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Hallows Day. Much like Day of the Dead celebrati ons, the holiday has ancient origins tied to seasonal change, harvest time, and festivals honoring the dead. Though originating in Europe, Halloween celebration there is traditionally less elaborate than in North America, where modern-day a ctivities include trick-or-treating (also known as "guising") and attending cost ume parties. History Historian Nicholas Rogers, exploring the origins of Halloween, notes that while "some folklorists have detected its origins in the Roman feast of Pomona, the go ddess of fruits and seeds, or in the festival of the dead called Parentalia, it is more typically linked to the Celtic festival of Samhain (pronounced sow-an or sow-in)", derived from the Old Irish Samuin meaning "summer's end". Samhain was the first and by far the most important of the four quarter days in the medi eval Irish and Scottish calendar and, falling on the last day of Autumn , it was a time for stock-taking and preparation for the cold winter months ahea d. There was also a sense that this was the time of year when the physical an d supernatural worlds were closest and magical things could happen. To war d off these spirits, the Gaels built huge, symbolically regenerative bonfires an d invoked the help of the gods through animal and perhaps even human sacrifice.[ 1] Snap-Apple Night (1832) by Daniel Maclise. Depicts apple bobbing and divination games at a Halloween party in Blarney, Irel and. Halloween is also thought to have been heavily influenced by the Christian holy days of All Saints' Day (also known as Hallowmas, All Hallows, and Hallowtide) a nd All Souls' Day. Falling on November 1st and 2nd respectively, collectively they were a time for honoring the Saints and praying for the recently departed who had yet to reach heaven. By the end of the 12th century they had become days of holy obligation across Europe and involved such traditions as ringing bells for the souls in purgatory and "souling", the custom of baking bread or soul cak es for "all crysten [christened] souls". In Britain the rituals of Hallowtide and Halloween came under attack during the Reformation as Protestants denounced purgatory as a "popish" doctrine incompatib le with the notion of predestination. In addition the increasing popularity o f Guy Fawkes Night from 1605 on saw Halloween become eclipsed in Britain with th e notable exception of Scotland. There and in Ireland, they had been celebrat ing Samhain and Halloween since the early Middle Ages, and it is believed the Kirk took a more pragmatic approach towards Halloween, viewing it as important to the life cycle and rites of passage of local communities and thus ensuring it s survival in the country. North American almanacs of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century give no indication that Halloween was recognized as a holiday. The Puritans of Ne w England, for example, maintained strong opposition to the holiday and it wa s not until the mass Irish and Scottish immigration during the 19th century that the holiday was introduced to the continent in earnest. Initially confined t o the immigrant communities during the mid-nineteenth century, it was gradually assimilated into mainstream society and by the first decade of the twentieth cen tury it was being celebrated coast to coast by people of all social, racial and religious backgrounds. Etymology The word Halloween is first attested in the 16th century and represents a Scotti
the occult. influenc ing Robert Burns' Halloween 1785. but immigrants to North America used the native pumpkin." In Scotland and Ireland. when poor folk would go door to door on Hallowmas (November 1). Japan Development of artifacts and symbols associated with Halloween formed over time. The American tradition of carving pumpkins is recorded in 1837 and was originally associated with harvest time in general. "Trick or treat?" The word "trick" refers to a (mostl y idle) "threat" to perform mischief on the homeowners or their property if no t reat is given. which are both readily available and much larger making them easier to carve than turnips . the carving of jack-o'-lanterns springs from the souling custom o f carving turnips into lanterns as a way of remembering the souls held in purgat ory. are also prevalent. The practice of Guising at Halloween in North America is first recor ded in 1911. receiving food in return for prayers for the dead on All Souls' Day (November 2). who made note of pranks at Halloween. Symbols Jack-o'-lanterns in Kobe. where a newspaper in Kingston. and is recorded in Scotland at Halloween in 1895 where masqueraders in disguise carrying lanterns m ade out of scooped out turnips. or mythical monste rs. Elements of the autumn season. Among the earliest works on the subject of Halloween is from Scottish poet John Mayne in 1780.e. that is. including national custom s. "Bogies" (ghosts). The practice of dressing up in costumes and begging door to door for treats on h olidays dates back to the Middle Ages and includes Christmas wassailing. American historian and author Ruth Edna Kelley of Massachusetts wrote the first . evil. For instance. Black and orange are the holiday's traditional colors. as well as the supernatural associated with the night. and scarecrows. asking for treats such as candy or sometimes money. The turnip has traditionally been used in Ireland and Scotland at Hallo ween. visit homes to be rewarded with cakes. "What fearfu' pranks ensue!". although similar practices for the souls of the dead were found as far so uth as Italy. Halloween imagery includes themes of death. such as pum pkins. All-Hallows-Even is itself not attes ted until 1556. Trick-or-treating and guising Main article: Trick-or-treating Trick-or-treating in Sweden Trick-or-treating is a customary celebration for children on Halloween. Homes are often decorated with these types of symbols around Halloween. In this cust om the child performs some sort of trick. Shakespeare mentions the practice in his comedy The Two Gentle men of Verona (1593). Trick-o r-treating resembles the late medieval practice of souling. Ontario reported children going "gui sing" around the neighborhood. and classic horror films (such as Frankenstein and The Mummy). It originated in Ireland and Brita in. not becoming specifically a ssociated with Halloween until the mid-to-late 19th century. fruit and money. i. sings a song or tells a ghost sto ry. with the question. mass-day of all saints). In some parts of Scotland children still go guising. Children go in costume from house to house. Although the phrase All Hallows is found in Old English (e alra halgena mæssedæg. works of Gothic and horror literature (such as the novels Frankenstein and Dr acula). Guising children disguised in costume going from door t o door for food or coins is a traditional Halloween custom.sh variant of the fuller All-Hallows-Even ("evening"). The imagery of Halloween is derived from many sources. to earn their treats. corn husks. when Speed accuses his master of "puling [whimpering or wh ining] like a beggar at Hallowmas. the night before All Hallows Day.
S. Tricksters of various sorts are shown on the early postcards. appearances of the term in 1934. the costume selecti on extended to include popular characters from fiction. Canada: Hallowe'en provided an opportunity for real strenuous fun. The fi rst mass-produced Halloween costumes appeared in stores in the 1930s when trickor-treating was becoming popular in the United States.S. Halloween in Yonkers. ghosts. no custom that was once honored at Hallowe'en is out of fashion now. with a third reference in Chicago in 1920. using Burn's poem Hallowe'en as a guide. or around. "A mericans have fostered them. in 1915. or to go a-souling as the English used. Costuming became popular for Halloween parties in the US in the early 20th century. US In her book. fr om Blackie. barrels. Dressing up in costumes and going "guising" was prevalent in Scotland at Hallowe en by the late 19th century. celebrities. UNICEF Main article: Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF "Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF" has become a common sight during Halloween in North . another reference to ritual begging on Halloween appears. In short. "T here are cards which mention the custom [of trick-or-treating] or show children in costumes at the doors. wi th the first U. Trick-or -treating does not seem to have become a widespread practice until the 1930s. Alberta. but as far as we can tell they were printed later than the 1920s and more than likely even the 1930s. and the first use in a na tional publication occurring in 1939. Over time.. New York. gates. 31 October. but not the means of appeasing them".book length history of the holiday in the U. and are making this an occasion something like what it must have been in its best days overseas. The youthful torme ntors were at back door and front demanding edible plunder by the word trick or t reat to which the inmates gladly responded and sent the robbers away rejoicing. Costumes Main article: Halloween costume People dressing in Halloween Costumes in Dublin. All Hallowe'en customs in the Unit ed States are borrowed directly or adapted from those of other countries". place unknown. and generic archetypes such as ninjas and princesses. an d references souling in the chapter "Hallowe'en in America". Halloween costume parties generally fall on. and hold a Scotch party. etc.[2 6] The thousands of Halloween postcards produced between the turn of the 20th centu ry and the 1920s commonly show children but do not depict trick-or-treating. skeletons. as often for adults as for children. Kelley touches on customs that arrived from across the Atlantic. often fallin g on the Friday or Saturday prior to Halloween. witches. No real damage wa s done except to the temper of some who had to hunt for wagon wheels. The taste in Hallowe'en festivities now is to study old traditions.000 vintage Halloween postcards writes. and devils. wag ons. While the first reference to "guising" in North America occurs in 1911. The earliest known use in print of the term "trick or treat" appears in 1927. The Book of Hallowe'en (1919). much of which decorated the front street. Halloween costumes are traditionally modeled after supernatural figures such as monsters. The editor of a collection of over 3.
 and the level . if they were destined to die before marriage. ring-early mar riage. Games and other activities In this Halloween greeting card from 1904. They include haunted houses. There are several games traditionally associated with Halloween parties. but it is generally accepted that they were first commonly used by the Junior Chamber International (Jaycees) for fundraisi ng. Haunted attractions Main article: Haunted attraction Humorous tombstones in front of a house in northern California.j ourney. It is estimated that children have colle cted more than $118 million for UNICEF since its inception. divination is depicted: the young wom an looking into a mirror in a darkened room hopes to catch a glimpse of the face of her future husband. the pape r was folded and placed in walnut shells. After drying. caldron-trouble. Episodes of television series and Halloween-themed specials ( with the specials usually aimed at children) are commonly aired on or before the holiday. In Canada. then toss the peel over one's shoulder. Haunted attractions are entertainment venues designed to thrill and scare patron s. A traditio nal Scottish form of divining one's future spouse is to carve an apple in one lo ng strip. which may be called "dooking" in Scotland[ 33] in which apples float in a tub or a large basin of water and the participant s must use their teeth to remove an apple from the basin. Paper symbols included: dollar sign-wealth. Unmarried women were told that if they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a mirror on Hallow een night. in 2006. holding a fork between the teeth and trying to drop the fork into an apple. UNICEF decided to discontinue their Halloween collection boxes. The telling of ghost stories and viewing of horror films are common fixtures of Halloween parties. Someone would enter a dark room and was ordered to put her hand on a piece of ice then lay it on a platter. umbrella. The peel is believed to land i n the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name. A variant of dunking i nvolves kneeling on a chair. Origins of these paid sca re venues are difficult to pinpoint.good luck. corn mazes. thimble-spinsterhood. penny-fortune. and hayrides. citing safety an d administrative concerns. Another game/superstition that was enjoyed in the early 1900s involved walnut sh ells. after consultation with schools. these must be eaten without using hands while they r emain attached to the string. When the shell was warmed. an activity that inevitably leads to a very sticky face. at th eir licensed stores) to trick-or-treaters. The custom was widespread enough to be commemorated on greeting cards from the late 19t h century and early 20th century. F olks would also play fortune teller. a skull would appear. in which they can solicit small-chang e donations from the houses they visit. the program involves the distribution of sma ll boxes by schools (or in modern times. Another common game involves hanging up treacle or syru p-coated scones by strings. symbols were cu t out of paper and placed on a platter. In order to play this game. Most attractions are seasonal Halloween businesses. clothespin. Started as a local event in a Northeast Philadelphia neighborhood in 19 50 and expanded nationally in 1952. button-ba chelorhood.America. People would write fortunes in milk on white paper. the face of their future husband would appear in the mirror.poverty. corporate sponsors like Hallmark. and key-fame. However. Her "fortune " would stick to the hand. milk would turn brown therefore the writing would appear on what looked like blank paper. while new horror films are often released theatrically before the holi day to take advantage of the atmosphere. Some games traditionally played at Halloween are forms of divination. they instead redesig ned the program. One com mon game is dunking or apple bobbing. 4-leaf clover. rice-wedding.
 they are quite rare and have never resulted in serious injury . holding parties. At the peak of the hysteria. At one time. List of foods associated with the holiday: * * * * * * * * * * * * Barmbrack (Ireland) Bonfire toffee (Great Britain) Candy apples/toffee apples (Great Britain & Ireland) Candy corn. a coin and other charms are placed before baking. It is said that those who get a ring will find their true love in the ensuing year. has extended to places such as South America. and celebration in the United States and Canada has had a significant impact o n how the event is observed in other nations. although press sources writing in 2005 speculate d that the industry had reached its peak at that time. Pumpkin. traditional Halloween customs include children dres sing up in costume going "guising". pumpkins. etc. Mass tran satlantic immigration in the 19th century popularized Halloween in North America . bats. New Zealand. into which a plain ring. some hospitals offered free X-rays of children's Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. This maturing and gro wth within the industry has led to more technically-advanced special effects and costuming. worms. while other practices in Ir eland include lighting bonfires. While there is evidence of s uch incidents.of sophistication of the effects has risen as the industry has grown. candy pumpkins (North America) Caramel apples Caramel corn Colcannon (Ireland) Novelty candy shaped like skulls. One custom that persists in modern-day Ireland is the baking (or more often nowa days. pumpkin bread Roasted pumpkin seeds Roasted sweet corn Soul cakes Around the world Main article: Halloween around the world Halloween is not celebrated in all countries and regions of the world. continental Europe. and among those that do the traditions and importance of the celebration vary significant ly. someti mes followed by rolling them in nuts. many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant bec ause of the mass media. Vi rtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who pois oned their own children's candy. a nd draw some 400. Australia. the purchase) of a barmbrack (Irish: báirín breac). particularly in iconic and commercial elements. In Scotland and Ireland. Foods Candy apple Because the holiday comes in the wake of the annual apple harvest. This is similar to the tradition of king cake at the festival of Epiphany. caramel or taffy apples are comm on Halloween treats made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup. comparable with that of Hollywood films. and having firework displays. candy apples (known as toffee apples outside North America).000 customers. Haunted a ttractions in the United States bring in an estimate $300 500 million each year. Religious perspectives . candy apples were commonly given to children. Nonetheless. and other parts of East Asia. pumpkin pie. but the practice rapi dly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples. Japan. This larger North American influen ce. which is a light fruitcake .
has said. or other practices a nd cultural phenomena deemed incompatible with their beliefs. many contemporary Protestant churches view Halloween as a f un event for children. Chick in order to make use of Halloween's popularity as an opportunity for evangelism. Father Gabriele Amorth. play games. or comic-style tracts such as those created by Jack T. a Va tican-appointed exorcist in Rome. holding events in their churches where children and their parents can dress up. In the Roman Catholic Church. . treating it as a purely secular holiday devoted to celebrating "imaginary spooks" and handing out candy. a day to remember the Protestant Reformation. and the ways of the Celtic an cestors actually being a valuable life lesson and a part of many of their parish ioners' heritage." In more recent years. "if English and American children li ke to dress up as witches and devils on one night of the year that is not a prob lem. make offerings to the gods a nd the ancestors. and get candy for free. Some Christians feel concerned about Halloween.[4 8] while some other Protestants celebrate the holiday as Reformation Day. themed pamphlets. Halloween is viewed as havin g a Christian connection. To these Christians. the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston has organized a "Saint Fest" on the hol iday. the occult. Some consider Halloween to be completely inc ompatible with the Christian faith believing it to have originated as a paga n "Festival of the Dead". Similarly. Halloween holds no threat to the spiritual lives of children: being taught about death and mortality. some dioceses have chosen to emphasize the Christian traditions of All Saints' Day. there is no harm in that. and reject the holiday because t hey feel it trivializes or celebrates paganism. A response amo ng some fundamentalist and conservative evangelical churches in recent years has been the use of "Hell houses". Many Christians ascribe no negative significance to Halloween. Celtic Reconstruct ionists. If it is just a game. Paganism Celtic Neopagans consider the season a holy time of year. and others who maintain ancestral customs.See also: All Saints and Samhain Christianity Christian attitudes towards Halloween are diverse. and Halloween celebrations are common in Catholic parochial schools throughout North America and in Ireland. In the Anglican Church.
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