Hepatitis is a medical condition defined by the inflammation of the liver and characterize d by the presence of inflammatory cells in the

tissue of the organ 1 Signs and symptoms 1.1 Acute : all acute viral infections and may include malaise, muscle and j oint aches, fever, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. profound loss of appetite, aversion to smoking among smokers, dark urine, yellowing of the eyes a nd skin (i.e., jaundice) and abdominal discomfort. Physical findings are usually minimal, apart from jaundice in a third and tender hepatomegaly (swelling of th e liver) in about 10%. Some exhibit lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes, in 5% ) or splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen, in 5%).Acute viral hepatitis is mo re likely to be asymptomatic in younger people. Symptomatic individuals may pres ent after convalescent stage of 7 to 10 days, with the total illness lasting 2 t o 6 weeks.[3] A small proportion of people with acute hepatitis progress to acute liver failur e, in which the liver is unable to clear harmful substances from the circulation (leading to confusion and coma due to hepatic encephalopathy) and produce blood proteins (leading to peripheral edema and bleeding). This may become life-threa tening and occasionally requires a liver transplant. 1.2 Chronic : nonspecific symptoms such as malaise, tiredness and weakness, and often leads to no symptoms at all. It is commonly identified on blood tests performed either for screening or to evaluate nonspecific symptoms. The occurren ce of jaundice indicates advanced liver damage. On physical examination there ma y be enlargement of the liver.[4] Extensive damage and scarring of liver (i.e. cirrhosis) leads to weight loss, ea sy bruising and bleeding tendencies, peripheral edema (swelling of the legs) and accumulation of ascites (fluid in the abdominal cavity). Eventually, cirrhosis may lead to various complications: esophageal varices (enlarged veins in the wal l of the esophagus that can cause life-threatening bleeding) hepatic encephalopa thy (confusion and coma) and hepatorenal syndrome (kidney dysfunction). Acne, abnormal menstruation, lung scarring, inflammation of the thyroid gland an d kidneys may be present in women with autoimmune hepatitis. 2 Causes 2.1 Acute : -Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Yellow fever KIs-V adenoviruses -Non-viral infection toxoplasma Leptospira Q fever[5] rocky mountain spotted fever[6] -Alcohol -Toxins: Amanita toxin in mushrooms, carbon tetrachloride, asafetida -Drugs: Paracetamol, amoxycillin, antituberculosis medicines, minocycline an d many others (see longer list below). -Ischemic hepatitis (circulatory insufficiency) -Pregnancy -Auto immune conditions, e.g., Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) -Metabolic diseases, e.g., Wilson's disease 2.2 Chronic :

is a signif icant cause of hepatitis. Alcoholic hepatitis can occur in patients with chronic alcoholic liver d isease and alcoholic cirrhosis.3 Alcoholic hepatitis: Ethanol. rifampicin. and modest elevation of live r blood tests. hepatitis C (nei ther hepatitis A nor hepatitis E causes chronic hepatitis) -Autoimmune Autoimmune hepatitis -Alcohol -Drugs methyldopa nitrofurantoin isoniazid ketoconazole -Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis -Heredity Wilson's disease alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency -Primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis occasionally m imic chronic hepatitis[3] 2. Alcoholic hepatitis is characterized by a variable constellation of symptoms. 2.4 Drug induced : A large number of drugs can cause hepatitis:[7] Agomelatine (antidepressant) Allopurinol Amitriptyline (antidepressant) Amiodarone (antiarrhythmic) Atomoxetine [8] Azathioprine[9] Halothane (a specific type of anesthetic gas) Hormonal contraceptives Ibuprofen and indomethacin (NSAIDs) Isoniazid (INH). Patients who drink alcohol to excess are also more often than others foun d to have hepatitis C. Severe cases are characterized by either obtundat ion (dulled consciousness) or the combination of elevated bilirubin levels and p rolonged prothrombin time.[citation needed] The combination of hepatitis C and alcoh ol consumption accelerates the development of cirrhosis. Phenytoin and valproic acid (antiepileptics) . which may include feeling unwell. the mortality rate in both categories is 50% within 3 0 days of onset. Alcoholic hepatitis by itself does not lead to c irrhosis. Alcoholic hepatitis is distinct from cirrhosis caused by long term alcohol consu mption. development of fluid in the abdomen ascites. enlargement of the liver. but cirrhosis is more common in patients with long term alcohol consum ption. The severity of liver damage may be limited by prompt admini stration of acetylcysteine. prolonged prothr ombin time. Alcoholic hepatitis can vary from mild with only liver test eleva tion to severe liver inflammation with development of jaundice. and liver failure.-Viral hepatitis: Hepatitis B with or without hepatitis D. and pyrazinamide (tuberculosis-specific antibio tics) Ketoconazole (antifungal) Loratadine (antihistamine) Methotrexate (immune suppressant) Methyldopa (antihypertensive) Minocycline (tetracycline antibiotic) Nifedipine (antihypertensive) Nitrofurantoin (antibiotic) Paracetamol (acetaminophen in the United States) can cause hepatitis when ta ken in an overdose. Usually alcoholic hepatitis comes after a period of in creased alcohol consumption. mostly in alcoholic beverages.

Carbon tetrachloride ("tetra". including the Death Cap (Amanita phalloides). Lastly. all chlorinated hydrocarbons. Cylindrospermopsin. the differentia tion between steatosis and NASH often requires a liver biopsy. a dry cleaning agent). the Destroying Angel (Amanita ocreata). depending on th e drug and the patient's tendency to react to the drug. cause steatohepatitis (hepatitis with fatty liver). or magnetic resonance (MRI). The diagnosis depends on medical history. an industrial toxin and war chemical.10 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease : Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease ( NAFLD) is the occurrence of fatty liver in people who have no history of alcohol use. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is effectively a consequence of metabolic s yndrome. 2. possibly due to genetic predisposition or ac ute liver infection.8 Autoimmune :Anomalous presentation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) clas s II on the surface of hepatocytes. including such u ltrasound.9 Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency: In severe cases of alpha 1-antitrypsin d eficiency (A1AD). The initial evaluation to identify the presence of fatty infiltration of the liver is medical imaging. Severe NAFLD leads to inflammation. Therefore. but usually no Mallory bodies). it leads to destruction and inflammation of liver tiss ue. the accumulated protein in the endoplasmic reticulum causes li ver cell damage and inflammation. a toxin from the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis racib orskii and other cyanobacteria. human variability is such that any drug can be a cause of hepatiti s. If longstanding. It can also be di fficult to distinguish NASH from alcoholic hepatitis when the patient has a hist ory of alcohol consumption. 2. a state referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Hormonal con traception can cause structural changes in the liver. blood tests. A portion of a single mushroom can be enough to be lethal (10 mg or less of a-amanitin). and trichl oroethylene. It is most commonly associated with obesity (80% of all obese people have fatty liver). computed tomography (CT).6 Metabolic disorders :Some metabolic disorders cause different forms of h epatitis. Amiodarone hepatitis can b e untreatable since the long half life of the drug (up to 60 days) means that th ere is no effective way to stop exposure to the drug. . radiologic al imaging and sometimes a liver biopsy. resulting in autoimmune hepatitis. 2. and some species of Galerina. withdrawn in 2000 for causing hepatitis) Zidovudine (antiretroviral i. chloroform.e.. halothane h epatitis can range from mild to fatal as can INH-induced hepatitis. Statins can cause elevatio ns of liver function blood tests normally without indicating an underlying hepat itis. 2. For example.Troglitazone (antidiabetic. against HIV) Some herbs and nutritional supplements[10] The clinical course of drug-induced hepatitis is quite variable. Sometimes in such cases a trial of abstinence from a lcohol along with follow-up blood tests and a repeated liver biopsy are required .7 Obstructive :"Obstructive jaundice" is the term used to describe jaundic e due to obstruction of the bile duct (by gallstones or external obstruction by cancer). 2. Hemochromatosis (due to iron accumulation) and Wilson's disease (coppe r accumulation) can cause liver inflammation and necrosis. which on biopsy of th e liver resembles alcoholic hepatitis (with fat droplets and inflammatory cells. physical exam. 2. However.5 Other toxins :Other Toxins can cause hepatitis: Amatoxin-containing mushrooms. It is more common in women. White phosphorus. imagi ng cannot readily identify inflammation in the liver. causes a cell-mediated immune response against the body's o wn liver.

11 Ischemic hepatitis :Ischemic hepatitis is caused by decreased circulati on to the liver cells.NASH is becoming recognized as the most important cause of liver disease second only to hepatitis C in numbers of patients going on to cirrhosis. . Patients with ischemic hepatiti s are usually very ill due to the underlying cause of shock. Rarely.[citation neede d] 2. which may exceed 1000 U/L. Usually this is due to decreased blood pressure (or shock ). leading to the equivalent term "shock liver". Blood testing of a person with ischemic he patitis will show very high levels of transaminase enzymes (AST and ALT). The elevation in these blood tests is usually transient (la sting 7 to 10 days). It is rare that liver function will be affected by ischemic hepatitis. or clotting of the hepatic artery which part ially supplies blood to liver cells). ischemic he patitis can be caused by local problems with the blood vessels that supply oxyge n to the liver (such as thrombosis.