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# Date of the Experiment: 10-11-2010 Assignment No.

606 Determination of youngs modulus of elasticity Aim: To examine stiffness of four supplied test specimens. (Given on laboratory assignment booklet). Apparatus: Hounsfield Tensometer Extensometer 4 Metal specimens Micrometer Procedure: 1) Find cross section area for the specimens: Cross section area = r or d/4 First of all, the diameters for specimens have been measured by using micrometer and the measurements were: Steel: 5.06 mm Stainless steel: 5.06mm Copper: 5.09 mm Brass: 5.05 mm Next step, find the cross section area the formula that used is d/4 Steel= (5.06)/4= 20.11 mm Stainless steel= (5.06)/4= 20.11 mm Copper= (5.09)/4= 20.35 mm Brass= (5.05)/4= 20.03 mm

It is has been noticed, there a fix rate for all previous measured sectional area= 20 mm

2) Take load reading: Place the specimens one at each time in extensometer to get original gauge length which is must be 50mm. After that, increase the load by applying an initial extinction of 5 divisions. (Given on laboratory assignment booklet). The readings were: specimens Reading 1 Steel 825N Stainless 725N steel Copper 225N Brass 200N Reading 2 1625N 1600N 1025N 500N Reading 3 2600N 2800 N 1500N 825N Reading 4 3525N 3025N 2025N 1400N Reading 5 4250N 3725 2500N 1800N

3) Calculate values of stress and strain: Stress= load/cross-sectional area Stress table for specimens: Steel 825/20= 41.25 N/mm 1625/20=81.25 N/mm 2600/20= 130 N/mm 3525/20= 176.25 N/mm 4250/20= 212.5 N/mm Stainless steel 725/20= 36.25 N/mm 1600/20= 80 N/mm 2800/20= 140N/mm 3025/20= 151.25 N/mm 3725/20= 186.25N/mm Copper 225/20= 11.25 N/mm 1025/20= 51.25 N/mm 1500/20= 75N/mm 2025/20= 101.25 N/mm 2500/20= 125N/mm Brass 200/20= 10N/mm 500/20= 25 N/mm 825/20= 41.25N/mm 1400/20= 70 N/mm 1800/20=90 N/mm

## Strain= Change in gauge length/ Original gauge length

Strain is fix rate for all of them because original gauge length is constant and change in gauge which is applied of all specimens the same, Strain: 0.01/50= 0.0002 0.02/50= 0.0004 0.03/50= 0.0006 0.04/50= 0.0008 0.05/50= 0.001

Raw results

Graphs drawing by hand and provided on next page in separate drawing paper and it is stress and strain Graph one illustrates Steel and Stainless steel. Graph two illustrates Copper and Brass. Calculation of the slope of the graph: From the point on the previous graphs: Slope for Steel= stress/strain= 171.25/810-4= 214062.5 N/mm Slope for Stainless steel= stress/strain= 150/810-4= 187500 N/mm Slope for Brass= stress/strain= 113.75/810-4= 142187.5 N/mm Slope for Copper= stress/strain= 80/810-4= 100000 N/mm

According to the previous results that have been found, slope and for the steel and stainless steel seems to be relatively close, similarly; brass and copper have the same state. Contrast gained result from graphs with published data: When applying stress on material, under this effect it is stretch and the amount of measured extra length called strain and it has no units. Answer Q14, specific modulus for Steel and Aluminium: Specific modulus for steel: E Steel= 210Gpa Density of steel= 7890 kg/m Relative of density steel = 7890/density of water (1000) = 7.89 Then, specific modulus of steel= E steel/Relative Density of steel = 2100x10^8/7.89= 26.62Gpa Specific modulus for Aluminium: E Aluminium= 69 Gpa Density of aluminium= 2700 kg/m Relative density of aluminium=2700/ density of water (1000) = 2.7 Then, Specific modulus of aluminium= E Aluminium/Relative Density of Aluminium = 690x10^8/2.7 = 25.56Gpa Comment in importance of this value in design: Very close results have been noticed, this show a clear evidences of the possibility of using these two materials as alloy or individual material in design.

Answer Q15, describe following terms as applied to engineering design: Poissons Ratio: Poissons ratio is the ratio of transverse contraction strain to longitudinal extension strain in the direction of stretching force. Tensile deformation is considered positive and compressive deformation is considered negative. Poisson's Ratio can be expressed as = - t / l. This statement has been collected from Poissons ratio. [Online] available at< http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1996/95JB03446.shtml

Radius of Gyration: The radius of gyration of an area about a given axis is a distance k from the axis. At this distance k an equivalent area is thought of as a line area parallel to the original axis. The moment of inertia of this line area is about the original axis is unchanged. It is the distance at which the entire area must be assumed to be concentrated in order that the product of the area and the square of this distance will equal the moment of inertia of the actual area about the given axis. In other words, the radius of gyration describes the way in which the total cross-sectional area is distributed around its centroidal axis. If more area is distributed further from the axis, it will have greater resistance to buckling. The most efficient column section to resist buckling is a circular pipe, because it has its area distributed as far away as possible from the centroid. This view has been stated on Mechanical Design in Optical Engineering. [Online] available at<http://www.optics.arizona.edu/optomech/references/OPTI_222/ OPTI_222_W61.pdf< Accessed on: 16 Nov 2010

Answer Q16, calculate the stress: To find the stress, E= Stress/Strain (given) So, Stress= E Strain E Steel= 210Gpa Strain= Change in gauge length/ Original gauge length= 10015x10-6/1= 1.5x10-3 Then Stress= 1.5x10^-3 x 2100x10^8= 315Mpa.