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International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087
Frequency domain analysis of uid–structure interaction in
liquidÿlled pipe systems by transfer matrix method
Q.S. Li
a;∗
, Ke Yang
a; b
, Lixiang Zhang
c
, N. Zhang
a; d
a
Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue,
Kowloon Hong Kong
b
College of Architectural and Civil Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou, China
c
School of Electric Power Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, China
d
Faculty of Engineering, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Received 22 February 2002; received in revised form 23 August 2002; accepted 3 October 2002
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the vibration analysis of a liquidÿlled pipe system, which extends the fre
quency domain analysis of the uid–structure interaction from single pipe to a pipe system with multipipe
sections using transfer matrix method. Taking into account all the three major coupling mechanisms, namely
the friction coupling, Poisson coupling and junction coupling, the proposed method can be used to analyze the
free vibration and the forced vibration of a pipe system with multipipe sections subjected to various kinds of
external excitations. The transform matrix, impedance matrix and frequency equation in frequency domain are
also presented and discussed. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the application of the proposed
method, which shows how the natural frequencies and mode shapes change with the radius and materials of
the pipe system.
? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Fluid–structure interaction; Transfer matrix method; Liquidÿlled pipe systems; Laplace transform; Frequency
domain
1. Introduction
The uid–structure interaction (FSI) in liquidÿlled pipe systems has been investigated extensively,
because of its relevance to mechanical, civil, nuclear and aeronautical engineering. It has been widely
accepted that in dynamic analysis of liquidÿlled pipe systems, neglecting FSI may lead to unrealistic
predictions. Literature reviews on the advances in this ÿeld were given in Refs. [1–4]. Therefore,
∗
Corresponding author. Tel.: +85227844677; fax: +85227887612.
Email address: bcqsli@cityu.edu.hk (Q.S. Li).
00207403/02/$  see front matter ? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0020 7403(02)00170 4
2068 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087
only several previous investigations which are directly related to the present study are reviewed
below.
First of all, it is necessary to declare the three major coupling mechanisms of FSI in pipe systems,
namely friction coupling, Poisson coupling and junction coupling. The friction coupling represents
an axial interaction caused by friction between uid and pipe. The Poisson coupling is such an
interaction that the change of uid pressure causes additional hoop stress in pipe wall and then,
owing to Poisson ratio, induces corresponding normal stress in pipe wall, and vice versa. The
junction coupling occurs only at the boundaries or the junction of two pipe sections. Mathematically,
the Poisson and friction coupling make the governing equations coupled each other and cause the
equations much dierent from the traditional ones [5], whereas the junction coupling is normally
expressed as the boundary conditions, among the three coupling mechanisms, the junction coupling is,
therefore, the easiest one to deal with. In the present study, all the three major coupling mechanisms
are taken into account.
Thorley [6] was the ÿrst who pointed out the existence of precursor wave caused by the Poisson
coupling, and Vardy and Fan [7] veriÿed it through a welldesigned experiment. Their experimental
results will be used in the numerical example of this paper to verify the accuracy of the proposed
method.
Charley and Caignaert [8] used experimental data to demonstrate that transfer matrices with con
sidering FSI can predict much better the measured pressure spectra than the classical waterhammer
[5] transfer matrices, even in simple systems.
D’souza and Oldenburger [9] presented one of the earliest studies in the ÿeld. In their paper,
the Laplace transform was used to solve an equation included the friction and junction coupling.
Wilkinson [10] presented transfer matrices for the axial, lateral and torsional vibration of pipes.
He considered the junction coupling, but without considering the friction and Poisson coupling.
ElRaheb [11] and Nanayakkara and Perreira [12] derived transfer matrices for straight and curved
pipes, including the eects of the junction coupling but excluding those of the Poisson and friction
coupling. Kuiken [13] studied the eects of the Poisson and junction coupling through a numerical
simulation.
Lesmez [14], Lesmez et al. [15], Hatÿeld et al. [16] and Wiggert et al. [17] (in time domain),
Tentarelli [18], Brown and Tentarelli [19] and De Jong [20,21] (in frequency domain), Svingen and
Kjeldsen [22] and Svingen [23] (based on the ÿnite element method) applied the transfer matrix
method (TMM) to onedimensional wave problems.
Among the abovementioned studies, only in Refs. [18,19] the friction coupling was taken into
account. Moreover, the dynamic behavior of uidÿlled pipes with nonuniform crosssection or
variable material properties was not investigated in these studies.
Dierent from these studies, Zhang et al. [24] obtained a solution of the fourequation model
of FSI in the frequency domain in which the impact loads are considered. Followed by a series of
researches conducted in recent years [25–31], it has been proved that the frequencybased approaches
are ecient for the analysis of FSI in liquidÿlled pipe systems. However, up to now, this kind of
method has been used for single pipes only. In this paper, based on these studies, a transfer matrix
method is developed for the analysis of FSI in a series pipe system which may consist of many
sections of pipes. Meanwhile, some previously not considered aspects are also taken into account
in this paper, which include the frequency equations, the impedance matrix, the frequency response
matrix and the mode shapes. At the end of this paper, numerical examples are presented to illustrate
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087 2069
the application of the proposed method and to investigate the eects of the radius and the material
properties of pipes on the dynamic behavior of a pipe system.
In addition to the analysis of free vibration and frequency response of a liquidÿlled pipe system,
the present TMM aims mainly at determining the solution for FSI at any point of the system when
the system is subjected to external excitations in order to make the transient solution in time domain
possible by taking inverse Laplace transform.
2. The frequency domain solution for single pipe and discussions
Following the derivation given in Ref. [13], the frequency domain solution for a single pipe is
rewritten in this section, meanwhile, some discussions are given and expansions are made.
2.1. The governing equation and its uncoupling
The governing equation for a uidÿlled pipe system can be expressed with matrices as
A
@y(z; t)
@t
+ B
@y(z; t)
@z
+ Cy(z; t) = r(z; t); (1)
where y(z; t) is a vector of unknowns
y(z; t) = [V; H; ˙ u
z
;
h
]
T
; (2)
where V = V(z; t) and H = H(z; t) are the crosssectional average speed and the crosssectional
pressure head of liquid, respectively; ˙ u
z
= ˙ u
z
(z; t) is the crosssectional average speed along the
direction of z and
h
=
h
(z; t) is the crosssectional average stress head of pipe wall. r(z; t) in the
righthand side of Eq. (1) is the external excitation acting along the pipe. H=H(z; t) and
h
=
h
(z; t)
are deÿned below related to pressure P = P(z; t) and normal stress
z
=
z
(z; t) as
H(z; t) =
P(z; t)
g
f
+ z sin() −
P
0
(z)
g
f
;
h
(z; t) =
z
(z; t)
g
t
+ z sin() −
0
(z)
g
t
; (3)
where is the elevation angle of the pipe; P
0
(z);
0
(z) are the initial pressure and initial stress,
respectively; and
t
and
f
are the density of the pipe and liquid, respectively.
Other parameters in Eq. (1) are
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0 0
0 g=c
2
F
0 0
0 0 1 0
0
f
gR
t
ec
2
T
0 −
1
t
c
2
T
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
; B =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0 g 0 0
1 0 −2 0
0 0 0 −1=
t
0 0 1 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
; (4)
2070 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087
where
c
2
F
=
1
f
_
1
k
+
2R(1 −
2
)
eE
_
−1
; c
2
T
=
E
t
: (5)
In Eq. (5) L is the length of the pipe, is Poisson’s ratio, R is the inner radius of the pipe, e
is the thickness of the pipe wall, E is elastic modulus, g is the gravity and K is the bulk elastic
modulus of liquid. Matrix C contains the coecients of friction and structural viscous damping.
When the laminar ow model is adopted, C is a constant matrix [12].
In Eq. (4), the terms a
42
=
f
gR=
t
ec
2
T
and b
23
= −2 represent the Poisson coupling, which,
together with matrix C, make the governing equations coupled each other.
Taking the Laplace transform, denoted by L(·), for Eq. (1) results in
sA(s)Y(z; s) + B
@Y(z; s)
@z
= r(z; s); (6)
where
Y(z; s) =L(y(z; t));
A(s) =
A + C=s;
r(z; s) =L(r(z; t)) + A(s)y(z; 0) (7)
in which y(z; 0) is a vector of the initial conditions.
From a generalized eigenvalues problem B−A=0 one obtains a diagonal matrix with eigenvalues
in the diagonal elements
=diag{
1
(s);
2
(s);
3
(s);
4
(s)}
=diag{
1
(s); −
1
(s);
3
(s); −
3
(s)} (8)
and the full matrix S(s) whose columns are the corresponding eigenvectors satisÿes [5]
BS(s) = A(s)S(s)(s): (9)
Evidently, matrix S(s) is regular, and in a frictionless system C = 0, the eigenvalues
i
, and the
elements of matrices A and S are all real numbers independent of s.
Multiplying Eq. (1) with
T(s) = S
−1
(s)A
−1
(s) (10)
and then combined with Eq. (9) yield
sv(z; s) +
@v(z; s)
@z
= T(s) r(z; s); (11)
where
v(z; s) = T(s)A(s)Y(z; s): (12)
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087 2071
Since is a diagonal matrix, Eq. (11) is a set of four independent ordinary equations with
complex constant coecients, and its general solution is
v(z; s) = E(z; s)v
0
(s) + q(z; s); (13)
where
E(z; s) = diag
_
exp
_
−
s
1
(s)
z
_
; exp
_
−
s
1
(s)
z
_
; exp
_
−
s
3
(s)
z
_
; exp
_
s
3
(s)
z
__
;
v(z; s) = {v
1
; v
2
; v
3
; v
4
}
T
; q(z; s) = {q
1
; q
2
; q
3
; q
4
}
T
:
(14)
v
0
=v
0
(s) contains undetermined integration constants depending on the boundary conditions, and
q(z; s) is a particular solution. When denoting
T r = [r
1
(z; s); r
2
(z; s); r
3
(z; s); r
4
(z; s)]
T
; (15)
the elements of vector q(z; s) can be determined by
q
i
=
se
−sz=
i
(s)
i
(s)
_
z
0
r
i
(x; s)e
−sx=
i
(s)
dx; i = 1; 2; 3; 4:
From Eq. (12) and with S(s) = (T(s)A(s))
−1
, we have
Y(z; s) = K(z; s)v
0
(s) + Q(z; s); (16)
where
K(z; s) = S(s)E(z; s); Q(z; s) = S(s)q(z; s): (17)
It is evident that K(z; s) is regular.
2.2. The boundary conditions and their forms
To meet the needs of the transfer matrix method, it is necessary to express the boundary condi
tions in matrix forms at individual end instead of at both ends of a single pipe. After taking the
Laplace transform, the boundary conditions at an end point of a pipe can be generally expressed in
matrix as
D(s)Y( z; s) = f(s); (18)
where D and f can be determined according to the forms of the boundary conditions. f is illustrated
in the following equations (Eqs. (19)–(21)) in the form of f
r
; f
R
and f
m
. In Y( z; s) (deÿned in
Eq. (7)) z is the coordinate of the end (e.g., 0 or the length of the pipe L).
The following is some examples for several boundary conditions expressed in this manner.
(1) Reservoir (or an opened end ): If the pipe is ÿxed at this end, we have
D
r
=
_
0 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
_
; f
r
(s) = [u
g
(s) 0]
T
; (19)
2072 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087
where u
g
denotes the ground velocity, e.g., when it is subjected to an earthquake excitation. The
pressure P
o
of the reservoir is taken into account in H (see Eq. (3))
(2) Closed valve or closed end with mass m:
(a) Pipe ÿxed
D
R
=
_
1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0
_
; f
R
(s) = [u
g
(s) u
g
(s)]
T
: (20)
(b) Pipe is movable in axial direction
D
m
=
_
1 0 −1 0
0 g
f
A
f
±sm −g
t
A
t
_
; f
m
= [0 ± R
l
(s)]
T
; (21)
where A
f
; A
t
are the area of inner part of the pipe and area of the pipe wall, respectively. m is the
mass of valve or the sealed end etc. The sign “±” is determined according to the direction of the
coordinate and the position where the mass or the excitation appears. R
l
is the Laplace transform of
the external excitation at the corresponding end. In the case shown in Fig. 2, R
l
can be written as
R
l
= A
r
_
E
r
r
(e
−sTc
− 1)=s; (22)
where the subscript r denotes the property of the impacting rod.
Eq. (21) shows an example of the junction coupling since V and ˙ u
z
, or H and
h
, appear in the
same equation of boundary condition.
With the above expressions, the boundary conditions can be written with relatively simple and
uniÿed forms. For example, when a single pipe is ÿxed and connected with a reservoir at the
upstream end z = 0, and is ÿxed and connected with a closed valve at the downstream end z = L,
then the boundary conditions can be written as
D
r
Y(0; s) = f
r
(s); D
R
Y(L; s) = f
R
(s): (23)
2.3. The frequency domain solution for a single pipe
In Eq. (16), let z = 0 and z = L, we get eight relations between the unknowns and undetermined
integration constants, namely
Y(0; s) = K(0; s)v
0
(s) + Q(0; s); (24)
Y(L; s) = K(L; s)v
0
(s) + Q(L; s): (25)
There are only two boundary conditions at the end z = 0 or L. The general expressions are
[D
up
(s)]
2×4
{Y(0; s)}
4×1
= {F(0; s)}
2×1
;
[D
down
(s)]
2×4
{Y(L; s)}
4×1
= {F(L; s)}
2×1
;
(26)
where the subscripts outside the bracket denote the numbers of row and column of the matrix.
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087 2073
Combining Eqs. (24)–(26) yields
D
up
(s)K(0; s)v
0
(z; s) = F(0; s) − D
up
(s)Q(0; s);
D
down
(s)K(L; s)v
0
(z; s) = F(L; s) − D
down
(s)Q(L; s):
(27)
For a pipe system with a single section, the above equation can be written in a matrix form
R(s)v
0
(s) =
F(s); (28)
where
R(s) =
_
D
up
K(0)
D
down
K(L)
_
4×4
;
F(s) =
_
F(0) − D
up
Q(0)
F(L) − D
down
Q(L)
_
4×1
: (29)
Eq. (28) is similar to that given in Ref. [27], but Eq. (28) is more concise in form. For a pipe
system with more than one pipe sections, the two equations of Eq. (27) can be applied to dierent
pipe sections, respectively, and 0 and L in the equation are the local coordinates.
If the boundary conditions are able to determine all the undetermined constants, R is certainly
regular.
Substituting v
0
= R
−1
(s)
F(s) into Eq. (16) gives
Y(z; s) = K(z; s)R
−1
(z; s)
F(s) + Q(z; s): (30)
A similar equation was derived in Ref. [15], but the present form is more concise and clearer,
which paves the way to the analysis of multisection pipe systems. This concise form is attributed
largely to Eq. (28) and to the individual expression of boundary conditions, namely Eq. (18).
2.4. The impedance and the frequency equation
Here, some necessary expansions are also made and discussions which are important for the TMM
to be presented in the next section are given.
In Eq. (30), let the initial conditions and the external excitations along the pipe be zero, we get
Y(z; s) = K(z; s)R
−1
(z; s)
F(s); (31)
H(z; s) = K(z; s)R
−1
(z; s): (32)
Since
F(s) in Eq. (30) is the external excitation acting at the end of the pipe, which includes the
movement of the constraint or close of valve, etc. Let s = j!; H deÿned in Eq. (32) is, therefore,
the frequency response matrix of the pipe subjected to the external excitation acting at the end of
the pipe.
The impedance matrix is then
Z(z; s) = H
−1
(z; s): (33)
When considering a free vibration problem, the second righthand term in Eq. (24) and Eq. (25)
are set to zero, and from Eqs. (24) and (25) we have
Y(L; s) = S
−1
(s)E(L; s)S(s)Y(0; s);
Y(0; s) = S(s)E
−1
(L; s)S
−1
(s)Y(L; s)
(34)
2074 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087
or in matrix form as follows:
[[I]
4×4
[ − S(s)E
−1
(L; s)S
−1
(s)]
4×4
]
_
Y(0; s)
Y(L; s)
_
8×1
= 0 (35)
by setting the righthand term equal to zero, Eq. (26) yields
[D
up
(s)]
2×4
{Y(0; s)}
4×1
= 0; (36)
[D
down
(s)]
2×4
{Y(L; s)}
4×1
= 0: (37)
Combining Eqs. (35)–(37), we get
_
¸
¸
_
[D
up
(s)]
2×4
[0]
2×4
[0]
2×4
[D
down
(s)]
2×4
[I]
4×4
[ − S(s)E
−1
(L; s)S
−1
(s)]
4×4
_
¸
¸
_
_
Y(0; s)
Y(L; s)
_
8×1
= 0; (38)
where [0] is a zero matrix. Since Y is not always equal to zero, there must be
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
[D
up
(s)]
2×4
0
0 [D
down
(s)]
2×4
[I]
4×4
[ − S(s)E
−1
(L; s)S
−1
(s)]
4×4
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0: (39)
Eq. (39) is the desired frequency equation with s = +j! as variable, the complex frequencies can
be obtained by setting the real part and the imaginary part of Eq. (39) equal to zero, respectively.
Taking
F of Eq. (31) equal to zero yields
Z(z; s)Y = 0: (40)
Therefore, when the ith natural frequency is gained, with Eq. (40), the mode shape function of the
system corresponding to the ith natural frequency can be obtained with standard methods [32–35].
3. The transfer matrix method for pipe systems with several sections
A series pipe system consisting of several sections with dierent radiuses, thickness of pipe wall
and material properties (see Fig. 1) is widely used in practices such as in the highpressure pipe
lines of water power stations. Meanwhile, if a pipeline under the action of a concentrated force, the
pipe line must be divided into two sections for analysis. It is, therefore, necessary to obtain the FSI
frequency domain response for a pipe system with multisections.
Fig. 1 illustrates a series pipe system with N pipe sections numbered 1; 2; : : : ; N from upstream
to downstream. A point connecting two adjacent pipe sections is called node, the sequence num
bers is 0; 1; : : : ; N also from upstream to downstream. The direction of axis z is from upstream to
downstream.
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087 2075
Fig. 1. The sections and nodes of pipe system.
The coordinate z of the ith section is used as local coordinate and denoted as z
i
. For the ith
section, the upstream node, namely the (i − 1)th node, has z
i
= 0 and its downstream node, namely
the ith node, has a coordinate z
i
= L
i
. Adopting the local coordinate will make the formulas clear.
3.1. The ÿeld transfer matrix
Since Eq. (16) is valid for all sections, then for the ith section, we have
Y
i
(z
i
; s) = K
i
(z
i
; s)v
0i
(s) + Q
i
(z
i
; s); i = 1; 2; : : : ; N; (41)
where v
0i
(s) is a vector of undetermined integration constants related to the ith section (also see
Eqs. (13) and (14)). Substituting 0 and L
i
into Eq. (31) yields
Y
i
(0; s) = K
i
(0; s)v
0i
(s) + Q
i
(0; s);
Y
i
(L
i
; s) = K
i
(L
i
; s)v
0i
(s) + Q
i
(L
i
; s):
(42)
From Eq. (32), v
0i
(s) can be expressed as follows:
v
0i
(s) = K
−1
i
(0; s){Y
i
(0; s) − Q
i
(0; s)};
v
0i
(s) = K
−1
i
(L
i
; s){Y
i
(L
i
; s) − Q
i
(L
i
; s)};
(43)
which results in
K
−1
i
(0; s){Y
i
(0; s) − Q
i
(0; s)} = K
−1
i
(L
i
; s){Y
i
(L
i
; s) − Q
i
(L
i
; s)} (44)
or
Y
i
(0; s) = K
i
(0; s)K
−1
i
(L
i
; s)Y
i
(L
i
; s) + q
i
(z; s); (45)
where
q
i
(s) = K
i
(0; s){Q
i
(0; s) − K
−1
i
(L
i
; s)Q
i
(L
i
; s)}: (46)
We now deÿne the ÿeld transfer matrix as
F
i
(s) = K
i
(0; s)K
−1
i
(L
i
; s) = S
i
E
−1
(L
i
; s)S
−1
i
;
F
−1
i
(s) = S
−1
i
(s)E(L
i
; s)S
i
(s):
(47)
2076 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087
F
i
(s) provides the relation between the unknowns at both ends of a section
Y
i
(0; s) = F
i
(s)Y
i
(L
i
; s) + q
i
(s): (48)
3.2. Point transfer matrix
The junction condition between the two pipe sections in Fig. 1 can be found in Ref. [29]. Here,
expressing them in matrix form and then taking Laplace transform results in
D
i
Y
i
(L
i
; s) = D
i+1
Y
i+1
(0; s) + P
(out)i
(s); i = 1; 2; : : : ; N − 1: (49)
For the ith node, the matrix D
i
in Eq. (49) is of the form
D
i
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
A
f(i)
0 −A
f(i)
0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 A
f(i)
0 −A
t(i)
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
; P
(out)i
(s) =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0
0
L(P
out
(t))
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
; (50)
where A
f(i)
; A
t(i)
are the area of liquid and the pipe wall in the ith section, respectively. Obviously,
the matrix D
i
is regular. P
out
is a concentrated external force acting at the ith node. So the relation
between the unknowns of the ith and (i + 1)th sections is provided by Eq. (49).
From Eq. (49), we have
Y
i
(L
i
; s) = D
−1
i
D
i+1
Y
i+1
(0; s) + D
−1
i
P
(out)i
(s): (51)
The point transfer matrix of the ith node is deÿned as
P
i
= D
−1
i
D
i+1
: (52)
With the point transfer matrix P
i
, the unknowns on the both sides of the ith node are related with
Y
i
(L
i
; s) = P
i
Y
i+1
(0; s) + P
i
F
(out)i
(s); (53)
where
F
(out)i
(s) = D
−1
i+1
P
(out)i
(s): (54)
To make the expression clear, it must be pointed out that, in this paper, only in the expressions of
P
i
; P
(out)i
(s); F
(out)i
(s) the subscript i identiÿes the ith node which is the downstream node of section
i. For other variables and matrices, the subscript i identiÿes the ith pipe section.
3.3. The transfer matrix method
By means of the point transfer matrices and the ÿeld transfer matrices, the relation of the unknowns
in the ith and the (i + 1)th sections can be found by substituting Eq. (48) into Eq. (53)
Y
i
(L
i
; s) = P
i
Y
i+1
(0; s) + P
i
F
(out)i
(s) = P
i
F
i+1
(s)Y
i+1
(L
i+1
; s) + P
i
Q
i+1
(s); (55)
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087 2077
where
Q
i+1
(s) = F
(out)i
(s) + q
i+1
(s): (56)
Let N
n
be the global transfer matrix and denoted by
N
n
(s) =
n
i=1
(F
i
(s)P
i
); n = 1; 2; : : : ; N − 1; (57)
the general relation between the 1st and Nth sections is
Y
1
(0; s) = N
N−1
(s)F
N
(s)Y
N
(L
N
; s) +
N
k=2
N
k−2
(s)P
k−1
Q
k
(s); N ¿2 (58)
in which we deÿne that N
0
= I and
Q
1
= q
1
, and the second righthand term in Eq. (58) is equal
to zero if the upper limit is less than the lower limit.
For example, if the pipe system consists of three sections, from Eq. (58) we have
Y
1
(0) = F
1
P
1
F
2
P
2
F
3
Y
3
(L
3
) + ( q
1
+ F
1
P
1
Q
2
+ F
1
P
1
F
2
P
2
Q
3
)
or
Y
1
(0) =
2
i=1
(F
i
P
i
)F
3
Y
3
(L
3
) +
_
q
1
+
1
i=1
(F
i
P
i
)
Q
2
+
2
i=1
(F
i
P
i
)
Q
3
_
;
Y
1
(0) = N
2
F
3
Y
3
(L
3
) + ( q
1
+ N
1
Q
2
+ N
2
Q
3
):
(59)
Similar to Eqs. (27) and (28), another four algebra equations are
[D
up
(s)]
2×4
{Y(0; s)}
4×1
= {F(0; s)}
2×1
;
[D
down
(s)]
2×4
{Y(L; s)}
4×1
= {F(L; s)}
2×1
:
(60)
At last, we have eight algebra equations with eight unknowns, namely Eqs. (58) and (60), and we
rewrite them in a uniÿed matrix form
[G(s)]
8×8
_
Y(0; s)
Y(L
N
; s)
_
8×1
= [
˜
Q(s)]
8×1
; (61)
where
G(s) =
_
¸
¸
_
[D
up
]
2×4
[0]
2×4
[0]
2×4
[D
down
]
2×4
[I]
4×4
[ − N
N−1
(s)F
N
(s)]
4×4
_
¸
¸
_
; (62)
˜
Q(s) =
_
F(0; s);
F(L
N
; s);
N
k=2
N
k−2
(s)P
k−1
Q
k
(s)
_
T
: (63)
2078 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087
Denoting
G
−1
(s) =
_
[
G
1
(s)]
4×8
[
G
2
(s)]
4×8
_
; (64)
then
v
01
(s) =
G
1
(s)
˜
Q(s); v
0N
(s) =
G
2
(s)
˜
Q(s): (65)
By using Eq. (65), and with the reverse process used in the above deduction, we can obtain the
solution for any intermediate section from the upstream to downstream, and vice verse.
First, let us go from upstream to downstream. If the solution Y
i
(L
i
) in the ith section has been
obtained, the following three formulas can be used successively to get the solution for the (i +1)th
section:
from Eq. (49)
Y
i+1
(0) = P
−1
i
Y
i
(L
i
) − (F
out
)
i
; (66)
from Eq. (43)
v
0(i+1)
= K
−1
i+1
(0; s){Y
i+1
(0) − Q
i+1
(0)}; (67)
from Eq. (41)
Y
i+1
(z; s) = K
i+1
(z; s)v
0(i+1)
(s) + Q
i+1
(z): (68)
Eq. (68) gives the general frequency domain solutions for the (i + 1)th section. Let z = L
i+1
in
Eq. (68), Y
i+1
(L
i+1
) is determined, then go back to Eq. (66), the solution for the (i + 2)th section
can then be obtained, and so on.
Similarly, taking the inverse way, going from downstream to upstream, the solutions for interme
diate sections can also be obtained. Namely, if Y
i
(z; s) in the ith section has been known, Y
i
(0; s)
is, therefore, known. The following three formulas can be used successively to get the solutions for
intermediate sections, since the righthand side in each formula is known.
Y
i−1
(L
i−1
) = P
i−1
Y
i
(0) + P
i−1
(F
out
)
i−1
; (69)
v
0(i−1)
= K
−1
i−1
(0; s){Y
i−1
(L
i−1
) − Q
i−1
(L
i−1
)}; (70)
Y
i−1
(z; s) = K
i−1
(z; s)v
0(i−1)
+ Q
i−1
(z): (71)
The abovementioned method is generally used for calculating the frequency domain response of
the system subjected to external excitations. When the inverse Laplace transform is adopted, the
transient response of the system can also be obtained. On the other hand, for calculating the natural
frequencies, we can simply take the righthand side of Eq. (61) equal to zero, namely
G(s) = 0: (72)
For calculating the corresponding complex mode shapes, the following equation that is similar to
Eq. (40) for each pipe section can be used
Z
i
( z
i
; s)Y
i
( z
i
; s) = 0: (73)
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087 2079
Fig. 2. Experiment rig of steel pipe [7].
Table 1
Geometrical and material properties of the pipe apparatus [7]
Steel Pipe Water Steel Rod
L = 4:5 m length K = 2:14 GPa bulk model L
r
= 5:02 m length
R = 52:0 mm inner radius
t
= 999 kg=m
3
density E
r
= 200 GPa Young’s modulus
e = 3:945 mm pipe wall thickness P
0
= 2:0 MPa initial pressure
r
= 7848 kg= m
3
density
E = 168 GPa Young’s modulus v
r
= 1 m=s velocity
= 0:3 Poisson’s ratio T
c
= 1:98 ms impact time
t
= 7985 kg=m
3
density of pipe V
r
= 0:1175 m=s impact velocity
m
0
= 1:312 kg mass at z = 0
m
L
= 0:3258 kg mass at z = L
4. Numerical examples and discussions
Vardy and Fan [7] has designed an experiment rig to make accurate measurement and to study the
dynamic behavior of waterhammer. The test rig is shown in Fig. 2 and the speciÿcations are list in
Table 1. This rig consists of a waterÿlled pipe closed at both ends (with mass m
0
, m
L
, respectively)
and suspended by wires. The closed pipe is subjected to axial impact by a steel rod at the end of
z =0 to generate transients. This rig has its superiority to conventional reservoirpipevalve system in
describing the inuence of FSI. Also, in this apparatus, eects of friction and gravity are unimportant,
and the inuences of uid–structure interaction related to the Poisson and junction couplings can be
clearly isolated in case of axial wave propagation [29].
It can be seen from Eq. (3) that the two initial conditions are H
t=0
=0 and
h

t=0
=0. The system
is initially still, this problem has, therefore, only zero initial condition. The boundary conditions of
this system are
_
1 0 −1 0
0 g
f
A
f
sm −g
t
A
t
_
Y(0; s) = 0;
_
1 0 −1 0
0 g
f
A
f
−sm −g
t
A
t
_
Y(L
2
; s) = 0:
(74)
2080 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087
Fig. 3. The analytical model for the TMM.
Table 2
Frequency results of a single pipe
Results Frequencies in mode sequence numbers (±0:5 Hz)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Test [7] 173 289 459 485 636 750 918 968
Zhang et al. [24] 172 286 455 473 627 741 907 945
Reduced TMM 172 286 454 472 627 741 907 945
R
1
= R
2
= R=2 167 303 458 470 635 772 874 939
Table 3
TMM results with m
0
= m
L
and L
1
= L
2
= L=2
Results Frequencies in mode sequence numbers (±0:5 Hz)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
R
1
= R
2
= R=2 167 302 434 470 633 769 874 939
R
1
= R; R
2
= R=2 166 302 439 471 607 769 905 914
Reduced TMM 171 285 454 460 624 740 907 921
E
1
= E; E
2
= 3E=4 169 278 432 449 614 725 873 894
E
1
= E
2
= 3E=4 167 271 414 442 605 706 828 889
In the numerical example, the total length of the system remains as unchanged, and at the middle
point, the pipe is divided into two parts, each of them has a length L=2. This makes it possible for
the TMM calculation to be consistent with the original test by taking the parameters of the two pipe
sections identical (Fig. 3). In fact, by doing so, the present TMM does get the same results as Ref.
[24] (see Table 2 “Reduced TMM”).
Due to symmetry, let the two masses be both equal to m
0
. The results are listed in “Reduced
TMM” of Table 3.
In the numerical example, two cases are considered separately. One is that the radius of the second
pipe section is equal to R=2, the other is changing E to 3E=4 at the second pipe section. Both cases
keep the parameters of the ÿrst pipe section to be the same as those listed in Table 1. In order to
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087 2081
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
2.0
4.0
1 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 901
Frequency in Hz
l
o
g
(
a
b
s
(
H
)
)
E and E
3E/4 and 3E/4
E and 3E/4
Fig. 4. The frequency response of the twosection pipe changing with R.
l
o
g
(
a
b
s
(
H
)
)
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
1 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 901
Frequency in Hz
R and R
R/2 and R/2
R and R/2
Fig. 5. The frequency response of the twosection pipe changing with E.
compare the results clearly, the results of a single pipe with R=2 or 3E=4 are also listed in Table 3.
The frequency responses are shown in Figs. 4 and 5.
As is well known, the kth frequency f
k
and the mode shape function u
k
of a solid rod with both
ends free can be expressed as
f
k
=
k
2L
¸
E
t
; u
k
= cos
_
k
L
z
_
: (75)
Eq. (75) means that the frequencies and mode shape functions of such a solid rod are independent
on the radius of the rod. However, for the present problem, the frequencies are signiÿcantly dependent
on the radius. Even for the single pipe system when R of the pipe decreases, the frequencies are
also obviously changed (see Table 2 and Fig. 4).
When the two masses m
0
and m
L
are set equal to each other, only the frequencies of the 4th and
8th modes change obviously. This shows that the frequencies of these two modes mainly represent
2082 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
location z/L
H
/
m
a
x
(
H
)
R and R
R/2 and R/2
R and R/2
Fig. 6. The 1st mode of H changing with R.
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
location z/L
V
/
m
a
x
(
V
)
R/2 and R/2
R and R/2
R and R
Fig. 7. The 1st mode of V changing with R.
the vibration of the pipe and the other frequencies mainly depend on uid. Therefore, only the 1st
mode (mainly depending on uid) and the 4th mode (representing the vibration of the pipe) are
discussed in detail below.
In the published papers [24–27] using the frequency domain methods, the mode shapes were not
presented. In this study, the mode shapes are determined and shown in Figs. 6–12. For the present
problem, the 2nd and 4th columns of the matrix H(z; s) are the response of the system subjected
to a unit impulse excitation at the upstream and downstream end, respectively. The mode shapes
in Figs. 6–12 are obtained from the 2nd column of the matrix H(z; s) (see Eq. (32)) by taking
s =j!
k
, here !
k
is the kth natural frequency of the system. The 4th column gives the same results.
Figs. 6–12 are obtained by taking the real parts of the corresponding unknowns, namely
V = real(L(V));
H = real(L(H));
U = real(L( ˙ u)) (76)
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087 2083
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
location z/L
H
/
m
a
x
(
H
)
R and R
R/2 and R/2
R and R/2
Fig. 8. The 4th mode of H changing with R.
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
location z/L
U
/
m
a
x
(
U
)
R and R
R/2 and R/2
R and R/2
Fig. 9. The 4th mode of U changing with R.
in which
V;
H; ˙ u are the same as those deÿned in Eq. (2). For the mode shapes, taking the
imaginary parts one obtains the same results.
It is worth mentioning that, when the two sections have dierent R, the mode of H is dierent
in the two sections (see Figs. 6–8). However, the mode of V has a sudden change in the junction
point for keeping the discharge Q
i
be equal at both sides of the node (see Fig. 7), in as much as
Q
i
=V
i
A
fi
and A
fi
are dierent at two sides of the ith node. From Figs. 9 and 12, it can be seen that
the mode of U is approximately a cosine, but the frequency is lower than the 1st natural frequency
of the solid rod (509 Hz).
5. Conclusion
In this paper, the uid–structure interaction in liquidÿlled pipe system is studied in frequency
domain using the transfer matrix method, which extends the frequency domain analysis for FSI
2084 Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
location z/L
H
/
m
a
x
(
H
)
E
3E/4
E and 3E/4
Fig. 10. The 1st mode of H changing with E.
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
location z/L
H
/
m
a
x
(
H
)
E
3E/4
E and 3E/4
Fig. 11. The 4th mode of H changing with E.
presented by Zhang et al. [24] from a singlesection pipe to a multisection pipe system. Eorts are
also made to expand the results of the single pipe, of which the frequency equations, the impedance
matrix, the frequency response matrix and the mode shapes are especially worth mentioning. These
expansions are also applicable for pipelines with multisections.
In the analysis of FSI problems, the present transfer matrix method is dierent from the traditional
one. In the case of the junction coupling, the unknowns in FSI problems are coupled in boundary
conditions, they satisfy a set of algebra relations other than each variable equals to a constant,
which makes it dicult to realize the transfer matrix method directly. In this paper, the diculty is
overcome by ÿnding out a uniÿed matrix expression of the boundary conditions.
The present method has included all the three major coupling mechanisms, namely the friction
coupling, the Poisson coupling and the junction coupling, and can deal with dynamic analysis of
liquidÿlled pipe systems under various kinds of external excitations. The method aims at conducting
both harmonic analysis and the frequency response analysis, especially aim at obtaining the solution
Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067–2087 2085
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
location z/L
U
/
m
a
x
(
U
)
E
3E/4
E and 3E/4
Fig. 12. The 4th mode of U changing with E.
at any point of a pipe system, so that the transient response of the pipe system subjected to various
excitations can be determined by the inverse Laplace transform.
From the view point of practical applications, this is a simple frequency domain method for the
analysis of pipe systems with various sections considering FSI. In comparison with ÿnite element
method (FEM) and method of characteristics (MOC) in time domain, the present method needs
much fewer lines of code in programming.
The method is useful for the analysis of FSI in multisection pipe systems that are widely used in
engineering practices. Meanwhile, it is also useful for single or multisection pipe systems subjected
to concentrated force acting on the pipe systems.
Numerical examples show that the results determined by the proposed method are in good agree
ment with the experimental data, thus verifying the accuracy of the proposed method. It is also
shown through the numerical examples that how the frequencies and mode shapes change with the
radius and material properties of the pipe systems.
Acknowledgements
The authors thank for the ÿnancial supports provided by the National fund of Natural Science of
China (Project No.50079007), and The Ministry of Water Resources, China (Project No. SZ9830)
for the study described in this paper.
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Q.S. Li et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087
only several previous investigations which are directly related to the present study are reviewed below. First of all, it is necessary to declare the three major coupling mechanisms of FSI in pipe systems, namely friction coupling, Poisson coupling and junction coupling. The friction coupling represents an axial interaction caused by friction between uid and pipe. The Poisson coupling is such an interaction that the change of uid pressure causes additional hoop stress in pipe wall and then, owing to Poisson ratio, induces corresponding normal stress in pipe wall, and vice versa. The junction coupling occurs only at the boundaries or the junction of two pipe sections. Mathematically, the Poisson and friction coupling make the governing equations coupled each other and cause the equations much di erent from the traditional ones [5], whereas the junction coupling is normally expressed as the boundary conditions, among the three coupling mechanisms, the junction coupling is, therefore, the easiest one to deal with. In the present study, all the three major coupling mechanisms are taken into account. Thorley [6] was the ÿrst who pointed out the existence of precursor wave caused by the Poisson coupling, and Vardy and Fan [7] veriÿed it through a welldesigned experiment. Their experimental results will be used in the numerical example of this paper to verify the accuracy of the proposed method. Charley and Caignaert [8] used experimental data to demonstrate that transfer matrices with considering FSI can predict much better the measured pressure spectra than the classical waterhammer [5] transfer matrices, even in simple systems. D’souza and Oldenburger [9] presented one of the earliest studies in the ÿeld. In their paper, the Laplace transform was used to solve an equation included the friction and junction coupling. Wilkinson [10] presented transfer matrices for the axial, lateral and torsional vibration of pipes. He considered the junction coupling, but without considering the friction and Poisson coupling. ElRaheb [11] and Nanayakkara and Perreira [12] derived transfer matrices for straight and curved pipes, including the e ects of the junction coupling but excluding those of the Poisson and friction coupling. Kuiken [13] studied the e ects of the Poisson and junction coupling through a numerical simulation. Lesmez [14], Lesmez et al. [15], Hatÿeld et al. [16] and Wiggert et al. [17] (in time domain), Tentarelli [18], Brown and Tentarelli [19] and De Jong [20,21] (in frequency domain), Svingen and Kjeldsen [22] and Svingen [23] (based on the ÿnite element method) applied the transfer matrix method (TMM) to onedimensional wave problems. Among the abovementioned studies, only in Refs. [18,19] the friction coupling was taken into account. Moreover, the dynamic behavior of uidÿlled pipes with nonuniform crosssection or variable material properties was not investigated in these studies. Di erent from these studies, Zhang et al. [24] obtained a solution of the fourequation model of FSI in the frequency domain in which the impact loads are considered. Followed by a series of researches conducted in recent years [25–31], it has been proved that the frequencybased approaches are e cient for the analysis of FSI in liquidÿlled pipe systems. However, up to now, this kind of method has been used for single pipes only. In this paper, based on these studies, a transfer matrix method is developed for the analysis of FSI in a series pipe system which may consist of many sections of pipes. Meanwhile, some previously not considered aspects are also taken into account in this paper, which include the frequency equations, the impedance matrix, the frequency response matrix and the mode shapes. At the end of this paper, numerical examples are presented to illustrate
t) = g t + z sin( ) − 0 (z) g t . 0 (z) are the initial pressure and initial stress. t) +B + Cy(z. @t @z T h] . t) and normal stress z = z (z. t) is the crosssectional average stress head of pipe wall. t) in the righthand side of Eq. t) is the crosssectional average speed along the ˙ ˙ direction of z and h = h (z. t) is a vector of unknowns y(z.1. (4) A =0 0 1 0 . respectively. The frequency domain solution for single pipe and discussions Following the derivation given in Ref. The governing equation and its uncoupling The governing equation for a uidÿlled pipe system can be expressed with matrices as A @y(z. t) = r(z.S. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 2069 the application of the proposed method and to investigate the e ects of the radius and the material properties of pipes on the dynamic behavior of a pipe system. t) are deÿned below related to pressure P = P(z. B = 0 −1= t 0 0 1 f gR 0 − 2 0 0 0 1 0 2 t ecT t cT . (1) is the external excitation acting along the pipe. t) P0 (z) + z sin( ) − . [13]. t) @y(z. the present TMM aims mainly at determining the solution for FSI at any point of the system when the system is subjected to external excitations in order to make the transient solution in time domain possible by taking inverse Laplace transform. t) = [V. t) are the crosssectional average speed and the crosssectional pressure head of liquid. Other parameters in Eq. (1) where y(z.Q. u z . t) and h = h (z. H. Li et al. r(z. meanwhile. t) and H = H (z. some discussions are given and expansions are made. (3) where is the elevation angle of the pipe. u z = u z (z. respectively. respectively. t). (1) are 1 0 0 0 0 g 0 0 2 0 g=cF 0 0 0 1 0 −2 . g f g f z (z. ˙ (2) where V = V (z. P0 (z). and t and f are the density of the pipe and liquid. t) = h (z. 2. 2. In addition to the analysis of free vibration and frequency response of a liquidÿlled pipe system. H =H (z. t) P(z. the frequency domain solution for a single pipe is rewritten in this section. t) as H (z.
(9) yield sv(z. 0) is a vector of the initial conditions. Taking the Laplace transform. s) = T (s)r(z. is Poisson’s ratio. s) = L(y(z. and in a frictionless system C = 0. s) = r(z. (5) L is the length of the pipe. r(z. s) = L(r(z. the terms a42 = f gR = t ecT and b23 = −2 represent the Poisson coupling. s) = T(s)A(s)Y(z. − 3 (s)} (8) and the full matrix S(s) whose columns are the corresponding eigenvectors satisÿes [5] BS(s) = A(s)S(s) (s): Evidently. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 where 2 cF = 1 f 1 2R(1 − + k eE 2 ) −1 . 2 cT = E t : (5) In Eq. make the governing equations coupled each other. − 1 (s). together with matrix C. From a generalized eigenvalues problem B− A=0 one obtains a diagonal matrix with eigenvalues in the diagonal elements = diag{ 1 (s). t)) + A(s)y(z. s) + where v(z. denoted by L(·). s). When the laminar ow model is adopted. s) + B where Y(z. e is the thickness of the pipe wall. (4).S. t)). matrix S(s) is regular. 4 (s)} = diag{ 1 (s). the eigenvalues elements of matrices A and S are all real numbers independent of s. s): (12) @v(z. (9) and the (10) . @z (6) in which y(z. g is the gravity and K is the bulk elastic modulus of liquid. 0) (7) @Y(z. Matrix C contains the coe cients of friction and structural viscous damping. 2 (s). 2 In Eq. @z (11) i. for Eq. s). C is a constant matrix [12]. Multiplying Eq. 3 (s). 3 (s). R is the inner radius of the pipe.2070 Q. (1) results in sA(s)Y(z. (1) with T(s) = S−1 (s)A−1 (s) and then combined with Eq. E is elastic modulus. A(s) = A + C=s. which. Li et al.
s)]T . 0 or the length of the pipe L). s) (deÿned in Eq. The following is some examples for several boundary conditions expressed in this manner. (19) . (11) is a set of four independent ordinary equations with complex constant coe cients. v3 . s). we have Dr = 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 . s). s) = f(s). s). exp − z . Q(z. s) is regular. s) = K(z. we have Y(z. The boundary conditions and their forms To meet the needs of the transfer matrix method. where E(z. s)v0 (s) + Q(z. (12) and with S(s) = (T(s)A(s))−1 . s) is a particular solution. q4 }T : s z 3 (s) . Eq. (19)–(21)) in the form of fr . / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 2071 Since is a diagonal matrix. After taking the Laplace transform. s). s) = diag exp − s s s z . s) = {q1 . s) = S(s)E(z. s) = E(z. 3. s): (17) (16) It is evident that K(z. the elements of vector q(z.g.2. and its general solution is v(z. v0 = v0 (s) contains undetermined integration constants depending on the boundary conditions. the boundary conditions at an end point of a pipe can be generally expressed in matrix as D(s)Y(z. f is illustrated in the following equations (Eqs. where K(z.Q. When denoting Tr = [r1 (z. q3 . i = 1. v4 }T . s) = {v1 . fR and fm . (1) Reservoir (or an opened end ): If the pipe is ÿxed at this end. s)e−sx= i (s) d x. exp − z . r4 (z. s) can be determined by qi = se−sz= i (s) i (s) z 0 (15) ri (x. s)v0 (s) + q(z. s). 2. (7)) z is the coordinate of the end (e. r3 (z. r2 (z. s) = S(s)q(z. q2 . Li et al. 4: From Eq. it is necessary to express the boundary conditions in matrix forms at individual end instead of at both ends of a single pipe. (18) where D and f can be determined according to the forms of the boundary conditions. s). 2. v2 . and q(z. exp 1 (s) 1 (s) 3 (s) q(z.S. (14) (13) v(z. fr (s) = [ug (s) 0]T . In Y(z..
or H and h . (16). then the boundary conditions can be written as Dr Y(0. s)}4×1 = {F(0. the boundary conditions can be written with relatively simple and uniÿed forms. (26) (24) (25) . In the case shown in Fig. Y(L. With the above expressions. Rl can be written as Rl = Ar Er r (e−sTc − 1)=s. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 where ug denotes the ground velocity. (22) where the subscript r denotes the property of the impacting rod. let z = 0 and z = L. For example. fm = [0 ± Rl (s)]T . s): There are only two boundary conditions at the end z = 0 or L. s)v0 (s) + Q(L. s)}2×1 . The general expressions are [Dup (s)]2×4 {Y(0. s)}2×1 . DR Y(L. and is ÿxed and connected with a closed valve at the downstream end z = L. fR (s) = [ug (s) ug (s)]T : (20) (b) Pipe is movable in axial direction Dm = −1 ±sm 0 −g t At . s)v0 (s) + Q(0. The sign “±” is determined according to the direction of the coordinate and the position where the mass or the excitation appears. respectively. when a single pipe is ÿxed and connected with a reservoir at the upstream end z = 0. Eq. e. appear in the ˙ same equation of boundary condition. when it is subjected to an earthquake excitation. where the subscripts outside the bracket denote the numbers of row and column of the matrix.2072 Q. [Ddown (s)]2×4 {Y(L. s) = K(L. 2. s) = fR (s): (23) 2. s). s)}4×1 = {F(L.g. namely Y(0. At are the area of inner part of the pipe and area of the pipe wall. we get eight relations between the unknowns and undetermined integration constants.S.3. (3)) (2) Closed valve or closed end with mass m: (a) Pipe ÿxed DR = 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 g f Af 0 1 0 0 . Rl is the Laplace transform of the external excitation at the corresponding end. Li et al. s) = K(0. m is the mass of valve or the sealed end etc. (21) shows an example of the junction coupling since V and u z .. The pressure Po of the reservoir is taken into account in H (see Eq. (21) where Af . s) = fr (s). The frequency domain solution for a single pipe In Eq.
s) = K(z. The impedance and the frequency equation Here. (30). s): (31) (32) Since F(s) in Eq. s)R−1 (z. but Eq. s). s) = S−1 (s)E(L. s) = H−1 (z. For a pipe system with more than one pipe sections. (30) is the external excitation acting at the end of the pipe. H(z. Let s = j!. therefore. s) − Ddown (s)Q(L. H deÿned in Eq.Q. s)S−1 (s)Y(L. the second righthand term in Eq. which includes the movement of the constraint or close of valve. s)v0 (z. s) = K(z. (28) and to the individual expression of boundary conditions. s): (33) When considering a free vibration problem. (32) is. s) = F(0. (28) is more concise in form. (16) gives Y(z. The impedance matrix is then Z(z. (27) can be applied to di erent pipe sections. s): For a pipe system with a single section. (18). In Eq. s)S(s)Y(0. F(s) = : (29) Eq. Li et al. s). s)R−1 (z. s)F(s). s)R−1 (z. which paves the way to the analysis of multisection pipe systems. s) = F(L. some necessary expansions are also made and discussions which are important for the TMM to be presented in the next section are given. s) − Dup (s)Q(0. let the initial conditions and the external excitations along the pipe be zero.S. the frequency response matrix of the pipe subjected to the external excitation acting at the end of the pipe. If the boundary conditions are able to determine all the undetermined constants. This concise form is attributed largely to Eq. Y(0. s)F(s) + Q(z. (25) are set to zero. s): (30) A similar equation was derived in Ref. Substituting v0 = R−1 (s)F(s) into Eq. [15]. s)v0 (z. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 2073 Combining Eqs. Ddown (s)K(L. we get Y(z. and 0 and L in the equation are the local coordinates. [27].4. and from Eqs. the above equation can be written in a matrix form R(s)v0 (s) = F(s). etc. (28) is similar to that given in Ref. s) = S(s)E−1 (L. (24) and Eq. (24) and (25) we have Y(L. s) = K(z. (24)–(26) yields Dup (s)K(0. the two equations of Eq. 2. R is certainly regular. but the present form is more concise and clearer. where R(s) = Dup K(0) Ddown K(L) 4× 4 (27) (28) F(0) − Dup Q(0) F(L) − Ddown Q(L) 4× 1 . namely Eq. respectively. s) (34) .
therefore. (38) where [0] is a zero matrix. the mode shape function of the system corresponding to the ith natural frequency can be obtained with standard methods [32–35]. : : : . s) Y(L. It is. Since Y is not always equal to zero. the pipe line must be divided into two sections for analysis. s) 8× 1 (36) (37) = 0. s) Y(L. s)}4×1 = 0: Combining Eqs. s)S−1 (s)]4×4 = 0: (39) Y(0. the complex frequencies can be obtained by setting the real part and the imaginary part of Eq. 1. (39) equal to zero. Eq. 1) is widely used in practices such as in the highpressure pipe lines of water power stations. 1 illustrates a series pipe system with N pipe sections numbered 1. (35)–(37). Meanwhile. with Eq. The direction of axis z is from upstream to downstream. there must be Eq. thickness of pipe wall and material properties (see Fig. (31) equal to zero yields Z(z. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 or in matrix form as follows: [[I]4×4 [ − S(s)E−1 (L. The transfer matrix method for pipe systems with several sections A series pipe system consisting of several sections with di erent radiuses. s)}4×1 = 0. (39) is the desired frequency equation with s = + j! as variable. N from upstream to downstream. . : : : . Taking F of Eq. [Ddown (s)]2×4 {Y(L. s)S−1 (s)]4×4 ] Y(0. when the ith natural frequency is gained. N also from upstream to downstream. we get [Dup (s)]2×4 [0]2×4 [0]2×4 [Ddown (s)]2×4 [I]4×4 [Dup (s)]2×4 0 [I]4×4 [ − S(s)E−1 (L. s)S−1 (s)]4×4 0 [Ddown (s)]2×4 [ − S(s)E−1 (L. if a pipeline under the action of a concentrated force. respectively. necessary to obtain the FSI frequency domain response for a pipe system with multisections.S. the sequence numbers is 0. (26) yields [Dup (s)]2×4 {Y(0. Fig. A point connecting two adjacent pipe sections is called node. s) 8× 1 =0 (35) by setting the righthand term equal to zero. s)Y = 0: (40) Therefore. (40). 2. 3. Li et al.2074 Q.
For the ith section. we have Yi (zi . s) − Qi (Li . s) = Ki (0. s)v0i (s) + Qi (zi . 3. Adopting the local coordinate will make the formulas clear. s) = Ki (Li . s) − Qi (0. v0i (s) = Ki−1 (Li . Yi (Li . (31) yields Yi (0. s). s) + qi (z. s){Yi (Li . : : : . s){Yi (0. Substituting 0 and Li into Eq. 1. s) = Si E−1 (Li . v0i (s) can be expressed as follows: v0i (s) = Ki−1 (0. s) − Qi (Li . Li et al. N. The coordinate z of the ith section is used as local coordinate and denoted as zi . (16) is valid for all sections. s) − Qi (0. which results in Ki−1 (0. s)v0i (s) + Qi (Li . s)} or Yi (0. s). s)S−1 . s)}: We now deÿne the ÿeld transfer matrix as Fi (s) = Ki (0. 2. s){Yi (Li . s)Qi (Li . s)Ki−1 (Li . s) − Ki−1 (Li . namely the ith node. has a coordinate zi = Li . (32). s)Ki−1 (Li . s)v0i (s) + Qi (0.1. s) = Ki (zi . i = 1. s). s)}. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 2075 Fig. i Fi−1 (s) = S−1 (s)E(Li . s)} = Ki−1 (Li . s)Si (s): i (47) (46) (45) (44) (43) (42) . The ÿeld transfer matrix Since Eq. then for the ith section. the upstream node.Q. where qi (s) = Ki (0. s){Yi (0. s): From Eq. s)Yi (Li . s) = Ki (0. (13) and (14)). has zi = 0 and its downstream node. namely the (i − 1)th node. s){Qi (0. The sections and nodes of pipe system. s)}. (41) where v0i (s) is a vector of undetermined integration constants related to the ith section (also see Eqs.S.
only in the expressions of Pi . (49). Li et al. P(out)i (s) = . the relation of the unknowns in the ith and the (i + 1)th sections can be found by substituting Eq. Point transfer matrix The junction condition between the two pipe sections in Fig. : : : . (49).2076 Q. s) + P(out)i (s). F(out)i (s) the subscript i identiÿes the ith node which is the downstream node of section i. s) + Pi F(out)i (s). (49) is of the form 0 −Af(i) 0 0 1 0 0 0 . we have Yi (Li . N − 1: (49) (48) matrix Di in Eq.3. s) + Pi F(out)i (s) = Pi Fi+1 (s)Yi+1 (Li+1 . Here. Obviously. s) + qi (s): 3. s) = D−1 Di+1 Yi+1 (0. P(out)i (s). s) = Pi Yi+1 (0. s) + D−1 P(out)i (s): i i The point transfer matrix of the ith node is deÿned as Pi = D−1 Di+1 : i Yi (Li . (48) into Eq. From Eq. 3. s) = Di+1 Yi+1 (0. [29]. it must be pointed out that. s) = Fi (s)Yi (Li . (53) Yi (Li . the subscript i identiÿes the ith pipe section. L(Pout (t)) 0 1 0 0 −At(i) 0 Af(i) (50) where Af(i) .S.2. s) + Pi Qi+1 (s). expressing them in matrix form and then taking Laplace transform results in Di Yi (Li . s) = Pi Yi+1 (0. 2. Pout is a concentrated external force acting at the ith node. At(i) are the area of liquid and the pipe wall in the ith section. the matrix Di is regular. 1 can be found in Ref. respectively. the Af(i) 0 Di = 0 0 i = 1. (55) . where F(out)i (s) = D−1 P(out)i (s): i+1 (54) (52) (51) With the point transfer matrix Pi . For the ith node. The transfer matrix method By means of the point transfer matrices and the ÿeld transfer matrices. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 Fi (s) provides the relation between the unknowns at both ends of a section Yi (0. For other variables and matrices. So the relation between the unknowns of the ith and (i + 1)th sections is provided by Eq. in this paper. the unknowns on the both sides of the ith node are related with (53) To make the expression clear.
(57) the general relation between the 1st and N th sections is N Y1 (0. namely Eqs.S. N ¿2 (58) in which we deÿne that N0 = I and Q1 = q1 . N − 1. s) 8× 1 ˜ = [Q(s)]8×1 . [Ddown (s)]2×4 {Y(L. (59) Y1 (0) = N2 F3 Y3 (L3 ) + (q1 + N1 Q2 + N2 Q3 ): Similar to Eqs.Q. s) + k=2 Nk −2 (s)Pk −1 Qk (s). s) Y(LN . s)}4×1 = {F(L. and we rewrite them in a uniÿed matrix form [G(s)]8×8 where Y(0. s)}4×1 = {F(0. n = 1. For example. (58) is equal to zero if the upper limit is less than the lower limit. : : : . (27) and (28). s) = NN −1 (s)FN (s)YN (LN . from Eq. (58) we have Y1 (0) = F1 P1 F2 P2 F3 Y3 (L3 ) + (q1 + F1 P1 Q2 + F1 P1 F2 P2 Q3 ) or 2 1 2 Y1 (0) = i=1 (Fi Pi )F3 Y3 (L3 ) + q1 + i=1 (Fi Pi )Q2 + i=1 (Fi Pi )Q3 . and the second righthand term in Eq. . Nk −2 (s)Pk −1 Qk (s) k=2 : (63) . (58) and (60). Li et al. T (61) G(s) = [0]2×4 [I]4×4 [Dup ]2×4 [0]2×4 [Ddown ]2×4 [ − NN −1 (s)FN (s)]4×4 N (62) ˜ Q(s) = F(0. s). / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 2077 where Qi+1 (s) = F(out)i (s) + qi+1 (s): Let Nn be the global transfer matrix and denoted by n (56) Nn (s) = i=1 (Fi (s)Pi ). s)}2×1 : (60) At last. 2. s). s)}2×1 . if the pipe system consists of three sections. we have eight algebra equations with eight unknowns. another four algebra equations are [Dup (s)]2×4 {Y(0. F(LN .
namely G(s) = 0: (72) For calculating the corresponding complex mode shapes. the solution for the (i + 2)th section can then be obtained. from Eq. we can obtain the solution for any intermediate section from the upstream to downstream. (68). s) = 0: (73) . On the other hand. then go back to Eq. known. (64) (66) (67) (68) from Eq. [G1 (s)]4×8 [G2 (s)]4×8 . going from downstream to upstream. Yi−1 (Li−1 ) = Pi−1 Yi (0) + Pi−1 (Fout )i−1 . the following equation that is similar to Eq. (43) −1 v0(i+1) = Ki+1 (0. s){Yi−1 (Li−1 ) − Qi−1 (Li−1 )}. the solutions for intermediate sections can also be obtained. If the solution Yi (Li ) in the ith section has been obtained. s)v0(i+1) (s) + Qi+1 (z): Eq. (41) Yi+1 (z. s) = Ki−1 (z. Yi (0. ˜ v0N (s) = G2 (s)Q(s): (65) By using Eq. Namely. taking the inverse way. (65). Let z = Li+1 in Eq. First. (49) Yi+1 (0) = Pi−1 Yi (Li ) − (Fout )i . and with the reverse process used in the above deduction. (68) gives the general frequency domain solutions for the (i + 1)th section. − Yi−1 (z. Yi+1 (Li+1 ) is determined. s){Yi+1 (0) − Qi+1 (0)}. (40) for each pipe section can be used Zi (z i . and so on. When the inverse Laplace transform is adopted. and vice verse. the transient response of the system can also be obtained.2078 Q. Li et al.S. (61) equal to zero. for calculating the natural frequencies. s)v0(i−1) + Qi−1 (z): (69) (70) (71) The abovementioned method is generally used for calculating the frequency domain response of the system subjected to external excitations. s) = Ki+1 (z. s)Yi (z i . if Yi (z. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 Denoting G−1 (s) = then ˜ v01 (s) = G1 (s)Q(s). since the righthand side in each formula is known. s) is. Similarly. s) in the ith section has been known. therefore. the following three formulas can be used successively to get the solution for the (i + 1)th section: from Eq. The following three formulas can be used successively to get the solutions for intermediate sections. let us go from upstream to downstream. v0(i−1) = Ki−11 (0. (66). we can simply take the righthand side of Eq.
Q. only zero initial condition. mL . The system is initially still. The test rig is shown in Fig. and the in uences of uid–structure interaction related to the Poisson and junction couplings can be clearly isolated in case of axial wave propagation [29]. This rig consists of a waterÿlled pipe closed at both ends (with mass m0 . s) = 0: . e ects of friction and gravity are unimportant. It can be seen from Eq. therefore. 2. this problem has. Experiment rig of steel pipe [7]. (3) that the two initial conditions are H t=0 = 0 and h t=0 = 0. (74) Y(L2 . Numerical examples and discussions Vardy and Fan [7] has designed an experiment rig to make accurate measurement and to study the dynamic behavior of waterhammer.S. Table 1 Geometrical and material properties of the pipe apparatus [7] Steel Pipe L = 4:5 m length R = 52:0 mm inner radius e = 3:945 mm pipe wall thickness E = 168 GPa Young’s modulus = 0:3 Poisson’s ratio 3 t = 7985 kg=m density of pipe m0 = 1:312 kg mass at z = 0 mL = 0:3258 kg mass at z = L Water K = 2:14 GPa bulk model 3 t = 999 kg=m density P0 = 2:0 MPa initial pressure Steel Rod Lr = 5:02 m length Er = 200 GPa Young’s modulus 3 r = 7848 kg= m density vr = 1 m=s velocity Tc = 1:98 ms impact time Vr = 0:1175 m=s impact velocity 4. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 2079 Fig. Li et al. The closed pipe is subjected to axial impact by a steel rod at the end of z =0 to generate transients. in this apparatus. The boundary conditions of this system are 1 0 1 0 0 g f Af 0 g f Af −1 sm −1 −sm 0 −g t At 0 −g t At Y(0. Also. 2 and the speciÿcations are list in Table 1. s) = 0. respectively) and suspended by wires. This rig has its superiority to conventional reservoirpipevalve system in describing the in uence of FSI.
Table 2 Frequency results of a single pipe Results Frequencies in mode sequence numbers (±0:5 Hz) 1 Test [7] Zhang et al. the present TMM does get the same results as Ref. In fact. Both cases keep the parameters of the ÿrst pipe section to be the same as those listed in Table 1.S. and at the middle point. the pipe is divided into two parts. Due to symmetry. One is that the radius of the second pipe section is equal to R=2. 3). each of them has a length L=2. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 Fig. The results are listed in “Reduced TMM” of Table 3. Li et al. two cases are considered separately. The analytical model for the TMM. [24] (see Table 2 “Reduced TMM”). by doing so. In the numerical example. This makes it possible for the TMM calculation to be consistent with the original test by taking the parameters of the two pipe sections identical (Fig. the other is changing E to 3E=4 at the second pipe section. let the two masses be both equal to m0 . [24] Reduced TMM R1 = R2 = R=2 173 172 172 167 2 289 286 286 303 3 459 455 454 458 4 485 473 472 470 5 636 627 627 635 6 750 741 741 772 7 918 907 907 874 8 968 945 945 939 Table 3 TMM results with m0 = mL and L1 = L2 = L=2 Results Frequencies in mode sequence numbers (±0:5 Hz) 1 R1 = R2 = R=2 R1 = R. E2 = 3E=4 E1 = E2 = 3E=4 167 166 171 169 167 2 302 302 285 278 271 3 434 439 454 432 414 4 470 471 460 449 442 5 633 607 624 614 605 6 769 769 740 725 706 7 874 905 907 873 828 8 939 914 921 894 889 In the numerical example. In order to .2080 Q. R2 = R=2 Reduced TMM E1 = E. the total length of the system remains as unchanged. 3.
4).0 6.0 3. 4 and 5. As is well known.0 log(abs(H )) 0. This shows that the frequencies of these two modes mainly represent .0 3. However.0 0.0 2. 4. the frequencies are signiÿcantly dependent on the radius. Li et al.0 2.0 2. When the two masses m0 and mL are set equal to each other. the kth frequency fk and the mode shape function uk of a solid rod with both ends free can be expressed as fk = k 2L E t . Even for the single pipe system when R of the pipe decreases.0 1 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 R and R R/2 and R/2 R and R/2 901 Frequency in Hz Fig. The frequency responses are shown in Figs. for the present problem. 5. The frequency response of the twosection pipe changing with E.0 4. only the frequencies of the 4th and 8th modes change obviously. the results of a single pipe with R=2 or 3E=4 are also listed in Table 3. The frequency response of the twosection pipe changing with R. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 E and E 3E/4 and 3E/4 E and 3E/4 2081 4.0 log(abs(H )) 1. uk = cos k z : L (75) Eq. 4. (75) means that the frequencies and mode shape functions of such a solid rod are independent on the radius of the rod. compare the results clearly.0 1 101 201 301 401 501 601 701 801 901 Frequency in Hz Fig.0 2.0 8.0 1.0 4. the frequencies are also obviously changed (see Table 2 and Fig.Q.S.
3 0. 6–12 are obtained by taking the real parts of the corresponding unknowns.2082 Q.5 0. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 R and R R/2 and R/2 R and R/2 1.0 0.5 1 1.0 Fig.S. s) are the response of the system subjected to a unit impulse excitation at the upstream and downstream end. 6–12.5 0. The 4th column gives the same results.5 1 H /max(H ) 0.7 0. The mode shapes in Figs. The 1st mode of V changing with R.2 0. H = real(L(H )).6 location z/L 0.7 0. the vibration of the pipe and the other frequencies mainly depend on uid. only the 1st mode (mainly depending on uid) and the 4th mode (representing the vibration of the pipe) are discussed in detail below.5 1 1. Li et al.5 0. here !k is the kth natural frequency of the system.0 location z/L Fig.3 0. The 1st mode of H changing with R. respectively. 1.9 1. U = real(L(u)) ˙ (76) . For the present problem.5 1 R and R R/2 and R/2 R and R/2 V /max(V ) 0.4 0. the 2nd and 4th columns of the matrix H(z. Figs.5 0 0. the mode shapes are determined and shown in Figs.5 0. In the published papers [24–27] using the frequency domain methods. 6. s) (see Eq.2 0. 6–12 are obtained from the 2nd column of the matrix H(z.0 0. the mode shapes were not presented. Therefore.5 0 0.8 0. In this study.9 1. namely V = real(L(V )).1 0.6 0. 7.8 0.4 0. (32)) by taking s = j!k .1 0.
However. taking the ˙ imaginary parts one obtains the same results.0 0.5 0 0. H .5 1 1. 9.5 1 H /max(H ) 0. the uid–structure interaction in liquidÿlled pipe system is studied in frequency domain using the transfer matrix method.7 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.1 0.S. 9 and 12.4 0. 8.5 0. (2). The 4th mode of U changing with R.5 0 0.7 0. For the mode shapes. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 R and R R/2 and R/2 R and R/2 2083 1.3 0.5 0. u are the same as those deÿned in Eq.9 1. the mode of H is di erent in the two sections (see Figs. but the frequency is lower than the 1st natural frequency of the solid rod (509 Hz). It is worth mentioning that.6 0.5 0.9 1. it can be seen that the mode of U is approximately a cosine. 6–8). From Figs. when the two sections have di erent R.5 1 U /max(U ) 0.0 location z/L Fig. R and R R/2 and R/2 R and R/2 1.Q.1 0. Li et al. which extends the frequency domain analysis for FSI .2 0. the mode of V has a sudden change in the junction point for keeping the discharge Qi be equal at both sides of the node (see Fig. in as much as Qi = Vi Afi and Afi are di erent at two sides of the ith node. Conclusion In this paper.0 0. The 4th mode of H changing with R. 5.8 0.5 1 1.0 location z/L Fig.5 0. 7). in which V .2 0.3 0.
5 0. These expansions are also applicable for pipelines with multisections. the present transfer matrix method is di erent from the traditional one.9 1. 10. In the analysis of FSI problems.1 0.7 0. the frequency response matrix and the mode shapes are especially worth mentioning. 1. 11.5 0 0.9 1.0 location z/L Fig. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 E 3E/4 E and 3E/4 1.0 location z/L Fig.5 1 E 3E/4 E and 3E/4 H /max(H ) 0.5 1 1.3 0.8 0. In the case of the junction coupling.4 0.5 1 1.6 0.2084 Q. the impedance matrix.3 0.7 0. the unknowns in FSI problems are coupled in boundary conditions.2 0.5 1 H /max(H ) 0.5 0. and can deal with dynamic analysis of liquidÿlled pipe systems under various kinds of external excitations.4 0.6 0. E orts are also made to expand the results of the single pipe.5 0. In this paper. namely the friction coupling. [24] from a singlesection pipe to a multisection pipe system. especially aim at obtaining the solution .S. which makes it di cult to realize the transfer matrix method directly. the Poisson coupling and the junction coupling. The 4th mode of H changing with E. The present method has included all the three major coupling mechanisms. The 1st mode of H changing with E. Li et al.5 0. the di culty is overcome by ÿnding out a uniÿed matrix expression of the boundary conditions.2 0.1 0. The method aims at conducting both harmonic analysis and the frequency response analysis. they satisfy a set of algebra relations other than each variable equals to a constant.0 0.5 0 0. presented by Zhang et al.8 0. of which the frequency equations.0 0.
this is a simple frequency domain method for the analysis of pipe systems with various sections considering FSI.Q. China (Project No. From the view point of practical applications. Pipes conveying uid: a model dynamical problem.9 1.5 1 1. Fluid–structure interaction in liquidÿlled pipe systems: a review. [4] Lixiang Zhang.5 0 0.10:109–46.7(2):137–204.5 0. [2] Tijsseling AS. London: San Diego Academic Press.2 0. thus verifying the accuracy of the proposed method.S. Li GX.0 0.5 0. References [1] Paidoussis MP.50079007). In comparison with ÿnite element method (FEM) and method of characteristics (MOC) in time domain.5 1 U /max(U ) 0. 1998. Fluid–structure interaction in least constrained piping systems: a review. The method is useful for the analysis of FSI in multisection pipe systems that are widely used in engineering practices.6 0.4 0. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 44 (2002) 2067 – 2087 E 3E/4 E and 3E/4 2085 1. [3] Paidoussis MP.1 0. SZ9830) for the study described in this paper. Journal of Fluids and Structures 1993.14(1):102–11. the present method needs much fewer lines of code in programming. 12. so that the transient response of the pipe system subjected to various excitations can be determined by the inverse Laplace transform. Numerical examples show that the results determined by the proposed method are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also shown through the numerical examples that how the frequencies and mode shapes change with the radius and material properties of the pipe systems.3 0.7 0. Meanwhile. Journal of Fluids and Structures 1996.8 0. it is also useful for single or multisection pipe systems subjected to concentrated force acting on the pipe systems. Li et al. Fluid–structure interactions. Series A 1999. The 4th mode of U changing with E. at any point of a pipe system. . and The Ministry of Water Resources. Acknowledgements The authors thank for the ÿnancial supports provided by the National fund of Natural Science of China (Project No.0 location z/L Fig. Wenhu Huang. Journal of Hydrodynamics.
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