March 2006

Translate August 2007

Technical guide

Road drainage

The Technical Department for Transport, Roads and Bridges Engineering and Road Safety (Service d'études techniques des routes et autoroutes - Sétra) is a technical department within the Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure. Its field of activities is the road, the transportation and the engineering structures. The Sétra supports the public owner The Sétra supplies State agencies and local communities (counties, large cities and urban communities) with informations, methodologies and tools suited to the specificities of the networks in order to: • improve the projects quality; • help with the asset management; • define, apply and evaluate the public policies; • guarantee the coherence of the road network and state of the art; • put forward the public interests, in particular within the framework of European standardization; • bring an expertise on complex projects. The Sétra, producer of the state of the art Within a very large scale, beyond the road and engineering structures, in the field of transport, intermodality, sustainable development, the Sétra: • takes into account the needs of project owners and prime contractors, managers and operators; • fosters the exchanges of experience; • evaluates technical progress and the scientific results; • develops knowledge and good practices through technical guides, softwares; • contributes to the training and information of the technical community. The Sétra, a work in partnership • The Sétra associates all the players of the French road community to its action: operational services; research organizations; Scientific and Technical Network (Réseau Scientifique et Technique de l'Equipement – RST), in particular the Public Works Regional Engineering Offices (Centres d'études techniques de l'Equipement – CETE), companies and professional organizations; motorway concessionary operators; other organizations such as French Rail Network Company (Réseau Ferré de France – RFF) and French Waterways Network (Voies Navigables de France VNF); Departments like the department for Ecology and Sustainable Development… • The Sétra regularly exchanges its experience and projects with its foreign counterparts, through bilateral co-operations, presentations in conferences and congresses, by welcoming delegations, through missions and expertises in other countries. It takes part in the European standardization commissions and many authorities and international working groups. The Sétra is an organization for technical approval, as an EOTA member (European Organization for Technical Approvals).

Technical guide

Road drainage

This document is the translation of the work "Drainage routier" published in March 2006 under the reference 0605.

Véronique Berche (CETE Normandie-Centre .LRPC Saint-Brieuc).LRPC Clermont-Ferrand).Patrice Bioche (CETE de L’Ouest .Alain Quibel (CETE Normandie-Centre).Hervé Havard (LCPC). including: • Marie-Odile Cavaillès (Sétra) • Yasmina Boussafir (CETE Normandie-Centre .References to the glossary: words or expressions marked by * in the text relate to terms explained in Appendix 6.Jean-Louis Aussedat (Scetauroute).1 . . with inputs from: .The abbreviations encountered in the text are explained in Appendix 6. .Bibliographical references: the numbers in square brackets [ ] in the text relate to the documents listed in the bibliography in Appendix 5 .Pierre-Yves Bot (DDE du Morbihan).Jean-Louis Paute (CETE de L’Ouest .Didier Giloppe (CETE Normandie-Centre).Road drainage – Technical guide This Road Drainage guide has been written by a working group.LRPC Lille) The team has relied heavily on the in-depth work carried out in 1997 by: . Notes on reading the guide . .Yves Arnaud (CETE de Lyon . .LRPC Saint-Quentin).LRPC Blois) • Marc Valin (CETE Nord-Picardie) • Francis Van laethem (CETE Nord-Picardie .2 "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 4 – septembre 2007 . . . .LRPC Angers).

.......................1...............1 ........................................Unusual pavement points ......3 ..General dimensioning rules ............4 .........25 2...... .........31 "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 5 – septembre 2007 .................................Flow rate assessment..................Climatic or meteorological context...................... 23 2..1 ..........................................................................................................................................................................................1....Definition of drainage ............................ 22 2.......2 .................................2.......................1................................General notions about drainage ................................................................................................2 ......2......1.................................................................................. 23 2.................................................3 ... 14 1........................................................................................ 11 1 ..............Hydrogeological context (see Appendix 1)...2......................................................................... 15 1................2........................Rules for evacuating drainage water ......... a work in partnership....Road drainage – Technical guide Contents The Sétra supports the public owner .......................................................................3 ........................................................ 21 Chapter 2...Subsequent maintenance and repair .................... 12 1......................................................25 Waste management..1 ...................Optimizing the road project layout ..........1........ 25 Impact on water.........................................2 Contents.........Improvement in the hydric state of soils to be re-used........... 14 1.2 ...............1...............Criteria to be considering during a drainage study..............31 Random water ingress .. 24 2........................................................................1 .............2 The Sétra........................ 19 1................................. 23 2.........Effects of drainage on the environment ......Earthworks ..................Environmental impacts...Drainage in a new road project ...When is drainage necessary? ............................ 23 2......................................................................................... 28 2............. 28 2........2................... 10 Chapter 1.............................................................................................................................................2...............................................27 2..............Type of subgrades and pavement courses.....5 ................................................................................ 5 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................4 ...2...................................Interception of water ingress in cut......1................................................................ 31 Generalized water ingress and bank stabilization ......................Geometric characteristics of drainage systems ....3 ................................1 ........Site capacity and traffic.........7 ...........2 . 19 1........................................... 22 2 ..31 Unpredictable random water ingress.............................................. producer of the state of the art......................................5 .................... 26 Drainage of subgrades ......... 11 1....................................2....... 23 2......2 .....................................26 Pavement drainage..................Designing the drainage project... 30 2...................... 17 1..6 .........................................................................................................................2 The Sétra............................................................

.......................................... 50 3.......Definition of work solutions ..4..............................1...35 Treatment of singular points in the longitudinal section................1........................................................................Drainage of an existing pavement .......6 ..2 ... 58 4.................................47 Dividing island........................................................2............. 56 Chapter 4.............. 52 3..........47 Median.3 ...........................1 ...40 2..........................................................................................................................................................Drainage systems in pavement courses................................................. 47 Shoulder and emergency hard shoulder (BAU) ................... 58 4 ................................................Putting the analysis together .............................................3 ................... 48 3 ..................................................Characteristics of drainage systems and of materials used in them .... 44 2..................................................1 ............62 "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 6 – septembre 2007 .............................................................. 52 3...................................................................Deep ditches .......................................1 .....54 Decision model .....................................Compiling information....Drainage systems at singular points..........................................................................................................1 ...................................................................Modular material pavements (paving blocks and slabs) .............Analysis ..........4.......................... 56 3................3............................................................1.....................................1....................................................................... 44 2..........................2.................................................2..........1...........................................Interception of water ingress in fill .................1..............Bituminous material courses ........... 49 3................................1............................................. 60 Objective...............................2 ............................................................................................Cement concrete pavements................................................... 49 3..............................................................Pavement...........Subformation (below capping level) (PST): .............. 42 2...............1........... 35 PST (Subformation (below capping level)) classification and improvement .............2 .3 ......1 ....Road drainage – Technical guide 2....................................................... 50 3.......................................................... 59 4..........................................54 Table interpretation........................................................4 ..........................2 .................................................47 Roundabout .....Types of disorder encountered in pavements.........................33 Special case of natural slopes ............Dimensioning or assessment of flow rates to be drained through the old pavement .......................... 48 3......Drainage structures and systems..... 50 3..................................1 ..... 50 3.......................................................................................................List of singular pavement points with respect to drainage..... 35 2.....................3..................33 2................................................60 Standard schemes ...........................................4 ....55 3.Flexible pavements............... 54 Marking systems ...............Capping layer ...............................................................................60 Operating method............................ directional island and obstacle island ................................................................................................Pavement formation levels ......47 Chapter 3..................2 ....5 ......................................... 33 General case.........................................Rigid or semi-rigid pavements ................... 50 3.................................................4 ........................ ....4 .......................

..........72 Durability and maintenance.........1..............................................................77 Durability and maintenance..............................................................................................84 Mechanical characteristics ........77 Elements required for dimensioning ......... 73 Objectives ...................................................................................................Bank stabilization systems (shields and stacks)....................................................................63 Deep trench .........................................................................................................68 Operating method.............................................................................................................81 Draining power ...................74 Durability and maintenance.........................................................................................78 Standard schemes .................70 Standard schemes .............................................65 Elements required for dimensioning ............................................................................................................................63 Durability and maintenance.........7 .............................................................................................Shafts (vertical drainage) ..........75 Standard schemes .................................................................Draining and filtering materials ......................................68 Standard schemes ...........1......................................................................................................................................................1..............................................................................................................................................................................................78 Durability and maintenance...............1............ 75 Objective...........63 Standard schemes ............72 Elements required for dimensioning ............................................................................................................................................................................Geotextiles and related products ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................81 Other criteria.........2..................................................................................................................................72 4......................................................................................................................1...................................................................................................6 .......83 Comment on porous concretes .................................................................................................................................................................................................75 Operating method....2 ....73 Operating method....................74 Elements required for dimensioning ..............68 Durability and maintenance........Fin drains at pavement edge (EDRC) .....................................................................................................................83 4........................................................................................... 81 Filtering power............................................. 63 Objective..................................84 Drainage function................................................Draining courses........................ 70 Objective.................................................................................................................Cutoff drains..............5 ..............................74 4.......................................................... 84 Role in the drainage structures ...73 Standard schemes ...........67 4.............................................................63 Shallow trench..............................................Stipulations on materials.....................68 Elements required for dimensioning .... 68 Objective.............................................................................Road drainage – Technical guide Durability and maintenance...........84 "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 7 – septembre 2007 .................................................1 ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................63 Operating method................... 78 Objective...................................62 4..........................................................................................................................................80 4......................................................62 Elements required for dimensioning .......................................................................70 Operating method............................................2................................................................3 Grips and draining stacks .......................................................................................................................................................2 ....................................................................84 Main characteristics to be determined ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................78 Operating method......2 ...................................80 Elements required for dimensioning ............................................................................... 81 4.............68 4................................84 Filtering function...............................................1.........................................4 ....77 4..................

................3..................92 Durability and maintenance..Completion of drainage work .Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme (SOPAQ)..... 101 5............................... 104 5.....................................Quality Master Plan (SDQ) ..................3 ........ application of quality assurance...........................Establishment of the zero point in the absence of an as-built drawing...................97 5.............. 96 5...Diameter ...............3 ...105 Repairs and repair frequency.................................1 ......................... 96 5 .............4..........................................................................................2 ...................1 ........................................ 106 Appendix 1 ........... preliminary feasibility study ..................................................................3 .................. 104 5..............................................................................................................2............. completion of drainage work......4....................................................................................................3 ....................2 ........................................................... 107 G11 mission.1 .....2.........................................1 .... 98 Surface maintenance ...............................................Site-specific Quality Assurance Plan (PAQ) ............................100 5...Inspection of structure with as-built drawing............................92 4............................................................. 101 5....1 ........4..............................................................90 Pre-coating..................................................88 4............................................................................................................................................Execution of drainage work . geotechnical* feasibility study ...............................Drains or drain pipes ..........................................98 Evacuation of rainwater................................................Special drainage applications in earthworks phase....................Execution of work................................................................... 90 Role and types .........3.............................Outlets ..........................................2............94 4.........................................................................3 ...... 101 5...........................................................................2 ..............................................2 ........................Maintenance and repair work .....................2 ................................................ 104 5...98 A few rules for carrying out the work.. 97 5......................................................................Special hydrogeological* studies....3.................................1..............Handover of as-built drawing.......97 Managing interfaces.........................3 ................................3..........Road drainage – Technical guide Elements required for choosing the geotextile ..................................2.1... 104 5.Checks ...............94 4.....3 ..................................................... 104 5........................................................105 Appendices .........Acceptance ....1 ...............................Crossings............92 Dimensioning: Flow rate ............................................ 100 5........... 104 5...................................................Drainage system operation and maintenance............................................ geotechnical* feasibility study ............................................................. operation and maintenance .................................... 97 Optimum work period...1........ 107 G12 standard mission..Ancillary structures .....................2 ........................................................................94 Chapter 5.... 105 Monitoring................................... 103 5....Inspection chambers ......................................................Slopes ...............................................Execution of work .3......... 107 "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 8 – septembre 2007 .........4 ..........................................................Application of quality assurance in the drainage work.... 107 G2 standard mission............ 94 4......

..................... 120 "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 9 – septembre 2007 .....117 4..................................116 1..................................................................117 4..................Infiltration through the cracks (see Diagram 45) ........................................Ancillary work.....Diffuse infiltrations via the surface courses...............Quality assurance ................................... 118 For information:.....................................Glossary........Through the pavement..........Ancillary structures..2 ..................... product and component specifications .....................Required characteristics of drainage systems...2 ...................Installing inspection chambers........1 ........Localization of work.........................112 3..................................... .......................... 116 1 ........................... 110 3.......Dealing with singular points.115 Appendix 4 ..............3 ............................................................ 118 Standards: ...... 116 3............................................................................................ ...........Material...117 4..........................Trench execution method ....118 Appendix 5 ..............118 5....................................................................115 Checking the utility of draining .........Abbreviations and glossary ...........Specifications on installation and setting out of systems .........Materials for earthworks and backfill.......Checks at hold points ........................................................ 119 Appendix 6 ....................................................Acceptance and storage of supplies and materials ....2.1 .....................Assessment of flow rates to be drained.......................................................117 4 .....4 .......................1 ...........................Compacting reference areas ...........Compacting specifications ....................6 ................................................... 120 6...............................................................Description of work to be carried out ..................4 ..........116 3.........................................................................................Road drainage – Technical guide Appendix 2 ...........116 1.......Through subgrades ......................................................................................2 ....References to drawings extracted from the capital investment project. 108 Appendix 3 ...............................116 1........................................................................Abbreviations .........General description of work reserved for the contractor ......................................2 ........................ 117 4..................9 ..........................Laying specifications......................................................................................................118 5 ...................................................117 4....................117 4......Work not included in the contract.117 4.................... connections to outlets............ 116 3 ....................................3 .117 4...................................5 ....................Bibliography .............2 ......2.................. 110 3.............................................................Checks and quality ...............116 3..2 ...............................................................................................Improvement in hydric conditions of materials ..................................7 ...............................1 .........Using the road during the work ................... 118 5........................................................... 112 3......... 118 Technical documents:............3 ............Elements to establish the special technical clauses (CCTP) ............ 120 6..................1 ............................. 116 1.......Work execution method (example for cutoff drains and EDRC) ...........................................................................1 ........................... 116 2 ........2.....117 4..................................1 .....8 ............................................114 Sample estimation of a drainage system dimensioning....

less frequent maintenance sequences and effective protection against the highly-damaging effects of freezing and thawing phenomena. inside the pavement itself or in the underlying soils or adjacent shoulders. The result of pavement and formation levels containing less water throughout the climatic cycles is a considerable increase in pavement lifetime. This document is intended for Project Engineers and Clients. including earthworks and for existing pavements. To avoid any confusion in the purpose and design of systems. The terms "draining" and "drainage" are used to describe both the evacuation of run-off water and the elimination of subsurface water.Road drainage – Technical guide Introduction Varying amounts of water are found in the road environment. This guide is the first methods document on road drainage to encourage taking drainage needs in road works systematically in account. A well-drained pavement has better mechanical behavior in a subgrade whose bearing capacity is also improved. Design Offices and public works contractors involved in studying. managers. clear distinction is made between the specific functions of internal pavement draining systems and surface drainage. be it in the cut and fill banks. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 10 – septembre 2007 . siting. It suggests solutions based on the type of structure. dimensioning and maintenance for new road projects. as indicated in Chapter 1. creating and maintaining road drainage.

Road drainage – Technical guide Chapter 1 1 .General notions about drainage "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 11 – septembre 2007 .

Drainage is an essential component in the pavement's good mechanical behavior and thus makes a significant contribution to the durability of road structures. • infiltrations from the shoulders towards the pavement layers and pavement/subgrade interfaces fed by the formation level. Although the various drainage systems frequently use common outlets. which is frequently polluted (mud. etc. the drainage network conveying a so-called "clean" water (not soiled) must not in any circumstances be disturbed by run-off water. Diagram 1: distinction between the various road drainage systems Précipitations Ruissellement Fossé de crête Evacuation Infiltrations dans la structure DEBLAI Infiltrations REMBLAI "Tools" Collection – Sétra Rainfall Run off Ditch on crest Evacuation Infiltrations in the structure CUT Infiltrations FILL – 12 – septembre 2007 . vegetation.) and flows faster (to prevent loading). Subsurface water to be drained comes from: • infiltrations through the pavement towards the pavement layers and pavement/subgrade interfaces. along with surface water evacuation (surface drainage) and re-routing natural flows. for they have distinctive functions: in particular. it is essential to distinguish between them. cuts and discharges from water tables. It is one of three aspects of road drainage (see Technical Guide [21]).1 .Road drainage – Technical guide 1. oils.Definition of drainage Road drainage relates to the collection and evacuation of water present in the subgrade and pavements. • water ingress from the lateral surroundings towards the pavement/subgrade interfaces and the subgrade originating from catchment areas.

Road drainage – Technical guide Drainage chaussée Drainage terrassement selon contexte hydrogéologique Drainage commun chaussée + terrain Equilibre avec une nappe éventuelle Remontées capillaires Nappe ou circulation d'eau sous-jacente Pavement drainage Earthworks drainage depending on hydrogeological context Common pavement + ground drainage Equilibrium with any water table Capillary rises Water table or underlying water circulation "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 13 – septembre 2007 .

Road drainage – Technical guide

1.2 - Criteria to be considering during a drainage study
1.2.1 - When is drainage necessary?
The French climate imposes systematic draining of the subgrades, capping layer and pavement. It is however possible to avoid mandatory drainage in the following cases: • favorable climate context; in the earthworks phase, the drainage must be analyzed with specific reference to the hydrogeological context (see §1.2.2); • very light heavy traffic (T5) for a correctly-dimensioned pavement; • favorable hydrogeological context, subgrade and type of pavement courses in the short and long term (see §1.2.3).

Diagram 2: subgrade, capping layer and pavement drainage.*

Ruissellements Run off Déblai Cut Contexte climatique Climatic context Indice d'humidité Humidity index Intensité du gel Frost intensity Végétation Vegetation Couche de chaussée Pavement course Sols support Subgrades Gel Frost Equilibre avec une nappe éventuelle Equilibrium with any water table Remblai Fill Nature des sols support et couches de Type of subgrades and pavement courses chaussées Contexte hydrogéologique Hydrogeological context Nappes, zones humides, sources Water tables, wetlands, springs
"Tools" Collection – Sétra – 14 – septembre 2007

Road drainage – Technical guide

1.2.2 - Climatic or meteorological context
The mapping is based on the siting and density of meteorological stations. Studies have shown that the French climate is normally wet to very wet (see map 1), with rare dry areas. However, whatever the type of climate, humidity spread throughout the seasonal cycle, with heavy concentrations over a few months, accentuates the risk of damage to pavements from moisture. The degree of humidity in soils and pavement materials is linked to the climate and its fluctuations. Water reduces the mechanical characteristics of soils and materials (see § 3.1). This characteristic worsens when temperatures drop below freezing and the water freezes in the structures (see map 2). This map takes into account the maximum frost index (exceptionally hard winter) read in 95 stations during the period 1951-1991. The designer is advised to take the least favorable criterion on the edge of a zone. Two contexts are possible depending on the geographical location of the project: • where drainage can be avoided: dry climatic variations with moderate climatic variations; • where drainage should be systematically planned: in wet to very wet climatic zones.

Map 1: humidity distribution in France. Map based on Météo France study [16]. The value of climatic indices on a particular site may be calculated more accurately when neighboring meteorological readings are available. However, this greater accuracy can only be illusory, as the climate at a given point undergoes major fluctuations and is not reproduced identically every year.

Légende Key très humides avec de fortes variations very humid with major seasonal variations saisonnières
"Tools" Collection – Sétra – 15 – septembre 2007

Road drainage – Technical guide

humide avec de fortes variations saisonnières sèche avec de fortes variations saisonnières très humide avec variations saisonnières modérées sèche avec variations saisonnières modérées très humide sans variations saisonnières

humid with major seasonal variations dry with major seasonal variations very humid with moderate seasonal variations dry with moderate seasonal variations very humid with no seasonal variations

"Tools" Collection – Sétra

– 16 –

septembre 2007

1. hence damage during the thaw. Map 2: variation of atmospheric frost index*. I ≥ 250 : regions marked by long winters with low temperatures (frost). Some years the frostthaw cycles can affect the road foundation materials. • very unfavorable when the alignment definitely intercepts known hydrogeological systems. The hydrogeological context is: • favorable when the pavement does not intercept any known hydrogeological system. • unfavorable: when the pavement intercepts hydrogeological systems with varying degrees of durability or size. Moderate frosts only have an "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 17 – septembre 2007 . part of the Bouches-du-Rhône and part of Alsace (see map 1).2. The frost front penetrates in depth in the soil. This scenario is frequently encountered in a succession of cut and fill or for mixedprofile pavements. I < 100 : regions marked by mild winters. the context can become favorable by altering the geometric criteria of the alignment: by raising the red line*. Map based on Météo France study [16]. Note that depending on project progress.3 . Additional studies will be performed on special cases. pavements in cuts and mixed-profile pavements. These are typically pavements with skimming profile on the plain.Hydrogeological context (see Appendix 1). 100 ≤I≤ 250 : regions where the temperature fluctuates around 0°C. This is made worse when the crossfall accentuates water concentration in some zones.Road drainage – Technical guide In conclusion. modifying the alignment siting. except for dry zones with moderate seasonal variations (southern Corsica. etc. This context must at least be defined in the geotechnical study. creating fills. drainage is necessary in the majority of cases. This is often the case of a pavement with long sections filled in or at the top of a relief.

Indice de gel °C x jours Frost index °C x days "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 18 – septembre 2007 . lightweight pavement structures.Road drainage – Technical guide impact on certain flexible.

• cut and fill transition zones. This characteristic is taken into account when dimensioning the subformation (below capping level) and the thickness of the capping form. within reasonable timescales (A1. Materials making up the pavement courses The mechanical performances of these materials are normally reduced in the presence of water. certain R43 and R63. • very unfavorable: R12. however. R13. Few rocks disaggregate under the effect of water (unlike soil). fracturing. R32. • unfavorable: materials processed with hydrocarbon binders and concrete courses have special drainage needs relating to the appearance of cracks. R42. Water circulates in rocks through cracks or general discontinuities (stratification.5 . R61 and R62. For example: • medians and central islands.2.Type of subgrades and pavement courses Subgrades The bearing capacity performance of some subgrades can be seen to fall over time due to water infiltration or rises in water table. A3. certain R4 and certain R6. The change varies. A4. In this case. • very unfavorable (impermeable soils): the water content of these water-sensitive soils hardly diminishes through draining action if they are in wet hydric states initially. R22. R33. whilst remaining within reasonable deadlines (A2. some B5 and B6). B3. R41. • unfavorable (water-sensitive soils): their hydric state can improve or remain constant under the effect of draining action.). R31. depending on the technique adopted and pathologies also appear based on the type of pavement technique. etc. but site traffic. • very unfavorable: this involves untreated graded aggregates. where performance depends greatly on the water content. re-use operations and so on can change the part involved by the earthworks.Unusual pavement points Some parts of a structure require draining more than others regardless of the meteorological and hydrogeological* criteria or types of material. Distinction must be made between soils of different types (see Table 14 in Appendix 2): • favorable (porous soil): these are soils insensitive to water which require no special drainage precautions (D. R21. some C1 and C2). Distinction is made between techniques: • favorable: these are structures that are hardly influenced by the presence of water when they are constructed correctly such as material courses treated with hydrocarbon binder. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 19 – septembre 2007 . R23.2. B4. These are "water-sensitive" soils. The following distribution is frequently accepted: • favorable: certain R1. • low points in longitudinal section. • unfavorable: R11. B2.Road drainage – Technical guide 1. 1.4 . the rocky zone likely to change will be assimilated with a soil by the geotechnical engineer and classified under the same criteria. B1. R5. certain R2. B5 and some B6). R34. • cut crossfall zones. blasting.

Road drainage – Technical guide Photo 1: water accumulated in the central island exists by the lowest point and flows onto the pavement.Centre/LRPC Blois) "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 20 – septembre 2007 . (Photo CETE Normandie .

• altered water flow directions through barriers. The designer must be aware of: • regulations in force [15].Road drainage – Technical guide 1. • State undertakings under the project in terms of the environmental protection and also with respect to local residents. • reduction of wet zones which have been dried out (not dealt with in this guide). particularly shrubs near the structures through drying out of soils (and large oak trees that were marked for preservation on the edge of the cut have rapidly turned into a major hazard for users through decline and the risk of falling). Some negative effects from drainage and earthworks: • the effect on vegetation. The environment is modified in varying degrees by building the drainage structures. host to a water table lowered without special care (not dealt with in this guide). • settling of structures built on barely compacted soils.3 .Effects of drainage on the environment Drainage water is so-called "clean" (not soiled by the collection system) which is evacuated into the natural environment via an outlet. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 21 – septembre 2007 .

Drainage in a new road project "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 22 – septembre 2007 .Road drainage – Technical guide Chapter 2 2 .

especially with respect to problems of structure erosion (ditches. • the amounts of water to be evacuated. for example. cut. • low points in cut zone. etc.Road drainage – Technical guide There are three stages in a new road project: • the earthworks. • slopes < 0.). • the formation levels (upper earthworks and capping layer). banks. structure abutments.Geometric characteristics of drainage systems The geometric characteristics of drainage systems (height.5%) requires drains to be over-dimensioned and more frequent maintenance. partitioning of ditches.). 2. Less slope (up to 0. • the location of possible outlets.1. • taking crossfalls into account. • too pronounced a slope (more than 5 to 10%).2 . These values can vary from one structure to the next (see Chapter 4). "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 23 – septembre 2007 .5%.) which dictate suitable precautions (stabilized ditches. 2.1. • wet zones. The slope .must reconcile the following essential requirements: • a minimum slope > 2% is necessary. • the drainage system adopted.Subsequent maintenance and repair The effect of drainage is taken into account in the mechanical dimensioning of the roadbed for its longterm operation. as found in mountain areas. • cuts in water tables.3 . etc. creates excessive water speeds. • taking the pavement longitudinal slope into account.Designing the drainage project The drainage must be examined at each project phase from the preliminary study until the work is carried out.Optimizing the road project layout The designer can adapt his project for optimum drainage by modifying the red line* and avoiding: • long upwards gradients. it is therefore essential to organize the verification and schedule the maintenance of the drainage system to increase its lifetime. depth. The study levels relating to the drainage project are defined in Appendix 1.a major parameter . especially those accentuating concentrations of moisture at the low points. slope) depend on: • the part of the structure to be drained (road foundation.1. 2. • the pavements. landscape integration. A description of the various drainage structures and an indication of the orders of magnitude of the dimensions of these structures can be found in Chapter 4.4 . shoulder. The design trend nowadays is to "stick" to the natural landscape as far as possible (objectives of road calming.1 . energy dissipation structures and more crossings). • the choice of the location of drainage systems in the cross section. This chapter gives the general dimensioning rules and describes the draining requirements and specific dimensioning rules for each stage.1. median.General dimensioning rules 2. etc. • restrictions in project execution.1 . 2.

5 .Road drainage – Technical guide 2.) which leads to a natural outlet. in southern France). the lesser the distance must be between outfalls) and to the minimum in the low points. as for fills. • in fill The water drained by the collector is evacuated at the foot of the fill through drainage outfalls aligned to the longitudinal slope (the lesser the slope.Rules for evacuating drainage water It is normally advantageous to avoid mixing drainage water. drainage water added to storm water treatment basins can make them more efficient (better water oxygenation and maintaining dead storage). Like the drainage systems. evacuated in priority towards the natural environment.1. • in mixed profile Water collected in cut are directed towards the ditch at the foot of the fill through under-pavement crossings and returned to the banks by drainage outfalls.g. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 24 – septembre 2007 . trickle channel. the collector installed at the edge of the cut roadbed must be connected to a drain at the foot of the fill bank (ditch. etc. and road run-off water in order to optimize structure dimensioning. • in cut The water is evacuated at the exit of the cut trench. In some cases (e.

In other cases D" SOGED (see CCTP type earthworks). borehole.214. installations. Water inputs are therefore greatly increased at a 1. in monitor the outlets and discharge points. created for the purposes of research or monitoring or groundwaters or for temporary or permanent sampling in the groundwaters. . 1. Drying.4. already-existing flow zone.6 .6 of the Environmental Code (former Article 10 of Law 92-3 on water of 3 January 1992). groundwater. Greater than or equal to 1 ha A given point and there is no harm in assessing this action particularly in sensitive ground to avoid disorders 2.0.1 ha but less than 1 ha D" appearing downstream.214. full water sampling in a zone where constant In the event of accidental pollution. Greater than or equal to 100 ha A It is also useful to channel the drainage water from the outlet to the natural receiving flow for a few meters to 2. .1.Environmental impacts Impact on water Planned drainage activities and systems in the construction of road infrastructures are governed by the authorizations and declarations provided for under Articles L. Similarly. Decree 93-743 of 29 March 1993 sets the nomenclature of operations thus subject to authorization (A) and declaration (D).3.0.0."1.1. Greater than 20 ha but less than 100 ha D prevent in particular problems of erosion or the effect of . Total. facilities greater than 8 m3/hour but less than 80 fragile water resources.0*. Structures. The headings likely to involve drainage work more especially are as follows: . Total. Water policing applies to all surface. the dried or primed Overall. surface sealing. of wetlands and marshes. coastal maritime waters and wetlands. diversion or any other process: 1. shaft or underground structure in an aquifer system excluding water course water tables by pumping.2.or privately-owned.1. Sounding. Greater than 0. Permanent or temporary samples taken from a borehole.Road drainage – Technical guide 2. filling limit their degradation. works allowing natural deposits.1. building of shaft or underground structure not intended for domestic use. maximum capacity of sampling preserve groundwater bodies which are potentially major. Reminder: creating a drainage network alters the water maximum capacity of sampling facilities greater content in the surrounding soils and diverts or interrupts than or equal to 80 m3/hour A underground flows.4. draining."1. Excess cuts from the site 1. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 25 – septembre 2007 . including in the water course water tables… D". have provided for the Waste management lowering of thresholds: This involves materials extracted during work which in an 3 ideal scenario will be re-used. Creation of drainage networks to drain Ideally. with no sign of disorder and capable of absorbing the drained water.1. Capacity greater than or equal to 8 m /hour A footprint must be evacuated in accordance with the Waste Evacuation and Management Organization Scheme 2. protecting wetlands is a m3/h. These headings are designed to protect and 2.1 to L.4. particular under Article 8-2 of the Law of 3 January 1992 on water. These disturbances modify the site ecology. drainage culminates in water originating from zone being: varying points of the land being concentrated towards the outlet. the discharge point chosen or found on the site is a surface area of: a natural. It is therefore important to prevent or . priming. D national priority (environments with huge diversity and ecological wealth). the manager must quantitative distribution measurements. state.

Diagram 3: water table flow rates according to soil permeability Diagram 4: flow rates according to the permeability of the for a trench side and a length of 100 m medium. • ingress of unwanted or unforeseen water: for example. we suggest: • using drains 100 or 150 mm in diameter for all common scenarios (interior drawdown at 2 m and soils with permeability less than or equal to 1.10-5 m/s). The diagrams show that for the majority of soils.1. In this case. regardless of the geometry of the water table or the drawdown system. the drain diameter is too small and the risk of obstruction from mud is very real. These are distinguished by the permeability of the medium.1. Diagram 3 Débits en l'heure pour 100 ml Epaisseur de la nappe Diamètre drain rabattement Perméabilité des sols en m/s Diagram 4 Débits Rabattement Aquifère Epaisseur de la nappe Imperméable Diagram 3 Flow rates in one hour for 100 ml Water table thickness Drain diameter drawdown Soil permeability in m/s Diagram 4 Flow rates Drawdown Aquifer Water table thickness Impermeable "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 26 – septembre 2007 . In practice. it is frequently not just the only outlet for the groundwaters but also for the storm water during this period. • determining the necessary diameter after a specific hydrogeological study for all other scenarios. the depth of the water table and the drawdown.). animals. etc. • difficulties in assessing soil permeability. This study will determine in particular the overdimensioning to be considered for the drain diameter (with multiplication coefficient for flow rates ≥ to 3). with just one presented below (see Diagram 3). indicate the orders of magnitude of the drainage flow rates (in liters per hour and for a length of 100 m) for a cutoff drain capturing from a single side in miscellaneous contexts. if the drainage network is installed in the earthworks phase. the depth of the water table and of the drawdown (see Diagram 4). current drains 100-150 in diameter mm are theoretically largely over-dimensioned. crushing or obstruction (accumulation of settled sediments. other phenomena have to be considered: • the reduction in the useful diameter of the drain by out-of-roundness.7 . in particular for counterslopes.Flow rate assessment Drainage of subgrades The diagrams grouped in Appendix 3. or the presence of roots.Road drainage – Technical guide 2. For all these reasons.

25 l/h 3. corresponding to inputs from the shoulder and the lateral catchment area. • Qi flow rates transiting at the interfaces.000 l/h for 100 linear meters. • Qs flow rates feeding the subgrade. The estimation by excess of the infiltration water flow rate is given by the sum: Q = Qe + Qfl + Qft + Qr + Qa New or repaired pavement Minimum assessed flow rate Maximum assessed flow rate Theoretical maximum flow rate(1) Designation Qe Qfl Flow rate resulting from the permeability of the asphalt (changing with age and t ) Flow rate proportional to the number of transverse cracks and their opening Flow rate proportional to the number of longitudinal cracks (including Qr axis and edge) and their opening Flow rate proportional to the permeability of the shoulder materials Total flow rate evacuated by the pavement per linear meter Total flow rate evacuated by the pavement per 100 linear meters 0.300 l/h Q Table 1: assessment of infiltration water flow rates.75 l/h 6.Road drainage – Technical guide Pavement drainage (see Appendix 3.2 Assessment of flow rates to be drained through the pavement). through the surface course. • Qa.0125 l/h 1. at the pavement-shoulder interface.50 m The flow rate assessment culminates in a range of 400 to 6. (1) this scenario assumes that all the water from falling rain infiltrates a half-pavement of 3. FT : transverse crack PL : longitudinal crack P : rainfall FT : transverse crack PL : longitudinal crack P : rainfall Diagram 5: schematic diagram of the various types of flow rates under pavements and shoulder. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 27 – septembre 2007 .06 l/h 406 l/h 18 l/h 61. via the transverse cracks and Qfl via the longitudinal cracks. • Qe.80 l/h 4. • Qr.00 l/h 15 l/h 150 l/h Qa 1. for new and repaired pavements the use of drains or drainage systems equivalent to Ø 100 to 150 mm should suffice. • Qft.175 l/h 18 l/h 543 l/h 54.75 l/h 25 l/h 125 l/h (porous h lt ) 250 l/h Qfl 1.

2 . the problems raised by the amplitude and length of settling under excess load frequently forces the use of special drainage techniques. above all for compressible soils that are difficult to drain. The following objectives are pursued with drainage techniques during this work phase: 1 .Improvement in the hydric state of materials to be extracted.1 . 2.frequently built using draining gravelly materials (water trap). there are two possibilities when the drainage is insufficient to improve the bearing capacity: • introducing non-water-sensitive materials into the road for construction traffic: .Site capacity and traffic The bearing capacity varies according to the water content.Site bearing capacity and traffic. Drainage hypotheses should therefore be defined accurately during project design in conjunction with meteorological and hydrogeological forecasts for the site (see chapter 1-2 Criteria to be considered during a drainage study and Diagram 6).Road drainage – Technical guide 2. even subsoil drains on the base).2 . the efficiency of this system will also depend on the state of the surface. A variety of solutions may be suggested depending on the type of soil. but when this need for drainage appears during the work phase and has not been scheduled in the project it is frequently too late to take effective action: the improvement actions will have a bearing on costs and timescales. • processing soils according to needs and possibilities. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 28 – septembre 2007 . this road could be re-used in the capping layer. compacting. The special case of compressible zones must be dealt with separately: although the problem of bearing capacity can be solved by building thick roads as work progresses (possibly after cleaning). hence the importance of shaping the surface (cross slope). 3 . the difficulties (machine progress.2. 4 . these are designed to purge the water from the subgrade more rapidly via vertical drains or more highly-specialized techniques.Interception of water ingress in cut. Drainage in this phase can in part remedy the difficulties encountered. the position of the water table and the meteorological conditions. Remember that good practices impose maintaining outlets and ditches and repairing surfaces (shaping. It is therefore obviously a distinct advantage to carry out this phase in dry periods.Earthworks In the earthworks phase. These special methods are not dealt with in this guide [14]. 1st drainage by ditches or lateral trenches for porous soils.sufficiently dimensioned. . smoothing and compacting) see CCTG Travaux [8]. the road should be designed for rapid evacuation of infiltrated waters (accentuated rooftop profile and side ditches.Interception of water ingress in fill (stabilization of cutting banks and sometimes natural slopes). roadbed and bank stability) more often than not relate to excessive water.

water table) on the surface or in a cut NEED FOR DRAINAGE Materials in humid hydric states "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 29 – septembre 2007 .Road drainage – Technical guide Diagram 6: the three main causes of a need for drainage in the earthworks phase Météorologie défavorable Circulation d'eau libre (zones humides. nappe phréatique) en surface ou dans un déblai BESOIN DE DRAINAGE Matériaux en états hydriques humides Unfavourable meteorology Free water circulation (wetlands.

Road drainage – Technical guide

2.2.2 - Improvement in the hydric state of soils to be re-used;
Improvement is only possible within materials conducive to drainage and on condition that there is sufficient drainage time before the material is extracted (see Appendix 2). This requires installing the drainage system well before the earthworks themselves. Do not however expect a miracle: the timescales are too long and the suction too high in the majority of compressible soils, with the result that it is impossible to achieve sufficient drop in water content for re-use as is (even if the drainage provides a genuine improvement). Complementary solutions consist of encouraging evaporation (swelling - installation in compressible and extended layers), mixing with drier materials, treating with hydraulic binder (usually quicklime) or of applying the material too wet in suitable conditions (average or low compacting but in return limited thicknesses to avoid too much settling). These techniques are expanded in the guide Creating fills and capping layers [9]. The most common systems for improving the hydric state of cut materials, fill subgrades and soils used for a construction traffic road are: • deep ditches; • fin or cutoff drains in the bank (which can sometimes be installed before earthworks, even without a gravity outlet, by pumping or negative pressure - vacuum pump); • vertical drainage (see Table 2). Drainage system Conditions for use
System suitable for pre-earthworks to improve hydric conditions of soils with average to low permeability lending themselves to drainage (Table 14, Appendix 2). May be created using traditional methods, for operating depths ≤ 5 meters (possible 6 or 7 methods depending on the shovels). Suitable for slopes in the order of 2.5% or less.

Disadvantages
Generates cut materials for evacuation or storage. Site safety organization (restricted access, signaling, suitable bank slope, etc.) Reduction in overall volume of reusable cut. Not suitable for easily-eroded materials. Needs specific equipment and material resources which must be planned in advance. Needs as-built drawings and scheduled maintenance.

Deep ditch

Trench or fin drain

Preferred system when long-term cutting bank stabilization or reduced interstitial pressure is also an issue. Suitable for stabilizing homogeneous materials and lowering a water level. Design for common structures up to 6 or 7 meters deep and up to 20 meters with special equipment (cutting machine). Suitable for all longitudinal section slopes. Generates little cut and integrates discreetly with the project. Can operate temporarily without gravity outlet (vacuum pump). Suitable for drawdown of water table located in alternating permeable and barely permeable layers. Above all suitable for very permeable soils where flow rates are high. Suitable for water table drawdown in sandy

Vertical drainage by pumping

Needs specific equipment and material resources which must be planned in advance. Site restrictions.

Vertical drainage by materials and may show bubbling* phenomena. wellpoint
Table 2: systems for improving hydric states of soils (the most commonly used)

Needs specific equipment resources which must be planned in advance. Site restrictions.

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2.2.3 - Interception of water ingress in cut
Generalized water ingress and bank stabilization
This is the traditional scenario where the "red line" intercepts the "blue line", i.e. when the earthworks descend below the level of the water table. Earthwork conditions could be improved partly if: • the longitudinal section is extended to its maximum taking into account the landscape integration objectives; • the drainage network is installed early enough (see previous §); • the earthworks are scheduled for low water periods1. A special hydrogeological study is essential in all cases of this type (see Appendix 1). It will specify in particular the flow rates and bank stability conditions and will suggest suitable counter-measures (water table drawdown, drainage shield, etc.). The solutions as the same as for the previous scenario §2.2.2 (ditches, trenches, shafts, etc.). The basic difference lies in the slope stabilization: although the previous solutions can cut the water ingress, they cannot necessarily guarantee bank stability (particularly for the ditches). Cutoff drains, lateral ditches and the installation of such systems as shields and draining stacks can provide this stability (note that it can sometimes be possible to apply these systems to one side only when the flow directions are clear and cut across the cut). Remember also that the "damproof course" solution can sometimes be an interesting variant (particularly if the course can also act as retaining structure - sheet piling, diaphragm walls) (see Diagram 7).

Random water ingress
The draining stack is the most frequent solution applied in the most common random water inflows (springs, fault zone, etc.). The water is evacuated towards a draining collector at the foot of the bank linked to an outlet. When faced with certain rocky materials where flows take preferential paths, for example limestones and their karstic networks, these special cases call on specific solutions (ditches, collectors, shafts) which are not dealt with in this guide.

Unpredictable random water ingress
The geotechnical study does not always localize all the random water ingress. In the simplest scenarios, the drainage structures could be installed and dimensioned definitively during the earthworks. The contract would provide for an estimated quantity, with greater detail provided as work progresses by contradictory observations. In addition, when potential disorders are free from danger for both the structure and users and the water ingress are not visible when work takes place, one pragmatic solution is also to carry out the minimum work, namely simple shaping, on the banks and let one winter go by. This can localize the water ingress accurately (frozen water, higher flow rates, appearance of first disorders) before carrying out drainage work.

Photo 2: ditch, used during the earthworks phase and part of

Diagram 7: interception of the water table, lateral damproofing and stabilization of cutting banks by damproof course or damproof retaining structure

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Road drainage – Technical guide

the final project, intercepting water ingress circulating at the interface between sands and a clay substrate (A85 Romorantin Theillay)

(1) The water tables vary the most frequently with the seasons; the "high waters" occur most often in winter-spring and the "low waters" in summer and early autumn.

Diagram 7 Ecran non armé au coulis argile-ciment Niveau d'eau Drainage des eaux résiduelles Niveau imperméable Ecran rigide (parois armée, palplanches) Fiche

Diagram 7 Non-reinforced fin with clay-cement slurry Water level Drainage of residual water Impermeable level Rigid fin (reinforced wall, sheet piling) Sheet

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3 These zones are drained via a draining course and a drain linked to an outlet. "Tools" Collection – Sétra septembre 2007 . It is however useful to know that the majority of these disorders are simply reactivating old disorders and they can therefore more often than not be detected by a comprehensive geotechnical* and hydrogeological* study before the work (see Appendix 1). frequently permeable materials encourages water infiltration and the formation of water traps. – 33 – This zone can be replaced by draining materials combined with drains at the bottom of the cavity linked to an outlet.Road drainage – Technical guide 2. Surface resurgences The geotechnical study must list water appearances or resurgences on the slope flank. continuous infiltrations which can "undermine" the fill base.Interception of water ingress in fill General case Interception by drainage of water ingress in fill scenarios takes place in the following circumstances (see Diagram 8 and Table 3): Special case of natural slopes Surface or deep drainage is one of the most efficient and most frequently used techniques to stabilize unstable natural slopes (see guide Stabilization of landslides [17]).2. These zones found underneath the fill are the cause of slow. Case Case Case Case Case a by the pavement or miscellaneous networks b by the cut and fill transition zone c by resurgences on the slope flank underneath the fill d by capillary rises e via low points in the longitudinal section Case f by stopping on an obstacle (structure pier*) Diagram 8: identification of potential water supply routes to the fill DEBLAI Zone altérée Chaussée ou réseau divers Ouvrage Nappe REMBLAI Case Drainage requirements CUT Altered zone Pavement or miscellaneous networks Structure Water table FILL Suggested systems (no dimensioning) 2 Cut and fill transition The transition zone made up of altered.4 .

on the uphill side of the slope. the drainage will be by gravity. otherwise. solutions using a geocomposite could be envisaged. This phenomenon is all the more apparent when the material used is made up of compressible soils in a dry state. 5 Creation of draining stacks linked to an outlet. It suffices to intercept the rising water with a draining course of a thickness greater than the estimated settling and of at least 1 meter.Road drainage – Technical guide 4 Outcropping water table zone Fill in compressible materials like silts or fly ash can encourage capillary water rises in the body of the fill when the fill subgrade is in a compressible zone or outcropping water table. Wetlands can also be drained to evacuate the water from the subgrade and improve the bearing capacity by trenches/fin drains or deep ditches. Obstacles and friction points such as engineering and retaining structures must be drained to prevent water accumulating in contact with the fill. Table 3: drainage solutions for the various interception cases for water ingress in fill "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 34 – septembre 2007 . 6 If the material making up the technical fill is insensitive to water. Low points in longitudinal section The low points in longitudinal section are drained in traditional fashion to prevent water accumulating in water-sensitive materials.

low points in fill.1. Non-exhaustive examples: cut and fill transition zones. • a variable depth of substitution or input material. Table 4 gives the PST-AR re-dimensioning thanks to the drainage systems. . The drainage project adopted will be the result of economic comparison of the various subformation improvement techniques (drainage. may be made up of: • the existing soil (depth considered around 1 m). • the treatment of singular points in the longitudinal section: some singular points in the longitudinal section or cross section are potential accumulation zones for infiltration water and thus require a specific drainage system. Distinction can be made between three scenarios in terms of drainage: • in cut or skimming profile: it will be advantageous in most cases to provide for a useful structure in the earthworks phase which could be taken over as the final structure.3.Road drainage – Technical guide 2. The possible scenarios are defined in the guide to Creating fills and capping levels [9]. • the upper earthworks. It may be important in some cases to carry out a hydrogeological study over at least on year.Pavement formation levels They comprise two entities: • the capping layer. 2. The PST quality (bearing capacity) differentiates four subformation level categories (AR1 to AR4). except those insensitive to water (naturally or after treatment) have mechanical properties which alter when the water content increases. The geotechnical engineer will specify in particular whether specific studies are necessary to detail the initial information. This document claims to distinguish between seven PST cases (PST0 to PST6) depending on the type of medium (existing soil or fill). Draining operations are therefore essential when the PST is located in an unfavorable hydric context and moreover formed of material sensitive to water and frost. the subgrades (particularly their drainage capability). the surface of which makes up the subformation level. treatment or substitution) in terms of feasibility and effectiveness and techniques (especially depths) adopted when dimensioning the pavement structure. extreme water table levels (piezometry) and random water ingress zones need to be understood and identified. These entities and their classification are addressed in the guide "Creating fills and capping layers [9] see Diagram 9. pronounced slopes and low points in crossfalls.Subformation (below capping level) (PST): Two problems are answered by defining the drainage needs for the subformation (below capping level) (PST): • the PST classification under the guide [9] and any improvements to it: all soils. To provide for PST drainage requirements and possible systems. PST (Subformation (below capping level)) classification and improvement The upper earthworks. The safety aspect must be taken into account at the project design stage (see guides [18] and [20]).3 . its sensitivity to water and its hydric state. • a lesser depth of existing soil treated with hydraulic binders. the surface of which makes up the subformation level. Knowledge of materials and hydrogeological conditions influences earthworks strategies. Diagram 9: definition of various terms plates-formes "Tools" Collection – Sétra roadbeds – 35 – septembre 2007 .

base. fondation Arase terrassement partie supérieure des terrassements 1 m en déblai ou remblai Formation level Shoulder Surface course. base.Road drainage – Technical guide Plate-forme support de chaussée Accotement Chaussée roulement. foundation Subformation level subformation (below capping level) 1 m in cut or fill "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 36 – septembre 2007 .

trenches. PST4-AR2 (2) Soil not sensitive to water Washed by the water table Good Good PST 5 and 6 Drawdown by deep ditches. trenches.Road drainage – Technical guide Type of soil Water table Washed by the water table Initial bearing capacity Long-term bearing capacity Initial PST-AR Drainage structures Final PSTAR Natural soil sensitive to water state th zero Very low PST0AR0 Drawdown by deep ditches. etc. etc. PST 5 and 6 AR 2. etc. trenches.4 (2) "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 37 – septembre 2007 . etc. PST1-AR1 Natural soil sensitive to water state h Natural soil sensitive to water state m Intermittent water table Very low Very low PST1 Drainage pointless Good Low PST2-AR1 Drawdown by deep ditches.3. trenches. PST3-AR1 Natural soil sensitive to water state m No water table or water table lowered Good Low (rain infiltration) PST3AR1 Drainage of pavement and capping layer (1) PST3-AR2 Natural soil improved by treatment Washed by the water table Variable Good to very good PST4AR2 Lowering by deep ditches.

Road drainage – Technical guide Table 4: PST .AR redimensioning thanks to drainage systems Chaussée et couche de forme Maxi Maxi en hiver Pavement and capping layer Max. (2) drainage remains necessary to reduce the structure's sensitivity to frost and improve earthworks conditions.2: as the aim is to avoid humidification of the pavement subgrade. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 38 – septembre 2007 .3. although essential cannot guarantee no infiltration. Max. Note that the drainage systems at the base of the capping layer (for capping layers comprising very permeable materials) such as drains and draining courses. this will be the preferential domain for edge of pavement fin drains (EDRC). in winter (1) see § 2.

tranchée axiale . The distance between two drains and the drain depth must be dimensioned according to the hydrogeological and geotechnical characteristics of Diagram 11: sample complex draining system (slope the site and the project. EDRC. trenches.axial trench . • when drainage is necessary for the PST and capping layer. as shown in schematic Diagram 10. it could be wise to plan a joint structure independently of the surface drainage system.2) in relation to the drainage network to avoid perforations. If appropriate. (see Chapter 4). The structures are miscellaneous. AXIAL AND OBLIQUE DRAINS PAVEMENT AXIS – 39 – septembre 2007 . AXIAL. OBLIQUE AXE CHAUSSEE "Tools" Collection – Sétra Diagram 10 Trickle channel Inspection chamber Shoulder or emergency hard shoulder Pavement Capping layer Diagram 11 Bank Pavement axis Main collector lateral trenches . AXIAL AND TRANSVERSE DRAINS PLAN VIEW LATERAL. longitudinal drains.Road drainage – Technical guide • in fill: no PST drainage (except for special cases). so that they flow into longitudinal drains an axial longitudinal drain (see Diagram 12). TRANSVERSAL VUE EN PLAN DRAINS LATERAL. • drains slanting from the axis ("fishbone"). attention should be paid to installing support anchoring (see § 4.1. draining courses. draining Diagram 10: cutoff drain installed at the foot of the cutting bank to drain the PST stacks. subformation level) Diagram 12: Distribution of drains or additional grips Diagram 10 Cunette Regard de visite Accotement ou bande d'arrêt d'urgence Chaussée Couche de forme Diagram 11 Talus Axe chaussée Collecteur principal tranchées latérales .transverse trench Diagram 12 LATERAL. AXIAL. etc. If necessary the drainage system may be supplemented by: • transverse drains in the subformation (below capping level) (see Diagram 11).tranché transversale Diagram 12 DRAINS LATERAL.

The aim is to purge the surface materials and drain any water inflows from the cut (see Diagrams 13 and Diagram 13: sample use of a draining course at the cut and fill 14). cut and fill transition zones and major slopes.Road drainage – Technical guide Treatment of singular points in the longitudinal section The earthworks subformation level or the PST must be drained in the following cases from the longitudinal section: low points.cross-sectional view Diagram 13 Arase de terrassement DEBLAI REMBLAI Couche drainante Captages éventuels sur la pente zone de transition distance à définir en fonction profondeur de la zone altérée Matériau drainant Drain relié à un exutoire Diagram 14 fossé de pied fossé de crête REMBLAI POSITION DU DRAIN EN EPI "Tools" Collection – Sétra de Diagram 13 Subformation level CUT FILL Draining course Any inflows on the slope transition zone la distance to be defined based on the depth of the altered zone Draining material Drain connected to an outlet Diagram 14 ditch at foot ditch on crest FILL POSITION OF DRAIN IN STACK – 40 – septembre 2007 . interface. • Low points: they will be systematically drained by a draining stack system.cross-sectional • zones with pronounced slope (≥ 5%) and moreover in a major linear (≥ 500 meters) encouraging water collection and their possible loading at courses in aggregate material (PST or capping layer). view Diagram 14: sample use of drains in cut and fill transition zone plan view Diagram 15: schematic diagram of positioning transverse drains every section or every two sections at the earthworks subformation level . • cut and fill transition zone: it is treated specifically and virtually systematically. The solution to prevent this scenario is regular water capture by draining stacks. used to improve the altered zone . (see Diagram 15).

remblai Epi drainant Arase de terrassement REMBLAI CUT Direction of slope Inspection chamber in soft verge Diagram 15 CUT Cut and fill transition zone: Draining stack Subformation level FILL "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 41 – septembre 2007 .Road drainage – Technical guide DEBLAI Sens de la pente Regard dans la berne Diagram 15 DEBLAI Zone de transition déblai .

18 and 19). • for a capping layer treated with hydraulic binders: the treated material could be considered as neutral (indifferent to the drainage). to prevent the table rising into the capping layer or the project becoming waterlogged. the designer will take care to adjust the outlets above the maximum water level in the ditches. In all circumstances. if necessary.2 . before being covered by the pavements. Side trenches are more often than not used for the drainage. The most frequent solution is lateral trenches which may be combined with PST drainage. Diagram 17: in cut or skimming profile in zone under drained water table Diagram 20: adjustment of outlets Diagram 18: in fill Diagram 16 PST peu perméable Couche de forme Diagram 17 "Tools" Collection – Sétra Diagram 16 PST with low permeability Capping layer Diagram 17 – 42 – septembre 2007 . 17. • for a brought-in capping layer of material insensitive to water: drainage is essential when there is danger of creating a real water trap which could be fed by storm water as soon as it is installed. The most frequent solution is lateral trenches. Diagram 16: in cut or skimming profile in zone outside water table Diagram 19: installation of drain on edge of capping layer. but drainage is however necessary underneath the water table level to prevent water rising through cracking. with PST drainage (see Diagrams 16. (see Diagram 20).Road drainage – Technical guide 2. either by side longitudinal drains arranged at the bases of the capping layer combined. if the discharge is towards a ditch.Capping layer The capping layer dimensioning is provided for in the guide Creating fills and capping layers [9]: • where a capping layer is made up of the existing soils: the drainage is only necessary underneath the water table level.3.

Road drainage – Technical guide Couche de forme Tranchée axiale complémentaire si nécessaire Tranchée drainante latérale continuité hydraulique Diagram 18 Couche de forme drain disposé sur le fond de la couche de forme drain disposé en encoche au fond de la couche de forme (à privilégier) Diagram 19 Géotextile Encoche Sillon Sur arase (à éviter) Diagram 20 CAS A EVITER Capping layer Additional axial trench if necessary Lateral cutoff drain hydraulic continuity Diagram 18 Capping layer drain laid on the bottom of the capping layer drain laid in slot at the bottom of the capping layer (preferred) Diagram 19 Geotextile Slot Groove On subformation level (to be avoided) Diagram 20 TO BE AVOIDED "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 43 – septembre 2007 .

2.4.Road drainage – Technical guide 2.Drainage systems in pavement courses Table 5 summarizes the main drainage requirements.Pavement The mechanical characteristics and performances of a pavement structure can diminish very clearly over time in the presence of water which is frequently the cause of normally irreversible pathologies: appearance of depressions*.4 . by providing inputs for response in terms of possible drainage system. edge subsidence. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 44 – septembre 2007 . Diagram 21: required functions and possible emplacements of drainage systems Drainer les interfaces de chaussées dans le Drain the pavement interfaces in the median TPC Drainer le TPC Drain the median Drainer les interfaces de chaussées en rive Drain the pavement interfaces at the edge exutoire outlet pente slope Couches d'assise Road foundations Drainer sous la chaussée Drain underneath the pavement Sens de circulation de l'eau Water circulation direction Infiltration de l'eau Water infiltration The pavement structure drainage needs are closely linked to the type of materials and singular points (median and emergency hard shoulder). rising mud and slab rocking. Methods of draining the pavement itself are therefore also sought. crazing.1 . Refer to Chapter 3 for a description of disorders encountered in pavements if there is no drainage and for a list of singular points in the pavement in terms of drainage.

• evacuation of water infiltrating in the cracks. longitudinal and transverse joints.solution 2: shoulders in draining material and evacuation of water through drains to an outlet. Table 5: drainage systems according to drainage requirements dalle béton épaisse étanchéification des fissures et des joints GNT "Tools" Collection – Sétra thick concrete slab sealing of cracks and joints GNT – 45 – septembre 2007 . contacts between the slab and the median.solution 2: lateral drainage by the shoulders or the median (depending on the cross-section slope). Untreated graded aggregates • evacuation of free water. by trenches or fin drains • solution 2: lateral drainage by the shoulders or the median (depending on the cross-section slope). • prevention: pre-cracking of courses treated with hydraulic binders: • solution 1: lateral drainage in the height of the course at the pavement edge shoulder or median side (depending on cross-section slope). • choice of a porous untreated graded aggregate: . the emergency hard shoulder or the shoulder). • creation of a draining course under the concrete structure. by trenches or fin drains.solution 1: lateral drainage in the height of the course at the pavement edge shoulder or median side (depending on crosssection slope). reduction in interstitial pressures. • prevention: damproofing of cracks with seals made from impermeable products (shut-off joint. but protective role for underlying courses through: • pavement maintenance and repair. etc. . lateral drainage via: .solution 1: longitudinal structures such as trench or fin drain. • elimination of accumulated water in the low points. made up of draining material with greater permeability than untreated graded aggregates and evacuation of water through drains towards an outlet. Material treated with hydraulic binders Concrete • evacuation of water infiltrating in the cracks. • maintenance and repair: damp-proofing of surface pavement. made up of draining material and evacuation of water through drains towards an outlet. • prevention and maintenance and repair: damp-proofing of surface pavement. construction joint. . • transverse drainage of low points by draining stacks.. damp-proofing.Road drainage – Technical guide Pavement course Bituminous materials Drainage requirements Possible drainage systems No drainage requirement in the strict sense (except for porous asphalts). • checks on joint compacting and course bonding. • for reinforced concrete structures.

Road drainage – Technical guide couche drainante béton armé continu béton maigre matériau drainant tranchées ou écrans drainants draining course continuously reinforced concrete lean concrete draining material cutoff or fin drains "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 46 – septembre 2007 .

lampposts and run-off water collection systems. frame or metallic duct) also towards a semicrossing. crossing characteristics). The drain must be deep enough in all circumstances to bear the site traffic without damage (see Chapter 4. the waters tend to concentrate in the median. The drainage system must carry the collected water through the cut and fill towards a semi-crossing or upstream of an underground passage structure (portal frame. For pavements with reversed crossfalls. Diagram 22: installation of a cutoff drain in the median the drain is therefore particularly vulnerable to being pierced blind before being installed Inspecting this drain once work has finished seems an elementary precaution Imperméabilisation Regard de visite à construire en deux étapes Chaussée future Couche de forme Evacuation latérale sous-chaussée Drain Damproofing Inspection chamber to be built in two stages Future pavement Capping layer Lateral sub-pavement evacuation Drain "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 47 – septembre 2007 .2 . Roundabout Safety regulations specify underground systems rather than lateral ditches.Road drainage – Technical guide 2. It should be position to be able to collect water circulation above a level with low permeability (normally the formation level).4. These drains must be strong enough to avoid being crushed when installing the island constituent materials.Drainage systems at singular points Shoulder and emergency hard shoulder (BAU) The infiltrated water under the shoulder or emergency hard shoulder (BAU) must be evacuating by drain at the low point of the cross section or by a deep lateral ditch when the structure continues under the BAU to the ditch.1. one or two drains (plugged upstream) will be placed at the pavement edge underneath the island and connected at the end of the structure by a semi-crossing towards a collection system at the pavement edge. Provision must therefore be made for an underground drain above the collector (see Diagram 22). directional island and obstacle island Depending on the formation level slope. Dividing island.3. Median It must be possible to offset the drainage structure from the median axis to allow the installation of brackets for rails.

Drainage of an existing pavement "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 48 – septembre 2007 .Road drainage – Technical guide Chapter 3 3 .

subsurface water.Road drainage – Technical guide Excessive water content in the pavement courses due to infiltration from a variety of sources (run-off water. A flexible pavement subjected to infiltrations before a frost accelerates both these types of damage during the thaw. The pavement surface courses let through not inconsiderable quantities of water.1 . Note also the appearance of depressions* at edges. This damage is even greater with the addition of frost and thaw phenomena. BIETH. This appears in the wheel paths. The GNT pavement structures must more than any other be carefully drained. RN 59 at St.1 . Photo 3: sample rutting of a flexible pavement caused by the untreated foundation and the subgrade (photo Sétra) Photo 4: erosion developed around a crack in the hydraulic aggregates of reinforced structures. CETE de l’EST . This chapter describes the damage noted for each type of pavement and suggests an approach in putting together the analysis so that possible drainage solutions can be envisaged.80 m wide. leaving tracks of anything up to 0.Flexible pavements Untreated graded aggregates (GNT) forming the foundation for flexible pavements have a mechanical behavior that depends greatly on their water content. etc.1.Types of disorder encountered in pavements 3. • longitudinal cracking in the wheel paths. A failure to drain under-dimensioned pavements therefore results in: • permanent damage. The most characteristic is longitudinal rutting with wide curve radius created by the passage of HGV wheels. 3. especially when they show early signs of ageing. Increases in residual water content lowers the modulus of rigidity and heightens permanent damage. branches out and turns into a tighter mesh crazing. for developing pathologies appear rapidly over several meters (see Photo 3).L.) causes a marked acceleration in pavement ageing.LRPC Strasbourg) "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 49 – septembre 2007 . Dié (photo J.

especially for 2-wheelers). 3. the appearance of cracks will encourage water to infiltrate in the underlying structures. • structure piers. then circular crazing and finally depressions and potholes (see Photo 4).3 . a bleeding point for the accumulated water. 3.1.1.6 . this causes the loss of bearing capacity. Water infiltration and concentration is easy due to high permeability or to major cracking or poor surface state.Road drainage – Technical guide 3.Rigid or semi-rigid pavements Materials treated with hydraulic binders are little or not at all sensitive to the action of water thanks to the mechanical characteristics provided by the hydraulic setting. for it guarantees damproofing by protecting the underlying courses. 3. the "pumping" triggered by water accumulating in line with the slab joints and at the edges has been recognized as the major cause of concrete pavement damage through slab rocking and the "staircase" effect (see Photo 5). relating to the type of road foundation. There is no need to drain these courses. which makes the cracks larger and reduces the bonding between courses. 3.2 . but they must be maintained and repaired. The same types of damage are seen in mixed structures (although more rarely).Bituminous material courses The effect of the water has little significance compared with damage from mechanical fatigue. such as: • central islands and medians (frequently made up of untreated graded aggregate or lean concrete) (see Photo 6). Photo 5: sample damage in a concrete pavement (photo Sétra) Photo 6: resurgences from central islands (photo CETE "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 50 – septembre 2007 . rising mud. • when vertical cracking reaches the subgrade. The gradual accumulation of water can create a mechanically-weak zone or. This damage is nevertheless attenuated by the depth of the bituminous layers. more often than not.1. On the other hand.1. • when the joint between the paths formed at implementation has a compacting defect. which creates a sensitive zone (skidding and frost which are accident factors.5 .Modular material pavements (paving blocks and slabs) Water can accumulated in the sand bedding course.Cement concrete pavements For rigid pavements. the development of pumping phenomenon.List of singular pavement points with respect to drainage Certain singular points require specially-adapted drainage. Water infiltrations are encouraged in the following cases: • where there are transverse cracks from shrinking.1.4 .

LRPC Blois) "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 51 – septembre 2007 .Road drainage – Technical guide Normandie-Centre.

3. etc. deflection measurements. • surface water drainage (a): non-existent ditches.2. the information compiled should include a damage survey. to take soundings. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 52 – septembre 2007 . pavement permeability. are behind water infiltrating into the structure.Compiling information The following six main parameters are used to assess the danger of this damage developing rapidly in the presence of excess water: • lack of pavement damproofing (r): the overall poor state of the pavement. raised shoulders. ponding. • the effectiveness of any internal drainage system (d): poor state of drains and outlets. outcropping water table and capillary water rises. • hydrogeological environment (h) of the pavement: amount of water fed by the water catchment. a geotechnical* or hydrogeological* study.1 . an as-built file for drainage systems if one exists and. A visual inspection could also be envisaged for the inspection chambers and outlets. • and the water sensitivity and drainage capability of the pavement material courses (m). failure to maintain and repair ditches and shoulders. • water sensitivity and drainage capability of subgrades (s). Drainage needs are analyzed from field observations (constant inspection of the itinerary which will detect sensitive sectors and balance conflicting interests between insufficient drainage and a structural pavement defect).Road drainage – Technical guide 3. cracks etc. significance of noted flow rates and unfavorable topographical context.2 . if necessary. In addition to the itinerary scheme.Analysis The analysis must distinguish between water-related damage and damage pertaining to structure underdimensioning or another structural quality problem. water resurgences.

LEGENDE sablons alluvions ruisseau rivière. mark 2 = major problem).Road drainage – Technical guide Table 6: sample synopsis of marks on an itinerary (mark 0 = no problem. fleuve émergence de la nappe écoulements naturels Profil en long remblai déblai profil mixte Etanchéité du revêtement Assainissement superficiel Environnement hydrogéologie Drainage de la chaussée Sol support Matériaux de la chaussée Note de risque global KEY very fine sands alluvial deposits stream river water table emergence natural flows Longitudinal section fill cut mixed profile Pavement damproofing Surface drainage Hydrogeological environment Pavement drainage Subgrade Pavement materials Overall risk mark "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 53 – septembre 2007 .

it is satisfactorily located in the cross section. Table interpretation Pavement damproofing. topographic context propitious to run off (road in fill > 1 m in height). m = 2: Untreated graded aggregates. The pavement does not intercept water circulation nor permanent or temporary resurgence. 2 = determining conditions for the appearance or rapid development of damage from water (and frost). s s = 0: soil insensitive to water or treated subgrades (with effect lasting over time).2. etc. By adding the risk factors together. non-existent ditches or in poor condition. -7 r = 2: relatively permeable surface course >10 m/s with unsealed cracks. s and m described below and by using a three-level marking system: 0 = conditions not propitious to damage from water (and frost). r r = 0: bituminous asphalt surface course in good condition (asphalt compactness > 93% in 95% of measurements). The road (or the section in question) is on flat ground. The most sensitive zones are given the highest mark. h = 1: potential supply in subsurface waters from lateral water catchment. even the capping layer and the pavement foundation. d = 2: no drainage system or system not functioning or unsuitable for the local context. d. cut and fill transition zone. h h = 0: the water table does not exist or is very deep (more than 5 m below the pavement). The longitudinal profile provides satisfactory flow for run-off water.2 . concrete. but the state of maintenance of the drainage network is such that it is not totally effective. The road (or the section in question) is a mixed profile or cut and fill in succession. The hydric conditions of the itinerary are assessed by "homogeneous" 200 m-long sections for each of the parameters r. d d = 0: an internal drainage system in good condition exists. Sensitivity of pavement foundation materials. s = 2: water-sensitive soils. m m = 0: Continuously reinforced concrete. Marking systems A risk mark is attributed to each section identified in an analysis and observation table. the itinerary scheme can identify the sensitive zones theoretically requiring drainage. Subgrade sensitivity. raised or highlydamaged shoulders retaining the run-off water. h = 2: mixed profile with upstream feed. d = 1: a drainage system exists. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 54 – septembre 2007 . Its position in the cross section means that it evacuates water circulations in the pavement structure and in the subgrade. The water flows in the ditches and the drainage structures is very mediocre and the outlets are not functioning. Pavement drainage. very powerful lateral water catchment (pavement fed with water by circulation through cracks in the rock or by more permeable layers in the natural geotechnical profile).Putting the analysis together The analysis can be carried out using the tools described in the following paragraphs. h.Road drainage – Technical guide 3. mixed structure. a = 2: totally ineffective surface drainage. water course on edge of pavement despite the shoulders being flush. a. a = 1: ineffective surface drainage. m = 1: hydraulic graded aggregates.). s = 1: soils assumed sensitive to water. but showing no signs of this. more especially in the critical zones. permeable shoulders with plant growth. average run off water flow (vegetation in the ditches). r = 1: asphalt surface course not compact enough or made up of a surface dressing in good condition. a a = 0: surface drainage maintained and effective (ditches in good condition. Surface drainage. The water table varies in a range which cuts across the PST. damproofed shoulders or excellent run off from shoulders to the ditches. bitumen graded aggregate (base and foundation). Hydrogeological environment of the pavement. 1 = average conditions potentially contributing to the appearance or rapid development of damage from water (and frost).

poor quality materials. longitudinal rutting.). In these circumstances. The risk mark varies between 0 and 12 and shows up the sensitive zones based on the following risk scale: • no risk of change: 0 to 3 • low risk: 4 to 7 • major risk of change: 8 to 12. this means that the pavement damage is due to water or is aggravated by it and that the drainage work is justified. Highlighting sensitive zones under the procedure described above defines the intervention sections when the following converge: • zones with the highest risk marks: high risk mark between 8 and 12. mud rising. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 55 – septembre 2007 . significant damage survey of disorders (slab rocking.). • analysis of the structural pavement state: deflections dm > 200/100 mm. This mark is the risk from a combination of unfavorable factors and is used to assess an itinerary regardless of its state. etc. No convergence means that the damage is caused otherwise (structure under-dimensioned for the traffic. It corresponds to the hydric risk mark = r + a + h + d + s + m. Where a high risk mark and a poor structural condition of the pavement converge. installing drainage systems will not alone provide the expected solution.Road drainage – Technical guide Decision model The summary mark is established by elementary sections at least 100 meters long. etc.

pumping). • capturing water inflows in the bank by stacks or drainage shields. Table 7: solutions and systems according to drainage requirements "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 56 – septembre 2007 . • cleaning and reprofiling ditches. outlets and inspection chambers. The analysis of parameters used to produce the risk mark must help define them. 3.2). Table 7 summarizes the various possible actions (drainage systems themselves are described in greater detail in Chapter 4). drainage provides no improvement. it would be possible to make do with drains or equivalent systems of Ø 100 to 150 mm for a maximum flow rate well below 10000 l/h for 100 linear meters: a drain Ø 100 to 150 mm will nearly always be sufficient. major cracking or severely-damage surface state. trench or fin drain. • damproofing and overhaul of trickle channels. trench or fin drain). The drainage system in an old pavement must evacuate the excess water in the pavement structure and possibly the subgrade up to 1 m under the pavement structure (PST). Re-establishing the flows. increasing slopes. The other cases will be studied specifically: water table drawdown. Evacuation of subsurface waters.Road drainage – Technical guide 3. • checking the state of outlets and inspection chambers. creation or maintenance and repair of outlets.4 . • checking and overhauling drains. In some cases (very unfavorable soils). • repair of pavements and/or soil substitution. • lowering of water table level (subhorizontal drain. Improvement in hydric state of soils when they lend themselves to this (see Table 14. protection of underlying layers by maintenance and/or repair of the surface course. prevent water stagnation Unfavorable hydrogeologic al environment (h) Interception of water inflows. creations of more efficient outlets. Appendix 2) is a difficult objective and sometimes takes a long time.Dimensioning or assessment of flow rates to be drained through the old pavement (see Appendix 3.3 . Overhaul of drainage systems: • examination of water flow directions. • making shoulders flush. water table drawdown beneath the PST level. • cleaning channels. milling and repairing the surface course. Parameter Pavement damproofing (r) Surface drainage (a) Drainage requirements Damproofing the pavement Possible solutions and drainage systems Installation of a dressing. Depending on how complex the situations are. for example [20]. Pavement material sensitivity (m) • creation of drains at pavement edge. bridging. • interception of surface water feeds (deep ditch. • interception of surface water feeds or water infiltrations via the shoulders (trench or fin drain). • modifying the longitudinal section (of the pavement or existing drainage systems) or the cross section. • cleaning channels. reprofiling. programming maintenance and repair campaign. • creating surface grips(1). Overhaul or repair of drainage network Pavement drainage (d) Subgrade sensitivity (s) Protection of water-sensitive subgrades from possible infiltrations. a hydrogeological study may be necessary to dimension the structures and define their characteristics. • damproofing of the surface and cracks. these resources should not worsen the situation with respect to the treatment of lateral obstacles when reprofiling ditches.Definition of work solutions There are many possible drainage systems.

Road drainage – Technical guide (1) in compliance with safety rules "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 57 – septembre 2007 .

Characteristics of drainage systems and of materials used in them "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 58 – septembre 2007 .Road drainage – Technical guide Chapter 4 4 .

Drainage structures and systems The drainage systems described in this chapter are as follows: • Deep ditches. • Draining courses.1 . Photo 7: trench dug mechanically (photo CETE Nord-Picardie) "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 59 – septembre 2007 . • Cutoff drains.Road drainage – Technical guide The purpose of this chapter is firstly to describe the most common drainage systems and their main characteristics. and although not really roadbed drainage structures. • Shafts (vertical drainage). • Grips (and draining stacks). The second section is devoted to stipulations over the materials used in these structures. • Fin drains at pavement edge (EDRC). 4. stacks). This description should assist the designer in ensuring that his planned drainage method is clearly suitable and to define the corresponding specifications. bank stabilization systems (shields.

basically performs two functions: it collects the run-off water and enables the water table to be lowered in certain conditions.20 m below the capping course at the edge or 1 m below the subformation level (for the earthworks phase). Even when installing safety rails.1 . The longitudinal slope of the ditch must be between 0. there must be a recovery zone 2 meters wide between the edge of the pavement and the straight line of the rail [18] [19] and [20]. it must be positioned as close as possible to the pavement (1 to 2 m from the pavement edge) and combined with a shoulder in draining material.Deep ditches Objective This type of ditch. at very best. Provisional structure during earthworks: (see Diagram 24). over 50 cm deep. Natural ground fill is used at the foot of the bank.5% and 2. when it can sometimes make operations easier by reducing the water content of soils to be extracted (easier re-use and improved trafficability). For a deep ditch to be effective in draining pavement courses and the subgrade. Safety regulations impose a minimum safety zone of seven meters for new. The gutter will be located at least 0. It is used extensively in provisional phase during earthworks. Standard schemes Final structure: (see Diagram 23).1. The sensitivity of the receiving medium could occasionally prohibit or limit the use of this technique where the run-off and internal drainage waters are mixed. see Appendix 2. The deeper the ditch. which makes it virtually impossible for it to fulfill its role as drainage structure. It is therefore preferable to replace the deep ditch with a buried drainage system (cutoff drain). One possible variant is creating cuts per half roadbed. the more effective it will be.Road drainage – Technical guide 4. For the national road network and given road safety constraints. Therefore. the deep ditch axis will be more than four meters from the pavement. multi-function roads and four meters for existing roads. it is almost impossible these days to use the deep ditch as a final drainage structure for the pavement subsurface water. Diagram 23: deep longitudinal ditch Diagram 24: changes in profile as the earthworks become deeper (temporary structure) Diagram 23 Zone de récupération Corps de chaussée "Tools" Collection – Sétra Diagram 23 Recovery zone Pavement body – 60 – septembre 2007 .5% (watch out for stagnation or gullying problems).

Road drainage – Technical guide Couche de forme Cheminement de l'eau Accotement en matériau drainant Capping layer Water routing Shoulder in draining material "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 61 – septembre 2007 .

"Tools" Collection – Sétra – 62 – septembre 2007 . • soil type: Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils according to their classification. this must not exceed what is allocated to this material in the cutting bank. flow direction. Inasmuch as the previously-mentioned installation conditions are complied with. • sensitivity of receiving medium when run-off and internal drainage waters are mixed. The water is evacuated from the end of the ditch by gravity via the gutter or by pumping at the ditch end when unavoidable. and in cleaning and reforming the profile every five to ten years. • water table (depth. It is easy to check its operation and maintenance except when the ditch bank slopes are too steep or when the water stagnates at the bottom and the bank has no protection. Conversely. Where the soils are sensitive to erosion. Special points to be examined: • stability of the cutting bank or ditch slope. Elements required for dimensioning • project geometry (particularly bank slopes). The side slopes are sometimes too steep: the stability of the slope of the ditch bank must be checked (obvious condition for its effectiveness). Durability and maintenance Refer to the guide Current road drainage maintenance and repair [10]. the banks may be covered with a permeable stabilizing layer: riprap or geotextile-based synthetic materials. The deep ditch often is the least onerous solution for a temporary drainage structure in earthworks phase and the easiest to achieve. • safety considerations. D1 and D2) see Appendix 2. • sensitivity to gulling and disturbances (general case for sandy soils A1. permeability) and all elements required to calculate the dewatering flow rates. thereby providing the cut with more advantageous drainage conditions. The ditch must be at least one meter below the planned formation level for the earthworks to drain the PST also. One variant is to create cuts per half roadbed. Table 14. it can play a highly unfavorable role and feed the pavement or capping layer with water if it is not deep enough or maintained correctly (when the ditch is obstructed or the water can no longer flow along the gutter towards an outlet).Road drainage – Technical guide Operating method A mechanical shovel is used most of the time. B6. B5. seasonal and annual variations. the deep ditch can fulfill its function totally. possibly collecting waste in advance. Maintenance normally consists of mowing once or twice a year. This evacuation requires mechanical soil elements (friction angle and soil cohesion) and stability calculations.

(see Diagram 25).50 m. It is filled with draining material (with a permeability higher than the surrounding material). (see Diagram 27). Operating method Shallow trench This is dug with a mechanical shovel (most frequently) or a mechanical ditcher.30 to 0. It will go at least one meter underneath the provisional earthworks subformation level so that it also drains the PST. Standard schemes Several standard schemes can be proposed depending on the installation depth and objectives sought: Shallow cutoff drains (maximum of about 2. The trench has the advantage of inserting discreetly into the landscape and can be used as a final drainage structure for future banks or the PST in skimming profile. with discharge via traditional or vacuum pumping). A geotextile is used as a filter if the draining material is liable to clogging by the surrounding soil.Cutoff drains Objective The purpose of cutoff trenches is to: • drain the subgrade. which may be surrounded by a geotextile filter to make this structure long-lasting. less extracted material and therefore less evacuation or storage) and reaches greater depths. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 63 – septembre 2007 .2 . The installation of a drain will be mandatory if the materials are likely to be carried along in the presence of water. Deep cutoff drains (2.5 to 6 m) (see Diagram 26). • lower the water level under the roadbed (short. wherein lies the fundamental difference with fin drains at the pavement edge. In this case. installing a geotextile is difficult. if not to say impossible.5 m). with a maximum in the order of six meters when mechanized ditchers can be used1. They can sometimes only be used in provisional phase for the earthworks (even if there is no gravity outlet. These structures are used above all when creating a cut where the water table has to be lowered and the banks are very high. Their depth may vary for a major cut (current maximum six meters in mechanized trench).Road drainage – Technical guide 4. even more (see Photos 8 and 9). The draining material can in some cases be made up of porous concrete.1. At its base. The drain alone is therefore protected by a geotextile coating. a drain is normally laid on the correctly-shaped trench bottom. frost-thaw protection). They are basically used when the water table must be lowered to create the cut.or long-term gain in bearing capacity. Cutoff drains installed sufficiently early before work commences can lower the water table level and make earthworks easier. Their location at this time is such that they help stabilize the cutting bank in the final phase. Deep trench This alternative to ditches takes up less land (less footprint. Its width varies according to the tool used: 0.

Road drainage – Technical guide Diagram 25: shallow cutoff drains Diagram 26: deep cutoff drain (1) The use of such high-output machines. Diagram 25 hauteur drainante avec géotextile sans tuyau drainant remblai géotextile matériaux drainants avec géotextile sans tuyau drainant intérieur tuyau drainant Diagram 26 sans enveloppe géotextile avec drain préenrobé matériaux drainants tuyau drainant géotextile Diagram 25 draining height with geotextile without cutoff drain fill geotextile draining materials with geotextile without inside cutoff drain cutoff drain Diagram 26 without geotextile envelope with pre-coated drain draining materials cutoff drain geotextile "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 64 – septembre 2007 . is however limited to loose compressible soils. without blocks and with sufficient bearing capacity. capable of digging 1 km of trench per day in good conditions.

Depth Shovel Slight (< 1 m) Average (1 m to around 2. with inspections of ancillary structures (checking flows at inspection chambers and outlets) and drain cleaning. LRPC Lille) "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 65 – septembre 2007 .70 x 0. Durability and maintenance Cutoff drain creation requires checks on products and their appropriate implementation. which complicates the treatment chains prior to discharge into the natural environment. clogging). These structures should not collect surface and subsurface water at the same time: • the load placed on the network by the surface water produces the reverse effect from the one sought. These structures also demand regular maintenance and repair thanks to duly established as-built drawings.Road drainage – Technical guide Table 8 below specifies the various implementation possibilities depending on installation depth. An annual inspection and hydrocleaning every three to five years1 are advisable.6 m) no Table 8: implementation possibilities according to the installation depth (1) if no block . crushing. major repairs once pavements have been laid are difficult and onerous. It is important to provide for drain inspection chambers: • sufficiently large inside (recommended 0. • at 100-metre intervals maximum (ideally at 70 to 80 meters). joint dislocation. it is essential to ensure that they are in good condition and functioning correctly at the end of the earthworks phase (no breaks.40 meter) to facilitate the introduction of hydrocleaning equipment. • the pollution risks and loads are not the same.5 .(2) by geotextile Photos 8 and 9: cutoff drain installed with a ditcher in a motorway roadbed (photo CETE Nord-Picardie.5 m) Tool Ditcher (1) Geotextile Draining system Bare drain Coated drain (2) Yes Yes no no no Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes no Yes Yes Yes no no no no Yes Deep (2. Where cutoff drains are installed before the earthworks.

Road drainage – Technical guide (1) Average value. the actual frequency should be based on the results of the annual inspection "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 66 – septembre 2007 .

Road drainage – Technical guide Elements required for dimensioning • project geometry. flow direction. • soil type: . lamp post). anti-noise wall. according to standard NF P 16-351 [5].the grading (in particular d85*) is used to determine the opening of the geotextile filtering. . . Diagram 27: sample deep cutoff drain Limite d'emprise Tranchée drainante DEBLAI Arase terrassement Niveau de nappe Niveau de rabattement Footprint limit Cutoff drain CUT Subformation level Water table level Drawdown level "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 67 – septembre 2007 .. . • water table (depth. panel.drain resistance (to shocks or becoming out-of-round.Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils according to their classification. permeability) and all elements required to calculate the dewatering* flow rates. • special points to be examined: .position of support anchoring (rails. seasonal and annual variations.survey elements to make sure there are no networks or blocks buried and to check soil resistance on the vertical wall.

Standard schemes (see Diagrams 28. It can also occasionally reinforce the draining course Other survey elements are useful in ensuring. seasonal and annual variations. • soil type: .1. 29 and 30) These systems are fairly shallow (normally 0. Its role is normally to recover the water from the low or singular points (for example change from a cut to a fill). compressible soil. Diagram 29: longitudinal grip with drain Durability and maintenance As these structures are totally covered.3 to 0. amongst other things. it is difficult to maintain them regularly unless they are enclosing accessible drains. It is however important to make sure that slopes are regular (above all if they are very long. Its purpose is to evacuate water percolating through the pavement. Their transverse cross sections thus lend themselves to a shallow cutoff drain (see previous paragraph).3 Grips and draining stacks Objective The grip should be installed under shoulders in water accumulation zones (low points). draining course) Diagram 28 chaussée couche de forme saignée latérale pente minimum 4% épaisseur minimale fossé latéral Diagram 29 chaussée couche de forme saignée longitudinale drain "Tools" Collection – Sétra Diagram 28 pavement capping layer lateral groove minimum 4% slope minimum thickness lateral ditch Diagram 29 pavement capping layer longitudinal groove drain – 68 – septembre 2007 .soil type: Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils according to their classification. Operating method As they are fairly shallow they do not normally pose any special problem (dug with a mechanical shovel). Basic maintenance must focus on the outlet to prevent any loading which would cause water to rise Diagram 30: draining stacks (under the capping layer or towards the pavement. Elements required for dimensioning • project geometry. It must always be combined with a draining course or a draining capping layer for which it is the outlet (towards a ditch or cutoff drain). permeability) and all elements required to calculate the dewatering* flow rates. cavity bottom and the lack of elements likely to attack the geotextile. the regularity of the future (prescreening the water table). • water table (depth.Road drainage – Technical guide 4.3 to 1 m). The drain stack is a variant of the transverse grip installed under the roadbed.the grading (in particular d85*) is used to determine the opening of the geotextile filtering. they are produced in draining material and may or may not contain a perforated drain to speed up the water evacuation. . flow direction. A geotextile envelope is necessary in Diagram 28: lateral grip linked to the capping layer clogging. case of draining stacks).6 m) with potentially variable widths (0.

Road drainage – Technical guide fossé latéral Diagram 30 Pente longitudinale variable Pente transversales > ou = 5% Espace variable selon les sols 5 à 20m lateral ditch Diagram 30 Variable longitudinal slope Transverse slope > or = 5% Variable space depending on the soils 5 to 20 m "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 69 – septembre 2007 .

over a thickness dependent on the pavement type. an improved hydric state is sought over the entire pavement height and over at least the upper 0. enveloping a draining core. • in a median axis. or is constructed on site. cracks and/or joints without damproofing. the installation must be deeper than the depth of frost corresponding to the frost warning index depending on the pavement type in question. A manufactured fin drain is far thinner than a fin drain constructed on site (2 to 4 cm for the first and 15 to 25 cm for the second.4 . • laterally under the extreme edges of the capping or foundation layers for flexible pavements. Unlike the cutoff drain. level when the aim is preventive protection against water infiltration and improved hydric states of soils. the installation depth can be limited to 50 cm underneath the subformation improve protection from frost-thaw. Diagram 31: standard cross section of a pavement fitted with The EDRC is normally positioned an EDRC located where the shoulder meets the pavement where the shoulder meets the road structure structure (see Diagrams 31 and 32).1.Road drainage – Technical guide 4.30 m of the subgrade. Whereas the normal goal is to improve the overall bearing capacity of the pavement. It can be installed: • laterally at the foot of the cutting bank. The functions vary depending on whether the road is new or old and whether the pavement is flexible or rigid. the depth of the system will be limited to the pavement with the essential role of evacuating the infiltration water at interfaces.5 m maximum) and must not be used to lower a water table. • at the pavement edge in contact with pavement structure in semi-rigid or possibly rigid structure. using the EDRC can also be advisable to control dessiccation* and • when draining the PST. Photo 10: sample manufactured fin drain (photo CETE Nord-Picardie. EDRC cannot be installed very deep (1. Standard schemes The EDRC is a product which is either manufactured and installed on site with specific machines.Fin drains at pavement edge (EDRC) Refer to the Guide EDRC information on this system. LRPC Lille) Diagram 32: installation of an EDRC at the pavement edge "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 70 – septembre 2007 . Depending on circumstances. its water content stays at a level that is dictated by its suction characteristics and water movements in such a soil are complex. when the material in the shoulder is less permeable than in the pavement. • to evacuate interstitial over-pressures during the thaw. It is basically made up of a geotextile filter. to evacuate water which has penetrated the pavement and limit water ingress from shoulders. possibly with a collecting system in its lower section (see Photo 10). • for rigid or semi-rigid pavements. [12] for further Objective A soil drained efficiently becomes a non-saturated soil. The main objective of EDRC is to improve the hydric state of materials in the pavement and subgrade. the EDRC can vary in installation depth depending on whether the project involves just the pavement or includes its subgrade: • when draining flexible pavement.

Le fossé latéral est réduit à un rôle de cunette pour l'élimination des eaux de ruissellement. Diagram 32 Pavement side Shoulder side filtering geotextile envelope fill inside core with high vacuum index drain or draining zone "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 71 – septembre 2007 .Road drainage – Technical guide Diagram 31 hauteur de recouvrement de l'EDRC (> 0. The lateral ditch simply plays a trickle channel role to eliminate the run-off water. Il est plaqué contre le bord de la chaussée dans une tranchée étroite dont la partie supérieure est étanché après remblaiement.06 m) EDRC height draining height laying depth depth beneath the pavement body The EDRC has an evacuation system for infiltrated water. Diagram 32 Coté chaussée Coté accotement enveloppe géotextile filtrante remblai âme intérieure à fort indice de vide drain ou zone drainante Diagram 31 EDRC recovery height (> 0. It is set against the edge of the pavement in a narrow trench whose upper part is sealed after backfilling.06 m) hauteur de l'EDRC hauteur drainante profondeur de pose profondeur sous le corps de chaussée L'EDRC comporte un système d'évacuation des eaux infiltrées.

Elements required for dimensioning Technically. Whenever possible. The covers on the drain inspection chambers must resist rolling loads and be large enough inside (recommended 0. Site material is used for the backfilling. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 72 – septembre 2007 .70 x 0. When installed manually. more especially when inserted in trenches with a gentle slope. The EDRC is placed automatically during mechanized installation by the box section which holds it against the wall pavement side. • predictable installation constraints: obstacles or buried networks in old pavements. frost/thaw. An annual inspection and hydrocleaning every three to five years are advisable1. Durability and maintenance EDRC installation requires checks on products and their appropriate implementation (particular attention should be paid to the problem of compacting the trench).manual after digging the trench or mechanized (recommended). They also demand regular maintenance and repair thanks to duly established as-built drawings. However. alternating with compacting in accordance with the stipulations in the guide Backfilling Trenches [11]. the EDRC have nevertheless the advantage of guaranteeing quality.Road drainage – Technical guide Operating method An EDRC can be installed in one of two ways . thickness. It is normally installed in a narrow trench at a depth of between 30 cm and 1 meter. The width of the cavity depends on the mechanical shovel or ditcher used (30 to 50 cm). it is important to remove the largest blocks (max. the trench should be partially backfilled. dessiccation). The space is subsequently backfilled with compacted extracted material. • hydraulic: the necessary longitudinal evacuation capacity depends mainly on the EDRC transmissivity characteristics and the permeability of the surrounding ground. It is advisable to use a laser to shape the slope and make it more regular. In automated installation. an EDRC is chosen according to the following criteria: • geometric: the height of the EDRC (He) varies according to pavement characteristics (type. trench resistance (type of material) and soil type and grading. the EDRC must be held in place on the vertical wall pavement side during backfilling. 100 mm) as far as possible. with inspections of ancillary structures (checking flows at inspection chambers and outlets) and drain cleaning. position) and the type of problem to be solved (drainage.40 m) to facilitate the introduction of hydrocleaning materials.

underneath a fill in a compressible or wet zone (draining base).under the pavement and the fill in mixed profile. • slotted between an impermeable layer (invert. This arrangement is essential when the soils in question contain fermentable organic matter (surface soils and peaty or silty organic layers) or when the water table is nearby. it recovers any water ingress through the pavement and above all water inflows from the subgrade.this may be referred to as a substitution of the upper earthworks section or as an aggregate capping layer. .underneath a cut or skimming profile pavement.under a concrete pavement structure. . for example: . with specific dimensioning). Important comment: although this scenario moves away from the context of the guide. it is important to remember that the draining course may also intercept the entrained air or the fermentation gases underneath the geomembrane. when the water table (or any other water inflow underneath the roadbed) is likely to rise up to the structure (terminology can vary .in flat zones or those liable to flooding. The objective here is to intercept water ingress from the subgrade and reduce the sub-pressures.on cut and fill interface to evacuate water ingress from the cut roadbed and prevent it flowing towards the fill (substitution or draining of the cut and fill transition zone).5 . Standard schemes (see Diagrams 33 and 34) Diagram 33: draining course in cut Diagram 34: draining course in fill Diagram 33 Géotextile Couche drainante Collecteur Exutoire Pente Diagram 34 Cote des plus hautes eaux Pente Géotextile Couche drainante Collecteurs Diagram 33 Geotextile Draining course Collector Outlet Slope Diagram 34 Dimension of highest waters Slope Geotextile Draining course Collectors "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 73 – septembre 2007 .1. to drain infiltration water vertically. as courses standing in the way of capillary water rises (fill base in draining material). . It is therefore found: • slotted between pavement and subgrade.Draining courses Objectives The draining course is made up of very permeable aggregate material to intercept an upwards or downwards water current. geomembrane) and the subgrade. . .Road drainage – Technical guide 4.

the draining course cannot be inspected nor maintained.the envisaged bearing capacity on installation must also be taken into account. shaping takes place afterwards whereas the draining material is pushed forwards in a single layer. sufficiently thick to avoid being deformed under the weight of machines). .the grading (in particular d85) is used to determine the opening of the geotextile filtering. • and if the differential settling of the subgrade does not exceed a few centimeters. A geosynthetic variant can nevertheless be envisaged: • if the flow rates are limited. Elements required for dimensioning • Project geometry. but the implementation conditions (insufficient bearing capacity.Road drainage – Technical guide Operating method Made up of aggregate draining materials.other survey elements are useful in ensuring. • Soil type: .Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils (soils which may be drained and draining soils which may be used in a draining course) according to their classification. The courses must be laid on a soil with sufficient bearing capacity and well shaped to avoid depressions and ruts (on a soil with little bearing capacity. by taking a safety coefficient at least equal to 2 into account when calculating the flow rates). . This then involves geocomposites* which may include a draining core or mini-drains. • if the mechanical role of this layer is reduced (sufficient subgrade bearing capacity to support the site traffic). • Water table (hydraulic head and head variations. for example. the draining courses are laid by traditional blade earthwork machines. . It is therefore essential to dimension it carefully by ensuring a good safety margin (for example. The thickness depends on the flow rates to be collected (drains can be inserted for major flow rates). the regularity of the future cavity bottom and the lack of elements likely to harm the geotextile. When faced with compressible soils with low permeability. Laying a geotextile at the base is necessary when the percentage of fines is > 5%. annual inspection and hydrocleaning every three to five years)1. To create draining courses which can be assimilated with special capping layers.40 m. Durability and maintenance Once covered over. permeability) and all elements required to calculate the dewatering* flow rates.10 m). deformability) frequently impose a thickness of > 0. the thickness required to evacuate the flow rates could be reduced (< 0. The outlets and dewatering collectors must be installed and maintained as in the previous systems (inspection chamber every 70-80 m of sufficient size. the specifications in the guide Creating fills and capping layers [9] will be applied. but above all on the transient role played by this course during the earthworks phase (road) or its incorporation in the capping layer which it can replace partially or totally. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 74 – septembre 2007 .

2). but without pumps.1. where the depth can be considerably more than the 6 m of current mechanized trenches.Road drainage – Technical guide 4.5 m apart) in soils with low permeability (< 10-6 m/s). (see Diagram 35). Preference may be given to using shafts instead of the deep cutoff drain in special contexts such as: • potential very high dewatering* flow rates (which correspond to a major drawdown influence zone. Standard schemes (see Diagram 36). connected to the surface by a vacuum pump. • no gravity outlet to drawdown dimension. They are most frequently used as temporary installations during earthworks.).1. etc. • drawdown depth to be modulated selectively for environmental problems (for example. In the first case. • significant drawdown depth above the maximum depth of mechanized trenches (about 6 m)1 (see § 4. narrow shafts (diameter < 10 cm) are normally used. traditional shafts take preference. frequently higher than 500 m).6 . Note that some shaft-type systems. Diagram 35: schematic diagram of vertical shaft drainage Diagram 36: vertical drainage methods (1) In certain special cases. they are fitted with submerged centrifugal pumps and the raising height will not be limited (except by the power of the pumps). Thus. The raising height is then limited to 6-7 m (see Diagram 36). but should be closer together (up to less than 1. • or to reduce the water pressure in the lower aquifer by allowing it to expand towards the upper aquifer (discharge shaft. pollution. for a line of shafts to play a barrier role. they are only used in exceptional circumstances and are not dealt with here. see Diagram 37). Given the potential implementation problems of these systems (clogging. see Diagram 37). Diagram 35 "Tools" Collection – Sétra Diagram 35 – 75 – septembre 2007 . the distance between the shafts can be fairly loosely spaced (20-30 m) in very permeable soils (permeability > 10-5 m/s). draining panels can be used (boring with grab or cutter). In the second scenario. maintenance.Shafts (vertical drainage) Objective Shafts evacuate water vertically on an ad hoc basis by raising it to a surface outlet. to limit setting under nearby constructions). can aim to bring two different aquifers into contact with each other: • to draw down and inject water from the upper aquifer towards the deep aquifer (injection shaft. The zone where the water table level is lowered (drawdown influence zone) varies according to soil permeability.

Road drainage – Technical guide Rayon d'influence du rabattement Pompe Niveau de la nappe initial (statique) Niveau de la nappe rabattu (dynamique) Imperméable Diagram 36 Puits exhaure Pointes filtrantes Vers pompe à vide Aquifère Pompe En vert : Tubage plein En jaune : tubage perforé (crépine) niveau imperméable Drawdown influence radius Pump Initial water table level (static) Lowered water table level (dynamic) Impermeable Diagram 36 Shaft dewatering Filtering points Towards vacuum pump Aquifer Pump In green: Full piping In yellow: perforated piping (perforated casing) impermeable level "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 76 – septembre 2007 .

• metal or PVC tubing. Durability and maintenance Drawdown structures are only used as temporary measures during earthworks except for extremely special cases. air). flow direction and piezometric variations). . • shaft spacing (and number of lines for a linear structure) to be determined. hammering and rotation with or without boring fluid (water. Diagram 37: shaft-type systems Puits d'injection niveau imperm. transmissivity. drainage porosity. perforation type and density. level Aquifer Discharge shaft impermeable level "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 77 – septembre 2007 . • installation of a temporary collector up to the outlet.the grading (in particular d85*) is used to determine the opening of the geotextile filtering. Aquifère Puits de décharge niveau imperméable Injection shaft imperm. • detailed hydrodynamic characteristics (aquifer geometry. • pump types and power.sensitivity of nearby structures to differential settling (frequent in this type of operation) and supply deficits (nearby bodies of water and water courses in equilibrium with the level of the water table). • special points concerning these techniques: . mud. perforated casing pieced on (manufactured) or not. Problems of durability and maintenance do not arise. discontinuities. filter in natural (sand or gravel) or manufactured (sand+resin filter. vertical and horizontal permeabilities. Elements required for dimensioning • project geometry. pipe ramming.Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils according to their classification. geotextile) material.Road drainage – Technical guide Operating method Know-how and specific equipment adapted to each individual case is required to create these structures: • hole boring by jetting. • soil type: .

Other parameters such as the flow rate quantities. do not reprofile with extracted materials). They are therefore used in downwards cuts (even temporarily) below the level of the water table. A slow-rate mechanical shovel is most frequently used for the earthworks and to lay the mass. progressing using limited-length pins are used to improve stability during the site duration. which can be and stay irregular (above all. On the other hand. Special techniques are used to stiffen the shield slope itself (mix of sand and synthetic threads. there is little need to focus on the regularity of the sides or the bottom of the extraction zone. the regularity of the slope of the collection and evacuation drain pipe is essential. Diagram 38: draining shield Diagram 39: draining stacks Diagram 38 Masque drainant Géotextile "Tools" Collection – Sétra Diagram 38 Draining shield Geotextile – 78 – septembre 2007 . The stack system is preferable to the shield system when short-term bank stability (when laying the draining system) is truly critical or when there are random water ingress. avoid adopting slopes of less than 5 cm per meter for the stacks and 2 cm for the shields.1. Note that in some special cases.Road drainage – Technical guide 4. the mass is laid on a filtering geotextile and closed at the foot by a drain pipe intended to facilitate and accelerate the evacuation of the water collected. It is essential for this drain pipe to be plugged upstream. these structures are often created under difficult site conditions (critical stability. a geocomposite* can be used instead of or in addition to the draining material (see Diagram 40). but can vary from one site to the next. For shields. grass seeding problems and the volumes of materials to be moved must also be taken into account. The stack (see Diagram 39) is based on an analogue principle and in this case the substitution is perpendicular to the cut axis. Except where the draining material could act as a filter for the surrounding soil (infrequent). water ingress. soils with little bearing capacity). nailing with piles or angle irons. to overcome problems of accuracy. bank aesthetics. Operating method By principle intended to stabilize very unstable banks. Any necessary planting can be made by slotting in a geotextile filter and using a honeycomb geosynthetic* or a geogrid*. Given the frequently difficult conditions. Standard schemes The shield (see Diagram 38) replaces the existing soil with a soil mass draining and applying friction over an extended length (in the entire potentially unstable zone).Bank stabilization systems (shields and stacks) Objective They aim to intercept the water in the banks (and thus contribute to roadbed drainage) but also to act as a retaining mass to increase the general stability.7 . Finalizing the system and above all its geometry necessitates specific calculations dominated by the mechanical characteristics of the surrounding soils.

longitudinal drain Diagram 39 Stack upstream plugging Transverse drain towards outlet Geotextile Collector .drain longitudinal Upstream plugging Towards outlet Collector .Road drainage – Technical guide Obturation en amont Vers exutoire Collecteur .longitudinal drain "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 79 – septembre 2007 .drain longitudinal Diagram 39 Eperon obturation amont Drain transversal vers exutoire Géotextile Collecteur.

In terms of maintenance.block size distribution* and grading (in particular d85* of the soils) to assess the state of the cavity bottom and the opening of the geotextile filtering. Géocomposite filtre-drain Masque drainant Filter-drain geocomposite Draining shield "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 80 – septembre 2007 . • soil type: Table 14 in Appendix 2 indicates the drainage capability of soils according to their classification. flow directions and piezometric variations). for example inspections at one month. Hydrocleaning is recommended at least every three to five years (more frequently if the previous monitoring has shown a trend towards rapid incrustation). a visual survey should be planned (assessment of flow rates and above all of clogging) of the state of the drain holes at each inspection chamber and more frequently at the beginning of the structure's life. Elements required for dimensioning • project geometry (particularly the natural cross slope of the ground). three months. The evacuation drain must be accessible and include inspection chambers every 25 to 50 m (depending on the safety level required) for the shields and at every tap in the longitudinal collector for the stacks. six months and one year. A full inspection (including via video in the drains) is a good idea when the site is finished and an accurate as-built drawing is essential. discontinuities. Diagram 40: geocomposite used instead of or in addition to the draining material. . • special points concerning these techniques: .detailed geomechanical characteristics (cohesion C and internal friction angle of surrounding soils). permeabilities. • hydrodynamic characteristics of the soils (aquifer geometry.Road drainage – Technical guide Durability and maintenance The draining mass is buried and therefore maintenance is impossible.

In most cases it can be tricky to apply these rules. • a passing fraction at 2 mm of less than 10% for a porous concrete drain coating and less than 15% for a PVC drain pipe coating. For "rustic" structures with no geotextile and which are therefore both filtering and raining (in earthworks phase. where it is rarely possible to lay an envelope geotextile. Under these conditions the addition material simply has to evacuate the water rapidly and therefore has a draining role only. • particle size (D) limited to 20 mm (narrow trench). the ideal being to reduce the friction to the minimum as in the pipes. A geotextile is therefore more often than not used for this role. or more specifically the reduction in head losses (of energy) by friction.1.2. The greater the voids the better the water flow. • a percentage of fines of less than 80 µm limited to 5%. the filter is placed direction around the drain ("geotextile sock") and the aggregate is simply used to fill the trench. as they are established for homogeneous soils and call on materials that are frequently very elaborate and costly. The only requirement is ease of installation and self-tightening and the following will thus be requested: • rolled rather than crushed aggregate. Incompatibility with the filtering power becomes clear.Draining and filtering materials Drainage consists of moving water as fast as possible from an aquifer medium to a drainage structure and beyond that to an outlet. or when it is impossible to use a geotextile). with: • less than 5% fines under 80 µm. • a sand equivalent (ES) higher than 50. Filtering tempers this passage by retaining the elements making up the aquifer medium. • continuous grading.2 .Road drainage – Technical guide 4. Filtering power The filtering power of a material over another material is assessed via particle size characteristics and rules based on these characteristics. Diagram 41: particle size curves continuous or discontinuous shape "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 81 – septembre 2007 . Draining power This is the ease with which the water flows within the material. a road aggregate with 0-30 or 3-40 continuous grading1 (a hollow aggregate is easier to clog) may be used. or VBS ≤ 0. (see Diagram 41). Note that for deep mechanized trenches.Stipulations on materials 4.1 . for example.

The reverse is true of the discontinuous grading where the curve is very hollow.Road drainage – Technical guide (1) Each grading class is represented and the shape of the curve tends towards the diagonal. Pourcentage des refus cumulés SABLE FIN GROS SABLE GRAVIERS CAILLOUX GALETS MOELLONS BLOC granularité continue courbe "creuse" Dimensions des tamis en mm Percentage of accumulated rejections FINE SAND COARSE SAND GRAVELS PEBBLES SHINGLE RUBBLE BLOCK continuous grading "hollow" curve Sieve dimensions in mm "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 82 – septembre 2007 .

) The most commonly used gradings are less than 30-40 mm. in particular: • the installation (D far below 3 or 4 times the layer thickness). • damage risks for the textile filters (it is preferable to reduce the grading with crushed materials). • resistance in terms of the aggressivity of the waters in the medium or the water used for declogging (incompatibility of limestone aggregates and acid media). even D with conditions): the values are stated in standard XPP 18-540 [3]/ Comment on porous concretes This technique seems little used but it has certain advantages: • in certain cases of sites with difficult access when compacting can cause problems. The mineralogical nature of aggregates and the type of hydraulic binder will be chosen based on the aggressivity of local waters. • a very clean material (without filler with a percentage of fines < 1% for a draining only material. For GNT developed materials (category C aggregates. Other criteria may also be adopted to take the limits relating to the structure into account. Table 9 suggests a classification for untreated granular materials based only on their drainage capability from three parameters: D: the dimension of the largest components f: the fines content (passing fraction at 80 m) d10 the particle dimension corresponding to the 10% passing fraction Other criteria For the soils: • the mechanical strength and above all the sensitivity to the attrition* (in the first instance. the characteristics of a draining only aggregate (behind a filter) could be as follows: • hollow aggregate (see above). Material f in % d10 in mm Permeability in m/s Type 0/D according to NF P 98-129 (14 < D < 31. • when the draining zone must have high mechanical resistances. • a percentage of fines of less than 80 µm limited to 5%. • passing fraction at 2 mm < 10%. A porous concrete has a porosity of between 15 and 25% and will have compressive resistance criteria after 90 days close to 10 MPa.Road drainage – Technical guide As an indication.1 10-6< K ≤ 10-5 draining GNT ≤2 ≤1 ≥ 0.1 g of blue per 100 g of soil. LA and MDE coefficients below or equal to 45). • ES (sand equivalent) > 50 or VBS ≤ 0. • frost resistance (in principle respected with the mechanical characteristics).8 ≥8 ≥ 10-5 ≥ 10-1 very draining material very draining material Table 9: classification of untreated granular materials "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 83 – septembre 2007 .5 mm) d/D ( D ≤ 40 mm) <5 ≥ 0. • when the networks are dense and compacting possibilities are few and far between. (14 < D < 31.5 mm) 0/D.

Road drainage – Technical guide 4.5 to 30 mm/s.). The mechanisms are complex and depend on the geotextile's functional characteristics (opening of characteristic filtering. Standard NF EN 13252 [7] defines the required characteristics for use in the drainage structures. if necessary.2. For common (non sensitive) structures. Table 10 below is an extract. reinforcement and protection. the drainage function characterizes the ability of the geotextile to collect and convey the water in its thickness (notion of transmissivity). etc. deformation under maximum load.Geotextiles and related products The geotextiles and related products improve the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of the soil and their use in road techniques has developed widely in highly diverse fields: there are now a vast number of products on offer. They will be made in the main by one or more layers of fine synthetic tangled fibers woven or non-woven (thermobonded or lashed) possibly combined with other geosynthetics (geospacers. Resistance to water penetration. resistance to dynamic perforation and other parameters not taken up in Table 10. mini-drains. Main characteristics to be determined Filtering function Characteristic filtering opening O90. can be added to the list of required parameters. This is the preferred function when the geotextile is in contact with the soil and envelopes the drain or the draining material. Mechanical characteristics Apart from damage when being laid. the soil is frequently re-organized and a filter layer forms where the geotextile is in contact with the soil. can vary from 3 to 100. Role in the drainage structures In the drainage structures. Drainage function Flow rate capability in the plane (equivalent to the transmissivity). whilst allowing free circulation of water through the filter. This calculation method is explained in standard G38-061 [6]. Permeability perpendicular to the plane: velocity index VH50. It must be less than d85 of the soil multiplied by a variable coefficient C depending on the use scenarios (filter only or filter-drain). etc. the VH50 value varies from 0. The permeability of the geotextile is specified from the permeability of the soil with a variable corrective factor depending on the use scenarios (type of structure) and the compressive creep characteristics of the geotextile.) where preference is given to drainage and filtering functions. the soil characteristics and the hydraulic conditions. filtering. the geotextiles and related products are used to replace the sometimes complex granular draining systems which are both difficult to dimension and costly to implement. As for the granular materials. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 84 – septembre 2007 .separation. drainage. permeability perpendicular to the plane. It expresses the minimum thickness of the amount of rainfall required for the water to start penetrating the geotextile. In the case of geotextile. The properties required vary depending on the anticipated functions. To these functional characteristics must be added mechanical and minimum durability characteristics to prevent damage to the geotextile during implementation and during the lifetime of the structure. This coefficient. This capacity could vary depending on the thickness and therefore its behavior when compressed (compressive creep). There are five main functions . (see Diagram 42). The filtering function acts as a barrier to the conveyance of the soil particles which could migrate under hydrodynamic forces. which is also found in standard G38-061. The value normally required is less than 50 mm. (see Diagram 43). This parameter does not appear in Table 10.2 . the resistance to traction. It must correspond to the minimum transmissivity required to evacuate the flow rates affected by a coefficient.

Road drainage – Technical guide Diagram 42: use of geotextiles for the drainage structures Diagram 43: formation of a natural stable filter upstream of the geotextile Diagram 42 masque drainant couche drainante par géocomposite tranchée drainante couche drainante granulaire géotextile Diagram 43 SOL EN PLACE Zone de réarrangement des grains GEOTEXTILE Diagram 42 draining shield draining course by geocomposite cutoff drain granular cutoff drain geotextile Diagram 43 EXISTING SOIL Particle re-arrangement zone GEOTEXTILE "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 85 – septembre 2007 .

particularly in the cutoff drains. • resistance to traction and deformation under maximum load will be chosen based on the deformability and bearing capacity of the subgrade. Thus: • there must be maximum flexibility at the irregular cavity bottoms. with an extension of at least 50% in loose or irregular soils. this is less important in shaped and compacted cavity bottoms. • the thickness and the compressive creep can alter the transmissivity. the conclusion will be drawn that the values must tend towards an optimum which can vary depending on the uses. • the resistance to static puncturing and the resistance to dynamic perforation limit the risk of damage in contact with irregularities. Overall. Table 10: required characteristics for use in drainage structures Caractéristiques Méthode d'essai Fonction "Tools" Collection – Sétra Characteristics Test method Function – 86 – septembre 2007 .Road drainage – Technical guide It is impossible to define value ranges given the variability and specific features of the possible scenarios.

"Tools" Collection – Sétra – 87 – septembre 2007 .Road drainage – Technical guide Filtration Séparation Renforcement Résistance à la traction Déformation sous charge maximale Résistance à la traction des coutures et joints Poinçonnement statique (essai CBR) Résistance à la perforation dynamique (chute de cône) Caractéristiques en frottement Fluage en traction Endommagement à la mise en œuvre Ouverture de filtration caractéristique Perméabilité perpendiculairement au plan Durabilité Conformément à l'annexe B Résistance aux agents climatiques Résistance au vieillissement Résistance au vieillissement chimique Résistance à la dégradation microbiologique Pertinence : essentielle pour l'harmonisation s'applique à toutes les conditions d'utilisation s'applique à des conditions spécifiques d'utilisation indique que les caractéristiques ne sont pas applicables à la fonction en question Il convient de considérer avec attention la validité de ces essais dont le principe peut de pas être applicable à certains types de produits (par exemple les géogrilles). where the principle may only be applicable to certain types of product (for example the geogrids). L'emploi d l'une seulement (résistance en traction ou poinçonnement statique) est suffisant dans la spécification. Filtering Separation Reinforcement Resistance to traction Deformation under maximum load Resistance to the traction of welts and seals Static puncturing (CBR test) Resistance to dynamic perforation (falling cone) Characteristics under friction Creep in traction Damage on laying Characteristic filtering opening Permeability perpendicular to the plane Durability In accordance with Appendix B Resistance to climatic agents Resistance to ageing Resistance to chemical ageing Resistance to microbiological degradation Relevance: essential for harmonisation applies to all conditions of use applies to all specific conditions of use indicates that the characteristics are not applicable to the function in question It is important to pay particular attention to the validity of these tests. Si les propriétés mécaniques (traction et poinçonnement statique) sont indiquées H cela signifie que le producteur doit fournir les données pour ces deux propriétés. Mechanical properties (traction and static puncturing) indicated H mean that the producer must provide data for these two properties. Using one only (resistance under traction or static puncturing) is sufficient in the specification.

the main data to be collected are as follows: • structure type and geometry (dimensioning depends on the position of the geotextile in the structure and its function . • the type of aggregate used. ringed drain with plant coating (coconut) (photo CETE Nord-Picardie/LRPC) "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 88 – septembre 2007 . hydraulic head). This is mandatory legal marking for the free circulation of goods within the European Community. Voluntary ASQUAL certification is a sign of quality: it is an added plus to the CE marking and guarantees the stated characteristics under a specific reference framework. • grading of soils (type of soil to be filtered) or the material in which the flow is produced. The CE marking is specified in standard NF EN 13252 [7]. therefore. Caution is advised. for a draining course. Warning: standard NF G 38 061 is currently being revised as it refers to obsolete French standards replaced by the CEN standards listed in Table 10 and which are not strictly equivalent. when using it to determine geotextile characteristics. • the flow rate to be drained and therefore the hydrodynamic characteristics of soils. installation depth.vertical or horizontal draining or filtering). • the constraints applied to the geotextile (height of material overspill. particularly the filtering opening and even more the permeability. Photo 11: flexible.Road drainage – Technical guide Elements required for choosing the geotextile Depending on the drainage system being built. its thickness and the rigidity of subgrade. as there is no possible correlation between the old "permittivity" and the CEN "permeability" standard.

Picardie/LRPC) Photo 13: rigid.Road drainage – Technical guide Photo 12: flexible.Picardie/LRPC) "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 89 – septembre 2007 . ringed drain with trickle channel (photo CETE Nord .Picardie/LRPC) Photo 14: "road" drain with trickle channel (photo CETE Nord . ringed drain with synthetic geotextile coating (photo CETE Nord .

Tables 11 and 12 give a few of their main characteristics and their preferred areas of use. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 90 – septembre 2007 . synthetic ringed drain Variable. with a wider opening. encourage the water to flow through with the added risk of also encouraging the movement of fine elements.2. basically polyethylene and PVC). rigid or with trickle channel(1) Flexible. These holes may be spread the length of the periphery or located in the upper part only (drains with trickle channel). The filters must however be dimensioned as for traditional road structures (characteristic filtering opening O 90.2) and not according to normal agricultural drainage practices which.Road drainage – Technical guide 4. now no longer used. 0. Water is collected at the periphery by diffuse pores (porous concrete) or by variable-size slots or perforations (fibrous concretes and synthetic materials). Note lastly that most drains in thin.8 to 3.2. see § 4. porous or fibrous concrete and above all synthetic materials.3 . up to 13 mm Circumference or upper part Heavy and brittle 4 to 6 m 80 to 630 mm 0. These splines retain the longitudinal flexibility but increase the internal roughness (reduced flow rates). synthetic material are reinforced against becoming out-of-round and crushing by splines (ringed shapes). They can take a variety of shapes (round or tunnel-shape.Drains or drain pipes Role and types Drains or drain pipes are designed to: • collect the water via their periphery.5 to 1 m 75 to over 1000 mm Variable. The material and the shapes determine the rigidity of components which are fundamentally of type types: longitudinal components of variable length but limited to a few meters (round or tunnel section. Certain rigid models therefore have two envelopes. egg-shaped or with a flat bottom) and materials (earthenware. ringed drains(2) Rigid drains Preferred use Use to be avoided Total surface area Mechanized laying with considerable depth (at least 3) > 1 m)( Shallow depth Shallow depth (risk of being flattened) Heterogeneous soils with perched water tables Total surface area Drains with trickle channel Pre-coated drains Table 12: preferred areas Upper part High flow rates Erosive soils (risk of carrying fines along) Erosive soils (risk of carrying fines along) Upper part or total surface area (1) see standard NF P 16-351 [5] (2) In accordance with the new fascicule 70 title II § II 6. they are in fact only simply pipes which are not dealt with in this guide. sandstone. As an indication. "agricultural drains (reference to standard NF U 51. concrete or synthetic materials) and very long crowns for flexible shapes (round section and synthetic materials ) (see photos 11.101) can be used under non-traffic spaces". 12. Drain or draining collector in concrete or sandstone Length Diameter Perforations Perforation position Major disadvantage Synthetic drain or draining collector. even though it can be customary to call them drains. When they do not collect water via their periphery. 13 and 14).5 mm Circumference or upper part Semi-rigid Crowns 5 to 200 mm About 1 mm Circumference Crushes Table 11: main drain characteristics Perforations or slots in Flexible. one outside with splines with a smooth one inside. • facilitate its rapid evacuation (drainage function in the true sense of the term).

backfill material and compacting method. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 91 – septembre 2007 . width of the cavity.Road drainage – Technical guide (3) The choice of the drain based on installation depth depends on the mechanical resistance of the material and the general laying context: any surface rolling load.

The diameter must be determined based on captured flow rates. however. as it reduces the risk of carrying fine particles from the soil considerably and thus the risks of internal obstruction in the drain and surface disorder (settling). especially regarding the filtering opening). Conversely. for example).Slopes The flow rate can be calculated with traditional formulae incorporating diameter and slope. For these pipes.). The gentler the slope of the drains. When the site is over. It is preferable to reduce pronounced slopes by drops at inspection chambers.Road drainage – Technical guide Laying depths for road drains are defined by standard NFP 16-351: without surface rolling load and from 0. permeability. it is essential to over-dimension (by at least two).). draining course. etc. The use of plant fibers (coconut) which is often suggested is to be avoided due to the risks of putrefaction. ND category drains will be used. Slope is a major factor. It is essential to maintain the outlet and orifices in good condition. stack. Note that the new version of fascicule 70 (title II § II-6) indicates that "agricultural drains can be used for non-traffic spaces". This coefficient should be increased even further when the drainage network is installed before or during the earthworks (higher flow rates and inevitable partial clogging). No standard gives guidance on agricultural drains: in this case a minimum depth of about a meter will be accepted. the more the diameter of the drain must be over-dimensioned to take account of retention and sedimentation zones in the drainage network. A poorly-leveled drain (or insufficiently maintained) produces water retention zones with the reverse effect of drainage: better not to drain at all than to drain badly. Diagram 44 is given as an indication for ringed drains (coefficient of roughness 45).Diameter .8 m deep. It is also essential to take every precaution to avoid obstructions: • installation of grills or valves to prevent animals from intruding. A suitably-dimensioned geotextile is used for this purpose (rules in previous paragraph. The subsequent survey intervals must be set based on the structure in which the drains play a role (trench. particularly if the drain is laid in a zone alternates between flooding and dewatering. Dimensioning: Flow rate . but in all circumstances with a risk of crushing (drains laid within a draining course. Durability and maintenance The main parameter is the resistance to the various loads such as compacting or site traffic which can cause serious damage to drains (by crushing or deformation) or the asphalt and therefore restrict or even prevent the drain structure from working immediately it goes into operation. • no planting of trees or shrubs near or directly above the drain. slopes that are too pronounced can generate erosion and cavitation phenomena between the soil and the drain. Pre-coating Pre-coating (before laying via a filter fixed on the drain) is always stipulated. Standard NF P 16-351 [5] indicates minimum rigidity and shock-resistance values for plastic pipes. reference areas are recommended to approve the products based on their behavior on implementation or under traffic. etc. given uncertainties over the "soil" parameters (homogeneity. the acceptance procedure stipulates an inspection of all inspection chambers. SD category drains will be chosen for all other circumstances. see standard NF U51-101 [2]. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 92 – septembre 2007 . outlet and discharges as well as video soundings of theoretically the most critical sections.

Road drainage – Technical guide Diagram 44: flow rate for ringed drains based on the slope and diameter débit en l/s pente en mm/m flow rate in l/s slope in mm/m "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 93 – septembre 2007 .

The chambers must also be placed carefully so that maintenance engineers can access them in total safety. These systems are suitable for depths of less than one meter. road path. square or rectangular -.3 .round.1 . grips. shoulder. regardless of the longitudinal evacuation capacity of systems.40 m and the adapted shape ("curve" entrance) allows the hydrocleaner to pass through. they connect drainage structures located in a median or on one side of the pavement (mixed profiles or pavements with a single crossfall) to collectors or an outlet located towards the downstream side of the cross section. Particular attention must be paid to the downstream connection in works phase.3. Wherever possible.Inspection chambers In all shapes and sizes .). For safety reasons.Road drainage – Technical guide 4.Outlets These are points where water is discharged from the footprint and more generally anything that evacuates water collected (ditch. inspection chambers can be prefabricated when repeated or poured on site. a variable-height box section and a head into which fits the removable cover. piping. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 94 – septembre 2007 .70 x 0.Ancillary structures For safety reasons.70 m (to allow a man or the hydrocleaner through in all circumstances) and must be flush with the finished ground level. If they are not fitted to edge drains.) When the chambers are located at the pavement edge. there is every advantage in not leaving too much distance between outlets. it is preferable. stacks and fin drains). The drain head must be raised in the ditch bank so that it does not hinder mowing. these structures must be taken into account at the design stage and in accordance with the general principles of the guide Dealing with lateral obstacles [20].3. 4. They must be dimensioned correctly with a minimum of 0. The maximum distance is 100 m to allow the hydrocleaner to move through (in principle every three or five years). Some EDRC manufacturers offer prefabricated elements in PVC with a lower section that fits onto the drain. It is normally marked by an inspection chamber connecting the overall drainage network and the specific drainage network from the roadbed. 4.3 .Crossings Crossings are buried pipes channeling the water so that it can cross the pavements underground. insofar as they are near traffic lanes.) will ideally comprise a single element guaranteeing a continuous flow downstream. making sure that the inspection chambers do not open into zones where roadbed run-off water is concentrated (trickle channel. They can share a joint position with inspection chambers. for example). which must have a safety head if placed along a lane open to traffic. PVC drain. The condition of the chambers must be inspection on a very regular basis. In all circumstances. The installation must be determined accurately.70 m). The covers on the inspection chambers or outlet chambers. etc. In particular. Some are rectangular (0. Their internal diameter of 0. 4. They have an invert in the lower part. they are installed away from the emergency hard shoulders on the soft verge* and located where there is a change in direction or in a link section to comply with the maintenance requirements. The draining part (steel ducts. Monitoring and maintenance inspection chambers should be installed about every 70 to 80 m and at all places useful for maintenance. It is also advisable to raise the lids every year to check that the whole system is working properly and thus highlight any overloading. must be calculated to resist major rolling loads (1/2 axle) depending where they are used (sidewalk. etc. the drain exit must be marked by a concrete outlet head with an anti-rodent grill.40 x 0. to provide them with lockable iron covers to limit dangers to user safety and maintenance costs. A specific collector must be installed if the configuration of the ground makes this impossible. for safety reasons.3. These structural parts will be designed as traditional connections (non-draining pipes) or as extensions to drainage structures (trenches. etc. as joint dislocations can generate disorders relating to water which infiltrates instead of flowing.2 . the distance between a high point of the drain and an outlet located immediately downstream or between two outlets located in the same flow must not exceed 500 m. Water is normally discharged into a ditch.

"Tools" Collection – Sétra – 95 – septembre 2007 . The first system frequently ages poorly (joint dislocation) more often than not due to incorrect installation. or even better as far as the natural receiving flow.Road drainage – Technical guide It can be useful to channel discharges in natural flow zones for a few meters at least. The most commonly used outfalls are components fitting together (tiles) or arc of circle components (metallic half-ducts).

completion of drainage work. application of quality assurance. operation and maintenance "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 96 – septembre 2007 .Road drainage – Technical guide Chapter 5 5 .Execution of work.

draining courses and cutoff drains . early summer. . special drainage applications in earthworks phase and inspections. to check the continuity of the drainage structure. as the soil surface produces mud and therefore pollution during implementation. thereby creating far more rapid degradation that when no drainage system is installed. Photo 15: poor site organization creating water stagnation at the low point of the road. which addresses the execution of work. this type of structure can feed pavements and their subgrade with water. however. despite the presence of ditches on either side (photo CETE Normandie-Centre. Once the investment decision has been taken. The laying of pavement edge drains varies according to whether or not the pavement and shoulder have already been built. the optimum period is when the water contents are at their lowest. between July and October in France. This aspect of site phases is a factor in the choice of longitudinal structures (cutoff drain. 5. This scenario can. when the water content is not too low (before cracks appear). the quality of installation of drainage system structures is the only real guarantee of pavement durability. be envisaged with some types of manufactured EDRC.do not lend themselves to construction which changes as work progresses from the earthworks phase to the construction of the pavement itself. Contract or contractor interfaces will be covered by hold points* when there are at least two contractors.for curative work (cracks already evident). i.Execution of work Optimum work period The optimum period for installing drainage systems depends on what stage of the work has been reached: • where a deep structure to drain the water table drawdown is involved. • for surface structure drainage in earthworks and draining new or old pavements. The implementation of the various drainage systems is dealt with in Chapter 4 of this guide. At worst.grips. .1 . there is no longer an optimum period. it is important to choose a lowwater period (normally summer.when the aim is to control dessiccation*.where the system is intended to attenuate harmful effects of increased humidity during rainy periods or to increase protection against frost-thaw.Execution of drainage work Please also refer to Chapter 7 in the guide Fin drains at pavement edge for the execution of work [12]. draining stacks. fin drain built on site).1 . • for the special case of laying edge drains (cutoff drain or EDRC).e.1. incorporating the timescale provided for in the geotechnical* or hydrogeological* study. manufactured fin drain. the optimum period depends on the targeted objectives: .Road drainage – Technical guide 5. LRPC Blois) "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 97 – septembre 2007 . early autumn) to take advantage of the water content of the soils. rainy periods must be avoided as for the earthworks. the optimum period is more in late spring. Managing interfaces Most traditional drainage systems .

• it reduces the volume of soils to be processed. The earthworks (extraction. • shaping and daily settling of surfaces by compacting preferably with tires. Evacuation of rainwater Temporary structures are installed for this purpose. to ensure continuous run off. a continuous flow of water must be maintained at the foot of a bank connected to an outlet.). In cut. a ridge of earth at the edge of the bank channels the water to a (temporary or final) outfall at the low point and carefully connected.10 Temporary site drainage and 5. in both cut and fill. however insignificant. • regular leveling with a blade (grader or bulldozer) to remove the excess materials and reduce rutting throughout the day. There are many justifications for this operation which benefits contractor and project owner alike. etc.Special drainage applications in earthworks phase Earthworks involving fills.15 Draining structures. etc. etc. breaking banks. to prevent uncontrolled run off and gullying along banks. compacting. In fill. Maintenance normally consists of: • creating and maintaining a transverse slope of at least 4% (single crossfall or rooftop). Water collected on the site must be returned to the natural environment in compliance with regulations in the law on water and undertakings made the water policing file [15]. The knock-on effect on deadlines and costs are far from negligible (processing obligations.2 . execution delays. gullying. thereby reducing infiltration at the same time. • the work execution timescales are shortened. temporary drainage outfalls can be installed. In anticipation of a final structure (if appropriate). for: • it encourages run off. • it is favorable to machine traffic. Surface maintenance It is primordial to maintain surfaces that have been or are going to be regraded. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 98 – septembre 2007 . cuts and capping layers cannot be carried out without complying with some elementary rules in controlling water. • it maintains the hydric state of materials and the bearing capacity of soils.Articles 5. in cut and in fill. substitutions.). Some of these provisions represent good earthworks practices and are mentioned in the CCTG Travaux [8] fascicule 2 . A ditch at the crest of the bank is frequently dug for cuts: it will be important to remember it is there when the site comes to an end to avoid any water stagnation at the top of a bank. Materials in suspension (mineral pollution at least from site mud) must be eliminated from the site water via settling tanks and possibly straw dams or other before being returned to the natural environment. traffic. The banks of both cuts and fills must be protected against run-off water.Road drainage – Technical guide 5. they are maintained on a daily basis in both rainy and dry spells.1.) are made difficult by structures undermined by water infiltration (drop in bearing capacities.

LRPC Blois) "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 99 – septembre 2007 . The accumulation of rainwater has created a "swimming pool" effect [the red arrow marks a common point] (photo CETE Normandie-Centre.Road drainage – Technical guide Photo 16: sample cut without outlet.

This technical guide does not suggest a standard distribution of checks between these two entities (Contractor-Project Engineer). • compact the fill edges as well as its heart. miscellaneous checks are possible and may be carried out under the responsibility of the contractor or the project engineer. 5. which is subsequently removed with shovel or blade. to be performed during and after the work has been carried out (see Table 13).2 Quality Assurance plan for the list of checks with the hold points* and critical points*.2. An alternative solution is to lower the water table before soil extraction commences.Road drainage – Technical guide A few rules for carrying out the work • avoid forming basins or low points which are ideal water traps. • it frequently transpires that the drains are highly damaged after the earthworks or after laying the pavement. it is therefore advisable to create the roadbed with an excess width of at least equal to one meter.1. in the long term. • normally start the cuts with their downstream side in longitudinal section.). given as an indication. for poorly-compacted banks of a fill are liable to rapid infiltration. Any situation of this nature which cannot be avoided should be included in the contract so that the contractor is obliged to provide means despite everything of evacuating the water (pumping. • watch out for maintaining a longitudinal slope towards an outlet to avoid creating a "swimming pool" effect. Particular attention must be paid to this point if drain action is ultimately taken into account in pavement dimensioning. For safety reasons compactors do not operate on bank edges. despite a correctlyassessed slope. thereby causing disorders. This requires a larger soil footprint on a temporary basis see Article 5. so that they are drained continuously.8 Fills in fascicule 2 of the CCTG [8]. • perform earthworks following the drop in water levels in soils with low permeability and where there is a water table: work carried out too quickly could make the banks unstable. Refer to Chapter 5. etc.3 .Checks Depending on the details in the control. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 100 – septembre 2007 . drain ramming. Constructing underground passage structures or creating cuts from a high point without installing an outlet can momentarily block a site through water accumulation.

The project engineer must define in the Tender Regulations (RC) the requirements to be taken into account by the contractor to draw up his SOPAQ. . operation of the road under the site. Installing a drainage structure is an application of particular interest in a quality approach for two reasons: • the care applied to the works in their smallest detail conditions the quality of the whole. they must include drainage work quality assurance. . The SOPAQ includes the contractor's organization chart with the various functions.1 .methods for the topographical installation and monitoring. 5.Application of quality assurance in the drainage work For further information. .allocation of tasks. The SOPAQ must be contractualized by the CCAP and is the contractual reference framework throughout the site's lifetime.Road drainage – Technical guide 5.management of interfaces. . This DCE defines: • the technical stipulations of the structure(s) to be built (CCTP). a description of the resources and execution methods employed and the inspection resources and methods envisaged. it is his commitment in terms of quality assurance and as such represents a key factor in the approach.the content of the SOPAQ (RC) and the PAQ (CCTP).Site-specific Quality Assurance Plan (PAQ) The contractor sets out a draft PAQ based on his SOPAQ during site preparations.2 . • bad workmanship is not easy to observe after installation and even less so to find. • the execution procedures defining: . The project owner or his project engineer expresses his interest in the contractor's quality management when the Contractor Tender Document (DCE) is being written. In this lies the advantage of a quality approach which monitors all the quality components at the time of installation itself.the resources and conditions for executing work. .the principles of managing and processing non-conformities. etc. If the RC so requires. where the supplies come from. the guiding type if a ditched is used.organization of internal inspections.checks under the responsibility of the contractor (CCTP). refer to the guide Quality Assurance organization in earthworks [13]. The CCTP specifies that the PAQ includes the following items: • a general organization note. assembling geosynthetics. compacting methods. These needs are governed by the drainage system adopted and are explained in detail in the Contractor Tender Document (DCE). Once finalized. the contractor will describe in this document the special technical features of the drainage process to be implemented. The contractor submits the SOPAQ with his proposal. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 101 – septembre 2007 . for it serves firstly to judge proposals and secondly to prefigure the PAQ. 5. which services are subcontracted and the main sub-contractors. the PAQ is stamped by the project engineer. Total reconstruction is very often their only remedy. Whether or not drainage work is covered by specific contracts or is part of larger contracts (earthworks. • the organization of the quality assurance required from the contractor: .2. .see Appendix 4) must figure in the SOPAQ. pavements). including in particular: .the critical points* (PC) and the holds points* (PA) (CCTP).Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme (SOPAQ) All the provisions adopted by contractor to satisfy the technical stipulations expressed in the Special Technical Specifications (CCTP .2 . for example the ditching resources employed.2.

safety.hold points* and critical points* in addition to those defined in the CCTP.Road drainage – Technical guide . etc. . They also serve in establishing the as-built file. one sheet per basic task and/or per work day. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 102 – septembre 2007 . frequency). Certain tasks common to earthworks (signaling. these sheets prove to the project engineer that the contract stipulations have been met. Table 13 gives some hold points* (PA) and critical points* (PC).) are not repeated in this table. • follow-up and result sheets.checks and tests performed (type.

unless it is impossible to provide for structure acceptance in this PA scenario. Greater rigor must be applied in the installation of structures at the end of the earthworks phase . These interfaces are frequently behind a lack of quality. • Approval of materials Checking material characteristics and approval: composition of porous concrete. . .Road drainage – Technical guide • Approval of prefabricated components Checking the conformity with the contract specifications (manufactured EDRC. . .structure depth and the regularity of the longitudinal slope: this can require an accurate leveling reference system (laser. .2. It is the accurate description of all the tasks to be performed and if possible the people designated to fulfill them.cleaning the structure surrounds.). . channels and geotextiles in the cutoff drains. compacting width. etc. outlet equipment. etc. .Quality Master Plan (SDQ) During site preparations. geotextile. piping. the project engineer in conjunction with the contractor and the outside inspection the Quality Master Plan (SDQ). it’s aim is the consistency expected in the quality approach from each participant by examining the planned actions as a whole. . • the list of critical points* and hold points*.structure width. . untreated graded aggregates. bank stabilization. granular filling materials.need for purges. This plan includes in particular: • the Quality Assurance Plans (PAQ) of the various participants. number of compacting passes. PA PA PC PC PC PC PC PA PC PC PC PC PC PC PA PC PC PA PC PC Table 13: a few hold points (PA) and critical points (PC). manufactured stacks or filter envelopes of EDRC built on site. the integrity of assemblies once passed through the box section. wire. • Checks on implementation They include checking the following points at least: . .connection of drains.installation of ancillary structures in general (outlet exits. etc.structure installations at the desired position in the cross section.). drains. etc. .verticality of longitudinal structure installation (fin in the box section. connections to inspection chambers and outlets and checking they are working correctly.regularity of supplies. anti-rodent grills. etc. their conformity and the absence of material segregation.).conformity of the compacting material.shaping the surface of the shoulder.continuity of guiding systems. compactor speed) [11] after building a convenience area which is marked by a hold point. type and condition of materials. verticality of trench walls. . It can change throughout the site lifetime. inspection chambers. It is not contractual. • Site safety Work under traffic.filling regularity of trenches. • the organization of the external check* with respect to the internal check*.cleanliness and regularity of the cavity bottom.3 . • the management of interfaces between the services provided by the various contractors.compacting quality of courses laid (number and thickness of fill layers. . 5. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 103 – septembre 2007 . in the trench) and their positioning against the interfaces to be drained. All low points should be avoided when building the structure.

1 . The checks cover: • conformity of the work. outlets. the operating management department has a duty to create the "zero point" when taking over the structure. 5.Drainage system operation and maintenance Equipping a pavement with a drainage systems is an investment with an on-going objective: evacuating the excessive water in the pavement and subgrade structures to prevent early and/or accelerated degradation.Road drainage – Technical guide 5. which. etc. the maintenance department is advised to carry out a full inspection of the structure based on the as-built file to recognize all the parts of the drainage system and in the maintenance guide for these structures.4 . video. which makes them difficult to check their existence or their state of repair. The as-built drawing indicates the actual location of systems.Completion of drainage work 5. The check may also be made with a video camera. geophysical method (georadar). 5.4. The drainage networks must therefore be monitored and maintained in the same way as the clean-up drainage. soundings. limits the maximum distance between inspection chambers to 100 meters. etc. • flow continuity: once the structures have been built. 5. It is therefore essential that the road management department is provided with an as-built drawing produced when the drainage network is constructed. This test should be analyzed with care. A positive result does not necessarily guarantee the regularity of the water flow. This operation is essential prior to setting the inspection and periodic maintenance schedule. where virtually all components are on the surface and can therefore be repaired. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 104 – septembre 2007 .2 .1 . excavation. Although this is only a selective test.Handover of as-built drawing Unlike the clean-up drainage systems.3 . • measurement of fill material compactness: this may be measured with a dynamic penotrometer.4. water from a tank can be injected into the network via inspection chambers to check that the flows are definitely found downstream. For EDRC. piezometry. this method can only be interpreted if the fin has a leaktight collecting device at its base. combining with moving the hydrocleaner (direct check on operation) through the parts of the drainage system made up of collectors that can usually be inspected.2 .Inspection of structure with as-built drawing Once the structure has been handed over. by a surveyor.Acceptance Acceptance is pronounced based on checks made at the end of the site. • the position of outlet heads.3.3. 5. inspection chambers. almost all components in a drainage network are underground. let us not forget. The following in particular will be located: • accessibility and protection of inspection and outlet chamber covers. They can carried out by eye or by sampling. The trench can be opened in the event of a dispute. it can be multiplied and used in a statistical sounding program.Establishment of the zero point in the absence of an as-built drawing When there is no as-built file.

This task is nevertheless primordial and must be carried out by any means possible.1. As the systems are underground. etc.3. • slope of drain water flows. All these observations must be indicated on the drainage network "zero point" drawing. Repairs and repair frequency Refer to Chapter 4 of this guide for the maintenance and repair of the various drainage systems. and if necessary to understand the drainage system. The following in particular will be checked: • that water is flowing in the ditches or channels or outfalls after a rainy spell and is being evacuated (check on water flow levels in ditches compared with the drainage system outlets). Note that the most propitious periods to detect functioning anomalies are during or immediately after a rainy period.Maintenance and repair work When the manager is obliged to establish a zero point and carry out backfit work.Road drainage – Technical guide Initially. The zero point must specify the state of repair of all parts of the system so that a list of first maintenance work essential for the structure to work correctly may eventually be drawn up. 5. It is thus possible to have an overall view of the systems. • protection of outlet heads. Whereas such provisions are not very restrictive for a specialist department in charge of expressway or motorway maintenance. Their existence must subsequently be checked in the field. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 105 – septembre 2007 . • system connections to outlets.3 . there is no guarantee that the same applies for departments in charge of current networks in national or departmental roads. • structure geometry and accessibility. • that there are no mudslides at the outlets (their presence is a sign of a damaged geotextile filter in the drainage system or even worse that it is missing). The type and significance of the work should be defined from rules specified in Chapter 5.4. this involves a preliminary task which must be studied following expert assessment. the contract documents will provide information on the planned drainage solutions.1.2. so that priorities can be set for repair activities depending on the extent of damage observed. diameters of drains. an indication of their presence can be given by the inspection chambers and outlets which must be located accurately. Monitoring Monitoring must be regular and carried out jointly with the clean-up drainage monitoring [10].. Maintaining a drainage network has two parts . Secondly. • position of inspection chambers. recourse may be possible to openings as indicated in § 5.monitoring and repair.

Road drainage – Technical guide Appendices "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 106 – septembre 2007 .

piezometric map.). The number and type of soundings has tremendous impact on the accuracy of conclusions. • if there are water circulations. etc. • the definition of the G2 standard study program to be undertaken on the topic.Road drainage – Technical guide Appendix 1 .Special hydrogeological* studies Hydrogeological* studies potentially requested as part of the project which require special drainage conditions (existence of a water table.). in dry spells the results are frequently optimistic.). etc. • an assessment of uncertainties in the study over the information provided. The geotechnical study will also indicate. timescales and costs for building structures and phase 2 the documents required for contractor tenders. It is also important to specify the meteorological context for taking the soundings. • the hydraulic characteristics of the aquifer1 (permeabilities. • the definition of the G12 standard study program to be undertaken on the topic. etc. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 107 – septembre 2007 . geotechnical* feasibility study This is a special study to validate the drainage hypotheses and define in detail the general construction principles for drainage structures. • the approximate assessment of possible impact of the hydrogeology on the project. the following must be defined: • the detailed geometry of the aquifer1 reservoir1 (roof and wall positions. • if the water is permanent or liable to dry up. frequently with difficulties in specifying orders of magnitude for these structures. • if there are any water inflows. slopes. The study will nevertheless specify in the report and/or in the longitudinal geotechnical section the cuts and the section numbers concerned by any water inflows detected. It must also reveal the presence of water. To achieve this. if the structures are necessary on both banks: it may be that the water ingress dry up in the bank opposite the preferred circulation direction of the subsurface waters. G2 standard mission. It will be necessary to specify: • the presentation of major local hydrogeological units or underground flows in the context of regional knowledge or prior experience. estimated quantities. etc.) will include. • conversely. capturing water inflows in the bank. geotechnical* feasibility study This mission is used to establish very accurately the structure's geometry and dimensioning. preliminary feasibility study The geotechnical study will have highlighted the need for counter-measures. • the site equipment to monitor changes in the piezometry (installation of piezometers. etc. • the assessment of constraints caused by the aquifer in developing the project and conversely the assessment of the predictable impact of the project on aquifer1 disturbances. the predictable impact of the project on the local hydrogeology (altered flows. field survey. regional knowledge. Phase 1 includes a few dimensioning design notes. specifying whenever possible: • if there is a water table and monitoring its evolution for at least a year if not more if a high-capacity water table is involved. Other sources of information could also be consulted: bibliography. G12 standard mission. etc.). depending on the reference geotechnical mission requested (standard NF P 94-500 [4]): G11 mission. when this is predictable. known resurgences or any other element that only a field investigation can bring to light. • an assessment of uncertainties in the study over the information provided. • the report on feed and losses (with any tracings).

scree. silts. clay rock. R62. magmatic and metamorpic rock) Chalk. In addition to traditional sounding and field survey methods (piezometers. generally compressible zones) consolidate soils by evacuating the water.Improvement in hydric conditions of materials This involves creating structures intended to collect surface or underground water and drain the natural ground. rocks altered under the influence of water (soft limestone. aggregates with little clay Clean aggregates. even more 3 to 6 months ≤ 3 months Materials lending themselves with difficulty to improvement through drainage except specific study taking account of the cracking. some B6 B1. R12. R42. R33. sample taking.Road drainage – Technical guide Appendix 2 . • possible means of creating the drainage and the dimensioning. R22.). When the goal is improve hydric state of materials. B5. R11. R32. R63 Silts. • the assessment of their permeability. water levels will be monitored over at least a year. R23. Using drainage to lower the water content will be stipulated if the soil type so lends itself. these temporary structures may be built into the final drainage systems of all types depending on circumstances. microfissuring and intrinsic permeability of materials on site septembre 2007 "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 108 – . This work will provide the best conditions for carrying out the earthworks and a better material re-use rate. R34. clay schist. regional knowledge. field survey. photointerpretation can offer certain advantages in detecting wetlands and hydric. R41. • the meteorological conditions during the soundings in particular and their impact in terms of drainage needs. hydromorphological or phytographic indices. it must be added that even if the initial situation is improved by reducing the water content of materials. Other sources of information may also be of interest: bibliography. For compressible soils*. B4. cracked and micro-fissured rock (limestone. • the characteristics of the water table or the hydrogeological conditions in general. pumping tests. a specific study will take into account subgrade mechanics and imposed loads (see guide Creating fills in compressible soils [14]). Special case: Drainage operations for subgrades in a fill (peaty. R61. fine clay sands Fine sands. their hydric state and geometry. The studies must obviously give a good idea of the least favorable hydrogeological conditions. B2. However. Soil identification (under NF P11-300) Soil description Normal permeability coefficient (in m/s) Approximate time to remove excess water under favorable meteorological conditions A1. R43. puddingstone sandstone. R21. the drainage does not prevent treating the materials with suitable reagents in all cases. B3. R31. specifying the climatic context (wet or drought year). • the effects of the project on the environment (and vice versa). D3. D1 D2. The techniques addressed in this guide can be used for modest drainage operations to prepare access to a plot in non-compressible zones but with very low bearing capacity (thickness of soils to be improved ≤ 1 m). R13. etc. etc. marshy or wetlands. Ideally. the studies will defined (see Appendix 1): • the type of soils to be drained. altered hard rocks) 10-5 to 10-9 10-3 to 10-5 1 to 10-3 minimum 6 months.

A4. changing clay rock. R3 Table 14: identification of soils (according to standard NF P 11-300) which can be drained "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 109 – septembre 2007 . certain B6.Road drainage – Technical guide C1. salty rock. C2 Soils with large elements (Dmax > 50 mm) Clays. sandy clays. unfissured rock 10-9 to 10-13 Refer to the characteristics of the 0/50 mm fraction Materials not lending themselves to improvement by drainage A2. R5. A3. marls.

It can often be tricky to identify (very low seasonal flow rates are sufficient to vary considerably the water content of soils and the untreated materials in the structure). the assessment of flow rates from detected resurgences must be provided by a standard G2 hydrogeological study (see Appendix 1). Resurgences in a pavement in service are more easily revealed during dry weather after a wet spell. recourse to capture at a specific point is necessary. when a random resurgence is detected. It can also normally be detected during earthworks in wet spells. In any event.1 .Road drainage – Technical guide Appendix 3 .Assessment of flow rates to be drained 3. However. Any diffuse resurgences in a localized zone can be captured by longitudinal cutoff drains or by using a draining course. Note also the effectiveness of deep ditches in obstructing lateral water ingress in cut zones.Through subgrades Depending on the texture of the substrate and its intersection with the pavement. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 110 – septembre 2007 . water ingress from a water catchment of varying size can infiltrate the ground and feed the pavement "via the bottom".

silty sands. crushing or settling) which require a high safety coefficient. Permeability scale (reminder): Inf to 1E-9: clays 1E-7 to 1E-9: clay silts. 10. the thickness of the water table and the permeability of soils for a cutoff drain. as far greater permeabilities (1E-3 et 1E-2) must be reached before encountering evacuation problems with common drains. 15 and 20 m. However. in the most common scenarios (silty clays or sandy clays with fine sand). based on drain diameters 100. The four diagrams correspond to different water table depths (idle): 5. clay sands. Epaisseur de la nappe rabattement Diamètre drain Débits en litres/heure pour 100 ml Perméabilité des sols en m/s Water table thickness drawdown Drain diameter Flow rates in litres/hour for 100 ml Soil permeability in m/s "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 111 – septembre 2007 . These diagrams attempt to show that the flow rate (and therefore the soil permeability) is not.Road drainage – Technical guide Shown below are diagrams on the flow rates depending on the drawdown. dimensioning with respect to the drain pipe. to dimension the drainage network.5% slope. In red: maximum flow rate of a ringed drain with a 2. a specific hydrogeotechnical study is highly recommended. a 150 mm pipe could be adopted without major risk. Thus. clay graded aggregates 1E-5 to 1E-7: silts. 150 and 300 mm. as soon as soils with high permeability (more than 1E-5) come into play. in the main. double the figure obtained) and a length of 100 m. silty graded aggregates 1E-5 to 1E-4: clean sands more than 1E-4: fissured rocks (including chalk) and clean graded aggregates In black: water table dewatering* flow rates according to soil permeability for one trench side (for the total trench flow rate. The dimensioning will depend on other parameters (risk of obstruction.

The various elements playing a role in determining the flow rate are presented in Diagram 45. • flow rates feeding the subgrade. Diagram 45: schematic diagram of the various types of flow rates under pavements and shoulder Diagram 46: relationship between the surface layer compactness and rain infiltrating the pavement Diagram 45 fissure transversale fissure longitudinale précipitations Diagram 46 Coefficient d'infiltration moyen Compacité moyenne en % Diagram 45 transverse crack longitudinal crack rainfall Diagram 46 Average infiltration coefficient Average compactness as % (1) Compactness (%) (2) Permeability coefficient (m/s) (3) Theoretical infiltration (l/h) under constant feed (4) Average annual infiltration coefficient m (in % rainfall) 85 "Tools" Collection – Sétra 1. taking the levels and durations of rainfall into account produces the values in column 4. via the longitudinal cracks.10-5 – 112 – 250 100 septembre 2007 .Qa.Qe. . through the surface course. • flow rates transiting at the interfaces. via the transverse cracks or Qfl. .Qft. column 2). Based on the permeability coefficient (Table 15. the theoretical infiltration values in column 3 are obtained under the assumption that the pavement surface is fed permanently. which give the proportion of water infiltrating through an asphalt in relation to the rainfall1.2.Through the pavement To dimension the drainage systems. Qi.2 . Diagram 46 has been established to illustrate this point with a dispersion of the compactness of ± 2 or 3 points from the average. It is quite clear that an asphalt surface layer can only really resist infiltration when it is over 93% compacted. at the pavement-shoulder interface.Qr. . it can be enough to obtain an estimation by excess of water flow rates entering the pavement structure through the rainfall. 3. rainfall P and the run off. The principle of the calculation is to estimate the flow rates to be drained per linear meter of pavement from daily duration D.Road drainage – Technical guide 3. for rainfall lasting one hour. Qs. In reality.Diffuse infiltrations via the surface courses The Qe flow rates depend on the permeability coefficient of the asphalt. Distinction is made between: • flow rates entering the pavement: . It is assumed that infiltration takes place when the surfacing is covered by a film or water (the pavement surface is subject to hydraulic gradient potential equal to the unit).1 . which usually collect relatively modest effluents. corresponding to inputs from the shoulder and the lateral catchment area.

"Tools" Collection – Sétra – 113 – septembre 2007 . Higher rainfalls in the North can increase the values in columns (4). These three cases are an accurate simulation of a typical southern French climate.025 60 30 <5 Table 15: infiltration through an non-fissured. 4 mm in twelve hours and 40 mm in twelve hours.10-7 1.5 0. (1) Average of three standard rainfalls: 4 mm in four hours.Road drainage – Technical guide 3. asphalt surface course for 1 linear meter of 7 m-wide pavement.10 -7 -9 92 93 95 7.5 2.10 1.

the lateral water catchment. Type Qa infiltrations from shoulders.Infiltration through the cracks (see Diagram 45) The infiltrations Qf via the cracks depend on their opening.10 -7 30% 70% 95% 1.4 2. Distinction is made between infiltration via transverse cracks. and infiltrations via longitudinal or edge cracks. the interception of springs and confined water tables by the pavement are trickier to assess. Qft. reaching the drainage system per linear meter in the pavement is given by the sum: Qt = Qe + Qf + Qr + Qa By way of indication. Qfl or Qr (see Tables 16 and 17). The high valves emphasize the advantage in bridging cracks and obtaining asphalts with an acceptable minimum compactness. any random water inflow. for one linear meter of a 7 m-wide pavement based on the distance between cracks (percentage of infiltrated water with respect to rainfall) Table 17: infiltration via a longitudinal crack or by an edge joint for one linear meter of pavement in liters/hour (in brackets.0 (50%) 2. Wherever possible. The Qa infiltrations also feed the water flows at the interfaces.4 3 5 10 8. When dimensioning an edge drain.2. or one limited in space.2 . as the courses must be loaded for them to appear.5 (30%) 85 (100%) 50 (100%) 25 (100%) 840 (100%) (1) 500 (100%) (1) 250 (100%) (1) Opening of longitudinal cracks (mm) 0.5 (65%) 5.4 10 (70%) 2. the estimation by excess of infiltration water flow rate. The Qs flow rate values (of the subgrades) are difficult to assess and without practical purpose for the targeted objective or are dimensioned by a hydrogeological study. Qt.1 mm transverse cracks every 3 m With 0. The Qi flow rates (of the interfaces) are lower than the infiltration through the surfacing. The water flows transiting at the interfaces with flow rate Qi correspond to the various inputs caused by contrasting permeabilities between neighboring courses and the fact that the interface zone has a higher permeability than the full-thickness materials.1 1 (15%) 0. must be treated specifically. These inputs trigger local saturation which encourages the flows in saturated conditions. Opening of transverse cracks (mm) 0.4 100 (100%)(1) Table 16: infiltration via transverse cracks.1 0.Road drainage – Technical guide 3. unless underground water ingress is intercepted by the pavement. Table 18 gives an estimation of the total flow rate of infiltration water through a pavement surfacing with shrinkage cracks and a longitudinal crack. percentage of infiltrated water with respect to rainfall) (1) theoretical value very much higher than rainfall volume Conditions Surfacing permeability coefficient (m/s) 3.4 mm longitudinal crack at edge 60% 80% 100% 1. in liters/hour. These flow rates are therefore considered to be negligible.10 -9 < 5% 65% 90% Table 18: combined impact of surfacing compactness and the presence of cracking on the percentage of water infiltrating through a pavement surface course "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 114 – septembre 2007 .10 -7 Non-fissured With 0.

Road drainage – Technical guide

Sample estimation of a drainage system dimensioning.
Let us examine the case of a half-pavement (3.50 m carriageway) with 2% longitudinal slope, made up of an asphalt concrete (BB) + Foundation + Subgrade. The data considered are: - BB compactness = 92%; - Existence of transverse cracking every 3 m, opening 0.1 mm; - Existence of longitudinal cracking at the edge, opening 0.1 mm; - Shoulder permeability, 10-6 m/s i.e. 3.6 mm/ h. An EDRC 0.50 m deep, HD, with a projected collecting drain 90 mm in diameter. The goal is to estimate the maximum flow it is likely to capture. The flow rates entering the pavement are calculated per linear meter. They are the sum of three terms: 1. Qe = flow rate crossing the BB. C = 92% produces a theoretical infiltration of 7.5 l/h for a width of 7 m (Table 15), hence Qe = 7.5 x 3.5/7 = 3.75 l/h; 2. Qft = flow rate due to the transverse cracking. Table 16 indicates an input of 8.5 l/h for a width of 7 m, therefore Qft = 8.5 x 3.5/7 = 4.25 l/h; 3. Qr = flow rate due to the input at the edge. Table 17 indicates 1 l/h per linear meter. Total flow rate from the pavement = Qe + Qft + Qr = 9 l/h which, under established rainfall conditions (extended duration) and where the subgrade has very low permeability, will feed the edge drain. To this must be added the flow rate capable of being collected by the face shoulder side of the drain, i.e. a width of 1 m from the edge in question for a height of 0.50 m: Qa = 10-6 × 1 × 0.5 × 3600 × 1000 = 1.8 l/h. The flow rate collected is therefore in the order of 11 l/h per linear meter, i.e. 3.10
−3

l/s

The nomographs (supplier documentation) show that a 90 mm-diameter drain, with 2% slope, evacuates 15,000 l/h, i.e. 4.2 l/s. The distance between neighboring outlets could be 1 km (for 15,000/11 > 1,000 m), but a limit of 500 m will be set.

Checking the utility of draining
The utility of draining can be checked. A relatively permeable subgrade would absorb the 9 l/h before the drain. To achieve this it would require a permeability (assumed under saturated state) higher than: 9 × 10-3/3600/3.5= 7 × 10-7 m/s. As soon as the subgrade is less permeable, temporary storage will occur in the foundation; failure to drain this stored water may hinder the foundation from working correctly (an untreated graded aggregate will lose tremendous rigidity during extended rainfall, a treated foundation could slip with the BB, etc.). Comment: as shown by the calculations below, the results are closely linked to the permeability coefficient value considered. The risk of error is without practical consequence if the nature of the materials is such that they have very high or very low permeability. On the other hand, for the intermediate levels, major errors can slip in if the permeability coefficient is estimated from identification characteristics alone. It is then necessary to refer to results of standardized tests.

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Road drainage – Technical guide

Appendix 4 - Elements to establish the special technical clauses (CCTP)
This appendix does not represent a standard CCTP, more a canvas to be adapted to each site scenario. It incorporates a concern over managing the quality of work. It must be remembered that the drainage work is integrated, in a good many cases, with earthworks and pavement construction work (or maintenance and repair or rehabilitation). This very generally includes drainage work. How to manage interfaces between these various work aspects should be dealt with in one or other of the CCTP.

1 - Description of work to be carried out
1.1 - Localization of work 1.2 - General description of work reserved for the contractor
Description of type of drainage structure to be constructed Hydraulic data Geotechnical data Preparatory work

1.3 - Work not included in the contract 1.4 - References to drawings extracted from the capital investment project

2 - Quality assurance
Service conditions for the drainage structure General provisions for controlling quality Degree of PAQ development Type of site Dealing with anomalies Quality Assurance Plan Critical points Hold points Organization of external check Organization of internal check

3 - Material, product and component specifications
3.1 - Required characteristics of drainage systems
- System typology - Geometric, mechanical and hydraulic characteristics (see Chapter 4)

3.2 - Materials for earthworks and backfill
• Soils, untreated graded aggregates, d/D graded aggregates - Classification Appendix 5 [1]. Size of largest elements compared with the thickness of the compacted layer - Type of materials according to the densification objective - Special provisions or rejection of certain materials (frost susceptibility of soils, industrial byproducts) - Aggressivity (chemical, biological) of certain soils or industrial by-products to installed networks or some components like the geotextiles or geomembranes - Composition of porous concretes, etc. • Geotextiles
"Tools" Collection – Sétra – 116 – septembre 2007

Road drainage – Technical guide

Geotextile certified, not certified for … (destination of geotextile), inspection … Geotextile characteristics to be determined: - Resistance to traction - Deformation under maximum load - Resistance to dynamic perforation - Permeability to the water normally to the plane - Filtering opening, Of, and resistance to water penetration • Drains - Drain destination, drain type, hydraulic characteristics, chemical stability, stability in terms of atmospheric agents, collecting system for edge of pavement fin drain, etc. • Edge of pavement fin drains - Destination of the EDRC, hydraulic characteristics, thickness, height, etc. - Prefabricated EDRC or manufactured on site. - Related geotextile (Of), draining materials, porous concrete, characteristics of draining core, material properties, hydraulic characteristics, flexibility and mechanical stability.

3.3 - Ancillary structures
Example: inspection chambers (dimensions, covers, etc., outlets (diameter, anti-rodent grill, outlet head).

4 - Work execution method (example for cutoff drains and EDRC)
4.1 - Specifications on installation and setting out of systems
- Plane installation (description of sections to be treated, distance from the lane axis) - Leveled installation (section and water flow slopes).

4.2. - Acceptance and storage of supplies and materials 4.3 - Trench execution method
- Width (depending on process adopted), depth - Preparation, opening the trench, characteristics of cavity bottom, any lagging

4.4 - Laying specifications
- Laying of bedding course materials, draining materials, drains and geotextiles - Installation drawing (working drawing), cutting rolls, the geotextile, assembly by recovering by welts, heat welding, stapling, bonding, wind action - Laying in the trench Laying EDRC Laying the EDRC using laying material fitted with a box section - EDRC manufactured on site or prefabricated - Filling with porous concrete - Laying the EDRC without box section - Removing box section - Preparing the cavity bottom - Laying and anchoring the textile, laying materials.

4.5 - Compacting specifications
See guide Backfilling trenches [11]

4.6 - Dealing with singular points
Crossing carriageways, buried transverse networks

4.7 - Installing inspection chambers, connections to outlets 4.8 - Ancillary work
For example, damproofing course above an Edrc or a cutoff drain.
"Tools" Collection – Sétra – 117 – septembre 2007

volumes 3 and 7 . [15] Water and the road .Sétra guide.Protection provision. AFNOR. Ref. B0103. March 2003. AFNOR. AFNOR.Compacting reference areas See guide Backfilling trenches [11] 5. Plastic piping systems for buried drainage. Météo-France. AFNOR . Ref. [14] Creating fills in compressible soils .As-built drawing Appendix 5 . D.classification and specifications.Technical guide. Sétra – LCPC. November 2001. July 1998.Technical guide. 5 .definitions. D. Sétra – LCPC.Checks at hold points 5.Technical guide. [20] Dealing with lateral obstacles . Ref. 1992.systems for dealing with rainwater . Ref. [2] NF U 51-101: Agricultural drainage. [12] Edge of pavement fin drains . September 1992. June 2000. Ref. October 1997. Devreton.LCPC Technical guide . [19] Instruction on the Technical Development Conditions for Link Motorways (ICTAAL) .2 . 1998. B9668.Bibliography Standards: [1] NF P 11-300: Earthworks execution. February 1993 (currently being revised). [10] Common road drainage maintenance and repair . Ringed pipes in unplasticised polyvinyl chloride.December 1987. Ref. D9841. Sétra.Checks and quality 5. AFNOR. September 1992.1 . Sétra.Technical guide. study conducted by the Central Department for Meteorological Exploitation. Ref. [3] XPP 18-540: Aggregates . D9233. [5] NF P 16-351: Plastics. etc. 1997. AFNOR. Civil engineering specification.Acceptance checks . Sétra – LCPC.Technical guide. Technical documents: [9] Creating fills and capping layers . D9441. Sétra – LCPC. length of alternating traffic arrangement . Ref. E0233. Ref. 1994. Determination of hydraulic characteristics and laying in drainage and filtering systems. 2000. 2000. [13] Quality assurance organization in earthworks .Packing up equipment in the evenings and at weekends.Road drainage – Technical guide 4.Technical guide. conformity and specifications. Specifications.LPC technique and method. D9237. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 118 – septembre 2007 . C. Sétra. AFNOR. [11] Backfilling trenches and repairing pavements . [6] NF G 38 061: Recommendations for the use of geotextiles and related products.9 .Using the road during the work . B 9741.required characteristics for use in drainage systems. AFNOR.Technical guide. [18] Development of main roads (ARP) . 1992. Ref.9923. Sétra. 1998. Classification for materials that may be used in the construction of fills and capping layers in road infrastructures.Practical guide.3 . [4] NF 94-500: Geotechnical missions . [17] Stabilization of landslides . [7] NF EN 13252: Geotextiles and related products . 2002.Technical guide.0034. 1994. December 2000. Fasc. [16] Climate characterization for pavement drainage. [8] CCTG travaux (General Technical Clauses for works) – fascicule 2: General earthworks. Sétra – LCPC. 1 and 2.

Considering motorcyclists in infrastructure development and management .Technical guide. Ref. D9232. Ref. For information: Law 92-3 of 3 January 1992 on water and it’s application decrees Assistance in choosing draining and drainage solutions for existing roads (ACSARE) . . Sétra.Technical guide. Sétra – LCPC. 1993. Sétra – LCPC.Road drainage – Technical guide [21] Road drainage . Ref. Preventive maintenance of the national road network .Technical guide.Technical guide. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 119 – septembre 2007 . Sétra. 1995. Ref. E 0026.to be published in 2006. 1979.Technical guide. Sétra – CERTU. 2000. D9511. Ref. D7905. Designing and dimensioning pavement structures .

Soft verge: the non-drivable section of the shoulder. between the stabilized structures and the banks or trickle channels. External check: checking that the contractor's Quality Assurance Plan is applied and assessing the reliability of the internal check by the Project Engineer.Abbreviations and glossary 6. Block size distribution: size of rubbly components of a material. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 120 – septembre 2007 .Glossary Terms in the glossary are marked with a * in this guide. Aquifer: water-bearing zone which may be partially driven by gravity Attrition: phenomenon modifying the grading layer due to the reduced size of certain particles. It may be seen when the particles collide with each other or other obstacles.Road drainage – Technical guide Appendix 6 .1 .2 .Abbreviations AR BAC BAU BB CCAG CCTP EC DCE EDRC ES GNT LA MDE QAP PST RC : Subformation level (Arase des terrassements) : Continuously reinforced concrete (Béton Armé Continu) : Emergency hard shoulder (Bande d’Arrêt d’Urgence) : Asphalt concrete (Bêton bitumineux) : General Conditions of Contract (Cahier des Clauses Administratives Générales) : Special Technical Clauses (Cahier des Clauses Techniques Particulières) : European Community (Communauté européenne) : Contractor Tender Document (Document de Consultation des Entreprises) : Edge of pavement fin drain (Ecran Drainant de Rive de Chaussée) : Sand equivalent (Equivalent de Sable) : Untreated graded aggregate (Grave Non Traitée) : Los Angeles coefficient (coefficient Los Angeles) (standard NF P 18-573) (norme NF P 18-573) : Micro-Deval coefficient (coefficient micro-Deval) (standard NF P 18-572) (norme NF P 18-572) : Quality Assurance Plan (Plan d’Assurance Qualité) : Subformation (below capping level) (Partie Supérieure des Terrassements) : Tender Regulations (Règlement de Consultation) SOGED : Waste Evacuation and Management Organization Scheme (Schéma d’Organisation de Gestion et d’Évacuation des Déchets) SOPAQ : Quality Assurance Plan Organizational Scheme (Schéma Organisationnel du Plan d’Assurance Qualité) SDQ TPC VBS : Quality Master Plan (Schéma Directeur de la Qualité) : Median (Terre-Plein Central) : methylene blue value of a soil (valeur de bleu d’un sol) 6. Boiling: the boiling phenomenon is observed in certain soils when the normally upwards water pressure is likely to liquefy this soil by placing particles in suspension in water and canceling out the effective stress quicksand is an example of this phenomenon. Internal check: includes the internal check (by the Site Manager) and the external check (by the contractor's Quality Manager).

beyond which an activity must not proceed without the approval of a designated organization or authority. polymerbased. Honeycomb geosynthetics: three-dimensional honeycomb or similar structure.Road drainage – Technical guide d85: grading criterion determined on the particle size analysis curve: d85 is the diameter of soil components. Geogrid: flat. it is the formation level for the capping layer or subformation level if there is no capping layer. Cut: below the natural level of the ground Dessiccation: loss of water contained in the soil. loams. knitted or woven. loess. Frost index: measurable quantity characterizing the hardness of a winter for pavement structures. Skimming profile: cross section of the roadbed nearly at natural ground level. Geospacer: three-dimensional. used in contact with the soil or with other materials in geotechnics and civil engineering. with the external check being advised formally of the time of its execution and/or result. regular network of tensile strength components which may be assembled by extrusion. Hydrogeological study: study providing information on the circulation of groundwaters and water table behavior. made up of interlinked geosynthetic strips. Geo-technical study: study of soils from all aspects of interest to the Civil Engineer. Critical points: situations for which it has been decided to perform an internal check on a participant. "Tools" Collection – Sétra – 121 – septembre 2007 . Geotextile: flat textile material. where at least one component is a geosynthetic product. Subformation (below capping level): this is made up of material(s) located about 1 m below the capping layer (or below the foundation layer if there is no capping layer) Pier: vertical upright holding up the arches of a structure Formation level: flat surface on which is laid the first pavement foundation. These phenomena manifest themselves on the surface and underground by creating networks of cavities of varying degrees of continuity and size. bonding or interweaving and where the openings are larger than the constituents. soft clays and certain clay silts. polymer-based structure comprising an open. permeable and polymer-based (natural or synthetic) which may be unwoven. permeable. Fill: volume of earth brought in to fill or raise the natural ground level. Dewatering: drainage water Depression: circular depression away from edge Geocomposite: manufactured assembly of materials. Geosynthetics: geotextile. It is defined as being the absolute value of the sum of average below-zero daily temperatures for a given place and period. Mixed profile: cross section of the roadbed. polymer-based structure designed to create an air space in the soil and/or other materials in the geotechnical and civil engineering fields. where one side is located in fill and the other in cut. geomembrane and related products. peats. Blue line: line depicting the water surface in a profile Red line: line depicting the surface of the pavement Karstic network: karstic phenomena are the result of limestones being dissolved by infiltration water. like 85% in weight of components in this soil are less than this diameter. Compressible soil: (or soft soil) is a soil that deforms easily such as loose sands. Hold points: points defined in an appropriate document.

gouv.Yasmina Boussafir (Cete NormandieCentre .ISRN: EQ-SETRA--07-ED40--FR+ENG The Sétra belongs to the scientific and technical network of the French Public Work Ministry (RST) . It suggests solutions based on the type of structure. creating and maintaining road drainage.Reference: 0743A .equipement. installation. dimensioning and maintenance for new road projects. managers. Design Offices and public works contractors involved in studying. This guide is intended for Project Engineers and Clients.Marc Valin (Cete Nord-Picardie) .setra. including earthworks and for existing pavements.f Photographers:: Alis (A28-Rouen/Alençon en construction) . This document is awailable and can be downloaded on Sétra website: http://www.This Road Drainage technical guide is the first methods document to encourage taking drainage needs in road works systematically in account.Lrpc Blois) .Francis Vanlaethem (Cete Nord-Picardie Lrpc Lille) The Sétra authorization is required for reproduction of this document (all or even part) © 2007 Sétra .

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