SALMONELLA CONTROL by CID LINES www.cidlines.

com

CONTENT
I. Introduction II. Salmonella species
• Bacteria • Disease • Legislation

• Sampling

III. Salmonella control
• Factors affecting Salmonella prevalence

• Salmonella prevention

IV. Sanitation program
• General • CCP’s

CONTENT
I. Introduction II. Salmonella species
• Bacteria • Disease • Legislation

• Sampling

III. Salmonella control
• Factors affecting Salmonella prevalence

• Salmonella prevention

IV. Sanitation program
• General • CCP’s

5 (growth between pH 4-9) .37°C ( 95° – 99° F)  Optimum pH: 6.7. Salmonella The bacteria The genus Salmonella: • • • • Salmonella Family Enterobacteriaceae facultative anaerobic Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria  Optimum temperature for growth: 35°C .5 .II.

II. Salmonella Salmonella infections There are two categories of Salmonella infections in poultry: • Salmonella infections of importance to public health (paratyphoid Salmonellae)  cause disease by humans • Salmonella infections that can cause disease in poultry flocks (fowl typhoid and pullorum disease) .

old people and people with impaired immune systems can suffer severe disease and even death. .II. Salmonella Salmonellosis in humans • The greatest hazards to public health include:  raw poultry meat  undercooked poultry meat products  eggs and products containing raw eggs • The incubation period: 5 hours till 7 days (mostly clinical signs 12 h-36 h after ingestion of a contaminated food) • Children.

.II. anorexia. prostration. headache The syndrome usually lasts for two to seven days. Salmonella Salmonellosis in humans Clinical signs include: • diarrhea • nausea • abdominal pain • mild fever • chills • Vomiting.

. Salmonella Salmonellosis in animals • Bird specific species: – Salmonella pullorum – Salmonella gallinarum • Salmonella-infected animals may or may not develop disease  subclinical carriers  Other enzootic diseases can thus predispose or increase the susceptibility of animals to Salmonella exposure.II.

Salmonella Species and subspecies More than 2500 different Salmonella serotypes .II.

Salmonella Species and subspecies The European Commission observed flock prevalence for the 5 most frequently reported Salmonella serotypes were: – – – – – – S.4 % S. hadar 1.2 % S. infantis 2. mbandaka 0. typhimurium 0.9 % S.5 % S. enteritidis 10.5 % Country specific! .1 % Others 6.II.

.

II. Salmonella Transmission Animal feed Water source Transport Equipment Dogs and cats Rodents. Birds Farm Animals Food Processing Faeces Flies Meat products Man Salmonella Food Poisoning .

II. Salmonella Transmission Most of the Salmonella serovars: • Limitation to the oral/faecal cycle • Multiplication in the digestive tract and shedding • Environmental and faecal contaminations • Contamination of egg limited to surface of the shell Horizontal transmission .

Salmonella Transmission Salmonella Enteritidis: • Invasion of internal organs • Multiplication in the digestive tract and shedding • Detectable antibodies • Contamination of eggs: 0.02% (2 eggs on 10000) • Transmission to next generation Vertical transmission .II.

Salmonella Transmission .II.

7 50 42.II.3 22.9 3.2 Netherlands France Austria Denmark Slovenia Finland Norway Sweden 10 8.1 0.5 17.2 10 Spain Ireland Latvia Italy Cyprus Greece Czech Republic Germany 42.7 27.3 33.1 Belgium 15.8 33.7 10.2007) Hungary 66. in EU (EFSA.3 30. Salmonella Prevalence (%) of Salmonella spp.3 Poland Estonia Portugal 57.3 0 .5 0.9 The United Kingdom Slovakia Lithuania 10.8 3.9 7.4 29.

Salmonella Legislation REGULATION (EC) No. • Mainly Salmonella and Campylobacter are the main causes of zoonoses in humans. from farm to fork. • Controls should cover the whole food chain.II. 2160/2003 of 17 Nov 2003 on the control of Salmonella and other specified food-borne zoonotic agents. • All EU countries are required to establish rules to avoid the introduction of Salmonella in a farm. GOAL: Salmonella free meat on the market!! .

II. Salmonella Legislation The five most frequent salmonella serotypes must be controlled: – Salmonella enteritidis – Salmonella typhimurium – Salmonella hadar – Salmonella infantis – Salmonella virchow .

Enteritidis S. Salmonella Legislation Species Breeders Start date testing 01-01-2007 Testing Faeces.II. Typhimirium ? ? <1% by 31/12/2012 ? ? Breeding pigs Slaughter pigs ? ? . 5 pair of boot swabs Faeces. Typhimirium S. Enteritidis S. Enteritidis S. Typhimirium EU target <1% by 31/12/2009 Reduction each year Final goal: <2% <1% by 31/12/2011 Layers 01-01-2008 Broilers 01-01-2009 Turkeys 01-01-2010 2 pair of boot swabs ? ? S. 2 pair of boot swabs 2 pair of boot swabs Target species All 5 species S.

before consumption • Salmonella should be absent in 25 grams fresh chicken meat from 12/12/2010 . Positive eggs and day old chicks will be destroyed. • Suspected positive consumption eggs shall be treated in order to eliminate the salmonella. Salmonella Legislation Remarks: • also hatching eggs fall under this regulation.II.

• Boot swabs: walking throughout the poultry building with absorbent material placed over the footwear of the sampler .II. Salmonella Available methods for sampling • Drag swabs: dragging swabs throughout the poultry building.

Salmonella Available methods for sampling • Faecal samples: multiple fresh faecal/caecal samples collected from different areas in the poultry building. .II.

. dead in shell and culled chicks at the hatchery. including inside the incubators.II. • Hatchery samples: throughout the hatchery. chick box papers. Salmonella Available methods for sampling • Meconium.

18 – 64 weeks) . – 4 weeks olds – 2 weeks < moving to production house • breeders: production flocks every 2nd week during the production (gen.C.II.O. Salmonella Minimum sampling • breeders: rearing flocks – D.

Salmonella Minimum sampling • layers: rearing flocks – D. – 2 weeks < moving to production house • layers: laying flocks every 15 weeks during the laying cycle .C.II.O.

Salmonella Minimum sampling • broilers: before leaving for slaughter (results should be known prior to leaving for slaughter) • turkeys: before leaving for slaughter (results should be known prior to leaving for slaughter) .II.

Sanitation program • General • CCP’s .CONTENT I. Salmonella control • Factors affecting Salmonella prevalence • Salmonella prevention IV. Salmonella species • Bacteria • Disease III. Introduction • Legislation II.

III. Salmonella control Factors affecting Salmonella prevalence .

Salmonella control 5 basic principles 1. Rearing chicks in Salmonella free environment 3. Salmonella free water and feed 4. Salmonella free day-old-chicks (parent stock. Immediate action when Salmonella is detected . hatchery.III. transport) 2. Regular monitoring of total production chain 5.

thus an obvious starting point for any Salmonella control strategy is to ensure poultry breeding flocks are kept Salmonella free.III. . Salmonella control Salmonella free day-old-chicks Salmonella is transmitted via the egg from parent to chick.

Salmonella control Salmonella free environment • Controlling for birds.III. flies and rodents • All-in/all-out management • Visitors • Good cleaning and disinfection protocol .

Salmonella control Salmonella free water and feed • Pelleted feed 10 times less Salmonella than non-pelleted feed (thanks to heat treatment) • Antibiotics: can cause resistance Salmonella.5 Salmonella Lactobacilli pH .5 7 7.5 9 9.III.5 6 6.5 5 5. affect the resistance of the animal against colonization • Addition of organic acids enhance Salmonella destruction Growth curve Salmonella and Lactobacilli vs.5 4 4.5 8 8. pH 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -202.5 3 3.

III. Salmonella control Regular monitoring of total production chain • According European legislation the production chain is regular monitored by sampling of poultry flocks .

• Before restocking the facility.III. a bacteriological examination should be carried out. . • Particular care should be taken in cleaning and disinfection of the poultry house and equipment. Salmonella control Immediate action when Salmonella is detected • Determination of the origin of the infection. • Movement of poultry flocks at the end of the production cycle should only be allowed for slaughter or destruction. • Poultry litter/faeces and other potentially contaminated farm waste should be disposed of in a safe manner.

Sanitation program • General • CCP’s . Salmonella control • Factors affecting Salmonella prevalence • Salmonella prevention IV.CONTENT I. Salmonella species • Bacteria • Disease III. Introduction • Legislation II.

IV. Sanitation Program 1. Remove litter .

remove most of the dirt . Sanitation Program 2.IV. Soaking with water.

Sanitation Program 3. Cleaning water system Application Product CID 2000 Frequency After every batch Dosage 2% Contact time 4 – 6 hours .IV.

IV. Sanitation Program
4. Cleaning
Application
Foaming

Product
BIOGEL
(foaming alkaline detergent)

Frequency
After every batch

Dosage

Contact time
15 - 30 minutes

2-5%

IV. Sanitation Program
5. Disinfecting
Application
Spraying

Product
VIROCID®
(broad spectrum disinfectant)

Frequency
After every batch

Dosage

Contact time
Minimum 15 minutes

0,5%

VIROCID® efficacy tests:
Salmonella enteritica Enteritidis Salmonella enteritica Heidelberg AOAC, USA AOAC, USA 1 min 1 min 1: 800 1: 800 0,125% 0,125%

Salmonella choleraesuis ser. enteritidis
Salmonella choleraesuis ser. pullorum Salmonella choleraesuis Salmonella choleraesuis ser. typhisuis

AOAC, USA
AOAC, USA AOAC, USA AOAC, USA

10 min
10 min 10 min 10 min

1: 400
1: 400 1: 400 1: 400

0,25%
0,25% 0,25% 0,25%

IV. Sanitation Program
Critical Control Points

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points Cleaning feeding tubes .

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .IV.

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .IV.

Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .IV.

Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .IV.

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .IV.

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .IV.

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .IV.

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .IV.

IV. Sanitation Program Critical Control Points .

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