This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
восемьдесят 90 .сто 200 . the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.шестьсот 700 .четырнадцать 15 .шестнадцать 17 . quite similar to English.семьдесят 80 .11 .двадцать 21 .четыреста 500 . (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).семьсот 800 .двадцать два 23 .шестьдесят 70 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English. Here are some examples: 20 .девятнадцать Russian numbers: 20 and onwards As you could see.пятьсот 600 .восемнадцать 19 .пятьдесят 60 .триста 400 .девяносто 100 .сорок 50 .семнадцать 18 .тридцать 40 .двадцать один 22 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.восемьсот 900 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way.двенадцать 13 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".одиннадцать 12 .двести 300 .двадцать три 24 .пятнадцать 16 . Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia. 30 .тринадцать 14 .девятьсот .
000.сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.345 23.000 .000 1.000.ноль Saying Large Russian Numbers Try pronouncing the numbers below. You should always say this after someone thanks you.564 2.миллиард For example: 131 . You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite.812 Please and Thank-You. you can basically forget the "уй".No Saying Hello. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written. after somebody says thank-you.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome". The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.1.тысяча 1.000 . Yes and No.008 2. 0 . Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No". Да ("da") . Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .миллион 1.007 2. .000.000 .994 1.Yes Нет ("nyet") . Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct. 456 219 9.
When you are in Russia and you meet somebody.Pleased to meet you. Introducing Yourself. In order to introduce yourself. If all else fails.What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") .. not the individual words. If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall. If somebody says Привет to you. How are you? The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? .. Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . there is no difference between the question and the statement. Привет is also commonly used with friends.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") . and should only be used with friends.My name is .Bad Saying Good-Bye. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . but we suggest you only use it with friends. slang) You should generally use до свидания.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. put a real questioning expression on your face.Good-bye.Do you (formal) speak Russian? . ("min-ya za-voot") . except for the question mark. keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English). Меня зовут .. There are also two words for saying good-bye.Good/Well thank-you Плохо . You should just learn the whole phrase. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") .Bye (Informal. You may also hear people say Пока. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . Asking about languages When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. There are two forms of this word. Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual.How are things? Хорошо спасибо . which is appropriate in formal or informal situations. you may need the following phrases. Вы говорите по-английски? . but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . However.
Milk Кока-Кола .I speak Russian Я понимаю . где кафе? .Beer Вино ..Tell me please. пожалуйста.Cake Водка . where is a cafe? Скажите.I speak English Я говорю по-русски . пожалуйста.Vodka Пиво . where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”. .Russian beetroot soup Суп .Soup Торт .I don't understand Finding a cafe After a busy day in Russia.Tell me please. It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is.Я говорю по-английски . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink.. where is the nearest cafe? On the Menu If you were in a Russian bar or café.Tea Молоко .Menu Кофе .I understand Я не понимаю . You could ask people with the following phrases. here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню . Скажите.Coca-Cola Лимонад . so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.Water .Coffee Чай .Tell me please.Tell me please.. где ближайшее кафе? .. где бар? ..Wine Вода . Скажите..Lemonade Сок . пожалуйста. Скажите.Juice Борщ . пожалуйста.
Do you have .No. Дайте.How much is it?. How Much? The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian. it is gramatically unusual). пожалуйста. пожалуйста. .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .? .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . пожалуйста.? If you want to ask someone if they have something.What is it? Это кофе. чай. . Дайте...Please give me tea. Простите. кофе . кофе с молоком .. пожалуйста.. Here are some Russian phrases you might need.I want. Дайте. пожалуйста .What? Что вы хотите? . . это чай. .. when you order vodka in russia.Please give me coffee.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Please give me coffee with milk.. У вас есть . What is it? Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are.. is it coffee? Нет.. ....What do you want? Я хочу . Do you have. это кофе. you will generally get straight vodka.Give me please.. Examples: Дайте. (Just learn the whole phrase.? (formal) For example: У вас есть кофе? .Do you have vodka? Please give me When you decide what you will have you will need to order. Сколько стоит? . it is tea. Что это? . .. Дайте.. You can use it to ask the price of something..It is coffee. or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .Be careful... you can use the following phrase.Excuse me.. .
" по-русски? . they are things you can do. him.Сколько? . you.You (formal..She. How do you say? Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”.You (informal) Он . walk..? To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is. he.) Я-I Ты .How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .. It (m) Она . Here are some useful phrases. The subject is "I"..What does ".. Definitions Verbs are action words..21 rubles.How do you say ". (Known as the nominative case. want. The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж"." in Russian? Что значит ". Пожалуйста . Где Туалет .. Pronouns are words that can replace names.Tell me please.... eat. love. she." на английском? . Скажите. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M". It (f) Оно ." mean in English? Where is the toilet. or plural) . and the object is "him".It (n) Мы . It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian. it.. Как сказать ". For example: run...We Вы .. "love" is the verb. Russian Pronouns Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль .He. For example: I. her. In the sentence "I love him"...
To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть").We work Вы работаете .You work.He. In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". It (f) Нас . Она. and once you get the hang of it. "ете" or "ют"). (There are also some irregular verbs).Russian uses an extra version of the word "you". (Example: I work. Just remember that unlike English.Her. This happens a little in English. The first conjugation The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить".You (formal. he works).n) Еѐ .They work.They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. She. You should memorise these pronouns.You (informal) Его . Both these patterns are quite similar.To work. It is the most common. dictionary form) .Они . This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. "I am working" and "I do work".To understand.("yevo") . Оно работает . It works.Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. (infinitive. Они работают . "ешь". "ет".I work Ты работаешь . Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence. работать . Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать . (infinitive. Мы работаем .You work Он. and add the appropriate ending ("ю". It (m. but not as much. and the second conjugation. (Known as the accusative case) Меня .Him. or plural) Их . "ем".Us Вас .Me Тебя . Russian Verbs You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. it is not too difficult.Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I"). dictionary form) Я работаю .
Они понимают . Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.He. The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). She.You know.They know. It Speaks.They understand. Он не понимает . Мы знаем . Мы говорим . this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). dictionary form) Я знаю . She. Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. Оно понимает . Знать .I understand. It understands Мы понимаем .We understand. Оно говорит . Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). Ты знаешь .He doesn't understand. Он.He. Remember.You understand. (infinitive.I speak.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . Он. .I don't know.You understand. говорить . which replace "ить".Do you understand? The second conjugation Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation.To speak. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? . There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. For example: Я не знаю . Вы знаете .Я понимаю . Они знают .To know. Ты говоришь . Оно знает . Она. Она. dictionary form) Я говорю .You know. Я не понимаю .I don't understand.We speak. Он.You speak. (infinitive.We know. Ты понимаешь .He. It knows. She.I know. Вы понимаете . Она.
We don't speak Russian. It hears. However. She. Он. слышит . Жить . Я живу . She.To go (by transport).You speak. Вы живѐте .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски .To hear.The dog doesn't speak English.He. слышать . Irregular Verbs There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. Мы живѐм .You go (by transport). Она.You go (by transport). слышат . except that "у" replaces "ю". Они едут .I live.You live. Ты едешь . It lives.I go (by transport). (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules). Собака не говорит по-английски . Я еду . you can often predict the endings.He. She.We hear. Вы едете . For Example: Я говорю по-английски . It goes (by transport).To live.He. слышим . Ты живѐшь . слышу .I hear. Они говорят .You hear.Вы говорите .They go (by transport). Он. Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . often once you know the stem of the verb.We go (by transport). Оно едет . Мы едем . Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Она.You live. Some examples: Ехать .They live.I speak English Он говорит по-русски .They hear. слышишь . Оно живѐт . Они живут .You hear.They speak. . слышите .We live.
Russian has three genders: masculine. “cup”. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed.Is Masculine .Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. Ё. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. ъ because they have no sound). “house”. Papa) . The letters А.I. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. Ы. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence. Example: dog. (A. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling. Э.Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. the word is masculine. But there are five notable exceptions. 4. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. И and Й. Я. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. У. 5. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter.E.O.Is Masculine Дядя . In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender.Is Masculine Мужчина . If it is a consonant. From the dictionary form of a noun. Папа .A letter that is not a vowel.A noun is a thing. (Except ь. Е. 3. Consonant .Is Masculine Кофе . In the case of other objects like “pen”. О. as with many other languages.(Daddy. In English we do this by having a strict word-order. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. There are very few exceptions to these rules. each noun is assigned a gender. In Russian. feminine. or “й”. Luckily. Cases .(Coffee) . cup. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне .U in English). cat.(Uncle) . Gender of nouns.He is going home Definitions Noun . Vowel . In Russian we use 6 cases. Moscow. this occurs mainly because of physical gender.I live in London.(Man) .(Grandfather) . Ю. Он едет домой . If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. paper. and neuter (neutral). If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine.Is Masculine Дедушка .Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. unlike many languages. it will be in its dictionary form. name or place. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. pen.
Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English. For example. Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). Greek and German. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. (“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟. at. In fact it was also used in Old English. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence.. Хлеб (bread). Россия (Russia). „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟. To indicate each case we change the ending of word. and about. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. In Russian there are six cases. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. and still keep the same meaning... so we will take it slowly. on.. The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. брат (brother). письмо (letter) Cases in Russian Russian grammar uses the case system. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words. Feminine : газета (newspaper). . (In. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. радио (radio). документ (document). Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. (Eg.
For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . in this case the word “dog”.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building . without changing the actual meaning. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. especially pronouns. In Russian. For example. in the nominative case. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. (The object of a sentence) To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. In the sentence “I love her”. The Nominative Case. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. not plants). some remnants of the case system still exist in English. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. However. Russian is very free about word order. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. so there is nothing special to learn here. you need to use the accusative case also. Russian uses the case for all nouns.Interestingly. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. (The subject of a sentence) The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. the word “I” is the subject. “ы”. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object.buildings) The Accusative Case. add “ы”. . The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. “я” or “а”.students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper .
Я люблю музыку . add “я”.I love Moscow. add “а”. If the noun in inanimate. . Надя не любит вино . Он любит Москву .Ivan loves tea.Nadya loves wine.I love sport. Feminine Nouns: 1. replace “ь”.He loves Moscow.Masculine Nouns: 1. 3.I don't like music. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт .Nadya doesn't like wine. Replace “я” with “ю”. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). 2. with “я”. To Love Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю. there is no change. Neuter Nouns: 1. Replace “а” with “у”. 4. Я не люблю музыку . Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. Надя любит вино . Ты любишь музыку? . If noun is animate.I love music.Do you love music? Я люблю Москву . Иван любит чай . 2. replace “й”. If noun is animate.
I am reading a book. Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning.to watch.to want Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . it is probably the conjunction "that". Я читаю журнал . Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .to listen Изучать .I am watching television. You can use it to form questions. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. что ты любишь музыку.I am listening to the radio. The word "Что" has two uses. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence.I am reading a magazine. . Она любит меня . It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя.to study Думать . Using other Russian verbs To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. Смотреть . If you would like. Я слушаю музыку .She loves me What? The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". Читать .to think Работать ."I love you" in Russian You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю . so don't be confused. Я читаю газету .I know that you love music.I am listening to music.I love you.I love her.What do you love? However. Слушать .to read.I love him. An example could be: Я знаю.to work Хотеть . . Я слушаю радио . Что ты любишь? . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now. Я еѐ люблю .
You can include it into many phrases.I really love sport. Question Words You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia. In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row.What do you want? Sometime you will want to talk about an action. In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form. Что вы хотите? .I want to buy a magazine.Who? Что? . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”) . Где? . Я люблю путешествовать .How? Почему? . Very A very useful Russian word is the word for "very". For example: Я люблю читать .Where? Кто? . Я хочу купить журнал .I want tea.very.Why? Forming the prepositional case To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1.I study Russian.I really love Moscow. For example: Очень . For example "I like to read" or "I want to read". Add : “е”.I love to read. (lit: I study the Russian language).What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай .Я изучаю русский язык . Я очень люблю Москву .I think so! Как вы думаете? . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also. Я так думаю . (or really) Я очень люблю спорт .What? Как? .I love to travel.
Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English.Feminine Nouns: 1. even though they are not Russian. (Eg. As with any language. suburbs and places. Here are some tips to help you. 2.I live in Moscow. Я живу в Сибири . 3.at the post office в саду .I live in London. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? .on the street Что на столе? . Other Places Here are some names of other useful places. Replace “ь” with “и”.I live in St. 4.at the station на почте .On the table is a book and a pencil. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? . it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1. „at work‟. “е” remains unchanged. Я живу в Лондоне . Petersburg.I live in Siberia. Replace “а” with “е”. Replace “я” with “е”. although these aren‟t precise rules.in the forest на улице . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. „at a station‟.theatre . As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш .cinema театр .Where is she? на вокзале . Using prepositions and the prepositional case. Я живу в Петербурге . Replace “о” with “е” 2. Exception: Replace “ия”. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. (They are in dicionary form) кино . „at a concert‟). (Eg.in the garden в лесу .
Going Places in Russian In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .park стадион . the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . Here are some examples for you to compare. прямо . Куда вы идѐте .аптека . prepositions have more than one meaning.square ресторан .hospital Location and Direction Sometimes.To the left. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). However. Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia. your answer will involve the prepositional case.bank гостиница .To the right.cafe площадь . Both these words are verbs of motion.museum больница . you can tell this by the case. but as these words are so important for basic Russian.restaurant банк . прямо потом направо . we will introduce them now in a simple way. So to express „to go‟ in Russian. and are grammatically quite complex. You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English. налево .Straight ahead then to the right. A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs.school библиотека . you would use the accusative case. there are actually four ways: . The first indicates you are going on foot. Где вы работаете? .I am going to school. направо .pharmacy парк . The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.I work at (in) a school.hotel музей .Straight ahead.stadium школа .library кафе . When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)).
Он ездит .We are going to the cafe. in one direction. Они идут) Я иду в школу .To go on foot. (Я еду. я иду в университет .To go by transport. Он едет в гостиницу на такси .I am going to the university Ходить .To go on foot.To go by transport. Ты ходишь. Я иду в кино .I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день . Мы идѐм в кафе .He is going to the hotel. Вы едете. Ты ездишь . in one direction.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Они часто ездят в Амстердам . Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу .He is going to the hotel by taxi. Мы ездим. Он идѐт.I am going to school. Ехать . Мы идѐм.I am going to the cinema on the metro. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон . Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Мы едем. Вы ездите. Ты едешь. Я часто хожу в кино . Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . (Я иду. Вы ходите. Ты идѐшь в кино? .We are going to the cafe. Мы ходим. Он ходит.I am going to the cinema. Он едет. (Я хожу. Ты идѐшь. or repetitively. Вы идѐте. in more than one direction.He is going to London Ездить .I go to the theatre every day.Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро .I go to school.We go to the cafe every day.Идти . Мы едем в кафе .I am going to school. or repetitively (Я езжу. in more than one direction.They often go to Amsterdam Russian Family Words Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family: .
Твои (pl) . Мой (m). Наше (n). Моя (f).parents Дети .auntie Дядя .husband Тѐтя . Твоя (f).father Мама .children Внучка .your Его (m n) ("yevo"). Еѐ (f) . У меня есть сын и дочь .our . her Наш (m). Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.wife Муж .I have a sister. У меня нет детей .my Твой (m).I have a son and a daughter.uncle Родители .Мать . У тебя есть дети? .son бабушка . For example we use the words mum and dad. in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father. Моѐ (n).I have a brother. Possesive Pronouns In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now. Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.his. You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns. У меня есть сестра .dad Сестра . Basic russian phrases Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. У меня есть брат .I don't have any children. Твоѐ (n).grandson Семья .mum Папа . Наши (pl) .family Just like English.Do you have children?. Мои (pl) . Here are some Russian phrases you could use.sister Брат . Наша (f).brother Дочь .mother Отец .daughter Сын .grandfather Жена .granddaughter Внук .grandmother Дедушка .
their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family.good evening Спокойной ночи .My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету . Моя мама любит музыку . Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know.Is this your apartment? Common greetings Finally. Ваши (pl) .Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .good afternoon Добрый вечер . The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet.My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . Ваша (f).her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .goodnight (when going to bed) Forming the genitive case .. This is.good morning Добрый день . So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .Ваш (m). Ваше (n).your Их .This is my house Это моя квартира . However. Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns.his name is Ivan. The Russian word Это means 'this is'. Доброе утро .My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт . For example. Это мой дом ..Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна . we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again. you may wish to say her name is Anna. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual.
Брат Адама любит Москву . Neuter Nouns: 1.ownership As you can see in the above example.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper.Adam's dog. in Russian. pay particular attention to the order of the words. 2. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . (This is like using 's in English). Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. the object that is owned always comes first. Using the genitive case . 3. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. add “я”.Igor's telephone. However. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. with “я”. Replace “ь” with “и”. 2. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. For example. Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio.Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's) In the above examples. Anna's) Дом Ивана .Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “я” with “и”.Anna's car. If the noun ends in a consonant.Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan). Replace “а” with “ы”. add “а”. Replace “ь”. the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan.Adam's brother loves Moscow. Replace “й”. Собака Адама . (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Let's have a look at some more examples. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. Replace “о” with “а” 2. Feminine Nouns: 1. (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . Replace “е” with “я” For example. (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря . in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the . 3. Сестра Анны читает газету . It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns.
Их) Using the genitive case . Тебя. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . план города . This is exactly the same concept as above. У нее есть собака. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case. У вас есть кофе? . Вас. Here are some examples. Кофе нет .A map of the city. As we have seen in a previous lesson.A glass of milk. (Меня. Generally.He is not home.Does Ivan have tea? Using the genitive case .There is no milk. it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟.. Here are some examples. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . У меня есть книга . To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). Еѐ.of The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟.She has a dog. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .. it is just easier to learn the concept by example.Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . Чая нет .There is no coffee. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here. (coffee is an indeclinable noun) . Его нет дома .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . стакан молока .There is no tea.I have book.there is not The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. Ивана нет . These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. . Его. except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English.Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? . Молока нет . Using the genitive case .to have As the genitive case relates to possession. Pronouns of the genitive case The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.Ivan isn't here.sentence and uses the nominative case.‟. Нас. Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.
К. "ы". you make a plural by using the letters "и". but don‟t worry. This will be covered in the next lesson Forming Plurals. Ш. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural. Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. Х. for example "10 roubles". The genitive case is used after most numbers. . Ч.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) . Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural.Plural (Subject) In Russian. quantaties. It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. Ж.здания (buildings) The Accusative Case . For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.студенты (students) газета (newspaper) . First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt.Plural (Direct Object) For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases.Using the genitive case .numbers. plurals. The Nominative Case . add “ы”. depending on whether the object is animate or not. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . "я" or "а". in the nominative case.
In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о.Anna loves books. англичанка .щ. . Plurals with numbers In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case.Plural (Possession) The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation.марок.зданий (buildings') General use of plurals. but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine).студентов (students') газета .ч. (марка . but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language.The Genitive Case . Книги на столе . You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. девушка . or whether you are just using general plurals. The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.ш. let‟s see how to use them. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).газет (newspapers') здание . Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”.ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. Here are some examples. This may feel a little strange at first.англичанок. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals. Анна любит книги . For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. but in the plural form. but in Russian we use it for all numbers.The books are on the table. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf. Ok.
3.four roubles две книги .one dollar Numbers ending in : 2.seven newspapers восемь зданий . try using plurals that involve money. 4) (but not 12.. etc) пять рублей .one hundred roubles сто долларов . 21.ten roubles сто рублей . or the last digit of the number is 2.Numbers ending in : 1 If the number is 1.three dogs четыре доллара . -надцать If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.three roubles четыре рубля . три рубля .9. 103.four dollars четыре студента . (example: 22. Here are some examples.I know one girl один рубль . Here are some examples.five roubles десять рублей . 61) (but not 11).one rouble двадцать один рубль .one hundred dollars шесть книг .ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language. All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11. . одна девушка . 13 & 14).nine dogs десять студентов . so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly. The number one declines like an adjective. then you should use the genitive singular case.7.4 If the number.0. 14. To help you get used to this concept.two books три собаки . 3 or 4.21 roubles один доллар . 13.three newspapers Numbers ending in : 5.six books семь газет . You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.one girl Я знаю одну девушку . 42.8.6.eight buildings девять собак . or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1. 12.four students три газеты .
.3.My name is Vera.Boris Владимир .Her name is Alyona. Russian Names Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction.-надцать .4 ..What is your name? Меня зовут Вера. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something. Как вас зовут? . Вова) .9.His name is Boris. Мне восемнадцать лет .So in summary. Как его зовут? . Quantity ends in 1 . You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .6. Expressing Your Age in Russian When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.What is his name? Его зовут Борис . Here are some other common Russian names for men.0.7. Николай ..As per position in the sentence.8.Genitive Singular. Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .Nikolay (Коля) Борис .Genitive Plural General Quantity .Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.How old are you.Vladimir (Володя.“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold).What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .I am 23 years old.) Quantity not specified .. Quantity ends in 2.Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context. Much like “Мне холодно” . (Lit: To me there are 16 years). Как еѐ зовут? . In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? . . Quantity ends in 5.the dative case.
Sergey Алексей .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.Pyotr. There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Oxana Екатерина .Please (and You're Welcome) Really Small Russian Words To help you remember.Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .Hello Привет . Peter. Спасибо . Здравствуйте .Natalya (Наташа) Мария . and should only be used when you are in close firendship. You should be able to remember all of these. The diminuative is a more personal. Russian Greetings Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons. This is like a pet name.Пѐтр . (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').good morning Добрый день .goodnight (when going to bed) Please and Thank-You Never forget please and thank-you.Yelena (Лена) Наталья .good afternoon Добрый вечер .Alexander (Саша. Андрей .and а . Some of these may be new.Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .Olga (Оля) Александра . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Alexandra (Саша) Оксана .Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Yekaterina Анастасия . Елена .Thank-You Пожалуйста .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .and/but (contrasting) .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . but try to learn them all. Шура) Дмитрий .Andrey Александр .Mariya (Маша) Ольга .good evening Спокойной ночи . or tender form. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.
by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.out of.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? .on.".towards.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but".you (formal/plural) его . to за .but или .Tell me please. .Give me please.from по . я-I он . Что вы хотите? .about к .What do you want? Я хочу чай. .There is no coffee. пожалуйста.My mum loves music.him. where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку.with у .you (informal) вы . You might also find some new words in these sentences.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю. во . We will use only common words. These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с .near.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. кофе с молоком и с сахаром. пожалуйста. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but". at (+prepositional).he. . to (+accusative) на . it ты . .но . У вас есть чай? . пожалуйста. об . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton. (also used with languages) You should already know these pronouns.them Using the Russian Language Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences. to (+accusative) о. it еѐ . from от . so you should try to learn them all. .Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev.her.for (+accusative). coffee with milk and with sugar. Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed.I know that you speak Russian.I want tea please. Дайте. что ты говоришь по-русски. In Russian we would use the word "а". . . где туалет? . For example. it их .in (+prepositional). onto.There is no tea.along.Do you have tea? Чая нет. У вас есть водка? . behind (+instrumental) из . Скажите. Он любит говорить по-английски. .
I don't understand. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Я изучаю русский язык .I understand.Does your borther speak Russian? Да.I really love sport. Он едет домой .100 roubles. Где? . Брат Адама любит Москву . Почему ты не понимаешь? .Adam's brother loves Moscow.4 dollars.How much? четыре рубля . Моя сестра читает газету .Where is he? Где кафе? . . . Я думаю. Я слушаю музыку .Where? Кто? . что вы понимаете.Твой брат говорит по-русски? . сколько стоит? .I am listening to music.4 roubles.When? Почему? .I know that you understand.How much? сто рублей .I think that you understand.Why? Что ты знаешь? .My sister is reading a newspaper.Yes.He is not home.The dog doesn't speak English. Я не понимаю. He speaks Russian well.Who? Что? . . Сестра Анны читает газету .He is going home. Ты понимаешь? .Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .Who is he? Я читаю журнал . Его нет дома .I really love Moscow.My Mum loves music.How much? двадцать один рубль . сколько стоит? .I live in London.What do you think? Где он? . .Anna's siser is reading a newspaper. Я очень люблю спорт .I am studying the Russian language.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. Собака не говорит по-английски. .How much? четыре доллара .Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio. сколько стоит? .Where is the cafe? Кто он? .21 roubles. что ты понимаешь. Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .How? Когда? .Do you understand? Я знаю. Я очень люблю Москву . Он хорошо говорит по-русски.I am reading a magazine. сколько стоит? . . Моя мама любит музыку .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . .What? Как? .
. Replace “ия” with “ии”. Masculine Nouns: 1.Вину Pronouns of the Dative Case. Replace “й”. Вам . "о" or a consonant with "ам". Replace “а” with “е”. Ему (n). Replace “ь”. add “ю”. Адам .him.you (formal. Тебе . her. Neuter Nouns: 1.us. Нам . or plural).Молоку Вино . Feminine Nouns: 1. 3. Мне . Replace “я” with “е”. 4. Ей (f) . It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.Елене Молоко . 1.me. it. If the noun ends in a consonant. 2.Адаму Елена .. Replace “е” with “ю” Plurals: Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. If the noun ends in a consonant.you (informal). 3. Replace “о” with “у” 2. add “у”. To create nouns in the dative case. Replace “ь” with “и”. with “ю”.Forming the dative case. 2. Replace "а". add "ам". 3.them. . 2. Ему (m). we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. Им .
I am helping this girl.(they) give The command forms of this word include. Я помогаю Ивану . .. in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged. Дай .(you) give Даѐт .Give me your address and telephone number.We help mother every day. the word “Anna” is the indirect object. Я даю цветы Анне ..Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something.(I) give Даѐшь .(we) give Даѐте .to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне . Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Мы помогаем маме каждый день .I give flowers to Anna. . In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. Они дают цветы Елене . In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations..(he) gives Даѐм . Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона.. It should be used in the dative case.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать .Give me .give! Дайте .They give flowers to Elena. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English. Other uses of the dative case meaning “to” There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case.I am helping Ivan. Я помогаю этой девушке . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”.. (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне . The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively. the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object.Ivan gives flowers to Anna. For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”.I am helping Anna.(you) give Дают .. Similarly. Here are the conjuctions: Даю . For this reason. Дайте мне . .
However it is a common word. (The "ся" ending is reflexive). Мне нравится Москва . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. and it relies on the dative case. Feelings Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something. To Like In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet.. (lit: children are pleasing to me.) Мне нравятся ваши дети .How do you like . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me.You like Moscow. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. Мне холодно . it is like saying “To me it is likable”. (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . so it is worth learning now. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.I like the children. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold. Как вам нравится .I really like the flowers.Ivan calls Anna every day. so it is enough for now just to learn this form.. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. This is verb is also a reflexive verb.? Как вам нравится фильм? .I like Moscow. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день . Адаму нравится Москва .? . Мне очень нравятся цветы .I like the flowers. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like).I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . Иван звонит Анне каждый день .I like your children.He is cold (to him its cold) .She calls Ivan every day..He likes Moscow.) Ему нравится Москва . Вам нравится Москва . it is still worth learning these examples.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? .Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . Мне нравятся цветы .) Ей нравится Москва . The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns.. However this verb is used differently.) Practice using the word нравится.She likes Moscow.Звонить .Adam likes Moscow.
Replace “й”. Мы едем к друзьям .We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно .I am bored (to me its boring) Age The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет .I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года . It is followed by the dative case. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. More Dative Case A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. Except.Ей холодно . then add “ем”. add “ом”. to create an exact rule.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно .. if stressed “ѐм”. The preposition "к" (towards/to) In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". “ш” or “щ”. Although the use of this proposition is too varied.We are going to our friends. “ч”. if stressed “ѐм”. 4. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along). and has too many meanings. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns: 1. “ц”.I am walking towards the station. . You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case. All consonants. 2.. add “ем”.I am 23 years old. Replace “ь”. with “ем”.
Replace “а” with “ой”. if stressed “ѐй”. 2.женой (wife) Иван . Except.мужем (husband) жена .карандашом (pencil) ложка . . add "ами". 3. Neuter Nouns: 1.ложкой (spoon) нож . 1. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.Feminine Nouns: 1. All consonants.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . Олег режет мясо ножом . 2. Replace "а". “ц”.I eat soup with a spoon. In English these words can have different meanings.Ivan writes with a pencil.молоком (milk) сметана . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.. "о" with "ами". “ш” or “щ”.Анной (Anna) студенты . Accompanied by..Иваном (Ivan) Анна . The preposition: „с‟ .. Examples. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Я ем суп ложкой . “ч”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Replace “я” with “ей”. Иван пишет карандашом .With. Replace “ь” with “ью”.ножом (knife) муж .. The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. 4.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.
Мной .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.Me Тобой . Have a look at the following Russian examples.Me and you Notes: 1. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . кофе с молоком .My husband and I are going to the cafe.My wife and I are going to the cafe.For ease of pronunciation. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. . The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.You Им .Nadya wants tea with lemon. In English we would use the word “and”. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. it is often written as “со”. Иван с женой идут в кафе.Instrumental Case Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.Please give me coffee with milk. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . . but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Иван хочет чай с молоком . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Here are some examples.Him Ей . „with you‟. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. пожалуйста. . Анна с мужем идут в кафе. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Ivan wants tea with milk.I eat borsh with sour cream. with Ivan”). „with him‟. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we.Her . пожалуйста. Мы с вами . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. . Дайте. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. However it is followed by the genitive case.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case.Ivan and I are going to school. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. 2. Pronouns .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.
The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.You (plural) Ими .Them Seasons and parts of the day.summer летом . afternoon днѐм . Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.night ночью . . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.in the evening ночь .It Нами .morning утром .in autumn зима .Us Вами .Им .in winter весна .in the afternoon вечер . Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.day.in the morning день .in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . For example: лето .evening вечером .spring весной .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.autumn осенью .winter зимой .at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .in summer осень .
to be keen on управлять . enjoy становиться/стать . Под столом сидит кот. be The verb “Быть” (to be.to be. .behind.above перед .to seem.The lamp is above the table.under Examples: За этим зданием .control. is.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . (Example: Я был врачом .to be engaged in.to use. The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. Над столом висит лампа. . However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. is. was заниматься .In front of this school turn to the left. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. manage.школа. . to be occupied with интересоваться . Перед этой школой поверните налево. for между .in front of под . but it is something to keep in mind. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .to be interested in оказываться .to remain as пользоваться . was) has no present tense. быть . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. .Behind this building there is a school. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. You don't need to learn these verbs now. .Between lunch and dinner drink tea.I was a doctor).за . Forming the Russian Instrumental Case .between над .Happy birthday С новым годом .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.Under the table the cat is sitting.to become увлекаться . beyond. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.to turn out to be оставаться . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. govern являться .
“ц”.ложкой (spoon) нож . “ш” or “щ”. “ч”. "о" with "ами". if stressed “ѐм”.. Replace “я” with “ей”.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . Neuter Nouns: 1. 2. Otherwise replace with "ями" Examples молоко . Replace “й”. if stressed “ѐм”. 1. “ц”.Ivan writes with a pencil. “ш” or “щ”.сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .I eat soup with a spoon. add “ем”. add "ами".. Иван пишет карандашом . “ч”.. Я ем суп ложкой . 4.Анной (Anna) студенты .женой (wife) Иван . Feminine Nouns: 1.студентами (students) Using the Intrumental Case: By means of The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. Replace "а".молоком (milk) сметана .. Олег режет мясо ножом .. 4. In English these words can have different meanings. with “ем”. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. All consonants. In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”.карандашом (pencil) ложка . Except. 2. Add “м” Plurals Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. Replace “ь”. 3. All consonants. . replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.мужем (husband) жена . Replace “а” with “ой”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.ножом (knife) муж .Masculine Nouns: 1. Replace “ь” with “ью”. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”. Examples. if stressed “ѐй”. 2. Except. then add “ем”. add “ом”.
Я люблю блинчики с икрой . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.I love pancakes with caviar In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . Иван с Анной идут в кафе.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Иван с женой идут в кафе. it is often written as “со”. . пожалуйста. However it is followed by the genitive case. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. кофе с молоком . . Мы с вами . .I eat borsh with sour cream. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Me and you Notes: 1. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.Ivan and I are going to school. Accompanied by. 2. For ease of pronunciation. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Please give me coffee with milk. with Ivan”).Instrumental Case .My wife and I are going to the cafe.Ivan wants tea with milk. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Pronouns .With. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. . The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. пожалуйста. In English we would use the word “and”. Дайте.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Here are some examples.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. Иван хочет чай с молоком . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу .Nadya wants tea with lemon.The preposition: „с‟ .My husband and I are going to the cafe.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .
in spring The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро .It Нами .day.in the afternoon вечер . For example: лето .in summer осень . It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.Her Им .evening вечером .at night .Him Ей .autumn осенью . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.in winter весна .in autumn зима .night ночью . Мной .morning утром .Them Seasons and parts of the day.Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case.in the morning день .summer летом . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.spring весной .You Им .Me Тобой . „with him‟.Us Вами . afternoon днѐм .winter зимой .You (plural) Ими . „with you‟.in the evening ночь .
Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. Important Russian Expressions Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.Under the table the cat is sitting. .Happy new year Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.above перед . beyond.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения .to seem. . to be occupied with интересоваться . Под столом сидит кот. be The verb “Быть” (to be. is. .Happy birthday С новым годом . The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.школа. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. manage. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.to become увлекаться .In front of this school turn to the left. but it is something to keep in mind.to turn out to be оставаться . .to be keen on управлять .between над . was) has no present tense. Перед этой школой поверните налево.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. was заниматься .control.to be.under Examples: За этим зданием . is. Над столом висит лампа.I was a doctor). the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. быть .Behind this building there is a school. .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . (Example: Я был врачом .to use. You don't need to learn these verbs now.to remain as пользоваться . The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.to be interested in оказываться .The lamp is above the table.to be engaged in. govern являться .behind. enjoy становиться/стать . for между . . за .in front of под .
Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know).Dima knew Елена знала . but in Russian there is simply one.Elena knew Ольга знала . or talk about something that has happened in the past.You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал .I knew (male speaking) Я знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.Olga knew Собака знала . it is conceptually quite easy.The dog knew .You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .They knew Мы знали .She knew Оно знало .Vladimir knew Дима знал .I knew (female speaking) Ты знал ... Although this concept differs from English. Forming Verbs in Past Tense. (ie 1st. You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. The same principal also applies in the future tense. In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense.Russian Past Tense In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not. Let's have a look at the past tense now. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.It knew Они знали . Он знал . Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories..He knew Она знала . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject. 2nd or 3rd person).We knew Я знал .
Some tenses in English can indicate this. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. Ты. There are two aspects in Russian. The following sentences are habitual or are repeated. When using pronouns such as Я. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день. Aspects in the past In Russian there is a concept know as aspect. use the imperfective also. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. Я работал . and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. This should help you remember how to form the verbs.I was home. . ongoing. so there is no perfective in the present tense. Я работал каждый день .You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect.I was working Я шѐл . . consequently each verb has two possible forms. (often По-). habitual. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. and is not complete. The Perfective Aspect Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature.I run in the forest every day. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. Я работал два часа . If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . reversed or repeated actions.I worked for 2 hours. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. Simply conjugate them as discussed above.She wants to buy a book. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. The following phrases imply the action was unfinished. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. . The Imperfective Aspect.I worked everyday.
Yesterday we read an interesting article. .Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?. Perfective: Я не позвонила . . .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. . что он сказал. Imperfective: Она не ела бананы.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples.I went home.Did you run yesterday morning? Perfective: Ты понял этот фильм? .I failed to phone. .We did not watch the movie yesterday. Она спросила учителя.I did not understand what he said. When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully.I did not live in England.Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . Я не понял. . . (but I was expected to). Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. Я не жила в Англии.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.Did you tell him about it? . Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . . . Он не хотел видеть меня.She did not eat bananas.She asked the teacher Aspects and the negative. Я купил кофе . Imperfective: Что ты делал вчера?. . Questions and Aspects. The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed. . Саша съел обед за пять минут.He did not want to see me. Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. If you are still unsure which to use.
Saying “Was” You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. Я окончила школу. .He read for three hours. Они не были . This is not the case in the past tense. .We rented a summer house for three months.I finished school when I was 16 years old.I was (man speaking) Я была . . More examples Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense. Я уже посетила Швецию . and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.They were not. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. except in the feminine. Я была во многих странах. .I was not (man speaking). Он читал три часа.It was not.It was Они были . когда мне было 16 лет .I‟ve been to many countries.He was Она была .I was (woman speaking) Он был . The stress moves to the word 'не'. Оно не было . . Я не была .She was Оно было . These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be). В школе я начала учить английский.They were Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative.I‟ve already visited Sweden.At school I started learning English.I was not (woman speaking). Мы сняли дачу на три месяца. Я был . Я не был .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.