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А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
пятьсот 600 .двести 300 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.восемьсот 900 .пятьдесят 60 .восемьдесят 90 .четырнадцать 15 .девяносто 100 .двадцать два 23 .четыреста 500 . Here are some examples: 20 .двадцать один 22 .сто 200 .шестьдесят 70 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.одиннадцать 12 .восемнадцать 19 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.тринадцать 14 .тридцать 40 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.11 .шестьсот 700 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).семнадцать 18 .девятьсот .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.двадцать 21 .семьдесят 80 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9.семьсот 800 .сорок 50 .пятнадцать 16 .двадцать три 24 .триста 400 . 30 . quite similar to English. Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.двенадцать 13 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".шестнадцать 17 .
Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No". .миллиард For example: 131 .000. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below.000 .564 2. You should always say this after someone thanks you. 0 . Yes and No.008 2.994 1. you can basically forget the "уй".000 . after somebody says thank-you.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .000 .тысяча 1. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.812 Please and Thank-You.007 2. Да ("da") .000.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .000.No Saying Hello.345 23.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.Yes Нет ("nyet") .000 1. 456 219 9. The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.миллион 1.1.
Introducing Yourself. However. Привет is also commonly used with friends. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . and should only be used with friends. There are also two words for saying good-bye. You should just learn the whole phrase.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") . there is no difference between the question and the statement.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first.Bad Saying Good-Bye. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . If somebody says Привет to you.How are things? Хорошо спасибо .. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to. slang) You should generally use до свидания. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). You may also hear people say Пока. There are two forms of this word. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.My name is . Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question. put a real questioning expression on your face. If all else fails.. you may need the following phrases. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") . Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . In order to introduce yourself. Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. except for the question mark. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody.Good-bye.Bye (Informal. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations.Do you (formal) speak Russian? .Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . Меня зовут . Вы говорите по-английски? ...Pleased to meet you. not the individual words. but we suggest you only use it with friends. ("min-ya za-voot") .
you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.Coffee Чай ..Water . пожалуйста. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.Tell me please.Wine Вода .I speak English Я говорю по-русски . где кафе? . It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.Juice Борщ .Vodka Пиво ..Tell me please.I speak Russian Я понимаю . You could ask people with the following phrases.I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Tell me please. Скажите. Скажите. пожалуйста.Russian beetroot soup Суп .Tea Молоко ... пожалуйста. .Beer Вино ..Tell me please.. Скажите.I understand Я не понимаю .Я говорю по-английски . где ближайшее кафе? .Lemonade Сок .Milk Кока-Кола .Coca-Cola Лимонад . where is a cafe? Скажите. где бар? .Soup Торт .Cake Водка . here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . пожалуйста.Menu Кофе . where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.
... Что это? . пожалуйста . . пожалуйста.I want.Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order.Excuse me... ..How much is it?. is it coffee? Нет.What is it? Это кофе. это чай. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") . Дайте. кофе . чай. it is tea.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? . Дайте. Do you have. пожалуйста. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian..No.What do you want? Я хочу . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . when you order vodka in russia. Дайте.. .Be careful. У вас есть .. . you can use the following phrase.Please give me coffee.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .Do you have . it is gramatically unusual). you will generally get straight vodka.? If you want to ask someone if they have something.Please give me tea. Here are some Russian phrases you might need...Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Give me please. You can use it to ask the price of something..It is coffee. Сколько стоит? . Простите.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Examples: Дайте.... кофе с молоком .. . . пожалуйста.Please give me coffee with milk. это кофе. пожалуйста.? . Дайте.What? Что вы хотите? . .... What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. (Just learn the whole phrase.
." mean in English? Where is the toilet." на английском? . Definitions Verbs are action words. For example: I.She.... (Known as the nominative case.It (n) Мы . It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian.You (informal) Он . you.What does ". where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M". want.How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль .." по-русски? . Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence. It (f) Оно . The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж"." in Russian? Что значит ". eat... him.. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”.Tell me please.We Вы .. Где Туалет ..? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is. or plural) . Скажите.. it. It (m) Она .. and the object is "him".. walk. love. In the sentence "I love him". "love" is the verb.. they are things you can do.) Я-I Ты .21 rubles. she. Пожалуйста .He..How do you say ". Pronouns are words that can replace names.Сколько? . her. Как сказать ". Here are some useful phrases. For example: run. The subject is "I".How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .. he.You (formal.
and the second conjugation. It (m. It is the most common.Us Вас . Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. dictionary form) Я работаю .("yevo") . "ете" or "ют"). Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать .To work.To understand. (infinitive.I work Ты работаешь .Они . dictionary form) .Him. You should memorise these pronouns. To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. it is not too difficult. She. Just remember that unlike English. Она. (There are also some irregular verbs).We work Вы работаете . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. "I am working" and "I do work".You work.Her.They work. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation.Me Тебя . Both these patterns are quite similar.You (informal) Его . It works. (Known as the accusative case) Меня . Они работают . Оно работает . "ет". or plural) Их .n) Еѐ . and once you get the hang of it.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". and add the appropriate ending ("ю".He. It (f) Нас .Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). he works). and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. (Example: I work. (infinitive.Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". but not as much. "ешь".You (formal.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). This happens a little in English. "ем". The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить".You work Он. Мы работаем . работать .
Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation.He. Мы знаем .You speak. (infinitive.He. Оно говорит . Они знают .You know.You understand.To speak. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). Ты говоришь . Ты понимаешь . (infinitive. Знать .You know. Ты знаешь . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. Он. Мы говорим . For example: Я не знаю .We know.He doesn't understand. Remember.They understand.We understand. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). Он. Оно понимает .We speak. Они понимают . Вы понимаете . говорить .I know. It understands Мы понимаем . Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules.Я понимаю . dictionary form) Я знаю . She. . dictionary form) Я говорю . She. It Speaks. Он. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . Я не понимаю . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation. It knows.He.I speak.I understand.I don't know.Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation. She.To know. Она.I don't understand.They know. Он не понимает . Оно знает . Она. Вы знаете . Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not).You understand. which replace "ить".Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . Она.
Вы едете . Ты едешь .I go (by transport). Я живу . Оно едет . Они говорят . слышу .We live.He. For Example: Я говорю по-английски . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. Он. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction. слышать .He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . often once you know the stem of the verb. you can often predict the endings.They hear.They go (by transport). Я еду .He. She. слышите .You live.I hear. Они едут .I live.You speak. Оно живѐт . Жить .Вы говорите . слышим . Она. слышат .We go (by transport).You hear. Some examples: Ехать . She. Он.He.Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски .They live. Мы едем . However. Она. (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).We don't speak Russian.The dog doesn't speak English. слышишь . Ты живѐшь .You hear.You go (by transport).They speak.To go (by transport). It goes (by transport).You live. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above.We hear. . Собака не говорит по-английски . Вы живѐте . It hears.To live. except that "у" replaces "ю". She.You go (by transport).I speak English Он говорит по-русски . It lives. Мы живѐм . Они живут . слышит .To hear.
Is Masculine Кофе . If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. Папа .(Man) .I.E. pen. 5. unlike many languages. There are very few exceptions to these rules. Papa) . Vowel .(Grandfather) . in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. Э.A noun is a thing. If it is a consonant. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1.U in English). О.A letter that is not a vowel.Is Masculine Дедушка . each noun is assigned a gender.I live in London.(Uncle) . paper.Is Masculine Дядя . ъ because they have no sound). Я. it will be in its dictionary form. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. Luckily. But there are five notable exceptions.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. Gender of nouns. “house”. 4. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter.He is going home Definitions Noun . Он едет домой . И and Й. The letters А. 3. cup. У. name or place. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. Consonant . From the dictionary form of a noun. In the case of other objects like “pen”. (A. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract.(Daddy. Moscow. the word is masculine. Ё.Is Masculine . In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. In Russian we use 6 cases. cat. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. Example: dog. and neuter (neutral). In Russian. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. Russian has three genders: masculine. “cup”. feminine. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. Ы.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. or “й”. Cases .O.(Coffee) . as with many other languages.Is Masculine Мужчина . This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. Е. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. (Except ь. this occurs mainly because of physical gender. Ю.
. In Russian there are six cases. Россия (Russia). The case system is also used in languages like Latin. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). at. . письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. Feminine : газета (newspaper). Greek and German. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. Хлеб (bread). Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. документ (document). Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar.. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian.. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. and still keep the same meaning. and about. For example. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. (In. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. In fact it was also used in Old English. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. on. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership.. брат (brother). радио (radio). Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. so we will take it slowly. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. (Eg.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now.
add “ы”. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . some remnants of the case system still exist in English. Russian is very free about word order. In Russian. “я” or “а”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. especially pronouns. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. so there is nothing special to learn here. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. you need to use the accusative case also. Russian uses the case for all nouns. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. . The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. However. “ы”.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . In the sentence “I love her”. you make a plural by using the letters “и”.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building .Interestingly. not plants). The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. The Nominative Case. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. in the nominative case. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. in this case the word “dog”. without changing the actual meaning.buildings) The Accusative Case. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. the word “I” is the subject. For example.
Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence.He loves Moscow. 4. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Ты любишь музыку? . with “я”. 3. If the noun in inanimate.Ivan loves tea. Feminine Nouns: 1. replace “й”.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . Я не люблю музыку . add “я”. If noun is animate. add “а”. 2.I love Moscow.Masculine Nouns: 1. there is no change. Надя не любит вино . Иван любит чай . Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт .Nadya doesn't like wine. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). . Я люблю музыку .I don't like music. Он любит Москву .I love music. Replace “а” with “у”. 2.Nadya loves wine. Надя любит вино . If noun is animate.I love sport. replace “ь”. Replace “я” with “ю”. Neuter Nouns: 1. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю.
Смотреть . it is probably the conjunction "that".I know that you love music.I love him. Она любит меня . If you would like. Что ты любишь? .I am reading a book. Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. so don't be confused. You can use it to form questions. Я еѐ люблю . An example could be: Я знаю.What do you love? However.I am listening to the radio. Слушать ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.to study Думать .to listen Изучать .to read.to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор . Я слушаю музыку . что ты любишь музыку. Я слушаю радио . Читать .She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?".to think Работать .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу .I am listening to music. The word "Что" has two uses. .I love you.I am watching television. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .to watch.I am reading a magazine. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning.I love her. . Я читаю журнал . Я читаю газету .to work Хотеть . if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence.
Where? Кто? .I love to travel.Who? Что? . (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . Я очень люблю Москву .I love to read. Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". Я хочу купить журнал .Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. (lit: I study the Russian language). Я так думаю .very. For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". You can include it into many phrases.I study Russian. Что вы хотите? . In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.I want tea.How? Почему? . Где? . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) .I really love Moscow. In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. Я люблю путешествовать .I want to buy a magazine.I really love sport. For example: Очень . Add : “е”.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .What? Как? .Я изучаю русский язык . Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. For example: Я люблю читать .I think so! Как вы думаете? .What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action.
(Eg. Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. „at a concert‟).Feminine Nouns: 1. Replace “я” with “е”. Я живу в Лондоне . Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English.in the forest на улице . it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. 2.I live in Siberia.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .I live in Moscow.at the post office в саду . Using prepositions and the prepositional case. “е” remains unchanged. (They are in dicionary form) кино .theatre . Replace “о” with “е” 2. „at work‟. even though they are not Russian. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”.I live in London.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш .on the street Что на столе? . 3.On the table is a book and a pencil. Exception: Replace “ия”. „at a station‟. Here are some tips to help you. (Eg. Replace “ь” with “и”. As with any language. Replace “а” with “е”. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities.in the garden в лесу . Petersburg. Я живу в Сибири . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings.I live in St. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . Я живу в Петербурге . Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? . suburbs and places.at the station на почте . 4.cinema театр . although these aren‟t precise rules.Where is she? на вокзале .
прямо . Куда вы идѐте .hotel музей . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport. налево . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs. Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.restaurant банк . Где вы работаете? .pharmacy парк .Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . Both these words are verbs of motion.square ресторан .To the right. направо .аптека . you would use the accusative case. we will introduce them now in a simple way. When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). прямо потом направо .cafe площадь .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes.To the left. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. So to express „to go‟ in Russian. prepositions have more than one meaning.bank гостиница .Straight ahead then to the right. However.I am going to school.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .stadium школа . when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to).museum больница . The first indicates you are going on foot. Here are some examples for you to compare.I work at (in) a school.school библиотека . and are grammatically quite complex. you can tell this by the case. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟.library кафе .Straight ahead. there are actually four ways: . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.park стадион . your answer will involve the prepositional case. but as these words are so important for basic Russian.
Он идѐт. Он едет.To go by transport. Мы едем в кафе . Ехать .Идти . Ты идѐшь.I go to school.We go to the cafe every day. Я иду в кино . Мы идѐм.To go on foot.I am going to school.I am going to the university Ходить .He is going to the hotel by taxi.He is going to London Ездить . (Я еду.To go on foot. Ты ездишь . or repetitively (Я езжу. Он ездит . Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Они часто ездят в Амстердам .We are going to the cafe. Мы ходим.I am going to the cinema.He is going to the hotel. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . Мы идѐм в кафе . (Я иду. Я часто хожу в кино .Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу .To go by transport. or repetitively. Вы едете. Ты едешь.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: . Вы ходите.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Мы едем. in one direction. Ты идѐшь в кино? .I am going to school. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро . in more than one direction. Вы ездите. (Я хожу. Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Ты ходишь.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .I go to the theatre every day. я иду в университет . Они идут) Я иду в школу . in one direction.I am going to the cinema on the metro. Он ходит.We are going to the cafe. Вы идѐте. Мы ездим. in more than one direction.
Твои (pl) . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.my Твой (m).dad Сестра .brother Дочь . Моя (f). У меня есть брат .father Мама .his.grandfather Жена .husband Тѐтя .family Just like English. У меня есть сестра . Наша (f). Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.uncle Родители . Моѐ (n).Do you have children?.I have a son and a daughter. Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have.son бабушка .parents Дети .I don't have any children.grandson Семья . Мои (pl) .Мать .mum Папа . Наше (n).sister Брат .I have a brother.your Его (m n) ("yevo"). Твоѐ (n). Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. У тебя есть дети? . У меня нет детей . Наши (pl) .mother Отец .I have a sister. Твоя (f).wife Муж .daughter Сын .auntie Дядя .granddaughter Внук . her Наш (m).grandmother Дедушка . Мой (m). У меня есть сын и дочь .children Внучка . Еѐ (f) .our . For example we use the words mum and dad. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns. Here are some Russian phrases you could use. in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.
Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. Это мой дом ..My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. Доброе утро . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .. Моя мама любит музыку . However. The Russian word Это means 'this is'.your Их . For example. Ваша (f). the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.Ваш (m).Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally.goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .good morning Добрый день .good afternoon Добрый вечер .good evening Спокойной ночи . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .her name is Anna Его зовут Иван . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .This is my house Это моя квартира . Ваше (n). you may wish to say her name is Anna. This is.his name is Ivan. Ваши (pl) .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .
Replace “о” with “а” 2. add “а”. 2. Using the genitive case . Anna's) Дом Ивана . Feminine Nouns: 1.Igor's telephone. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. Собака Адама . pay particular attention to the order of the words. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Replace “ь”. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . (This is like using 's in English). In the phrase "Дом Ивана". in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . Replace “е” with “я” For example. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? .Anna's car. If the noun ends in a consonant. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. add “я”. Neuter Nouns: 1.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. the object that is owned always comes first. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. Брат Адама любит Москву .Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. with “я”. Let's have a look at some more examples. Replace “й”. Replace “я” with “и”. For example. Сестра Анны читает газету .ownership As you can see in the above example. Replace “ь” with “и”. However. 3. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan.Masculine Nouns: 1. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences.Adam's brother loves Moscow. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English.Adam's dog. Replace “а” with “ы”. 2. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. 3. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . in Russian.
it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. Его нет дома .Ivan isn't here.A map of the city. Их) Using the genitive case . There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. стакан молока . Тебя.She has a dog. . but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”. Using the genitive case .Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case . Here are some examples. Generally. план города .to have As the genitive case relates to possession.There is no coffee.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .There is no tea. У нее есть собака.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Чая нет . Кофе нет . (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . У меня есть книга .There is no milk. Ивана нет .He is not home. Нас.A glass of milk. To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). As we have seen in a previous lesson. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . Вас. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Еѐ.sentence and uses the nominative case. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. Его. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . У вас есть кофе? .. (Меня. This is exactly the same concept as above. Here are some examples. Молока нет . As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case.. it is just easier to learn the concept by example.‟.I have book.
First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. add “ы”.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases. The Nominative Case . It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г.Plural (Subject) In Russian. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. . for example "10 roubles".) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) .газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . К. you make a plural by using the letters "и". depending on whether the object is animate or not. The genitive case is used after most numbers. "я" or "а".numbers. Х. in the nominative case. Ч.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case .Using the genitive case . but don‟t worry. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . plurals. Ж. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. quantaties. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. Ш. "ы".
ч. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation. but in the plural form. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form). Ok. or whether you are just using general plurals. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. девушка .девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент .The Genitive Case . ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.англичанок. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.щ.газет (newspapers') здание . Here are some examples. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж.ш. (марка . Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. This may feel a little strange at first. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). . Анна любит книги .марок.The books are on the table. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. let‟s see how to use them. but in Russian we use it for all numbers.Anna loves books. Книги на столе . You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. англичанка .зданий (buildings') General use of plurals.студентов (students') газета .
one hundred roubles сто долларов .0. try using plurals that involve money. 21. 103. .five roubles десять рублей . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.4 If the number.seven newspapers восемь зданий . 13. одна девушка . The number one declines like an adjective.3.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language.four dollars четыре студента . or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.. 12.two books три собаки .three roubles четыре рубля .7. (example: 22.nine dogs десять студентов .ten roubles сто рублей . All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. 42. три рубля . Here are some examples.one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.9. so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. etc) пять рублей . 61) (but not 11).three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.6. To help you get used to this concept.one rouble двадцать один рубль .three dogs четыре доллара .one hundred dollars шесть книг .four students три газеты .one girl Я знаю одну девушку .Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.six books семь газет . 4) (but not 12. You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.21 roubles один доллар .eight buildings девять собак .I know one girl один рубль .8. Here are some examples. or the last digit of the number is 2.four roubles две книги . then you should use the genitive singular case. 14. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence. 13 & 14). 3 or 4.
What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года . Вова) .Genitive Singular. Quantity ends in 2. .4 .the dative case.. Much like “Мне холодно” .Vladimir (Володя. (Lit: To me there are 16 years). Here are some other common Russian names for men.) Quantity not specified .Her name is Alyona.As per position in the sentence. You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .How old are you.9.So in summary.My name is Vera. Мне восемнадцать лет .8.. Как еѐ зовут? .Nikolay (Коля) Борис .0.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).What is his name? Его зовут Борис . Как его зовут? .. In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.3.7.-надцать . Николай . Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.6.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Quantity ends in 1 .Boris Владимир .What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something..I am 23 years old. Как вас зовут? . Quantity ends in 5.Genitive Plural General Quantity . Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.His name is Boris.
good evening Спокойной ночи . and should only be used when you are in close firendship.Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.good morning Добрый день .Yelena (Лена) Наталья .Hello Привет .Oxana Екатерина .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда . The diminuative is a more personal.Alexander (Саша.and/but (contrasting) .Sergey Алексей .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name. Андрей . Елена .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.and а . Шура) Дмитрий .Andrey Александр .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . or tender form. This is like a pet name. Some of these may be new.Thank-You Пожалуйста . Спасибо .Mariya (Маша) Ольга . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form. but try to learn them all.Alexandra (Саша) Оксана . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will'). There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Пѐтр .Natalya (Наташа) Мария .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна . Здравствуйте . Peter.good afternoon Добрый вечер .Yekaterina Анастасия . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Olga (Оля) Александра . In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро . You should be able to remember all of these. Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.Pyotr.
coffee with milk and with sugar.them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. где туалет? . it ты . . во . the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. что ты говоришь по-русски.What do you want? Я хочу чай. У вас есть чай? .Tell me please. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev. at (+prepositional). . об . from от .". пожалуйста. .for (+accusative).There is no tea.you (formal/plural) его .I want tea please. У вас есть водка? .on. by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.My mum loves music.near. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns. onto.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . We will use only common words. . to за . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. it их .you (informal) вы . to (+accusative) о.her.with у . . .or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but".towards.along.I know that you speak Russian. . .Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. behind (+instrumental) из . кофе с молоком и с сахаром.in (+prepositional). пожалуйста.Give me please. so you should try to learn them all. Дайте.но . For example.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? .but или . пожалуйста. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? . it еѐ .from по .he. You might also find some new words in these sentences.about к . Он любит говорить по-английски. to (+accusative) на .Do you have tea? Чая нет.There is no coffee.out of. In Russian we would use the word "а". Что вы хотите? . Скажите.him. я-I он .
Where is he? Где кафе? .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.Who is he? Я читаю журнал . сколько стоит? .When? Почему? .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.How much? четыре доллара . Он едет домой . что ты понимаешь.Why? Что ты знаешь? .I know that you understand.How much? сто рублей . . Моя мама любит музыку . Его нет дома .My Mum loves music.I am reading a magazine.What do you know? Что ты думаешь? .4 dollars.The dog doesn't speak English. Я думаю. Я очень люблю Москву .Does your borther speak Russian? Да. Моя сестра читает газету .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне . . Я изучаю русский язык .Who? Что? .Where? Кто? . Сестра Анны читает газету . .I really love Moscow. сколько стоит? . Почему ты не понимаешь? . Брат Адама любит Москву .I am studying the Russian language.How much? двадцать один рубль . He speaks Russian well.He is going home.Do you understand? Я знаю. . Он хорошо говорит по-русски. .What? Как? . Собака не говорит по-английски. сколько стоит? .I think that you understand.I don't understand.Твой брат говорит по-русски? . сколько стоит? . Где? . .I understand. Я слушаю музыку .4 roubles. .I really love sport.How much? четыре рубля .21 roubles.I am listening to music. Я не понимаю.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю.Adam's brother loves Moscow.He is not home.Where is the cafe? Кто он? .How? Когда? .I live in London. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? . Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Я очень люблю спорт . Ты понимаешь? .100 roubles.Yes.What do you think? Где он? . что вы понимаете.My sister is reading a newspaper.
2. Replace “я” with “е”. Replace “ь”. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. Ей (f) . Neuter Nouns: 1. It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.them. Replace “о” with “у” 2. Вам .Forming the dative case.Адаму Елена . Мне . we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form.you (formal. If the noun ends in a consonant. If the noun ends in a consonant. Ему (m). Replace “й”.him. 3. Тебе . "о" or a consonant with "ам". 3. Masculine Nouns: 1. 2.me. Replace “ия” with “ии”. add “ю”. To create nouns in the dative case.Елене Молоко . 3.you (informal). it. Адам . 2. 1. Feminine Nouns: 1.. Ему (n). 4.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Replace “ь” with “и”. add “у”. or plural).. Replace “а” with “е”.Молоку Вино . .us. her. Им . add "ам". Нам . with “ю”. Replace "а".
In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.. For this reason.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson.Give me your address and telephone number.(you) give Даѐт . Мы помогаем маме каждый день .(they) give The command forms of this word include. .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. Дай . Я помогаю этой девушке .Ivan gives flowers to Anna. Они дают цветы Елене .. . The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”.Give me . Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case..(you) give Дают . . Here are the conjuctions: Даю . Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона.I am helping this girl. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .(he) gives Даѐм .I give flowers to Anna.give! Дайте ..Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне .(we) give Даѐте . Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged. Я даю цветы Анне . Я помогаю Ивану . the word “Anna” is the indirect object. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”.We help mother every day. It should be used in the dative case.. Similarly. In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.(I) give Даѐшь .I am helping Ivan.I am helping Anna. Дайте мне .They give flowers to Elena.. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.
and it relies on the dative case.? Как вам нравится фильм? . so it is worth learning now. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject.I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко .She calls Ivan every day.I really like the flowers. Мне очень нравятся цветы .He is cold (to him its cold) . The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. it is still worth learning these examples.. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. Вам нравится Москва .How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? .You like Moscow.How do you like .Adam likes Moscow..I like your children. Иван звонит Анне каждый день .. Адаму нравится Москва .to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день .Ivan calls Anna every day. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns. so it is enough for now just to learn this form. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). However this verb is used differently. Как вам нравится ..I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like). However it is a common word.) Ему нравится Москва . Мне нравятся цветы . a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. Мне нравится Москва . (The "ся" ending is reflexive). Мне холодно . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her.) Мне нравятся ваши дети . Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.I like the children. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.I like the flowers. (lit: children are pleasing to me.She likes Moscow.? . It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. it is like saying “To me it is likable”.I like Moscow. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети .) Ей нравится Москва .He likes Moscow.) Practice using the word нравится. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person.Звонить .
and has too many meanings.. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to".We are going to our friends. . More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. 4. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. It is followed by the dative case. with “ем”. add “ем”. Except. Мы едем к друзьям .. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Replace “ь”. then add “ем”.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). All consonants. “ш” or “щ”. add “ом”.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . if stressed “ѐм”. 2. to create an exact rule.We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . Replace “й”. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу .I am walking towards the station. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. “ч”.I am 23 years old.Ей холодно .I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет . if stressed “ѐм”. “ц”.
. Олег режет мясо ножом .ножом (knife) муж . Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. “ц”. “ш” or “щ”. Replace "а". so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Examples. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. “ч”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.Feminine Nouns: 1. In English these words can have different meanings. Except.молоком (milk) сметана . 2. All consonants. 3.With. add "ами". 1.. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case..мужем (husband) жена .ложкой (spoon) нож . Я ем суп ложкой .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Neuter Nouns: 1. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .женой (wife) Иван .Ivan writes with a pencil. Иван пишет карандашом . 2. The preposition: „с‟ . Accompanied by. if stressed “ѐй”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Replace “а” with “ой”. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.Анной (Anna) студенты . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.карандашом (pencil) ложка . . It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Replace “ь” with “ью”. "о" with "ами"..Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.I eat soup with a spoon. 4. Replace “я” with “ей”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.
Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. Have a look at the following Russian examples.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.For ease of pronunciation.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Иван с женой идут в кафе. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Here are some examples. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .My wife and I are going to the cafe.Ivan wants tea with milk. пожалуйста. . but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Me Тобой .Him Ей . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Мной . with Ivan”). . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. In English we would use the word “and”.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. However it is followed by the genitive case. „with you‟. 2. Дайте. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Pronouns . Надя хочет чай с лимоном . Мы с вами .Nadya wants tea with lemon. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. „with him‟. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.You Им . кофе с молоком и с сахаром . it is often written as “со”. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Иван хочет чай с молоком . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.Her . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. .Me and you Notes: 1. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.I eat borsh with sour cream. Я люблю блинчики с икрой . пожалуйста.Ivan and I are going to school.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.My husband and I are going to the cafe. кофе с молоком .
For example: лето .in autumn зима .in winter весна . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.evening вечером .autumn осенью .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.in the morning день .Them Seasons and parts of the day. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.Им .morning утром . .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. afternoon днѐм .You (plural) Ими .in summer осень .Us Вами . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.summer летом .spring весной .in the evening ночь .night ночью .in the afternoon вечер .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .winter зимой .It Нами .day.
. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.behind.Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. .between над . You will learn more about this in a later lesson.I was a doctor).to be. Над столом висит лампа. You don't need to learn these verbs now. be The verb “Быть” (to be. but it is something to keep in mind.above перед .to remain as пользоваться . govern являться . beyond.to be keen on управлять .to become увлекаться . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.In front of this school turn to the left. is. (Example: Я был врачом . Под столом сидит кот. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .to turn out to be оставаться .Happy birthday С новым годом . .Under the table the cat is sitting. быть .школа. . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. to be occupied with интересоваться . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.Between lunch and dinner drink tea.to seem.Behind this building there is a school.The lamp is above the table.to be interested in оказываться .in front of под . enjoy становиться/стать .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .under Examples: За этим зданием .control.за .to use. is. manage. Forming the Russian Instrumental Case . . was заниматься . for между . Перед этой школой поверните налево.to be engaged in. was) has no present tense. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet.
“ш” or “щ”. if stressed “ѐм”. Replace “ь”.Ivan writes with a pencil. All consonants. add “ом”.. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.. Иван пишет карандашом . Replace "а". . “ш” or “щ”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Олег режет мясо ножом . add “ем”.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.Masculine Nouns: 1.. if stressed “ѐй”. “ц”. "о" with "ами". Replace “й”. add "ами". 1.мужем (husband) жена . with “ем”. Я ем суп ложкой . If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. 4. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Examples. “ч”. Replace “я” with “ей”. Neuter Nouns: 1. 4. “ц”. 2. 3.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .ножом (knife) муж . 2. Except. Replace “а” with “ой”.женой (wife) Иван . if stressed “ѐм”.I eat soup with a spoon. Except.. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко .. 2. “ч”. then add “ем”. Feminine Nouns: 1. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”.Анной (Anna) студенты .. Replace “ь” with “ью”.молоком (milk) сметана . All consonants. In English these words can have different meanings. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.карандашом (pencil) ложка .ложкой (spoon) нож .
кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Pronouns . Я люблю блинчики с икрой . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. . For ease of pronunciation.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.My wife and I are going to the cafe.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. In English we would use the word “and”. кофе с молоком . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Ivan and I are going to school. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Instrumental Case . Иван с Анной идут в кафе. Мы с вами . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. with Ivan”).I eat borsh with sour cream. More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Иван с женой идут в кафе. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”.Ivan wants tea with milk.The preposition: „с‟ .With. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Иван хочет чай с молоком . Accompanied by.Me and you Notes: 1. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . . Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Here are some examples. пожалуйста. . Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. . Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Дайте. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. 2. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Please give me coffee with milk. However it is followed by the genitive case.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. it is often written as “со”. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. but Russian generally uses “с” (with).My husband and I are going to the cafe. Have a look at the following Russian examples.Nadya wants tea with lemon. пожалуйста. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.
evening вечером .You Им .summer летом .You (plural) Ими .in summer осень . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.in the evening ночь .Me Тобой . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.in the afternoon вечер .in the morning день . For example: лето .autumn осенью .Us Вами .Him Ей .night ночью .Her Им .Them Seasons and parts of the day.It Нами .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.winter зимой . afternoon днѐм .morning утром .day. Мной . „with him‟.spring весной .in winter весна .in autumn зима .at night . „with you‟.
In front of this school turn to the left.to seem. be The verb “Быть” (to be. to be occupied with интересоваться . is.Behind this building there is a school. . Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. beyond. was) has no present tense. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .to be keen on управлять .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.The lamp is above the table.Under the table the cat is sitting. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. .to be.above перед .behind. the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. You don't need to learn these verbs now. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .under Examples: За этим зданием .Between lunch and dinner drink tea. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.to use.in front of под . . but it is something to keep in mind. быть . (Example: Я был врачом .to become увлекаться . manage.to be engaged in.to turn out to be оставаться .школа. . . enjoy становиться/стать .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case. Перед этой школой поверните налево.Happy birthday С новым годом .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .between над .to remain as пользоваться . за . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. is.control.I was a doctor). govern являться . was заниматься . .to be interested in оказываться . for между . Над столом висит лампа. Под столом сидит кот.
Dima knew Елена знала .It knew Они знали . it is conceptually quite easy. Although this concept differs from English. The same principal also applies in the future tense. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings..You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .Olga knew Собака знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject.. In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . or talk about something that has happened in the past. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was.I knew (male speaking) Я знала . Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .. Let's have a look at the past tense now. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.He knew Она знала . Он знал .Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story. but in Russian there is simply one. Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).Elena knew Ольга знала . Forming Verbs in Past Tense.We knew Я знал .She knew Оно знало .Vladimir knew Дима знал . 2nd or 3rd person). (ie 1st.They knew Мы знали . Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not.The dog knew .
The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. . Я работал два часа . The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. consequently each verb has two possible forms. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. and is not complete.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”.She wants to buy a book. so there is no perfective in the present tense. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. reversed or repeated actions.I run in the forest every day. (often По-). Ты. habitual. This should help you remember how to form the verbs. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses. Я работал каждый день . Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. . When using pronouns such as Я.I was working Я шѐл . Some tenses in English can indicate this. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. use the imperfective also. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. There are two aspects in Russian. ongoing. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective.I worked for 2 hours. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . Simply conjugate them as discussed above.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. The Imperfective Aspect. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Я работал . . There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.I worked everyday.I was home.
. Я не понял.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? . Она спросила учителя. . . Perfective: Я не позвонила . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера. . Я не жила в Англии.Yesterday we read an interesting article.Did you tell him about it? . Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative.I went home. .What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.She did not eat bananas. Questions and Aspects. Саша съел обед за пять минут. что он сказал. .Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . Я купил кофе .I failed to phone. (but I was expected to). .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы. . Он не хотел видеть меня.I did not understand what he said.I did not live in England. Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. . Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. If you are still unsure which to use.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. . .We did not watch the movie yesterday.He did not want to see me.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples.
Я был . except in the feminine.At school I started learning English. Он читал три часа. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца.I‟ve already visited Sweden. Я не был .Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian.It was Они были . Оно не было . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be).I was (woman speaking) Он был . . This is not the case in the past tense.I was (man speaking) Я была .It was not. The stress moves to the word 'не'. Я была во многих странах. and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.He was Она была . . . Я окончила школу. More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. .He read for three hours. Я не была . Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense.I was not (woman speaking). .We rented a summer house for three months. когда мне было 16 лет .They were not. Я уже посетила Швецию .She was Оно было .They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.I finished school when I was 16 years old.I‟ve been to many countries. В школе я начала учить английский.I was not (man speaking). Они не были .
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