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The Structure of the Universe

How big is the Universe ? What is its structure at various distance scales ? Is the Universe static or evolving ?

The Extragalactic Distance Scale
Trigonometric Parallax - relies on the motion of the Earth around the Sun - useful to 1 kpc Very important to calibrate other methods. Spectroscopic parallax – luminosity vs. spectral type - usefull up to 7Mpc Cepheids – luminosity vs. pulsation period -usefull up to 29 Mpc (calibrated by Hertzsprung using secular parallax)
Shapley's measurements confused the classical Cepheids and W Viriginis variables

Tully-Fisher Relation – luminosity vs galactic rotation (spirals) -usefull for distances >100 Mpc (Faber-Jackson Relation) – for ellipticals Standard candle: Type Ia supernovae – constant intrinsic luminosity, luminosity vs rate of decline - usefull for distances in Gpc range (13.3 magnitudes brighter than Cepheids)


Type Ia supernovae light curves MEASURED Brighter supernovae vane slower CORRECTED FOR TIME SCALE STRETCH FACTOR .

The expansion of the Universe Hubble's law recessional veloscity = H0 x distance vr=H0d H0=70 km/s/Mpc redshift redshift parameter z :   vr z= = rest c E. 168-173 . pp. Volume 15. Issue 3. Hubble(1929) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

Uniform stretching of the spacetime .

motion of the galaxy through space (Doppler shift) recessional velocity – motion due to expansion of the spacetime (cosmological redhift) .peculiar velocity .

Hubble's flow – collective motion of the galaxies due to expansion of the Universe .

universal recession cosmological redshift .

4 x 1010 yr .Big-Bang and the age of the universe d=vrtH vr=H0d d/tH =H0d tH=1/H0=1/70 km/s/Mpc=1.

rich clusters .Clusters of Galaxies Are the galaxies uniformly distributed in space ? Galaxies are gravitationally bound together in groups (less than 50 galaxies) or clusters (greater than 50 galaxies).large number of galaxies poor clusters – small number of galaxies regular irregular voids – extended volumes of space with no galaxies .

Local group Milky Way M31 .The Andromeda Galaxy M33 -The Triangulum Galaxy ~ 30 dwarf and spheroidal galaxies .



rich cluster containing 250 large galaxies and ~2000 dwarf galaxies giant ellipticals of the size of the Milky Way M87 Local Supercluster 16M pc .Virgo Cluster .

The Coma Cluster rich regular cluster about 90 Mpc away and 6 Mpc in size 10.000 galaxies predominantly elliptical galaxies mergers are strong in rich clusters .

Intracluster Gas and masses of galaxy clusters From the virial theorem and peculiar motion of the galaxies 2K+U=0 we can deduce the mass required to hold the cluster together Intracluster Gas: Very hot gas (T~10 million K) galaxies masses to small (10-100 times) to contain the gas with gravity (visible mass) Another argument in favor of dark matter images: X-ray emission .

vol. 1982. Tully Astrophysical Journal. 257. June 15.The Local Supercluster B. . p. Part 1. 389-422.

Supercluster. 2dF.“bubble structures” The Universe is uniform beyond 100 Mpc scale The large scale structures originate from Early Universe not its time evolution. Sloan Digital Sky Survey . .agglomeration on the scale of 100 Mpc Redshift surveys: CfA.