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# Tutorial -1 Q 1:- Distinguish between Energy and power signals.

Q 2:- A Discrete time signal X[n] = [-1 0 1 2 3 4 (4) 4 4 4 0 0 0 0], sketch the following Signals from X[n], bracket value is at origin (4). a). X[-n], b). X[-n+2], c). X[2n+4] Q 3:- Determine the plot y[n] where y[n]= x[2n], and x[n] is given in Question no 2. Q 4:- x[n] =n3- , n 3 and 0 else where. Determine response of the following system if Input is x[n] a). y[n] = x[n] b). y[n] = x[n-1] c). y[n] = x[n+1] d). y[n] = 13 x[n-1] + x[n] + x[n+1] Q 5:- A Discrete time signal x[n] is defined as X[n] = 1 + n 3, 1, 0, -3 n 0 0n1 elsewhere

a). Determine its value and sketch the signal. b). Sketch the signal obtained by i) Folding x[n] and delaying it by 4 samples, ii) Delaying it by 4 samples and then folding it. c) Sketch the signal x [-n+4]. Q 6:- Determine the different properties of the system a) y[n] = x[n], b) y[n] = x[2n], c) y[n] = x[n] if x[n] 0 and if x[n] <0, d) y[n] = x[-n], e) y[n] = x[n] x[n-1], f) y[n] = n* x[n]. Q 7:- Describe with example how a discrete time signal is represented in terms of Impulses. Q 8:- Sketch the following signal and determine whether it is a power or energy signal or Neither or both x(t) = a[u(t+a) u(t-a)]. Q 9:- A discrete time system is described by the following y[n] = y[n-1] + x[n]. Now bounded input of x[n] = 2[n] is applied to the system.Check the stability of the system. Q 10:- Prove that a system given below is nonlinear system d2 y(t) dt2 + y(t) d y(t) dt + y(t) = x(t).

Tutorial -2 Q 1:- Determine the value of P and E for each of the following signals: a) x(t) = e-2t u(t), b) x(t) = ej(2t+ 4), c) x(t) = (1 2)n u(t), Value of n for which it is guaranteed to be zero: a) x[n-3], b) x[n+4], c) x[-n-2], d) x[-n]. Q 3:- Determine whether or not each of the following signals is periodic. If signal is periodic Then determine its fundamental period. a) x(t) = e(-1+j)t, b) x(t) = ej7 n, c) x(t) = 3 ej3 (n +1 2) 5, d) x(t) = 3 ej3 5 (n +1 2) Q 4:- Consider a periodic signal with period t = 2: X(t) = 1 -2 0<t<1 1< t < 2

## d) x(t) = Cos ( 4 n).

Q 2:- Let the signal x[n] = 0 for n < -2 and n > 4 for each signal given below determine the

The derivative of this signal is related to impulse train g (t ) = Period T = 2. It can be shown that value of A1 , t1 , A2 , t2 . Q 5:- determine the even and odd part of the signal shown in figure:-

k =

(t 2 k )

with

dx (t ) = A1 g (t t1 ) + A 2 g (t t2 ) , determine the dt

## Q 6:- Prove that (2t ) =

1 (t ) . 2

Q 7:- For each of the following input output relationships determine whether the Corresponding system is linear, time invariant or both: a). y (t ) = t 2 x (t 1) , b). y[n] = x 2 [n 2] , c). y[n] = x[n + 1] x[ n 1] Q 8:- Consider a continuous time system with input x(t) and output y(t) related by y (t ) = ae x ( t ) y (t ) = x(sin(t )) : a). Is the system is causal? b). Is the system is linear?

Q 9:- Consider a discrete time system with input x[n] and output y[n]. the input output relation for this system is y[n] = x[n] * x[n-2]. a). Is the system is memory less? B). Is the system is invertible? Q 10:- Determine if the systems described by the following input output equations are linear Or nonlinear. a). y[n] = nx[n] , b). y[n] = x[n 2 ] , c). y (t ) = x 2 (t ) , d). y (t ) = ae x ( t ) Tutorial -3 Q 1:- Let x[ n] = [n] + 2 [n 1] [n 3] and h[ n] = 2 [n + 1] + 2 [n 1] determine and plot the following convolution: a). y[n] = x[n]* h[n] , b). y[n] = x[n + 2]* h[n] , c). y[n] = x[n]* h[ n + 2] . Q 2:- Determine the convolution of two signals given below: 1 n a). x1[n] = [n] and x2 [n] = 2 [n 2] , b). x1[n] = [n 1] and x2 [n] = ( ) u[n] , 2 c). x1[n] = 2u[n 1] and x2 [n] = 3u[n] .

Q 3:- Determine the convolution of two continuous time signal given in below figure:

Q 4:- Determine the response of a continuous time invariant system to a given input Signal x(t ) = u (t 3) u (t 5) and impulse response h(t ) = e 4t u (t ) . Q 5:- Determine and sketch the convolution of two signals X(t) = t 2-t 0 0< t < 1 1< t < 2 elsewhere

h(t ) = (t + 2) + 2 (t + 1) . Q 6:- The impulse response of a continuous LTI systems are given, test stability of the System :

## b). h(t ) = e t cos(2t )u (t ) . c). y (t ) = x (2t ) , d). y (t ) = x (t + 2) .

Q 7:- Check out the memory and memory less of the given system: a). y (t ) = x (t ) , b) y (t ) = x (t ) + 5 , Q 8:- A discrete time system is defined by y[n] = x[n] , test a). Linearity, b). Variant (time), c). Causuality. Q 9:- Determine the Overall response of two linear time invariant systems given below.

h1 (t ) = e 3t u (t ) and h2 (t ) = u (t 3) u (t 6) . Q 10:- Determine the convolution of two continuous time signals given below: x(t) = 1 for 0 < t < T and 0 elsewhere and h(t)= t for 0 < t < T and 0 elsewhere. Tutorial -4 Q 1:- State and prove Commutative, distributive and associative properties of discrete LTI System. Q 2:- Determine the convolution of two discrete time signals: 1 n n a). x1[n] = ( ) u[n] + 2 u[n] , b). x2 [n] = u[n] . 2 Q 3:- Determine the stability of the LTI System their impulse response are given: a). h[n] = a nu[n] , b). h[ n] = u[n 4] u[n 1] . n Q 4:-Compute and Plot the convolution y[n] = x[n]*h[n] where x[ n] = ( 1 3 ) u[ n 1] and h[ n] = u[ n 1] . Q 5:-Compute and Plot the convolution of two signals x1[n] = 1 for 3 < n < 8 and 0 elsewhere and x2[n] = 1 for 4 < n < 15 and 0 elsewhere. Q 6:- Determine the response of discrete LTI system to given input x[n] = u[n 100] and h[ n] = ( 1 ) n u[n] . 2 Q 7:-Determine the output of causal discrete LTI system described by the difference equation y[n] ( 1 ) y[n 1] = x[n] to the input x[n]= [n]. 5 Q 8:-Determine the impulse of a causal LTI discrete time system defined by difference equation y[n] = ( 1 ) y[n 2] + 2 x[n] x[n 2] . 2 Q 9:- Two causal LTI systems P1 and P2 are connected as shown in figure:

## P1: w[n] = ( 1 ) w[ n 1] + x[n] And P 2 : y[n] = ay[n 1] + bw[n] . 2

Q 10:- Determine a and b if the difference equation of overall system is y[n] = ( 1 ) y[n 2] + ( 3 ) y[n 1] + x[n] . 8 4 Tutorial -5 Q 1:- A continuous time periodic signal x(t) is real valued and has a fundamental Period T= 8. The non zero Fourier series coefficients for x (t) are a1=a-1=2, a3=a*-3=4j. Express x(t) in Form of x(t ) = Ak cos(k t + k ) .
k =0

Q 2:- A discrete time periodic signal x[n] is real valued and has a fundamental Period n= 8.The
* non zero Fourier series coefficients for x[n] are a0=1, a-1=2, a2 = a2 = e j

a4 = a = 2e
* 4

## . Express x[n] in form of x[ n] = A0 + Ak cos(k n + k ) .

k =0

Q 3:- Obtain the Fourier Component of the periodic square wave signal which is symmetrical To the vertical axis at t=0 as shown in figure:

Q 4:-Obtain the trigonometric Fourier series for the half wave rectified sinewave shown in figure

Q 5:- Obtain the trigonometric Fourier series for the triangular waveform shown in figure

Q 6:- obtain the Fourier series for the waveform of a periodical going rectangular pulse train shown in figure:

Q 7:-For a continuous time periodic signal x(t ) = 2 + cos (2 t 3 ) + 4sin(5 t 3 ) determine the Fundamental frequency 0 and the Fourier series coefficient ak x(t ) =
k =

ae
k

jk0t

Q 8:-Determine the fundamental frequency 0 and the Fourier series coefficient as for the Continuous time periodic signal: X(t) = 1.5 0< t<1 and -1.5 for 1<t<2. With fundamental frequency 0 = .

Tutorial-6
1. Determine the power spectrum of a given discrete periodic signal x[ n ] = sin w0 n, w0 =2/5 2. Determine frequency spectrum of a given discrete time signal x[n].

## x[n] = 1 + sin(2 / 10)n + 3cos(2 /10)n+ {cos(4 /10)n+ / 2}

3. Two discrete time signals x1[a] ak, x2[n] bk where a0=a3=1/2a1 = 1/2a2 =1 and b0=b1=b2=b3=1. Determine the Fourier series coefficients for the signal g[n]= x1[n].x2[n] 4. Determine the Fourier series coefficient for the discrete time periodic signal

## x[n] = sin(2 n / 3) cos( n / 2)

5. Determine discrete time signal x[n] for which the Fourier series coefficients is ak = cos( k / 4) + sin(3k / 4)

6. Determine the Fourier series coefficient for the discrete time signal x[n] with fundamental x[n] = 1 + cos(2 / 6)n time period 6. 7. Determine the Fourier series analysis equation of a periodic discrete time signal x[n]. 8. Determine the Fourier series synthesis equation of a periodic discrete time signal x[n]. 9. Explain the need for Fourier series in Signals and Systems. 10. Explain the limitation for Fourier series for a signal.

Tutorial-7
1. Use Fourier transforms analysis equation to calculate Fourier transform of: a). e 2( t 1) u (t 1) , b). (t + 1) + (t 1) . 2. Determine Fourier transform of each of the following periodic signals: a). x (t ) =1 + cos(6 t + / 8) , b). x(t ) = sin(2 t + / 4) 3. Calculate inverse Fourier transform of X ( jw) = 2 ( w) + ( w 4 ) + ( w + 4 ) 4. Given that x(t) has Fourier transform X(jw), express the Fourier transform of below signal: x(t) = x(1-t) + x(-1-t) 5. Obtain the Fourier transform of a rectangular pulse of duration 3 sec. and having a magnitude of 20 volts.

## 6. Find inverse Fourier transform of 2[ ( w 1) ( w + 1)] + 3[ ( w 2 )+ ( w+ 2 )]

7. Find the Fourier transform of a signal x(t)= rec (t/2)

## 2 y (t ) dy (t ) dx(t ) 8. An LTI system is described by the differential eq. +4 + 3 y (t ) = + 2 x(t ) . 2 t dt dt

9. Use frequency differentiation property to find the Fourier transform of x(t ) = teat u (t ) given that F .T . F .T . e at u (t ) 1 e at u (t ) 1 ( jw + a) ( jw + a ) . 10.

## The Fourier transform of a given signal x(t) is given as

a). Is x(t) periodic ? b). Is the system response y(t) periodic, if x(t) is input and h(t) is impulse response of the system?

Tutorial-8
1. Determine Fourier transforms of the following signals: 1 n 1 a). ( ) u[ n 1] 2 b). x[ n] = a n u[ n 1] ; 0 < a <1 c).

1 ( )[ n1] 2

2. Use Fourier transforms analysis equation to calculate Fourier transform of a). (t + 1) + (t 1) ( n +1) + ( n 1) , b). ( n + 2) + (n 2) . 3. Determine Fourier transform for - w in the case of each given periodic signals: a). sin( n / 3 + / 4) , 2 + cos(2 n / 6 + / 8) . 1 n 4. Consider a Discrete time LTI system with Impulse response h(n) = ( ) u[n] . Use Fourier 2 3 transform to determine the response for the Input signal x[ n]( )nu[n] . 4 5. Determine the Inverse Fourier transform of a). X (e jw ) = cos 2 w + sin 2 3w b). X (e jw ) = 2 j ; 0 < w <=
= -2j; < w <= 0

## 6. Find DTFT of the discrete time rectangular pulse shown fig.(m=5).

n =8 1 A = n( )n 7. Using Fourier transform and its properties, calculate the numerical value of 2 n=0

8. Find the output y[n] of an LTI system with Impulse response h[n] = [n-n0], for any input x[n], whose Fourier transform is X(jw). 9. State and prove the properties of Discrete Fourier Transform

Tutorial-9
1. Determine the Z-transform of the signal x[n] = a n u[n] a nu[n 1] 2. Calculate the Z-transform of each of the following sequence, sketch Pole-Zero plots and indicate the ROC. a). x[n] = [n + 5] , b). x[ n] = [n 5] 3.
n n Determine the Z-transform of the function x[n] = ( ) u[n] ( ) u[n 4] 2u[n 8]

1 5

3 4

1 n 4. Consider the signal x[ n] = ( ) cos( n / 4) ; n<=0 3 = 0; n>0 Determine poles and ROC of X(z). 5. Find Z transform of an Anti-causal exponential signal y[n] = nu[ n 1] 6. Find Z transform of Discrete function f(nT)= Sin(wnt), n> 0. 7. Draw Pole-zero plot for the following signal: x[n] = 2n u[ n] 8. Explain time shifting and time reversal property of Z transform. 9. State and prove Convolution theorem for Z transform. 10. Determine the Initial and Final values of the discrete time signal, whose Z transform is given by

X [ z ] = 3 + 5 z 1 + 7 z 2

Tutorial-10
1 1 ( ) z 1 1. Find Inverse Z transform of X [ z ] = 3 1 {1 z }{1 + 2 z 1}
5 3 ( ) z 1 6

2. Find f(n), if F [ z ] =

1 1 {1 ( ) z 1}{1 ( ) z 1} 3 4

and ROC is

a. |z| > 1/3 b. < |z| < 1/3 c. |z| > 3. Calculate Discrete time signal x(n) whose Z transform is given X ( Z ) = log(1 az 1 ) ; Z a 4. Find the sample response h[n] of the LTI system described by difference equation 3 1 y[n] = ( ) y[n 1] y[n 2] = 2 x[n] 4 8
n 5. For above system also calculate the response y[n] to the input x[n] = ( ) u[n]

1 4

6. Using (a). Long division (b). Partial fraction expansion, determine the Inverse Z transform of 1 X [z] = 3 1 With ROC: |z| > , also verify the result for at least three values of n. 1 ( ) z 1 + ( ) z 2 4 8 7. Determine the condition of stability in Z domain for the second order system. 8. Consider the linear, discrete time, shift invariant system with input x[n]and output y[n]

## 10 ) y[n] + y[n + 1] = x[n] the system is stable. Determine Unit sample 3

9. Draw the block diagram representation for causal LTI systems with system function 1 X [z] = 1 1 ( ) z 1 2 5 1 10. Determine the response of the system y[n] = ( ) y[n 1] y[n 2] + y[n] to the input signal 6 6 1 x[ n] = ( n) (n 1) 3 -