.What is his name? Его зовут Борис .I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .0.His name is Boris. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? ..Boris Владимир .-надцать .8.. Мне восемнадцать лет .the dative case. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).My name is Vera.4 . You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 . Quantity ends in 5.. Как его зовут? .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.Genitive Singular..Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context.I am 23 years old.

Alexander (Саша.and а .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . Some of these may be new.Sergey Алексей .Yekaterina Анастасия . Андрей .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Oxana Екатерина .Hello Привет . This is like a pet name.Dimitry (Дима) Сергей .Пѐтр .Yelena (Лена) Наталья .Natalya (Наташа) Мария . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').Alexandra (Саша) Оксана . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. Здравствуйте .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.good afternoon Добрый вечер . You should be able to remember all of these. Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons. or tender form. Peter. here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt. Елена .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Pyotr. but try to learn them all.Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .Andrey Александр .Thank-You Пожалуйста .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.good evening Спокойной ночи . and should only be used when you are in close firendship. The diminuative is a more personal. Спасибо .Olga (Оля) Александра . Шура) Дмитрий .good morning Добрый день . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.and/but (contrasting) . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Mariya (Маша) Ольга .

them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. . onto. У вас есть водка? .Tell me please.There is no tea. coffee with milk and with sugar. пожалуйста.I want tea please. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.for (+accusative). я-I он . во .him. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. to за .My mum loves music. Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. где туалет? .но . it ты .I know that you speak Russian. behind (+instrumental) из . so you should try to learn them all. to (+accusative) о. to (+accusative) на . In Russian we would use the word "а".He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.near. пожалуйста.out of.Give me please. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . it их . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в. . Скажите.he. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.". For example.her. . что ты говоришь по-русски.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .towards.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .along.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. кофе с молоком и с сахаром.you (formal/plural) его .Do you have coffee? Кофе нет.but или . at (+prepositional).about к .What do you want? Я хочу чай. У вас есть чай? . .Do you have tea? Чая нет. об .from по . .in (+prepositional). from от .on. We will use only common words. You might also find some new words in these sentences. Он любит говорить по-английски.There is no coffee. . it еѐ . Дайте.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". пожалуйста.you (informal) вы . . . Что вы хотите? .with у .

что ты понимаешь. Почему ты не понимаешь? . .My Mum loves music.I am reading a magazine.What? Как? .I think that you understand.I am studying the Russian language. Он хорошо говорит по-русски.How much? сто рублей . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . сколько стоит? .Where is he? Где кафе? . . Брат Адама любит Москву .How much? четыре рубля . Я слушаю музыку .Yes.I really love sport.What do you think? Где он? .4 dollars.I understand.I really love Moscow.Why? Что ты знаешь? . сколько стоит? . Я думаю.The dog doesn't speak English. Моя мама любит музыку . Я очень люблю Москву .Where? Кто? . Я очень люблю спорт . Его нет дома .When? Почему? .Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. Сестра Анны читает газету . сколько стоит? .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .I know that you understand.I am listening to music.He is not home. Я не понимаю.I don't understand. что вы понимаете.Who? Что? . .100 roubles. Я изучаю русский язык . .He is going home. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Он едет домой .Adam's brother loves Moscow. Моя сестра читает газету . Где? . . .My sister is reading a newspaper.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .How much? четыре доллара . Собака не говорит по-английски. He speaks Russian well.I live in London.Твой брат говорит по-русски? . Ты понимаешь? .How? Когда? .How much? двадцать один рубль .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.21 roubles.4 roubles.Does your borther speak Russian? Да. сколько стоит? .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. .Do you understand? Я знаю.Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .

Мне . Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Адам .Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Тебе . 2. Replace "а".me. Replace “ь”. Replace “й”.you (informal). If the noun ends in a consonant. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect. 3.. 2. Feminine Nouns: 1. "о" or a consonant with "ам". or plural).them. add “у”. 2. Replace “а” with “е”. 3. add “ю”. 1. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Ему (m). with “ю”.us. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. Вам .. Им .him. If the noun ends in a consonant. add "ам".Адаму Елена . 4. Ему (n). Neuter Nouns: 1.Елене Молоко . .Forming the dative case. Replace “ия” with “ии”.you (formal.Молоку Вино . Ей (f) . Replace “я” with “е”. 3. Replace “о” with “у” 2. Replace “ь” with “и”. her. To create nouns in the dative case. it. Masculine Nouns: 1. Нам .

... Мы помогаем маме каждый день .(we) give Даѐте . Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. Дайте мне . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”.They give flowers to Elena. Я помогаю этой девушке .I am helping Anna.I am helping this girl. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . It should be used in the dative case. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively. Here are the conjuctions: Даю . Most of these involve giving something or communicating something.(he) gives Даѐм .I am helping Ivan.(I) give Даѐшь . Я помогаю Ивану . the word “Anna” is the indirect object.Give me your address and telephone number.(you) give Даѐт .give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .Give me . in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. Similarly. For this reason. . Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона.(they) give The command forms of this word include.. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.give! Дайте .Ivan gives flowers to Anna..(you) give Дают .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.We help mother every day. .I give flowers to Anna. . Я даю цветы Анне . In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. Они дают цветы Елене . In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. Дай .

. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). (The "ся" ending is reflexive).I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.He is cold (to him its cold) . Адаму нравится Москва .) Practice using the word нравится. so it is enough for now just to learn this form. Мне холодно . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. Вам нравится Москва .She likes Moscow. it is still worth learning these examples. and it relies on the dative case.) Ей нравится Москва . so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? .. (lit: children are pleasing to me. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns.I really like the flowers. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.) Ему нравится Москва .You like Moscow. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). Мне очень нравятся цветы .Ivan calls Anna every day.I like the children.. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case. Мне нравится Москва . The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.I like Moscow. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English.) Мне нравятся ваши дети . it is like saying “To me it is likable”.How do you like . However this verb is used differently.I like the flowers.Adam likes Moscow.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети .I like your children. This is verb is also a reflexive verb. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet.? .? Как вам нравится фильм? . You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. Мне нравятся цветы .Звонить . However it is a common word.She calls Ivan every day. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. Как вам нравится ..I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно .He likes Moscow. so it is worth learning now. Иван звонит Анне каждый день .

We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . “ш” or “щ”. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. if stressed “ѐм”. add “ом”. then add “ем”..I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). Replace “ь”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . and has too many meanings. if stressed “ѐм”. 2. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section.I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . to create an exact rule. Replace “й”.Ей холодно . If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Мы едем к друзьям . . Although the use of this proposition is too varied. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1.I am walking towards the station. 4. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. All consonants.. Except. It is followed by the dative case. “ц”. “ч”. add “ем”.We are going to our friends. with “ем”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to".She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно .I am 23 years old.

карандашом (pencil) ложка .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Иван пишет карандашом . In English these words can have different meanings. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”..Анной (Anna) студенты .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Accompanied by. “ц”.ножом (knife) муж . Replace "а". Except. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .женой (wife) Иван .. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. add "ами".мужем (husband) жена . 3. 1.I eat soup with a spoon. The preposition: „с‟ . Replace “а” with “ой”. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.молоком (milk) сметана .Ivan writes with a pencil. Replace “ь” with “ью”. . Examples. 2. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Neuter Nouns: 1. All consonants. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.With. if stressed “ѐй”. “ш” or “щ”.Feminine Nouns: 1. 2.. Я ем суп ложкой . "о" with "ами". 4. Replace “я” with “ей”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Олег режет мясо ножом ..ложкой (spoon) нож . “ч”. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.

.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Ivan and I are going to school. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.Him Ей . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). it is often written as “со”. Дайте.Me Тобой . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Here are some examples.My husband and I are going to the cafe. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Ivan wants tea with milk. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Pronouns . пожалуйста. „with him‟. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.You Им .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. with Ivan”).Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.Me and you Notes: 1. „with you‟.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk. Иван с Анной идут в кафе.For ease of pronunciation. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. In English we would use the word “and”. Анна с мужем идут в кафе.Her . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. пожалуйста. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Мы с вами . 2. . However it is followed by the genitive case. Иван с женой идут в кафе.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Мной . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . .My wife and I are going to the cafe. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. кофе с молоком . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.I eat borsh with sour cream. Have a look at the following Russian examples. .Nadya wants tea with lemon.

Им .spring весной .in the afternoon вечер .You (plural) Ими .day.summer летом .It Нами .Them Seasons and parts of the day.Us Вами .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .in summer осень . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.in the evening ночь . .winter зимой .evening вечером .night ночью . For example: лето .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.in autumn зима . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.morning утром . afternoon днѐм .in winter весна .autumn осенью .in the morning день .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .

but it is something to keep in mind. . to be occupied with интересоваться .Behind this building there is a school. Перед этой школой поверните налево. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.I was a doctor).to remain as пользоваться .to be engaged in. was заниматься . govern являться .Happy birthday С новым годом .above перед .behind. быть . is.to become увлекаться .in front of под . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. (Example: Я был врачом .The lamp is above the table.between над .Under the table the cat is sitting. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.школа.under Examples: За этим зданием . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . You will learn more about this in a later lesson. . manage. .to be interested in оказываться .control. Над столом висит лампа.to seem. was) has no present tense. for между . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.to be keen on управлять . .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. enjoy становиться/стать .за .to turn out to be оставаться .In front of this school turn to the left. beyond. . You don't need to learn these verbs now.to use. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. Под столом сидит кот.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. be The verb “Быть” (to be.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . is.to be.

add "ами". Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. “ш” or “щ”. 2. Replace “ь”. “ц”. “ч”. In English these words can have different meanings. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. Replace “ь” with “ью”. 4. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3..Ivan writes with a pencil. Examples. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . “ч”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.женой (wife) Иван . 1. if stressed “ѐй”. add “ем”. if stressed “ѐм”.молоком (milk) сметана .Анной (Anna) студенты .студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. if stressed “ѐм”. Replace “й”..ложкой (spoon) нож . 4. 2. Neuter Nouns: 1. . Feminine Nouns: 1.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. Олег режет мясо ножом . with “ем”. “ш” or “щ”.. All consonants. Replace “а” with “ой”. then add “ем”. “ц”.ножом (knife) муж . All consonants. Иван пишет карандашом .. Except. Except.карандашом (pencil) ложка . "о" with "ами".сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.мужем (husband) жена . Replace “я” with “ей”. Replace "а"..I eat soup with a spoon. 3. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . add “ом”.Masculine Nouns: 1. 2. Я ем суп ложкой . so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.

For ease of pronunciation.With. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . пожалуйста. .Ivan wants tea with milk. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Иван с женой идут в кафе. Мы с вами . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. with Ivan”). 2.The preposition: „с‟ .Please give me coffee with milk. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.Instrumental Case . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.My wife and I are going to the cafe. . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. . Pronouns .I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other.My husband and I are going to the cafe. пожалуйста.I eat borsh with sour cream. Here are some examples.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Me and you Notes: 1. However it is followed by the genitive case. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Дайте.Ivan and I are going to school. .Nadya wants tea with lemon.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. In English we would use the word “and”. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Иван хочет чай с молоком . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . it is often written as “со”. кофе с молоком . Accompanied by. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.

Us Вами .in the morning день .summer летом .Her Им .evening вечером .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .in winter весна .at night .Them Seasons and parts of the day.day.Him Ей . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. „with you‟.in the afternoon вечер . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.in the evening ночь .morning утром .You Им .spring весной . afternoon днѐм . „with him‟.autumn осенью .It Нами . For example: лето .night ночью . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. Мной .in summer осень .Me Тобой .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.in autumn зима .You (plural) Ими .winter зимой . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.

Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. . be The verb “Быть” (to be. быть . is.to remain as пользоваться .Behind this building there is a school. .to use. was заниматься . was) has no present tense.to become увлекаться . за . govern являться .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .above перед . but it is something to keep in mind. You will learn more about this in a later lesson.Under the table the cat is sitting. to be occupied with интересоваться . . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.In front of this school turn to the left. You don't need to learn these verbs now.I was a doctor). . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. Под столом сидит кот.to be keen on управлять .школа. beyond.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. . Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.in front of под . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. Перед этой школой поверните налево. Над столом висит лампа.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . for между .to turn out to be оставаться . Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . enjoy становиться/стать . .The lamp is above the table.to seem. is.to be engaged in. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. manage. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. (Example: Я был врачом .Happy birthday С новым годом .to be.between над .control.under Examples: За этим зданием . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.behind.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.to be interested in оказываться .

In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.Dima knew Елена знала .The dog knew .It knew Они знали .I knew (male speaking) Я знала .You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала . In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.Olga knew Собака знала ..I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. it is conceptually quite easy.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). but in Russian there is simply one.She knew Оно знало . The same principal also applies in the future tense... (ie 1st. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. Он знал . Forming Verbs in Past Tense. or talk about something that has happened in the past. Although this concept differs from English.We knew Я знал .They knew Мы знали . 2nd or 3rd person).Vladimir knew Дима знал .Elena knew Ольга знала . Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.He knew Она знала . Let's have a look at the past tense now. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.

but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. The Imperfective Aspect. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect.I was home. and is not complete. . consequently each verb has two possible forms. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”.I worked for 2 hours. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. Я работал . ongoing. Я работал два часа . The perfective and the imperfective aspect. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. habitual.I run in the forest every day. . There are two aspects in Russian. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb.I worked everyday. . Ты. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. use the imperfective also. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.She wants to buy a book. Я работал каждый день . This should help you remember how to form the verbs. (often По-).I was working Я шѐл . If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . so there is no perfective in the present tense. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. When using pronouns such as Я. Some tenses in English can indicate this. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. reversed or repeated actions. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день.

He did not want to see me. . . If you are still unsure which to use. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. .She did not eat bananas.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative.I did not live in England.We did not watch the movie yesterday.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. Perfective: Я не позвонила . Он не хотел видеть меня. (but I was expected to). try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.I failed to phone.Yesterday we read an interesting article. Она спросила учителя. .I went home.Did you tell him about it? .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. . Я купил кофе .Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . . . Я не понял. . Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. . Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . Я не жила в Англии. Questions and Aspects. .I did not understand what he said.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?. . что он сказал. Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . Саша съел обед за пять минут.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.

Я была во многих странах. .They were not.They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.He was Она была .At school I started learning English. В школе я начала учить английский.Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.I‟ve been to many countries. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be).I was not (man speaking). Он читал три часа.It was not.I finished school when I was 16 years old. .I was (woman speaking) Он был . Мы сняли дачу на три месяца. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process. except in the feminine.She was Оно было . Они не были .He read for three hours. .It was Они были .I was (man speaking) Я была .I was not (woman speaking). Я не была . Я уже посетила Швецию . . Я не был . когда мне было 16 лет . This is not the case in the past tense. Я был . Я окончила школу. The stress moves to the word 'не'.We rented a summer house for three months. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. .I‟ve already visited Sweden. Оно не было .

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