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NATURE OF MOTIVATION Chapter 6 I. Work Motivation. List, Define and Give/recognize examples of the three elements of work motivation.

Define Intrinsically and Extrinsically motivated work behavior and give/recognize examples of rewards for each. Work Motivation examples: Direction of Behavior: Which behaviors does a person choose to perform in an organization? Example: Does an engineer take the time and effort to convince skeptical superiors of the need to change the design specifications for a new product to lower production costs? Level of Effort: How hard does a person work to perform a chosen behavior? Example: Does an engineer prepare a report outlining problems with the original specifications, or does the engineer casually mention the issue when he or she bumps into the supervisor in the hall and hope the supervisor will take the advice on faith? Level of Persistence: When faced with obstacles, roadblocks, and stonewalls, how hard does a person keep trying to perform a chosen behavior successfully? Example: When a supervisor disagrees with the engineer and indicates that a change in specifications is a waste of time, does the engineer persist in trying to get the change implemented or give up despite his or her strong belief in the need for a change? Intrinsically motivated work behavior: Behavior performed for its own sake; the source of motivation actually comes from performing the behavior itself. Example: A violinist who relishes playing in an orchestra will practice 12 hr days, regardless of its low pay, because she enjoys her work. Extrinsically motivated work behavior: Behavior performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment; the source of motivation is to avoid consequences. Example of extrinsic rewards: pay, praise, and status II. Expectancy Theory: A theory about work motivation that focuses on how employees make choices among alternative behaviors and levels of effort. The theory focuses on how employees decide which specific behaviors to perform and how much effort to exert. Expectancy theory addresses 2 questions: 1) Does an individual believe that his or her inputs (such as effort on the job) will result in a given level of performance? The theory proposes that regardless of which outcomes available, employees will not be motivated to contribute their inputs to the organization unless they believe it will result in achieving a given level of performance. 2) Does an individual believe that performing at this level will lead to obtaining the outcomes he or she wants (pay, job security, a feeling of accomplishment, and so forth)? The theory proposes that employees will be motivated to perform at a certain level only if that level leads to desired outcomes. Only when the answer to both questions is yes, will the individual be motivated to contribute effort and other inputs on the job.

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Valence: In expectancy theory , the desirability of an outcome to an individual. Can be positive or negative. Positive Valence Outcome: Employee prefers to have outcome than not having it. Ex. Is getting a raise in pay.. Negative Valence Outcome: Employee prefers to not have the outcome. Ex. Is getting fired from job. Magnitude of Valence: How desirable or undesirable an outcome is for an employee. Instrumentality: In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which performance of one or more behaviors will lead to the attainment of a particular outcome. Can be positive or negative, and vary in size of magnitude. -Scale of instrumentality for -1 to +1. A score of -1 means the employee perceives that performing a certain behavior, or performing at a certain level, definitely will not result in obtaining an outcome. An instrumentality of +1 means that the employee perceives the performance definitely will result in obtaining the outcome. Expectancy: In expectancy theory, a perception about the extent to which effort will result in a certain level of performance. If motivation levels are low because employees do not think their efforts will pay off with improved performance, managers need to reassure them that they are capable of performing at a high level if they try hard. Also, they can help employees improve their skills and abilities.

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Following conditions must be present for employees to be motivated to perform desired behaviors and to perform them at a high level: 1) Valence must be high: Employee wants outcomes the organization has to offer. 2) Instrumentality must be high: The employee perceives they must perform desired behaviors at a high level to obtain these outcomes. 3) Expectancy must be high: The employee thinks that trying hard will lead to performsnce at a high level.