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BFM1113 ENGINEERING MATERIALS
P. C. SEE © 2009 FKPPT UMP
Tensile Properties of Materials
Many materials, when in service, are subjected to forces or loads; examples include the aluminum alloy from which an airplane wing is constructed and the steel in an automobile axle. In such situations it is necessary to know the characteristics of the material and to design the member from which it is made so that any resulting deformation will not be excessive and fracture will not occur. The mechanical behavior of material reflects the relationship between its response or deformation to an applied load or force. Important mechanical properties are strength, hardness, ductility and stiffness. The mechanical properties of materials are ascertained by performing carefully designed laboratory experiments that replicate as nearly as possible the service conditions.
Callister and Rethwisch (2008)
Where are we now??
The structure of metals
The properties of materials
Learning Outcome (LO6)
Tension Compression Torsion Bending Hardness Fatigue Creep Impact Failure and Fracture of Materials In Manufacturing and Service Residual Stresses Work, Heat and Temperature
Learning Outcome (LO6)
At the end of this session you should be able to
• Understand the purpose of learning the mechanical properties of of materials • Understand the tensile properties of materials • Determine the ductility of materials • Construct and analyze the stress-strain curves • Understand the effect of external parameters on the tensile behaviour of materials
Adapted from Wikipedia
LO6 .Part 1 Understand the purpose of learning the mechanical properties of of materials .
) Determine stresses and stress distribution within members that are subjected to well defined loads Materials characterization… a.) To predict materials performance through stress analysis b.) To understand mechanism of fractures and ways to prevent it • Parts and components are formed into various shapes in manufacturing operations .Mechanical Properties of Materials Manufacturing operations • • • Parts and components are formed into various shapes By applying forces to the workpiece Through various tools and dies Why study mechanical properties? • Design and development… a.
the real structure is represented by a finite number of interconnected elements. See http://bit.ly/18USR9 for more information. The behaviour of the finite elements under an applied load represents the overall behaviour of the real structure. .Mechanical Properties of Materials In a finite element analysis.
Mechanical Properties of Materials High Temperature Temperature CTE PCB > CTE Substrate > CTE Si Die Time .
Mechanical Properties of Materials Warpage contours of FC-PBGA package documented at (a) 150°C. .3 mm per fringe order. A 3-D warpage map at room temperature obtained by digital image processing is shown in (d).ly/z6Fw0 for more information. where the contour interval is 5. See http://bit. (b) 100°C and (c) room temperature.
y = (0.Mechanical Properties of Materials x. 0) Von Mises stress distribution in critical solder ball Location of critical solder ball Strain distribution in critical solder ball .
Mechanical Properties of Materials An oil tanker that fractured in a brittle manner by crack propagation around its girth .
LO6 .Part 2 Understand the tensile properties of materials .
Tensile Properties of Materials Tensile test determines the following mechanical properties of materials • • • • • Strength Ductility Toughness Elastic modulus. and Strain hardening ability Instron 5560 Universal Materials Tensile Testing Machine (see http://bit.ly/e7VD7 for more information) .
showing various features .Tensile Properties of Materials A typical stress-strain curve obtained from a tension test.
ly/18UibN .Tensile Properties of Materials Proportional limit The point up to which the stress and strain are linearly related Ultimate stress The largest stress in the stress strain curve Rupture stress The stress at the point of rupture Elastic region The region of the stress-strain curve in which the material returns to the undeformed state when applied forces are removed A closer view on tensile test using Instron http://bit.
This is a ductile fracture type. as seen by the local necking and the cup and cone fracture surfaces .Tensile Properties of Materials Plastic region The region in which the material deforms permanently Yield point The point demarcating the elastic from the plastic region Yield stress The stress at yield point Plastic strain The permanent strain when stresses are zero Off-set yield stress Stresses that would produce a plastic strain corresponding to the specified off-set strain Tensile test of an Al-Mg-Si alloy.
Tensile Properties of Materials Ductile material A material that can undergo large plastic deformation before fracture Brittle material A material that exhibits little or no plastic deformation at failure Hardness Resistance to indentation Strain hardening The raising of the yield point with increasing strain (see beyond proportional limit) Necking The sudden decrease in the area of cross-section after ultimate stress Picture showing the failure of brittle material. See http://bit.ly/3AoWon for more information .
showing original and final gage lengths. (b) A tensile-test sequence showing different stages in the elongation of the specimen .Tensile Properties of Materials (a) A standard tensile-test specimen before and after pulling.
The circular insets represent the geometry of the deformed specimen at various points along the curve. The tensile strength TS is indicated at point M. .Tensile Properties of Materials Typical engineering stress-strain behavior to fracture point F.
Tensile Properties of Materials Engineering stress • • • Specimen elongates when the load is first applied Known as linear elastic Engineering stress (or nominal stress) is defined as the ratio of the applied load.ly/MCGPm for more information . See http://bit. P. of the specimen P Engineering stress. to the original cross-sectional area Ao. σ = A0 Simulation of a Tensile Test With Necking Localization.
ly/93FEI for more information . See http://bit. e = (l − l 0 ) l0 where l is the instantaneous length of the specimen Picture showing a sample before and after tensile test.Tensile Properties of Materials Engineering strain • Also known as nominal strain • Tensile strain calculated by taking into account the linear size of the non-deformed sample. Engineering strain.
. or 0. Note that.Tensile Properties of Materials Yield strength • • • • • As the load is increased --> plastic deformation Characterized by yield stress. the curve follows a path parallel to the original elastic slope Schematic illustration of the loading and unloading of a tensile-test specimen.2% elongation Area decrease permanently and uniformly During unloading. σy Yield point --> strain offset of 0.002. the curve follows a path parallel to the original elastic slope. during unloading.
engineering stress --> tensile strength/Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) Loaded beyond its ultimate tensile strength --> begins to neck (neck down) Engineering stress drops further.Tensile Properties of Materials Ultimate tensile strength • Max. showing various features . finally --> fracture at necked region Engineering stress at fracture --> breaking/fracture stress • • • A typical stress-strain curve obtained from a tension test.
E • • Ratio of stress to strain in elastic region Also known as Young’s Modulus Modulus of elasticity. showing various features .Tensile Properties of Materials Modulus of Elasticity. E = • σ e Measure the slope of the elastic portion --> stiffness of material A typical stress-strain curve obtained from a tension test.
ν = εlongitudinal The Poisson’s effect .Tensile Properties of Materials The Poisson’s effect • A positive (tensile) strain contributes a negative (compressive) strain in the other direction This is called Poisson effect • − εlateral Poisson’s ratio.
The “corrected” true stress-strain curve takes into account the complex stress state within the neck region. e = ln l0 A comparison of typical tensile engineering stress-strain and true stress-strain behaviours. which corresponds to M’ on the true curve.Tensile Properties of Materials True stress and true strain • Engineering stress --> based on original cross sectional area Ao of the specimen True stress --> ratio of the load. σ = • • P A True strain is calculated as l True strain. P. Necking begins at point M on the engineering curve. A. to the actual (instantaneous) cross-sectional area. . of the specimen True stress.
while on the other hand.Tensile Properties of Materials Toughness • • Resistance to fracture of a material when stressed Area under the true stress-strain curve --> energy per volume dissipate by material during deformation Also known as the specific energy Total area up to fracture --> toughness Depends on the height and width of the curve. • • Strength depends on height Ductility depends on width • • • Toughness of material is equal to the area under the stress-strain curve up to fracture .
LO6 .Part 3 Determine the ductility of materials .
(c) Completely ductile fracture.ly/16zyEg for more information. • • • . (b) Ductile fracture. (a) Brittle fracture.Ductility of Materials Definition and concepts • The extend to which materials can be plastically deformed without fracture Also --> material’s ability to deform under tensile stress For deformation under compressive stress --> malleability Important in metalworking Schematic appearance of round metal bars after tensile testing. See http://bit.
ly/16zyEg).Ductility of Materials Ductility measurement • • Two common measurement Total elongation Total elongation. where A0 and Af are the original and final (fracture) cross-sectional area . (l Elongation = f − l0 l0 ) x 100 lo and lf are original and final (fracture) length measured in test • Reduction of area Reduction of area. RA = (A 0 − Af Af ) x 100 Tensile test of a nodular cast iron with very low ductility (http://bit.
Ductility of Materials Approximate relationship between elongation and tensile reduction of area for various groups of metals .
ly/pEbS2 for more information. • . See http://bit.Ductility of Materials Brittle materials • • • No yield point and no strain hardening Ultimate strength same with breaking strength Brittle materials do not show plastic deformation but fail within elastic region (linear stress-strain curve) Characteristic --> broken parts can be reassembled as original shape (no necking is observed) Stress Strain Curve for Brittle materials. Point 1 indicates the ultimate strength and point 2 indicates the yield strength.
LO6 – Part 4 Construct and analyze the stressstrain curves .
.Stress-Strain Curve Procedure • • Divide load data by A0. (b) Engineering stress-strain curve. σ = Kε n K = strength coefficient n = strain-hardening coefficient (a) Load-elongation curve in tension testing of a stainless steel specimen. (c) True stress-strain curve. and the elongation by lo Calculate data for true stress-strain curve in plastic region using the following equation True stress. (d) True stress-strain curve based on the corrected curve in (c) plotted on a log-log paper.
Stress-Strain Curve .
The curves start at a finite level of stress: The slope associated to the elastic regions are too steep to be shown in this figure.Stress-Strain Curve True stress-strain curves in tension at room temperature for various metals. thus each curves starts at the yield stress of the material. .
1. 2. Point A: Engineering stress.) Strain hardening region. n Higher n --> longer uniform strain before necking (recall strain hardening) Stress vs. 3. Strain curve typical of structural steel. Point B: True stress • . 5.) Ultimate Strength.) Necking region.Stress-Strain Curve Strain at necking in tension test • • • • Necking onset corresponds to ultimate strength of material Specimen cannot support the load anymore Cross-sectional area reduction rate higher than the strain hardening rate True strain at the onset of necking equals to strain hardening coefficient.) Rupture. 4.) Yield Strength.
LO6 – Part 5 Understand the effect of external parameters on the tensile behaviour of materials .
the strainhardening exponent. the yield stress. n decreases with increasing temperature Typical effects of temperature on stress-strain curves.Temperature Effects on Tensile Behavior Higher temperature generally • • • Raises the ductility and toughness Lowers the yield stress and the modulus of elasticity In most metals. and the toughness of materials. the ultimate tensile strength. . Note that temperature affects the modulus of elasticity.
the slopes of the curves increase. thus.Rate of Deformation Effects on Tensile Behavior • Deformation rate --> the speed at which tension test is being carried out A function of specimen length Increasing the strain rate increases the strength of material (strainrate hardening) Slope of graph (see figure) is known as strain-rate sensitivity exponent. C is known as strength coefficient . as the temperature increases. Note that. m Stress. • • • σ = Cε m The effect of strain rate on the ultimate tensile strength for aluminium. strength becomes more and more sensitive to strain rate as temperature increases.
Rate of Deformation Effects on Tensile Behavior • • Materials stretch further at higher m value --> delays necking Higher strain rate increases strength. . Note that. thus. hence reduces necking and allows further deformation Superplasticity --> high ductility caused by high strain-rate sensitivity at higher temperature Observation at higher temperature Higher strain-rate sensitivity Lower strength compared to 300C • • The effect of strain rate on the ultimate tensile strength for aluminium. strength becomes more and more sensitive to strain rate as temperature increases. as the temperature increases. the slopes of the curves increase.
Under the certain conditions these materials can be stretched to several times their original length. uniform elongation prior to necking and fracture Elongation: range from 100% to 2000% Cause: high strain rate sensitivity at increased temperature A balance between dislocation multiplication and annihilation Dislocation density does not increase during deformation Used to manufacture complex structural components Superplasticity is the ability of certain materials to undergo extreme elongation at the proper temperature and at a controlled strain rate.Rate of Deformation Effects on Tensile Behavior Superplasticity • • • • • • Ability to undergo large. .
hydrostatic extrusion Brittle material can be extruded because the hydrostatic pressure increases its ductility The appearance of the fractured tensile bars tested under applied pressure ..e.Hydrostatic Pressure Effects on Tensile Behavior Effect of hydrostatic pressure • • • • • Increases the strain at fracture and ductility Happens in both ductile and brittle materials Explanation --> suppression of micro-void development Used in manufacturing process i.
tensile strength and hardness • Decreases ductility and toughness Plastic materials --> same effect • Nuclear power for the Astute will be provided by the Rolls-Royce PWR 2 pressurised water reactor.Radiation Effects on Tensile Behavior • • Important in nuclear applications Typical changes at high energy radiation: • Increases yield stress. .
and the energy required for plastic deformation are important factors. ductility. modulus of elasticity. • Hence the yield strength.Summary • Manufacturing processes involve shaping materials by plastic deformation. • The tensile test is the most commonly used test to determine such mechanical properties. rate-of-deformation. hydrostatic pressure and radiation affects tensile behavior of materials . • Temperature. hardness. ultimate tensile strength.
What’s Next? .
Thank you .
D. (2008) “Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering”.Reference Callister. John Wiley & Sons.. . S. Kalpakjian. W. S. Pearson Education. and Schmid.. (2006) “Manufacturing Engineering and Technology”. D. and Rethwisch. G.
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