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Solution definition: hyper-, hypo-, isotonic solutions Solution Solution definition

A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. One of the substances is called a solvent (a substance in which other substance or substances are dissolved). The substances dissolved in a solvent are called solutes.

A solution can exist in a solid, liquide or gas form depending on mixed substances and external conditions such as temperature and pressure. Isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic solutions

Terms isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic are usually used when a reference to cell of a living organizm is made, but it can be generally used to compare concentration of a solute in two solutions. Isotonic solutions

Isotonic solutions are two solutions that have the same concentration of a solute. Hypertonic solution

Hypertonic solution is one of two solutions that has a highier concentration of a solute.

see Hypotonia. Effect of different solutions on blood cells Tonicity is a measure of the osmotic pressure gradient (as defined by the water potential of the two solutions) of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.Hypotonic solution Hypotonic solution is one of two solutions that has a lower concentration of a solute. the free encyclopedia "Hypotonic" redirects here.3 Isotonicity o 1.4 Effect on cells . as only these exert an osmotic pressure. Osmotic pressure is the pressure that must be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane. Solutes able to freely cross the membrane do not affect tonicity because they will always be in equal concentrations on both sides of the membrane. Like osmotic pressure. tonicity is influenced only by solutes that cannot cross the membrane. It is commonly used when describing the response of cells immersed in an external solution. For the muscular disease.2 Hypotonicity o 1.1 Hypertonicity o 1. @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ Tonicity From Wikipedia. Contents [hide]  1 Classification o 1.

the cell will not always rupture. When a cell’s cytoplasm is bathed in a hypertonic solution. If water molecules continue to diffuse into the cell. The three are hypertonic. The rate of water diffusion is the same in both direction that cell will neither gain nor lose water. [edit] Hypertonicity A hypertonic solution is a solution having a greater effective osmole concentration than the cytosol.6 Notes [edit] Classification There are three classifications of tonicity that one solution can have relative to another. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. A hypertonic solution is used in osmotherapy[1] to treat cerebral hemorrhage. Water molecules diffuse through the plasma membrane in both direction.5 See also 1. it will cause the cell to swell. the water will be drawn into the solution and out of the cell by osmosis. When placed in a hypotonic solution. up to the point that cytolysis (rupture) may occur.It is a concentration of both water and total solute molecules are the same in an external solution as in the cell content. [edit] Isotonicity A condition or property of a solution in which its effective osmole concentration is the same as the solute concentration of another solution with which it is compared. [edit] Effect on cells This section does not cite any references or sources. it will cause the cell to shrink.o o 1. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. hypotonic. [edit] Hypotonicity A hypotonic solution is a solution having a lower effective osmole concentration than the cytosol. (January 2008) . or crenate. When a cell’s cytoplasm is bathed in a hypotonic solution the water will be drawn out of the solution and into the cell by osmosis. It contains a lesser concentration of impermeable solutes on the external side of the membrane. and isotonic. In plant cells. It contains a greater concentration of impermeable solutes on the external side of the membrane. If water molecules continue to diffuse out of the cell. the cell will have Turgor Pressure and proceed with its normal functions.

This process is called osmoregulation. The flexible cell membrane pulls away from the rigid cell wall. which provides effective osmolarity or osmolality. In some cases of suspensions intended for intramuscular injection. http://en.wikipedia. Plant cells tend to resist bursting. and the plasmodesmata almost cease to function because they become constricted — a condition known as plasmolysis. In plant cells the terms isotonic. thus they lose water osmotically to the sea from gill cells.org/wiki/Tonicity WIKIPEDIA THE FREE ENCYCLOPEDIA . due to the reinforcement of their cell wall. In a hypotonic environment. the effect is more dramatic. They need a large surface area in their gills in contact with seawater for gas exchange. The cell takes on the appearance of a pincushion. a process known as cytolysis. a hypertonic environment forces water to leave the cell so that the shape of the cell becomes distorted and wrinkled. In plant cells. hypotonic and hypertonic cannot strictly be used accurately because the pressure exerted by the cell wall significantly affects the osmotic equilibrium point. Some organisms have evolved intricate methods of circumventing hypertonicity. a state known as crenation. and actively excreting the excess salt.In eukaryotic animal cells. They respond to the loss by drinking large amounts of saltwater. animal cells will swell until they burst. saltwater is hypertonic to the fish that live in it. but remains joined to the cell wall at points called plasmodesmata. For example. a slightly hypotonic solution is preferred in order to increase the dissolution and absorption of the drug by absorbing water from the surrounding tissues. Fresh water fish urinate constantly to prevent cytolysis.

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