Russian letters that are (almost) the same.
А а - Pronounced like the "a" in the word "father" or "car". It is not the 'flat' "a" sound you sometimes hear in words like "cat" or "flat". К к - Pronounced like the "k" in "kitten" or "kangaroo". This letter replaces the english "c" sound in words like "cat". М м - Pronounced like the "m" in man. (Note: Unlike english, the hand-written "м" should always start from the bottom) O o - When stressed, it is pronounced like the "o" in "bore". When un-stressed it is pronounced more like the letter "a". (See later notes.) Т т - Pronounced like the "t" in "tap". (Note: The hand-written form for "т" should always start from the top, as it looks quite similar to the letter "м")
Russian letters that look like english letters but sound different.
(These are the most important to learn so you don't get them mixed up.) В в - Pronounced like the "v" in "vet". (Equivalent to the english letter "v"). Е е - Pronounced like the "ye" in "yes". Н н - Pronounced like the "n" in "no". (Equivalent to the english letter "n"). Р р - Pronounced like the "r" in "run", but it is rolled. (Equivalent to the english letter "r"). С с - Pronounced like the "s" in "see". (Equivalent to the english letter "s"). (It might help to remember that it's used like the "s" sound in the english words "centre" and "cent".) У у - Pronounced like the "oo" in "boot" or "root". Х х - Pronounced like the "h" in "hello". However, this is often pronounced more like the "ch" in the Scottish "Loch" or German "Bach", or the spanish "x" in "Mexico".
Russian letters that look unusual, but have familiar sounds
Б б - Pronounced like the "b" in "bat". (Equivalent to the english letter "b"). Г г - Pronounced like the "g" in "go". (Equivalent to the english letter "g"). Д д - Pronounced like the "d" in "dog". (Equivalent to the english letter "d"). З з - Pronounced like the "z" in "zoo". (Equivalent to the english letter "z"). И и - Pronounced like the "i" in "taxi". (Sometimes equivalent to the english letter "i", the short 'ee' sound.). (Note: The hand-written form for "и" looks a little like the english "u").
Л л - Pronounced like the "l" in "love". (Equivalent to the english letter "l"). П п - Pronounced like the "p" in "pot". (Equivalent to the english letter "p"). Ф ф - Pronounced like the "f" in "fat". (Equivalent to the english letter "f"). Э э - Pronounced like the "e" in "fed".
New Russian letters and sounds
(The sounds will be familiar, but they don't have their own letter in English). Ю ю - Pronounced like the "u" in "universe". (Pronounced much like the english word "you"). Я я - Pronounced like the "ya" in "yard". Ё ѐ - Pronounced like "yo" in "yonder". Ж ж - Like "s" in "measure", "pleasure" or "fusion" or like "g" in colour "beige". (As there is no english symbol for this sound, it is usually represented as "zh") Ц ц - Similar to the "ts" sound in "sits" or "its". Ч ч - Pronounced like the "ch" in "chips" or "church" . Ш ш - Pronounced like the "sh" in shut. Щ щ - Pronounced like "sh" but with your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Try putting your tongue in the same position as you would to say "ch" but say "sh" instead. English speakers may find it hard to define the difference between "ш" and "щ". Ы ы - Pronounced like the "i" in "bit" or "ill". (Said with your tounge slightly back in your mouth.) Й й - This letter is used to form diphthongs. So "oй" is like the "oy" sound in "boy" or "aй" is like the "igh" in "sigh".
(These letters have no sound on their own, but are still considered letters.). Ъ ъ - The 'Hard Sign' is rarely used. It indicates a slight pause between sylables. Ь ь - The 'Soft Sign' makes the previous letter 'soft'. Think of the "p" sound in the word "pew". (Try inflecting a very slight "y" sound onto letter before it.)
A note about vowels
You may have noticed that there are often two forms of a vowel, hard and soft. It may help to note the corresponding vowels.
А ("a") Я ("ya")
Э ("e") Е ("ye") У ("oo") Ю ("yoo") О ("o") Ё ("yo")
Ы and И are corresponding vowels but don't really follow this pattern. Й is also considered a vowel The "y" sound is always pronounced. It may take some time to get used to pronouncing it with consonants. Try the following: Нет (No) - Pronounced "nyet". This is one syllable. Семь (Seven) - Pronounced "syem". Пять (Five) - Pronounced "pyat" Метрo (Metro, underground railway) - Pronounced "mye-tro". Click the green play icon to listen to the word pronounced in Russian.
Spelling Rule 1.
There is a rule for spelling in russian you should keep in mind: "Never write Ы, Ю, or Я after the letters 'Г, К, Ж, Х, Ч, Ш, Щ' instead use И, У, А". It is not important to worry about this yet, but it will help you understand how things are spelt in later lessons.
A note about stress.
In most languages, including English, some syllables are emphasised more than others. A good example would be the word “photograph”, where the first syllable is stressed. Compare this to “Photography” where the second symbol is stressed. Phonetically the sound of the vowel changes. Russian works in much the same way. However in some words it‟s important to know which syllable is stressed, this is because the letter “o” is pronounced very differently depending on whether it‟s stressed or not. Other stressed vowels are important, but if you only remember the “o” rule, then you will still be able to speak well. Once you start to hear Russians speak, you will be able to copy the way they are pronouncing words. (On this site we will indicate a stressed vowel by underlining it. However, we will only do this to the first occurrences of a word. One syllable words are assumed to be stressed.) Take notice of the following examples: До свидания (good-bye) - Pronounced "da-svee-da-nee-ye". (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word). Спасибо (thank-you) - Pronounced "spa-see-ba". Да(yes) - Pronounced "da". Нет(no) - Pronounced "nyet". сто(100) - Pronounced "sto". Пока(Bye) Плохо(Bad)
Some Listening Practice
There are many more examples in the following lessons that also have Russian audio that you can listen to. It is important you learn the sounds by listening to the Russian audio in the following lessons. If you learn by listening, your speach will be much clearer. There are hours of audio on this site. Here are some example sentences to get you started. Don't worry about learning the words, just try to learn the sounds of the letters. Моя мама любит музыку - (My mother loves music) шесть книг - (six books) семь газет - (seven newspapers) восемь зданий - (eight buildings) девять собак - (nine dogs) десять студентов - (ten students) сто рублей - (one hundred roubles) сто долларов - (one hundred dollars)
Russian numbers: 1 to 10
1 - один ("a-deen") 2 - два ("dva") 3 - три ("tree") 4 - четыре ("chye-tir-ye") 5 - пять ("pyat") 6 - шесть ("shest") 7 - семь ("syem") 8 - восемь ("vo-syem") 9 - девять ("dyev-yat") 10 -десять ("dyes-yat") Read through the numbers 1-10 a couple of times until you are comfortable with them. Try counting from 1 to 10 without referring to them. Then for practice, try counting backwards from 10 to 1 in Russian.
Russian numbers: 11 to 19
Now that you are comfortable with your first Russian numbers, try to learn the numbers from 11 to 19. To help you with reading practice we will not include the trans-literations.
семьдесят 80 . quite similar to English. the numbers 11-19 are simply formed by adding "надцать" to the numbers 1-9. (There is no need to use the word "and" in Russian).пятьдесят 60 .шестьдесят 70 .двадцать четыре Other compound numbers are formed in the same way. Here are the other numbers you will need to form numbers in Russia.двадцать 21 . Here are some examples: 20 .четырнадцать 15 .восемнадцать 19 .девятнадцать
Russian numbers: 20 and onwards
As you could see.семнадцать 18 .сто 200 .девятьсот
.одиннадцать 12 .шестнадцать 17 . It will be useful to learn as many of these numbers as you can because it makes it easier to understand the price of goods in Russian roubles.восемьдесят 90 .двенадцать 13 . 30 .11 .пятьсот 600 .двадцать два 23 .пятнадцать 16 .семьсот 800 .восемьсот 900 .сорок 50 .тридцать 40 .тринадцать 14 . or the "е" in "четыре") 20 in Russian is "двадцать".триста 400 .двадцать один 22 .четыреста 500 .шестьсот 700 . The numbers 21-29 are formed in a similar way to English.двадцать три 24 .девяносто 100 .двести 300 . (You will need to drop the soft sign.
Saying Large Russian Numbers
Try pronouncing the numbers below.000 1.миллиард For example: 131 .миллион 1. Then listen to the sound example to see if you are correct.000 .000 .000.564 2.345 23. after somebody says thank-you. Да ("da") .000.Please (and You're Welcome) The word Пожалуйста is also used to mean "You're Welcome".812
Please and Thank-You.008 2. Спасибо ("spa-see-ba") .000. You should always say this after someone thanks you.
Yes and No.
The two most important words you will learn in Russian are please and thank-you.No
Saying Hello. Пожалуйста is pronounced a little different than it is written.000 . 456 219 9. You can just add these to any sentence to make it more polite. you can basically forget the "уй".
.994 1.007 2. 0 .Yes Нет ("nyet") .
Two other very important Russian words are "Yes" and "No".1.Thank-You Пожалуйста ("pa-zhal-sta") .сто тридцать один When reading phone numbers you may also need to know the name of the digit 0.тысяча 1.
but it is the most common Russian greeting so you should try to practice it. there is no difference between the question and the statement.
Asking about languages
When you are asking a yes/no question in Russian. When you are speaking Russian you should ask questions in a different tone. and should only be used with friends.
Note: The above 3 phrases are gramatically unusual.Do you (formal) speak English? Вы говорите по-русски? . Привет is also commonly used with friends. You may find that you actually do this in English without meaning to.Do you (formal) speak Russian?
. Меня зовут .When you are in Russia and you meet somebody. However.. put a real questioning expression on your face.Pleased to meet you.. the first thing you will want to do is to say "hello".
In order to introduce yourself. The tone of your voice should rise if you are asking a question.
How are you?
The most natural way to ask someone how they are in Russian is to ask: "how are things?" Как дела? . (The до is pronounced as if it is part of the next word) Пока ("pa-ka") . If you are making a statement your tone will naturally fall.How are things? Хорошо спасибо . If somebody says Привет to you.
There are also two words for saying good-bye.Good/Well thank-you Плохо .Bye (Informal. slang) You should generally use до свидания. you may need the following phrases. До свидания ("da-svee-da-nee-ye") . You may also hear people say Пока. then it is normally safe to proceed in the friendly tone. If all else fails. except for the question mark. Как вас зовут? ("kak vas za-voot") ... Здравствуйте ("zdra-stvooy-tye") . There are two forms of this word. not the individual words.Hi (Informal) Здравствуйте may be a little difficult for you to pronounce at first. You should just learn the whole phrase. Вы говорите по-английски? . ("min-ya za-voot") . but we suggest you only use it with friends. which is appropriate in formal or informal situations.Good-bye.
Introducing Yourself.Hello (Formal) Привет ("pree-vyet") .What is your name? Очень приятно ("och-en pree-yat-na") .My name is . keep in mind that Привет is informal (much like "hi" in English).Bad
It will probably sound more natural to ask where the nearest café is. пожалуйста.Tea Молоко . где бар? . где кафе? .I speak English Я говорю по-русски .Vodka Пиво .Beer Вино .Juice Борщ .Milk Кока-Кола ..Coffee Чай .Lemonade Сок .Russian beetroot soup Суп . Скажите. Скажите.I don't understand
Finding a cafe
After a busy day in Russia.I speak Russian Я понимаю . you might be looking for somewhere to have a drink..Wine Вода . where is a cafe? Скажите. где ближайшее кафе? .Я говорю по-английски .. . Скажите. so the phrase “Где кафе?” means both “where is a cafe?” and “where is the cafe?”.Tell me please. here are some words you might see on the menu: Меню .Coca-Cola Лимонад . where is a bar? Russian does not use the articles “a” or “the”.I understand Я не понимаю . пожалуйста.Menu Кофе .Tell me please.Water
..Tell me please. пожалуйста. пожалуйста.. You could ask people with the following phrases.. where is the nearest cafe?
On the Menu
If you were in a Russian bar or café.Soup Торт .Cake Водка .Tell me please.
It is coffee. Here are some Russian phrases you might need.Excuse me.? . это кофе. Простите. пожалуйста . .No. пожалуйста.?
If you want to ask someone if they have something..Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? . or be asked: Что? ("shto?") .
The word "Сколько?" means "how much?" or "how many" in Russian...Do you have vodka?
Please give me
When you decide what you will have you will need to order.
What is it?
Some short but useful Russian phrases to ask what things are. it is tea. you can use the following phrase.Please give me tea..
Дайте. (Just learn the whole phrase. У вас есть .What is it? Это кофе. Дайте.. .Do you have .Be careful. . . это чай...Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? . Дайте. . You can use it to ask the price of something.Please give me coffee. ..? (formal)
У вас есть кофе? . is it coffee? Нет... чай. пожалуйста.. кофе .. кофе с молоком и с сахаром . Дайте. Что это? . when you order vodka in russia... кофе с молоком .. пожалуйста. it is gramatically unusual).. Сколько стоит? . пожалуйста..
.What do you want? Я хочу . you will generally get straight vodka.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. Дайте.What? Что вы хотите? .How much is it?..I want.Please give me coffee with milk.Give me please.
Do you have..
walk. where is the toilet? The mens toilets are normally labeled with an "M".) Я-I Ты .How much? / How many? Сколько стоить? .. she." mean in English?
Where is the toilet..
Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the subject of a sentence.How do you say ". Где Туалет ." на английском? . love." по-русски? ... Как сказать ". Скажите. It (m) Она . It (f) Оно . The ladies toilets are normally labeled with a "Ж".....?
To finish up this lesson here is a Russian phrase to help you find out where a toilet is. it.. "love" is the verb. they are things you can do. want. eat.21 rubles....She. or plural)
. Here are some useful phrases." in Russian? Что значит ".It (n) Мы .Tell me please. (Known as the nominative case. her. Pronouns are words that can replace names.You (informal) Он . The subject is "I".
How do you say?
Another very useful phrase is “how do you say?”. In the sentence "I love him". him. and the object is "him".
Verbs are action words. For example: I.How much does it cost? двадцать один рубль .What does ". you. For example: run. It will allow you to learn more Russian words by actually speaking Russian.You (formal.. he. Пожалуйста .We Вы ..Сколько? ...He.
This happens a little in English. Они работают .Them You should be familiar with using different pronouns for the subject and object of a sentence ("me" instead of "I").To understand.Me Тебя .
The first conjugation
The first conjugation is used for verbs ending in "ть" but not "ить".You (informal) Его .("yevo") .He.I work Ты работаешь . To form the verb for each person you need to drop the last two letters of the infinitive (normally "ть"). She. but not as much. and once you get the hang of it. Russian verbs change their endings depending on the subject. It is the most common.Her. This happens according to two different patterns known as the first conjugation. Оно работает . "ет". In Russian there is only one way of saying "I work". It (f) Нас . (infinitive. "ете" or "ют"). (Known as the accusative case) Меня . and add the appropriate ending ("ю".Russian uses an extra version of the word "you".You work Он.n) Еѐ .They Вы is used as the formal singular "you". Both these patterns are quite similar.You work. Here are the Russian pronouns that can be used as the object of a sentence.To work. and the second conjugation. he works). or plural) Их . (Example: I work. It (m.Us Вас . Just remember that unlike English. It works. "ешь".Him.They work. (There are also some irregular verbs). Она.
You will be pleased to know that Russian has only one present tense. You should memorise these pronouns. работать .We work Вы работаете .Let‟s take a look at a verb that uses the first conjugation: работать (to work). it is not too difficult. Мы работаем . and the plural "you" (slang: "yous" or "you all") when talking to more than one person. (infinitive.You (formal. "ем".Они . dictionary form) Я работаю . dictionary form)
. "I am working" and "I do work". Let's try some other Russian words from the first conjugation: понимать .
Он не понимает .I understand.We understand.You understand. It understands Мы понимаем . Ты знаешь .He.To know. Я не понимаю .He. Мы говорим .We know. Оно говорит . It knows.To speak. She. Оно знает .They understand. It Speaks. Знать . Он. Note 2: The first person singuar is affected by the rule of consonant mutation. dictionary form) Я знаю .I speak. Now we will introduce some verbs from the second conjugation.I know.They know. Вы понимаете .He doesn't understand. She.I don't understand.Do you know? Ты понимаешь? . dictionary form) Я говорю . Note 1: The second conjugation is affected by the spelling rules. Она.Do you understand?
The second conjugation
Verbs where the infinitive ends in "ить" use the second conjugation.You understand.You know. (infinitive.
. She. this only applies to the first-person singular (Я). Он.You know. For example: Я не знаю .We speak. Ты говоришь . Он. Remember.He.
Remember you can make a statement negative by using the word "не" (not). Она. Оно понимает . Она.I don't know. Ты понимаешь . Вы знаете . Мы знаем . говорить .You speak.Я понимаю . Они понимают . which replace "ить". (infinitive. Они знают . The second conjugation uses the endings "ю" (or "у") "ишь" "ит" "им" "ите" "ят" (or "ат"). There are also some other verbs that use this conjugation. You can also form questions: Ты знаешь? .
I speak English Он говорит по-русски .I live.He.You hear.Вы говорите . Notice that once you know the stem "Ед" it almost follows the first conjuction.To hear. слышит . (Verbs that don't exactly follow the above rules).To live. you can often predict the endings. She. Мы живѐм . Она. слышим .You live.They go (by transport).We don't speak Russian.We hear. It hears. Ты живѐшь .We live.I hear.They hear.
Жить . Оно живѐт .
There are a number of irregular verbs in Russian. слышат .Do you speak Russian? Мы не говорим по-русски . except that "у" replaces "ю".They speak. often once you know the stem of the verb. Они едут . слышать . She. Оно едет . Он. Мы едем .You hear. Вы едете . Я еду .You go (by transport). She.
For Example: Я говорю по-английски .To go (by transport). слышите .You speak. However. Ты едешь .We go (by transport). Она.I go (by transport). Собака не говорит по-английски .
. Они живут .You live. Even irregular verbs normally follow a similar pattern to those above. Some examples: Ехать .He. It goes (by transport). слышу . Он. Они говорят .The dog doesn't speak English.He.You go (by transport).They live.He speaks Russian Вы говорите по-русски? . Я живу . It lives. слышишь . Вы живѐте .
cup. there is no physical meaning attached to the gender. Е. Consonant . But there are five notable exceptions. Examples: Я живу в Лондоне . as with many other languages. Он едет домой . unlike many languages. Russian has three genders: masculine. If it is “а” or “я” it is feminine. There are very few exceptions to these rules. 4. ъ because they have no sound).A noun is a thing. From the dictionary form of a noun.Is Masculine Кофе . In English we do this by having a strict word-order.E. Ы.(Uncle) . the word is masculine.(Coffee) . Example: dog. here is how you can tell what the gender is: 1. Ё.I live in London. (Except ь. Look at the last letter of the word: 2. In the cases of words like “father” these relate to physical gender. each noun is assigned a gender. Ю.O. it will be in its dictionary form. The letters А.Notice that "ѐ" is used instead of "е" when the stress falls on the ending. И and Й.(Man) . In Russian we use 6 cases. name or place. In this form you can easily work out it‟s gender. This is not true in some other languages where you just have to memorise them. paper.Cases are a grammatical way of determining what a noun does in a sentence. If it is “о” or “е” it is neuter.(Daddy. Papa) . О.
In Russian. in Russian it is almost always possible to tell what the gender of a noun by its spelling.Is Masculine Дедушка . If it is a soft sign “ь” then it could be either masculine or feminine. 5.Is Masculine
. 3. or “й”.A letter that is not a vowel. У. “house”. Папа .(Grandfather) .
Gender of nouns. and neuter (neutral).Letters that can be said with an open vocal tract. feminine. However you will still need to know the gender because it affects how words are formed. pen. Я. Cases . Moscow. “cup”.I. If the noun is in another part of the sentence the ending is changed to suit the case. Э.He is going home
Noun .Is Masculine Дядя . In the case of other objects like “pen”. cat. Luckily. When you use a noun as the subject of a sentence.Is Masculine Мужчина . this occurs mainly because of physical gender.U in English). (A. If it is a consonant. Vowel .
(“flowers”) Dative case: The indirect object of the sentence (“Anna”) Genitive case: Indicates ownership. In Russian there are six cases. письмо (letter)
Cases in Russian
Russian grammar uses the case system. In English the subject of the sentence must be first noun. The Russian word‟s position is not so important because it‟s meaning in the sentence is indicated by it‟s case. and still keep the same meaning. (In. at.) For example the word Anna in the six different cases would be: Nominative case: Анна Accusative case: Анну Dative case: Анне (to Anna) Genitive case: Анны (Anna‟s) Instrumental case: Анной (with Anna) Prepositional case: Анне (about Anna) We will teach you how to form the cases over the next few lessons so don‟t worry too much now. and we can concentrate more on vocabulary. (Eg. You will learn it more naturally when you start using Russian. It‟s important not to worry much about the fine details of grammar at first. (“Ivan”) Accusative case: The object of the sentence.. You may wish to do this to emphasise something. “Anna‟s flowers”) Instrumental case: Indicates „with‟ or „by means of‟.. Lets look at the six cases (You don‟t need to remember this yet): Nominative case : The subject of the sentence. The case system is also used in languages like Latin. радио (radio). To indicate each case we change the ending of word. (“Anna writes with a pencil”) Prepositional case: Used after certain propositions. In fact it was also used in Old English. Although it is common in Russian to use a similar word order to English.. (Иван даѐт цветы Анне) In English it makes no sense to swap the position of the words „Ivan‟ and „flowers‟.
. on. Understanding the case system is often one of the biggest hurdles for people learning Russian. To help you understand what cases are we will compare them to English.. Хлеб (bread). Once the case system is understood the Russian language will really open up to you. Our lessons are designed for English speakers so we will not assume much knowledge of grammar. Россия (Russia). Just try to get a good general overview of the grammar. документ (document). Дочь (daughter) Neuter : здание (building). and about. брат (brother). In Russian it is possible to change the order of these words.Some examples: Masculine : паспорт (passport). The meaning of the sentence would be completely changed. It is just important to understand that case effectively gives a word its meaning in the sentence. Greek and German. Remember that Russian children all learnt to speak Russian before they understood any grammar. so we will take it slowly. For example. „Ivan gives flowers to Anna‟. Feminine : газета (newspaper).
students) газета becomes: газеты (newspaper . The only time you need to change the ending is to form the plural. In English we make a plural by adding “s”. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant. For example. However. so there is nothing special to learn here. Definition: An “animate” noun is something that is alive (person or animal. the word “I” is the subject. add “ы”. In Russian. you make a plural by using the letters “и”. In the sentence “I love her”. some remnants of the case system still exist in English.buildings)
The Accusative Case. It is normal in Russian to use the same word ordering as English. (The subject of a sentence)
The nominative case is used for the subject of a sentence.
. “ы”. you need to use the accusative case also. in Russian it still makes perfect sense because the object will still be in the accusative case. not plants). in this case the word “dog”.
The Nominative Case. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “а” with “ы” Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” Examples: студент becomes: студенты (student . in the nominative case. The only time we use the accusative case in English is with pronouns. Russian is very free about word order. Russian uses the case for all nouns. (The object of a sentence)
To form simple sentences like “I want a dog”. An “inanimate” noun is a non-living object. For example we must use „me‟ instead of „I‟ when not the subject. especially pronouns. in Russian it may be possible to change the order of the words in a sentence. Here are the rules for forming the accusative case from the dictionary (nominative) form. This doesn‟t work in English because we rely on the subject always coming first. We use “me” instead of “I” and “him” instead of “he”. The accusative case is used for the object of a sentence. “я” or “а”.newspapers) здание becomes: здания (building .Interestingly. The nominative case is the dictionary form for nouns. without changing the actual meaning.
.Masculine Nouns: 1. Ты любишь музыку? .Do you love music? Я люблю Москву .I love music. If noun is animate.Nadya doesn't like wine. Любишь) (View Conjugations) Remember that a noun after “I love” should be in the accusative case as it is the object of the sentence. Examples: спорт remains: спорт (sport) музыка becomes: музыку(music) Москва becomes: Москву(Moscow) газета becomes: газету(newspaper) здание remains: здание(building) Иванbecomes: Ивана(Ivan) You will learn about the plurals of the accusative case in a later lesson. 2. Надя любит вино . Replace “я” with “ю”. Here are some uses of the word: Я люблю спорт .I love sport. Neuter Nouns: 1. with “я”. replace “ь”. Иван любит чай . Он любит Москву . Я люблю музыку . If the noun in inanimate. If noun is animate. Я не люблю музыку .He loves Moscow. 2. 3.I don't like music. Надя не любит вино . replace “й”. 4. If noun is animate and ends in a consonant. add “а”. Replace “а” with “у”. add “я”.Ivan loves tea.
Let's start with the Russian verb "to love": Любить (Люблю.Nadya loves wine.I love Moscow. Inanimate nouns do not change (almost all neuter nouns are inanimate). there is no change. Feminine Nouns: 1.
It would still make sense to say: Я люблю тебя. что ты любишь музыку. Я слушаю радио .I am reading a magazine.to think Работать . Try inserting different pronouns (from lesson 5) into this phrase to change the meaning. if you see the word "Что" in the middle of a sentence. you can see how these verbs are conjugated by clicking here. Remember to select the pronoun to match the case: Я его люблю .to watch. You can use it to form questions.
Using other Russian verbs
To express yourself better in Russian you will need to learn some more Russian verbs. Читать .to work Хотеть . Я еѐ люблю ."I love you" in Russian
You should now know enough Russian to say 'I love you' Я тебя люблю .What do you love? However.to listen Изучать .to read.I love her.She loves me
The word "Что?" (pronounced "shto?") means "What?". it is probably the conjunction "that". Смотреть . Я читаю журнал .
Что ты любишь? .I am reading the newspaper Я читаю книгу . The word "Что" has two uses.I am reading a book.I know that you love music.
. Let's introduce some new Russian verbs now.I love him. so don't be confused. An example could be: Я знаю.I am watching television.to study Думать . . Она любит меня . Я читаю газету . This particular phrase is usually said with the word order above.I am listening to music. Слушать .I am listening to the radio. If you would like.I love you. Я слушаю музыку .to want
Here are some possible uses of these verbs: Я смотрю телевизор .
I want tea.What? Как? .Where? Кто? .
A very useful Russian word is the word for "very".I really love sport. In Russian you should leave the 2nd verb in the infinitive form.How? Почему? .I study Russian. Я так думаю .Who? Что? . (or really) Я очень люблю спорт . It sometimes replaces the word "really" also.I think so! Как вы думаете? .very. (lit: I study the Russian language). For example "I like to read" or "I want to read".
You may also find these question words useful during your travels around Russia.I really love Moscow.Я изучаю русский язык . Add : “е”. You can include it into many phrases. Я люблю путешествовать . For example: Очень .Why?
Forming the prepositional case
To form the prepositional case you should take the nominative form (dictionary form) and do the following to the end of the word: Masculine Nouns: 1. In such cases you are using 2 verbs in a row. Что вы хотите? .I want to buy a magazine. Я очень люблю Москву .I love to read.What do you think? (lit: How do you think?) Я хочу чай . Я хочу купить журнал . For example: Я люблю читать .I love to travel.What do you want?
Sometime you will want to talk about an action. Где? . 2: Some nouns (mostly single syllable) take “у” (but not after preposition “о”)
„at a concert‟). suburbs and places.at the station на почте . „at a station‟.What is on the table? На столе книга и карандаш . Replace “а” with “е”.on the street
Что на столе? . Replace “о” with “е” 2. „at work‟.theatre
.cinema театр . (Eg. when you are referring to enclosed spaces or buildings.Feminine Nouns: 1. “е” remains unchanged. even though they are not Russian. it becomes “ии” Neuter Nouns: 1.On the table is a book and a pencil.I live in Siberia.in the garden в лесу . (They are in dicionary form) кино .in the forest на улице .I live in London. Я живу в Лондоне . Я живу в Петербурге . 2. 3.Where do you live? Я живу в Москве .
Using prepositions and the prepositional case. As with "Лондоне" you should change the case of other cities. Exception: Replace “ия”. (Eg. Here are some tips to help you. Я живу в Сибири .
Here are some names of other useful places. Replace “я” with “е”. The word “в” (in) is used to replace the English word “at”. Now you can easily tell people where you live: Где вы живѐте? .Where is she? на вокзале .I live in Moscow.
As with any language.I live in St. You can also describe where something or someone is: Где она? .at the post office в саду . „at school‟) The word “на” (on/at) replaces the English word “at” when you are talking about open spaces or places that were traditionally open spaces. Russian prepositions can sometimes have slightly different uses and meanings than in English. Replace “ь” with “и”. 4. although these aren‟t precise rules. Petersburg.
So to express „to go‟ in Russian. Куда вы идѐте .I am going to school. The first indicates „to go in one direction‟.cafe площадь .hotel музей .
Going Places in Russian
In Russian there are two words that can be used to express “I am going”. the second indicates that you are going by some form of transport.To the left.square ресторан . Both these words are verbs of motion. The first indicates you are going on foot. when you answer questions asked with "Куда" (Where to). направо . When answering questions asked with the word "Где" (Where is (location)). you would use the accusative case. прямо . A more detailed lesson on verbs of motion will follow at a later stage Each of these 2 verbs (and all verbs of motion) come in pairs.Where do you work? (Indicates a location) Я работаю в школе . прямо потом направо .restaurant банк . You will notice from the examples that this often relates to when you use 'going' or 'go' in English.Straight ahead.Straight ahead then to the right. your answer will involve the prepositional case. and are grammatically quite complex. налево . prepositions have more than one meaning.I work at (in) a school. the second indicates „to go in more than one direction‟ or to „go somewhere repetitively‟. we will introduce them now in a simple way. but as these words are so important for basic Russian.Where are you going (to)? (Indicates direction) Я иду в школу .park стадион . Here are some useful words and phrases for finding your way around Russia.library кафе . However.museum больница .stadium школа . Here are some examples for you to compare.аптека .hospital
Location and Direction
Sometimes. you can tell this by the case. there are actually four ways:
.pharmacy парк .To the right.bank гостиница .
Где вы работаете? .school библиотека .
I go to school.
Ехать . Он идѐт. Я часто хожу в кино . Они ездят) Он часто ездит в Лондон . Мы идѐм в кафе .I am going to the cinema. Ты ездишь .Are you going to the cinema? Он идѐт в гостиницу . or repetitively.I am going to the university
Ходить . in more than one direction.He often goes to London Я езжу в театр каждый день . Мы едем. Они едут ) Я еду в школу . Они идут) Я иду в школу .I am going to the cinema on the metro. Ты ходишь.He is going to the hotel.I often go to the cinema Мы ходим в кафе каждый день .I am going to school.They often go to Amsterdam
Russian Family Words
Here are the words Russians commonly use to refer to members of their family:
.He is going to London
Ездить . Мы идѐм.He is going to the hotel by taxi. Он едет. or repetitively
(Я езжу. Они ходят ) Я хожу в школу . Он ездит .To go on foot. Мы едем в кафе .Идти . Мы ездим. Вы едете. Вы идѐте. Я иду в кино . Ты идѐшь. Он ходит. Вы ездите. я иду в университет . in one direction.To go by transport. (by transport) Я еду в кино на метро .We are going to the cafe.
(Я еду. Они часто ездят в Амстердам .We are going to the cafe.I am going to school. (by transport) Он едет в Лондон .
(Я хожу. Ты идѐшь в кино? . in more than one direction. in one direction.To go on foot. Вы ходите.We go to the cafe every day.To go by transport. Он едет в гостиницу на такси . Ты едешь. Мы ходим.I go to the theatre every day.
his.Мать .husband Тѐтя . У тебя есть дети? .family Just like English. Моѐ (n).Do you have children?. У меня нет детей . У меня есть брат .grandfather Жена .I have a son and a daughter.children Внучка .parents Дети . in Russian there are two ways to refer to your mother and father.wife Муж . Твои (pl) .uncle Родители .grandson Семья .I have a sister. Here are some Russian phrases you could use. Твоѐ (n).daughter Сын .I have a brother. her Наш (m).our
.granddaughter Внук . У меня есть сын и дочь .
In order to talk about your family you normally need to use possesive pronouns so we will introduce them now.my Твой (m).I don't have any children. Твоя (f). You should always choose the possesive pronoun that matches the gender of the item it owns.dad Сестра . Наша (f). У меня есть сестра . Наше (n).
Basic russian phrases
Quite often you want to tell people how many brothers and sisters you have. For example we use the words mum and dad. Моя (f).brother Дочь .your Его (m n) ("yevo").father Мама . Еѐ (f) . Наши (pl) .sister Брат .auntie Дядя . Мой (m).son бабушка . Most commonly Russians use the words Mama and Papa to refer to their parents.
Note: This grammar explained in lesson 10.grandmother Дедушка .mother Отец . Мои (pl) .mum Папа .
Here are some Russian phrases and sentences you could say with words you already know. Ваши (pl) .goodnight (when going to bed)
Forming the genitive case
.My mother loves music Моя сестра читает газету .
This is.Our brother loves sport When you introduce members of your family you will need to adapt one of the phrases we learnt lesson 3.This is my apartment Это твоя квартира? . Это мой дом . Here is how you can use it with some possesive pronouns. Ваше (n). Моя мама любит музыку .good afternoon Добрый вечер .his name is Ivan. the only problem is that this particular phrase is unusual. Ваша (f).My sister is reading a newspaper Мой брат любит спорт .their Now you will be able to combine Russian words and phrases that your learnt in earlier lessons to talk about your family. we will introduce some common greeting phrases that you may wish to use every now and again.This is my house Это моя квартира . Доброе утро .her name is Anna Его зовут Иван .good evening Спокойной ночи ..My brother loves sport Твой брат любит спорт .. you may wish to say her name is Anna. So here are two examples that you can use for now: Меня зовут Анна .my name is Anna Еѐ зовут Анна .Ваш (m).good morning Добрый день .
The Russian word Это means 'this is'. For example.Your brother loves sport Наш брат любит спорт .your Их .Is this your apartment?
Finally. The pronouns need to be used in the genative case which we have not learnt yet. However.
Replace “е” with “я” For example.ownership
As you can see in the above example.Igor's telephone. It may be worthwhile noting that the genitive case for masculine nouns is formed the same way as the accusative case for masculine animate nouns. (This is like using 's in English).Adam's brother loves Moscow. 3. Собака Адама . 2.Ivan's grandfather is listens to the radio. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . the house (Дом) is owned by Ivan. Anna's) Дом Ивана . Replace “а” with “ы”.
Did you notice that we used 3 different cases in the sentences above? It is important to understand why each case used. some names in the genitive case: Иван (Ivan) becomes Ивана (of Ivan. Ivan's) Адам becomes Адама (of Adam.
Using the genitive case . (lit: The dog of Adam's) Автомобиль Анны . Replace “ь” with “и”. If the noun ends in a consonant. in the first sentence: “Брат”(brother) is thesubject of the
. Сестра Анны читает газету . 3.
1. Replace “о” with “а” 2.Anna's sister is reading the newspaper. Replace “й”. you can use the genitive case to indicate possession. the object that is owned always comes first. in Russian.Masculine Nouns:
1. pay particular attention to the order of the words. Replace “я” with “и”. For example. Брат Адама любит Москву .Ivan's house (lit: House of Ivan).Is this Adam's telephone? (lit: Is this the telephone of Adam's)
In the above examples.
1. 2. add “я”. This is a similar concept to using the word 'of'' in English. add “а”.Adam's dog. However. Replace “ь”.Anna's car. Adam's) Анна becomes Анны (of Anna. with “я”. Now let‟s see some examples of the genitive case used like this in sentences. The 'owner' is the noun that is used in the genitive case. Let's have a look at some more examples. In the phrase "Дом Ивана". (lit: The telephone of Igor's) Это телефон Адама? . (lit: The car of Anna's) Телефон Игоря .
Его. As we have seen in a previous lesson. Его нет дома . Вас. This is exactly the same concept as above.She has a dog. У нее есть собака.I have book. The important thing to remember is that „Нет‟ is followed by the genitive case. (coffee is an indeclinable noun)
. план города .Do you have coffee? У вас есть чай? .. These meanings are quite similar and you probably would have understood the meaning of „Нет‟ in this context without it being explained. У меня есть книга . Ивана нет .There is no coffee. (Меня. Here are some examples. У вас есть кофе? .A glass of milk. Их)
Using the genitive case .Do you have tea? У вас есть водка? .Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . There is no exact way to literally translate this concept to English. When it is used with a person it indicates that they are not here.there is not
The Russian word „Нет‟ has a second meaning. As well as meaning „No‟ it also means „There isn't . it is also used to create a way of saying „to have‟ or „to not have‟. Чая нет . Еѐ.There is no tea..Do you have vodka? У Адама есть водка? .A map of the city.There is no milk.Does Adam have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . Here are some examples.
Pronouns of the genitive case
The pronouns of the genitive case are the same as the accusative case.to have
As the genitive case relates to possession.Does Ivan have tea?
Using the genitive case .of
The genitive case is used to correspond to the English word „of‟. Нас.Ivan isn't here. Тебя. “Адама” (Adam) is the owner of the first noun and uses the genitive case.sentence and uses the nominative case.‟. The noun or pronoun following the word “У” is used in the genitive case. it is just easier to learn the concept by example. Кофе нет . To create these sentences you use the words „У‟ (by/near) and „есть‟ (exist/is). Russians don‟t construct „to have‟ sentences like we do in English. “Москву” (Moscow) is the direct object of the verb and uses the Accusative case.He is not home. Молока нет . стакан молока . . except here we will give examples where you would actually use the word „of‟ in English. but you would construct the sentence “I have a dog” something like “By me there exists a dog”.
Using the genitive case . Generally.
In Russian. you make a plural by using the letters "и". It is quite a bit of information to present all at once. Ч. Ш. К. "я" or "а". but don‟t worry. For masculine nouns: If the word ends in a consonant.) For neuter nouns: Replace “о” with “а” Replace “е” with “я” (don't forget the spelling rules) Some examples: студент (student) . in the nominative case.
First we will show you how to form the plurals in each of the cases we have already learnt. Replace “й” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” For feminine nouns: Replace “я” with “и” Replace “ь” with “и” Replace “а” with “ы” (unless previous consonant is Г. This will be covered in the next lesson
Forming Plurals. plurals. Ж.газеты (newspapers) здание (building) .здания (buildings)
The Accusative Case .студенты (students) газета (newspaper) .
The Nominative Case . Щ then replace with "и" as per the spelling rules. depending on whether the object is animate or not. Х.
The genitive case is used after most numbers. Inanimate nouns (not-alive) : Same as the nominative plural. you will find it easier to learn and remember when you see it used in context later in the lesson. for example "10 roubles". add “ы”.Using the genitive case . quantaties. Animate nouns (alive) : Same as the genitive plural.numbers. "ы".Plural (Direct Object)
For plural nouns the accusative case just 'borrows' from the other cases.
This may feel a little strange at first.газет (newspapers') здание . or whether you are just using general plurals.девушек) For neuter nouns: If ends in "о" then drop "о" (no ending) If ends in "е" becomes "ей" If ends in "ие" becomes "ий" Some examples: студент . but in Russian we use it for all numbers. ц" (stressed) add "ев" All other masuline nouns end in "ов" For feminine nouns: If ends in "а" then drop "а" (no ending) If ends in [consonant] "я" then "ь" If ends in [vowel] "я" then "й" If ends in "ь" then add "ей" Note: If a feminine word ends in a double consonant it is quite common for a vowel (о. These rules refer to converting nouns from the nominative singular (dictionary form).
Plurals with numbers
In the situation where you would like to specify how many books there are you will need to use the genitive case. Occasionally we use a similar construction in English “hundreds of dollars” or “a lot of money”.марок.Anna loves books.ш. Анна любит книги .The Genitive Case .ь" then add "ей" If ends in "й. but it will become natural as you learn and hear more of the language.англичанок. (марка . let‟s see how to use them.Plural (Possession)
The genitive seems to have the most rules for the plural.The books are on the table. For masculine nouns: If ends in "ж. девушка . but it generally ends in -ов (manculine) or it is cut short (feminine). but in the plural form. Ok. now that we understand when to use counting-plurals.студентов (students') газета . англичанка . Here are some examples.зданий (buildings')
General use of plurals. In this instance you should just have the word „books‟ in it‟s normal case. Книги на столе .
The Russian language works a little differently depending on whether you are counting something. You will hear this quite often when you are talking about amounts of money. Its kind of like saying “2 of books” or “10 of roubles”. For example in a sentence like “The books are on the table” we don‟t specify how many books are on the shelf.щ.
.ч. е) to be inserted for easy pronunciation.
three roubles четыре рубля .one hundred roubles сто долларов . All the 'teens' (-надцать) fit in to this catagory (11.four students три газеты . etc) пять рублей . 13 & 14). so if you practice pronouncing these words in the different cases to form plurals your brain should be able to become accustomed to this concept very quickly.eight buildings девять собак . Here are some examples. or the number ends in the word 'один' (example: 1.four dollars четыре студента .one rouble двадцать один рубль . 12.
. 4) (but not 12.3. The number one declines like an adjective. To help you get used to this concept.one hundred dollars шесть книг . 3 or 4.6. 13. -надцать
If the number ends in any other digit you should use the genitive plural.. or the last digit of the number is 2. 42.ten roubles сто рублей .4
If the number.Numbers ending in : 1
If the number is 1. Here are some examples. then you should use the case (singular) that is suitable for the position in the sentence.seven newspapers восемь зданий . 61) (but not 11). (example: 22. 21.9. 14.five roubles десять рублей .six books семь газет . You are probably quite used to hearing the words “rouble” or “dollar”.two books три собаки .one girl Я знаю одну девушку . then you should use the genitive singular case.21 roubles один доллар . одна девушка .8.0.one dollar
Numbers ending in : 2. try using plurals that involve money.three dogs четыре доллара . 103.ten students Nobody really knows why we use two different plural formations in the Russian language.7.three newspapers
Numbers ending in : 5.I know one girl один рубль . три рубля .four roubles две книги .nine dogs десять студентов .
Как его зовут? .9. Вова)
Note the use of the accusative case for pronouns in this construction. (Lit: To me there are 16 years).How old are you. Here are some other common Russian names for men.
Notice that the dative case is used for the pronouns.What is your name? Меня зовут Вера.3.
Expressing Your Age in Russian
When talking about your age you need to know the word „years‟.the dative case.Nikolay (Коля) Борис .“I am cold” (lit: to me it‟s cold). Мне восемнадцать лет .I am 18 years old Мне двадцать три года .. Quantity ends in 5.8.Her name is Alyona. Much like “Мне холодно” . Как еѐ зовут? . Quantity ends in 2.Boris Владимир .
Quantity ends in 1 .4 ..Vladimir (Володя. Как вас зовут? . You will learn more about this in the lesson 13 .Genitive Singular.What is her name? Еѐ зовут Алѐна .So in summary.Use the case that is appropriate to the sentence position.What is his name? Его зовут Борис .As per position in the sentence. This is occurs often when you are expressing the state of something.I am 23 years old. Николай . .-надцать .6.0.His name is Boris.) Quantity not specified . In Russian this word has an irregular plural: 1: год 2-4: года 5-0: лет Сколько вам лет? .7..My name is Vera.Genitive Plural General Quantity .Genitive Case (Singular or Plural depending on context..
Olga (Оля) Александра . The diminuative is a more personal.Mariya (Маша) Ольга .Nadezhda (Надя) Анна .Natalya (Наташа) Мария . Шура) Дмитрий . This is like a pet name.Alexander (Саша.Please (and You're Welcome)
Really Small Russian Words
To help you remember.and а .Sergey Алексей .goodnight (when going to bed)
Please and Thank-You
Never forget please and thank-you. and should only be used when you are in close firendship. (For example in English 'William' is also 'Will').good morning Добрый день . Андрей .Oxana Екатерина . Елена . Спасибо . here is a summary of those really small Russian words that we have learnt.Pyotr. In fact all of these words are from the 100 most used words in the Russian language и .Hi (Informal) Доброе утро .and/but (contrasting)
Here are some Russian greetings that we learnt in earlier lessons.good evening Спокойной ночи .Yekaterina Анастасия .Thank-You Пожалуйста . There are many diminuatives for each Russian name and they are commonly used.Yelena (Лена) Наталья . Peter. but try to learn them all.Andrey Александр .Anastasiya (Настя) Надежда .Aleksey And here are some common Russian names for women.good afternoon Добрый вечер .Пѐтр .Alexandra (Саша) Оксана . Some of these may be new. Здравствуйте . The exception is when a person intruduces themself using this form.Anna (Аня) Note: the form in brackets is the diminutive form of the name.Hello Привет .Dimitry (Дима) Сергей . or tender form. You should be able to remember all of these.
coffee with milk and with sugar. где туалет? .but или . at (+prepositional).Tell me please.you (formal/plural) его .her.".along.about к . You might also find some new words in these sentences. У вас есть водка? . We will use only common words. in the sentence "I am in Moscow and he is in Kiev.There is no tea. . что ты говоришь по-русски. У вас есть чай? . These prepositions are commonly used in Russian с . so you should try to learn them all.Give me please.Do you have vodka? У Анны есть водка? . .He loves to speak English Моя мама любит музыку. Он любит говорить по-английски.Do you have tea? Чая нет.Does Anna have vodka? У Ивана есть чай? . Also pay attention to the different cases used for nouns and how verbs are formed. the statements are related but contrast each other so you could also use the word "but".for (+accusative).I want tea please. For example. во . .in (+prepositional). об . .
. кофе с молоком и с сахаром.Do you have coffee? Кофе нет. Скажите.towards. пожалуйста.them
Using the Russian Language
Now we will give you some sample Russian sentences.from по .но . (also used with languages)
You should already know these pronouns.I know that you speak Russian.My mum loves music.or The word "а" is generally used when you could use either the english words "and" or "but". where is the toilet? У вас есть кофе? .he.What do you want? Я хочу чай. behind (+instrumental) из . In Russian we would use the word "а". я-I он . it еѐ . . . to (+accusative) о. it ты . Что вы хотите? .with у . to за . пожалуйста. from от . Refer to lesson 5 if you have forgotton.There is no coffee. . by (also used in the "to have" construction) в.you (informal) вы . пожалуйста. Дайте. onto. it их .near.him. to (+accusative) на .out of.on.Does Ivan have tea? Я знаю.
Я изучаю русский язык .Твой брат говорит по-русски? . сколько стоит? .How much? сто рублей . Моя сестра читает газету .I think that you understand.I am listening to music.
.Why don't you speak Russian? Я понимаю. Ты понимаешь? .Why? Что ты знаешь? .The dog doesn't speak English.He is not home.4 roubles.My sister is reading a newspaper. Его нет дома .4 dollars.When? Почему? .Adam's brother loves Moscow. Я думаю. что ты понимаешь. Я очень люблю спорт . сколько стоит? .I really love sport.100 roubles.Ivan's grandfather is listenig to the radio.Why don't you understand? Я живу в Лондоне .I understand. сколько стоит? . Я не понимаю.21 roubles.I really love Moscow.How much? двадцать один рубль .How much? четыре рубля . Почему вы не говорите по-русски? .He is going home.I am studying the Russian language.Does your borther speak Russian? Да.How much? четыре доллара .Where is he? Где кафе? .How? Когда? .My Mum loves music. Моя мама любит музыку .What do you know? Что ты думаешь? . Он хорошо говорит по-русски. Почему ты не понимаешь? .I don't understand. Дедушка Ивана слушает радио . Я очень люблю Москву .What do you think? Где он? .I am reading a magazine. Я слушаю музыку .Yes. .I know that you understand.Anna's siser is reading a newspaper.Where? Кто? . . Брат Адама любит Москву .Where is the cafe? Кто он? . Собака не говорит по-английски. сколько стоит? .Who is he? Я читаю журнал .Do you understand? Я знаю. . что вы понимаете. . . . Где? .Who? Что? . Он едет домой . Сестра Анны читает газету .I live in London. He speaks Russian well.What? Как? .
Нам . add “у”.Forming the dative case. Мне .. Им . Replace "а". Адам . Ему (m). Replace “й”. 3. Replace “ь” with “и”. Replace “а” with “е”.them. 2. If the noun ends in a consonant. we first start with the nominative (dictionary) form.
1. add "ам". Тебе .Молоку Вино . it.
1. Replace “я” with “е”. "о" or a consonant with "ам".
It is worth learning the dative case personal pronouns quite well as they are used more than you might expect.you (informal). with “ю”.me. 2. Ему (n). 2.
To create nouns in the dative case.
1. add “ю”. Replace “ь”.. 4. or plural). 3.Адаму Елена . Вам . Replace “е” with “ю”
Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.
. Replace “ия” with “ии”. If the noun ends in a consonant.us. 1.Елене Молоко . her. Replace the last letter with "ям" Here are some examples. 3. Replace “о” with “у” 2.him. Ей (f) .Вину
Pronouns of the Dative Case.you (formal.
in Russian the word order of a sentence can be rearranged.. .(they) give The command forms of this word include.
.Ivan gives flowers to Anna. In fact because Russian uses the case system words can be rearranged much more freely than in English.give! Дайте . For example in the sentence “Ivan gives flowers to Anna”. For this reason.give! You will learn more about commands in a later lesson. Я даю цветы Анне .I am helping this girl. Here are a couple of verbs that use the dative case: Помогать . (View all conjugations) Here are some examples Иван даѐт цветы Анне .(you) give Даѐт .. The word Давать(give) is commonly used with the dative case.to help (to give help to) Я помогаю Анне .
Other uses of the dative case meaning “to”
There are a number of verbs that can be used with the dative case. . Они дают цветы Елене . Here are the conjuctions: Даю .I am helping Ivan. Similarly.They give flowers to Elena.(you) give Дают .We help mother every day. you need to be able to recognise cases effectively.Give me your address and telephone number.(I) give Даѐшь .Using the Dative Case for Indirect Objects
The indirect object is the person or object in a sentence that receives something. Я помогаю этой девушке .Give me . In English we sometimes also use the word “to” in these situations.. It should be used in the dative case. Дайте мне .(we) give Даѐте ... Most of these involve giving something or communicating something. Дайте мне ваш адрес и номер телефона..I give flowers to Anna.I am helping Anna. Дай . When the above sentence is rearranged to “Ivan gives Anna flowers”. Я помогаю Ивану .(he) gives Даѐм . the word “Anna” is still used in the dative case as Anna is the person who is receiving the object. In this sentence notice that the dative case is used in the place of the word “to”. the word “Anna” is the indirect object. Мы помогаем маме каждый день .
Мне холодно . Again you will make use of the dative case pronouns.) Ей нравится Москва . Мне очень нравятся цветы .. The object that is liked is the subject and is used in the nominative case. Вам нравится Москва .? . (It conjugates relative to the word in the nominative case.How do you like .. You will learn how to conjugate it in a later lesson.I like Moscow. (lit: children are pleasing to me. so in most examples this verb is used in the 3rd person. You commonly use this to express whether you are hot or cold.to call (to make a phone call to) Она звонит Ивану каждый день .Do you like Moscow? If the subject is plural use нравятся Мне нравятся дети . Although we have not learnt any adjectives yet.Adam likes Moscow.Ivan calls Anna every day. so it is enough for now just to learn this form.
Interestingly in Russian the dative case can be used to express the state of something.You like Moscow.How do you like the film? Вам нравится Москва? .I am cold (to me it‟s cold) Мне жарко . Мне нравится Москва . (lit: Moscow is pleasing to me. Although it's almost impossible to translate literally to English. it is still worth learning these examples. a concept which we haven‟t learnt yet. The dative case is used where you would expect the subject. However it is a common word. so it is worth learning now.) Ему нравится Москва .I am hot (to me it‟s hot) Ему холодно . (The "ся" ending is reflexive).He likes Moscow. Иван звонит Анне каждый день ..
In an earlier lesson we met the Russian verb "Любить" (to love). Как вам нравится .) Мне нравятся ваши дети .She calls Ivan every day. However this verb is used differently.I like the children.? Как вам нравится фильм? .He is cold (to him its cold)
. it is like saying “To me it is likable”. It is also a good chance to practice your dative case pronouns. If you would like to say “I like” which is not quite so strong you must use the word "нравится" (to like).) Practice using the word нравится.She likes Moscow. Мне нравятся цветы .Звонить .I like the flowers. and it relies on the dative case. (lit: Moscow is pleasing to her. This is verb is also a reflexive verb. Адаму нравится Москва ..I like your children.I really like the flowers.
. Some More Examples Я иду к вокзалу . All consonants. add “ом”.
The preposition "к" (towards/to)
In Russian the preposition "к" means "towards/to". with “ем”. Although the use of this proposition is too varied. but more on this in a later lesson You can visit the dative case entry in the grammar section. if stressed “ѐм”. The dative case can also be used with the preposition "по" (along).
More Dative Case
A large number of Russian reflexive verbs also use the dative case. You can also try and learn the possessive pronouns of the dative case.We are going to our friends. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. Мы едем к друзьям . “ч”.I am bored (to me its boring)
The dative case is also used in Russian to express your age Мне восемнадцать лет .
Forming the Russian Instrumental Case Masculine Nouns:
1. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. add “ем”. “ш” or “щ”. if stressed “ѐм”. Replace “й”.I am 23 years old.I am walking towards the station. 2.She is cold (to her its cold) Нам холодно . and has too many meanings. It is followed by the dative case. 4.Ей холодно .We are cold (to us its cold) Мне скучно . “ц”.. Except. to create an exact rule. Replace “ь”. then add “ем”.I am 18 years old (to me there are 18 years) Мне двадцать три года .
Replace “а” with “ой”. Replace “я” with “ей”. Replace "а".
Examples.Анной (Anna) студенты .ножом (knife) муж .
The preposition: „с‟ .
. Я ем суп ложкой .. Except. Accompanied by. “ш” or “щ”. 2. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.Feminine Nouns:
1. “ц”.мужем (husband) жена .студентами (students)
Using the Intrumental Case: By means of
The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. In English these words can have different meanings. add "ами". if stressed “ѐй”.
The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case.молоком (milk) сметана .женой (wife) Иван .
1. “ч”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. 3. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”.. Otherwise replace with "ями"
молоко ..карандашом (pencil) ложка . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. Replace “ь” with “ью”. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word..ложкой (spoon) нож .
Иван пишет карандашом .сметаной (sour cream) карандаш .With. "о" with "ами".Ivan writes with a pencil. Олег режет мясо ножом . All consonants. Add “м”
Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and. 2. 1.I eat soup with a spoon. 4.Иваном (Ivan) Анна .Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.
Him Ей .I eat borsh with sour cream. it is often written as “со”.Me and you
Notes: 1. However it is followed by the genitive case. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. Have a look at the following Russian examples. Надя хочет чай с лимоном .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe. Иван хочет чай с молоком . This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word.For ease of pronunciation. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте.I love pancakes with caviar
In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. Мы с вами . .My husband and I are going to the cafe.Me Тобой . Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.You Им .Please give me coffee with milk. Иван с женой идут в кафе.
More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной . In English we would use the word “and”.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. 2. „with him‟.Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe. So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start. but Russian generally uses “с” (with). Я люблю блинчики с икрой . It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе . пожалуйста. „with you‟. кофе с молоком .My wife and I are going to the cafe. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟. .Her
. пожалуйста.Nadya wants tea with lemon.Anna and her husband are going to the cafe.
Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”.Please give me coffee with milk and sugar.Instrumental Case
Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. Here are some examples.Ivan and I are going to school. Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”. Дайте.
Pronouns . Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе . . with Ivan”). Иван с Анной идут в кафе. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants.Ivan wants tea with milk. . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . Мной . кофе с молоком и с сахаром .
spring весной .Us Вами .Them
Seasons and parts of the day.in autumn зима .
The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions.at night Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной .Им .in the evening ночь .in winter весна .morning утром .in summer осень .autumn осенью .night ночью .summer летом .
. For example: лето .
Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case.in the morning день .in spring
The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . afternoon днѐм . Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case.in the afternoon вечер .evening вечером .In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream.You (plural) Ими .It Нами .
Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟.winter зимой .day.
is. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. .
The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.Happy birthday С новым годом . Над столом висит лампа.behind.Under the table the cat is sitting. .The lamp is above the table.to remain as пользоваться .to be. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. be The verb “Быть” (to be. быть .to become увлекаться . is. beyond. . to be occupied with интересоваться . govern являться .Between lunch and dinner drink tea.to be keen on управлять . You will learn more about this in a later lesson.
Forming the Russian Instrumental Case
. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай. manage.In front of this school turn to the left. but it is something to keep in mind.to be engaged in. .in front of под .to seem. for между . Перед этой школой поверните налево.I was a doctor).between над .Happy new year
Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.to turn out to be оставаться . (Example: Я был врачом . was) has no present tense. Под столом сидит кот. enjoy становиться/стать . . the following noun is usually in the instrumental case.above перед .under Examples: За этим зданием .Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . was заниматься .школа. You don't need to learn these verbs now.Behind this building there is a school. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns.control.за .to use.to be interested in оказываться .
Important Russian Expressions
Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством .
“ч”. If the noun ends in unstressed “ж”. 2. if stressed “ѐм”.
Examples.Анной (Anna) студенты .ножом (knife) муж .. then add “ем”.Ivan writes with a pencil. Replace “ь”. Replace “а” with “ой”. Replace “й”. Add “м”
Look at the last letter nominative singular form (dictionary form) and.
1. All consonants.Иваном (Ivan) Анна . with “ем”. replace “а” with “ей” (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3. 2. Я ем суп ложкой .. Except.Masculine Nouns:
. add "ами". Except..молоком (milk) сметана .мужем (husband) жена . “ц”. If the stem of the noun ends in “ж”. add “ем”. All consonants. "о" with "ами".карандашом (pencil) ложка . “ц”.I eat soup with a spoon. Replace “ь” with “ью”. “ш” or “щ”.женой (wife) Иван .студентами (students)
Using the Intrumental Case: By means of
The instrumental case is used to express the concept of “by means of”. 2. if stressed “ѐм”. 4.
1. so it‟s important to recognise when they are meaning “by means of”.
Иван пишет карандашом ..сметаной (sour cream) карандаш . if stressed “ѐй”. In English these words can have different meanings. Replace "а". 4. Replace “я” with “ей”. Олег режет мясо ножом . In English this is normally done using the words “using” or “with”. “ш” or “щ”.Oleg cuts the meat with a knife.ложкой (spoon) нож . “ч”. Otherwise replace with "ями"
молоко .. 1. add “ом”.. (This is to comply with the spelling rules) 3.
2. Иван с Анной идут в кафе. This way it can be pronounced as a word on it‟s own rather than combined with the following word. Я люблю блинчики с икрой .Ivan and Anna are going to the cafe.My wife and I are going to the cafe. In English we would use the word “and”. Here are a couple of examples from lesson 4: Дайте. “с” is normally pronounced as though it is part of the next word.Anna and Ivan are going to the cafe. Иван хочет чай с молоком .Instrumental Case
. It expresses the concept of “to be accompanied by” or “together with”. Анна с мужем идут в кафе. кофе с молоком и с сахаром .Anna and her husband are going to the cafe. Have a look at the following Russian examples. .Nadya wants tea with lemon. .I eat borsh with sour cream.
More examples: Я ем борщ со сметаной .Ivan and his wife are going to the cafe.I love pancakes with caviar
In Russian the preposition “с” is also used to indicate when two people accompany each other. So „вместе с‟ means 'together with' and is followed by the instrumental case. пожалуйста. Мы с женой идѐм в кафе .The preposition: „с‟ .My husband and I are going to the cafe. Accompanied by. Надя хочет чай с лимоном . кофе с молоком . . but Russian generally uses “с” (with).Ivan wants tea with milk. The Russian word for „without‟ is „без‟.
Another interesting language point is how Russians say “Ivan and I”. Мы с мужем идѐм в кафе .
The preposition “с” means “with” when used with the instrumental case. Анна с Иваном идут в кафе.Ivan and I are going to school. Дайте. For ease of pronunciation. пожалуйста. It is said as “Мы с Иваном” (“we. with Ivan”).
Pronouns . Мы с Иваном идѐм в школу . it is often written as “со”.With.Please give me coffee with milk. Here are some examples. Иван с женой идут в кафе.Me and you
Notes: 1. when “с” it is followed by two or more consonants. Мы с вами .Please give me coffee with milk and sugar. However it is followed by the genitive case. . „вместе‟ is the Russian word for 'together'.
day.in winter весна .autumn осенью .night ночью . For example: лето .Her Им . Remember that these pronouns are very often follow the preposition “с”.morning утром . So they commonly have the meaning „with me‟.
Changing a season to the instrumental case gives it the meaning of „in‟. It is a good idea to also practice saying them with the “с” sound at the start.in the evening ночь .Me Тобой .in the morning день .in the afternoon вечер .It Нами .in summer осень .evening вечером .Them
Seasons and parts of the day.at night
.You (plural) Ими .Him Ей . „with you‟.in autumn зима . Мной .Us Вами .Here are the Russian pronouns in the instrumental case. afternoon днѐм .spring весной .winter зимой .summer летом .in spring
The same principal applies to parts of the day: утро . „with him‟.You Им .
the following noun is usually in the instrumental case. to be occupied with интересоваться .to turn out to be оставаться .in front of под . for между .In front of this school turn to the left.to remain as пользоваться .behind.Under the table the cat is sitting.The lamp is above the table.I was a doctor).школа. Под столом сидит кот.to be engaged in. .Вечером я ем борщ со сметаной . .Happy new year
Advanced: Verbs that use the Instrumental Case.Happy birthday С новым годом .above перед .to become увлекаться . .to be interested in оказываться . manage. . You don't need to learn these verbs now.between над .under Examples: За этим зданием . is. govern являться . Перед этой школой поверните налево.
.Behind this building there is a school.control. Remember that some of these prepositions may have different meanings if they are followed by a different case. However when it is used in the past and future tense with nouns. be The verb “Быть” (to be. enjoy становиться/стать . but it is something to keep in mind. is. (Example: Я был врачом .to use.Between lunch and dinner drink tea. Между обедом и ужином выпей чай.to seem. was заниматься .to be.
The following verbs are used commonly used with the instrumental case.In the evening I eat borsh with sour cream. за .
Other Prepositions and the Instrumental Case. You will learn more about this in a later lesson. Most of these are reflexive verbs which we haven‟t learnt yet. As this is a little bit advanced we won‟t give examples now. beyond.
Important Russian Expressions
Learn the following phrases for special events in Russia С Рождеством . was) has no present tense. Над столом висит лампа.Merry Christmas С днѐм рождения . .
The instrumental case is also used after the following prepositions. быть .to be keen on управлять .
Masculine: -л Feminine: -ла Neuter: -ло Plural: -ли Let's try this with the verb “Знать” (to know). You simply need to take the stem of the verb and add one of the following endings. 2nd or 3rd person).Vladimir knew Дима знал .
Forming Verbs in Past Tense.Elena knew Ольга знала . In English there are quite a number of different past tenses. or talk about something that has happened in the past.
In Russian the past tense is formed differently than present tense..I knew (female speaking) Ты знал . Let's have a look at the past tense now. Once you have completed this lesson you will be able to combine your knowledge of the case system to form simple Russian sentences and tell stories.You knew (speaking to a male) Ты знала .She knew Оно знало . Он знал .I knew (male speaking) Я знала . You will recall that when we conjugated verbs in the present tense it depended on which person the subject was. Tenses in Russian differ considerably from English.The dog knew
.He knew Она знала . it is conceptually quite easy. Masculine: Знал Feminine: Знала Neuter: Знало Plural: Знали If you look at the following short sentences you will see that the verb relates to the gender of the subject. Instead Russian uses the concept of aspects to indicate whether an action is completed or not.Dima knew Елена знала ..You knew (speaking to a female) Владимир знал . (ie 1st. but in Russian there is simply one..Russian Past Tense
In Russian you will quite often wish to tell a story.They knew Мы знали . The same principal also applies in the future tense.Olga knew Собака знала .It knew Они знали . Although this concept differs from English. To do this we need to learn about the Russian past tense.We knew Я знал . In the past tense we look at the gender of the subject.
The following sentences are habitual or are repeated.I worked for 2 hours. reversed or repeated actions. Я работал .
The Imperfective Aspect. Imperfective Aspect: Incomplete. habitual. Perfective Aspect: A single action that has been successfully completed. so there is no perfective in the present tense. (often По-). The following phrases imply the action was unfinished.I worked everyday. consequently each verb has two possible forms. By definition something in the present tense is happening now. . Ты. Sometimes the perfective is a different verb all together. Here are some examples of the perfective form of some common verbs. but it is not so exact as it is in Russian.I run in the forest every day.She wants to buy a book. When using pronouns such as Я. You just need to learn the perfective form of each verb. Я работал каждый день . Some tenses in English can indicate this. . but most commonly it is a prefixed form of the imperfective. There is no rule on how to form the perfective aspect.I was going (by foot) Она хочет купить книгу. This should help you remember how to form the verbs.I was home.
The imperfective aspect is easy to use because all present tense verbs are imperfective. Я работал два часа . When expressing an action was undertaken for a length of time. The perfective and the imperfective aspect. use the imperfective also. and is not complete. Я бегаю в лесу каждый день.
Aspects in the past
In Russian there is a concept know as aspect.You will notice that the verb endings match with the different forms of the pronoun “Он”.I was working Я шѐл .
The Perfective Aspect
Using the perfective aspect always implies the action was completed successfully and is not habitual in nature. Simply conjugate them as discussed above. Aspect indicate whether an action was successfully completed or not. and Вы it will depend on the gender of the actual person concerned. If you express the state of something you also use the imperfective Я был дома . ongoing.
. There are two aspects in Russian. Let's start by looking at what each aspect means. and it becomes important in the past and future tenses.
что он сказал.
Я не позвонила . Я не понял. .Sasha ate his lunch in 5 minuets. .Did you understand this movie? Ты сказал ему об этом? . Вчера мы прочитали иинтересную статью. try converting you question to a statement and see which aspect fits. . Саша съел обед за пять минут. Я купил кофе . . .I went home.What were you doing yesterday? Они бегали здесь вчера?.
Она не ела бананы.She asked the teacher
Aspects and the negative.I failed to phone.Did you tell him about it?
When you ask a question use the perfective if you specifically wish to to know if the action was completed successfully. . .Did you run yesterday morning?
Ты понял этот фильм? .She did not eat bananas. Я не жила в Англии.
The use of the perfective in the negative implies the action failed.
Questions and Aspects. .We did not watch the movie yesterday. Мы не смотрели фильм вчера.Yesterday we read an interesting article.
Что ты делал вчера?.I bought a coffee Я пошла домой . (but I was expected to). . Он не хотел видеть меня.I did not live in England.Did they run here yesterday? Ты бегал вчера утром?.He did not want to see me. . Whereas the imperfective implies the action never happened. Она спросила учителя.I did not understand what he said.Imperfective / Perfective Бегать / Побежать (run) Видеть / Увидеть (see) Говорить / Сказать (talk/say) Жить / Прожить (live) Понимать / Понять (understand) Работать / Поработать (work) Сидеть / Посидеть (sit) Читать / Прочитать (read) Now lets look at some examples. . If you are still unsure which to use.
I was (woman speaking) Он был . . . Я не была . and perhaps learn some new Russian words in the process.We rented a summer house for three months. Read through these to help you familiarise yourself with the past tense. These examples come from the word “Быть” (to be).He read for three hours. Я не был .I was (man speaking) Я была . . .He was Она была .They were not. This is not the case in the past tense.
.I‟ve already visited Sweden.I‟ve been to many countries.At school I started learning English.It was not.She was Оно было . Я был . except in the feminine. Я уже посетила Швецию . Они не были .I finished school when I was 16 years old.I was not (woman speaking). В школе я начала учить английский.They were
Note the unsual stress patterns when used in the negative. Мы сняли дачу на три месяца. The stress moves to the word 'не'. Я была во многих странах. когда мне было 16 лет .I was not (man speaking).
Here are some more examples of sentences in the past tense.Saying “Was”
You will remember that in the present tense the word “is” is simply omitted in Russian. Он читал три часа. Я окончила школу.It was Они были . Оно не было .