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Remote Sensing and Remote Sensing and Digital Image Processing Digital Image Processing

Introduction

In Situ Data Collection In Situ Data Collection
Scientists formulate hypotheses and then attempt to Scientists formulate hypotheses and then attempt to accept or reject them in a systematic, unbiased fashion. accept or reject them in a systematic, unbiased fashion. The data necessary to accept or reject a hypothesis may The data necessary to accept or reject a hypothesis may be collected directly in the field, often referred to as in be collected directly in the field, often referred to as in situ or in-place data collection. This can be a timesitu or in-place data collection. This can be a timeconsuming, expensive, and inaccurate process. consuming, expensive, and inaccurate process.

or uncalibrated in situ measurement instruments. some phenomena or geographic areas are (i. uncalibrated in situ measurement instruments. improper operation of in situ measurement improper operation of in situ measurement instruments.. Such error can be introduced by: Such error can be introduced by: •• sampling design does not capture the spatial sampling design does not capture the spatial •• •• variability of the phenomena under investigation variability of the phenomena under investigation (i. procedures often referred to as method-produced error.e. some phenomena or geographic areas are oversampled while others are undersampled).Problems Associated with In Situ Data Collection Problems Associated with In Situ Data Collection Scientists can collect data in the field using biased Scientists can collect data in the field using biased procedures often referred to as method-produced error.e. oversampled while others are undersampled). . or instruments..

In situ Measurement In situ Measurement In Support of Remote In Support of Remote Sensing Measurement Sensing Measurement In situ spectroradiometer In situ spectroradiometer measurement of soybeans measurement of soybeans In situ ceptometer leaf-areaIn situ ceptometer leaf-areaindex (LAI) measurement index (LAI) measurement .

Instead. and acknowledge that it also ground reference data. and acknowledge that it also contains error. . we should refer to it simply as in situ data. we should refer to it simply as in situ ground reference data.Ground Reference Information Ground Reference Information It is a misnomer to refer to in situ data as ground truth It is a misnomer to refer to in situ data as ground truth data. Instead. contains error.

measuring and interpreting imagery and digital representations of energy patterns and digital representations of energy patterns derived from noncontact sensor systems”. photogrammetry and remote sensing as (Colwell. science. 1997): 1997): “the art. and technology of obtaining “the art. science. . through the process of recording.Remote Sensing Data Collection Remote Sensing Data Collection ASPRS adopted a combined formal definition of ASPRS adopted a combined formal definition of photogrammetry and remote sensing as (Colwell. and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and reliable information about physical objects and the environment. measuring and interpreting imagery recording. through the process of the environment. derived from noncontact sensor systems”.

The sensor is located on aasuborbital located on suborbital or satellite platform. or satellite platform. The sensor is contact with it.A remote sensing instrument A remote sensing instrument collects information about an collects information about an object or phenomenon within the object or phenomenon within the instantaneous-field-of-view instantaneous-field-of-view (IFOV) of the sensor system (IFOV) of the sensor system without being in direct physical without being in direct physical contact with it. .

sociology. sociology. such as physics and chemistry. 2) the physical sciences. Scientists method. such as botany and zoology. such as geography. and 4) the biological sciences. such as geography. . and social sciences. such as botany and zoology. called science. Scientists discover and test facts and principles by the scientific Scientists discover and test facts and principles by the scientific method. and anthropology. an orderly system of solving problems. and 4) the social sciences. The sciences include 1) mathematics and logic. concerned with facts held together by principles (rules). 3) the 2) the physical sciences. The sciences include 1) mathematics and logic. 3) the biological sciences. such as physics and chemistry. Scientists generally feel that any subject that humans can study by using generally feel that any subject that humans can study by using the scientific method and other special rules of thinking may be the scientific method and other special rules of thinking may be called aascience. an orderly system of solving problems. anthropology.Observations About Remote Sensing Observations About Remote Sensing Is Remote Sensing a Science? Is Remote Sensing a Science? A science is defined as the broad field of human knowledge A science is defined as the broad field of human knowledge concerned with facts held together by principles (rules).

Interaction Model Depicting the Relationships of the Mapping Sciences as they Interaction Model Depicting the Relationships of the Mapping Sciences as they relate to Mathematics and Logic. Biological. nd Social Sciences . and the Physical. and the Physical. aandSocial Sciences relate to Mathematics and Logic. Biological.

Observations About Remote Sensing Observations About Remote Sensing Remote sensing is a tool or technique similar to Remote sensing is a tool or technique similar to mathematics. Using sensors to measure the amount of mathematics. including cartography and geographic information systems (GIS) (Clarke. including cartography and mapping sciences. Using sensors to measure the amount of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exiting an object or electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exiting an object or geographic area from a distance and then extracting geographic area from a distance and then extracting valuable information from the data using valuable information from the data using mathematically and statistically based algorithms is a mathematically and statistically based algorithms is a scientific activity. . It functions in harmony with other scientific activity. 2001). 2001). It functions in harmony with other spatial data-collection techniques or tools of the spatial data-collection techniques or tools of the mapping sciences. geographic information systems (GIS) (Clarke.

remote sensing image interpretation is both an art and aascience. Thus. knowledge to reach logical and correct conclusions. 2) are more widely traveled and have seen many better. and/or 3) have the ability to synthesize scientific principles and real-world ability to synthesize scientific principles and real-world knowledge to reach logical and correct conclusions. Thus. 2) are more widely traveled and have seen many landscape objects and geographic areas. remote sensing image interpretation is both an art and science. Some image analysts are superior to other image imagery. . Some image analysts are superior to other image analysts because they 1) understand the scientific principles analysts because they 1) understand the scientific principles better.Observations About Remote Sensing Observations About Remote Sensing Is Remote Sensing an Art? Is Remote Sensing an Art? Visual image interpretation brings to bear not only scientific Visual image interpretation brings to bear not only scientific knowledge but all of the experience that aaperson has obtained knowledge but all of the experience that person has obtained in aalifetime. The synergism of combining scientific knowledge with real-world analyst experience allows the interpreter to with real-world analyst experience allows the interpreter to develop heuristic rules of thumb to extract information from the develop heuristic rules of thumb to extract information from the imagery. The synergism of combining scientific knowledge in lifetime. and/or 3) have the landscape objects and geographic areas.

g. emitted.g. The EMR reflected.Observations About Remote Sensing Observations About Remote Sensing Information about an Object or Area Information about an Object or Area Sensors can be used to obtain specific information Sensors can be used to obtain specific information about an object (e.. the diameter of a cottonwood tree about an object (e. The electromagnetic energy measurements must be calibrated and turned energy measurements must be calibrated and turned into information using visual and/or digital image into information using visual and/or digital image processing techniques. The EMR (e. the boundary of a cottonwood stand). or back-scattered from an object or geographic area is used as a surrogate for the actual geographic area is used as a surrogate for the actual property under investigation. emitted.g. The electromagnetic property under investigation. the diameter of a cottonwood tree crown) or the geographic extent of a phenomenon crown) or the geographic extent of a phenomenon (e.g.. .. or back-scattered from an object or reflected.. processing techniques. the boundary of a cottonwood stand).

such as within 9  9 in.y location. remote sensing can provide fundamental biophysical information. zz fundamental biophysical information. ••Remote sensing devices may be programmed to collect data Remote sensing devices may be programmed to collect data systematically. biomass. ••Under controlled conditions. elevation or depth.y location. including x. Passive the EMR reflected or emitted by the object of interest. temperature. remote sensing can provide Under controlled conditions. sampling bias introduced in some in situ investigations. and moisture content. This systematic data collection can remove the photography. . and moisture content. Passive remote sensing does not disturb the object or area of interest. such as within aa9  9 in. frame of vertical aerial photography. remote sensing does not disturb the object or area of interest. including x. frame of vertical aerial systematically. This systematic data collection can remove the sampling bias introduced in some in situ investigations.Advantages of Remote Sensing Advantages of Remote Sensing ••Remote sensing is unobtrusive if the sensor passively records Remote sensing is unobtrusive if the sensor passively records the EMR reflected or emitted by the object of interest. temperature. biomass. elevation or depth.

Stow et al.Advantages of Remote Sensing Advantages of Remote Sensing ••Remote sensing–derived information is now critical to the Remote sensing–derived information is now critical to the successful modeling of numerous natural (e. nonpoint source pollution) and cultural (e. water-supply successful modeling of numerous natural (e. nonpoint source pollution) estimation... eutrophication studies.g..g. 2003).. population estimation) processes (Walsh et al. water-demand estimation. population estimation) processes water-demand estimation.g. land-use conversion at the urban fringe. (Walsh et al. 1999. and cultural (e. 1999.... eutrophication studies.g. water-supply estimation.. Stow et al. . land-use conversion at the urban fringe. 2003).

Sun External Forcing Functions Volcanoes Stratospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Remote Remote Sensing Earth Sensing Earth System Science System Science Physical Climate System Ocean dynamics Atmospheric physics and dynamics Hydrologic Cycle Biogeochemical Cycles Marine biogeochemistry Global moisture Tropospheric chemistry Terrestrial energy and moisture Terrestrial ecosystems Soil and water chemistry Climate Change Carbon Dioxide and Other Trace Gases Water pollution Air pollution Land use Human Activities .

determine when the data will be collected. specify the various resolutions of the remote collect the data. and specify how the data are processed. Remote The greatest limitation is that it is often oversold. specify the various resolutions of the remote sensor data. select the platform that will carry the sensor. calibrate the sensor. . It provides some spatial.Limitations of Remote Sensing Limitations of Remote Sensing ••The greatest limitation is that it is often oversold. Remote sensing is not a panacea that provides all the information sensing is not a panacea that provides all the information needed to conduct physical. or social science research. It provides some spatial. economical. Human method-produced specify how the data are processed. and temporal research. calibrate the sensor. and temporal information of value in aamanner that we hope is efficient and information of value in manner that we hope is efficient and economical. Human method-produced error may be introduced as the remote sensing instrument and error may be introduced as the remote sensing instrument and mission parameters are specified. and carry the sensor. ••Human beings select the appropriate remote sensing system to Human beings select the appropriate remote sensing system to collect the data. biological. or social science needed to conduct physical. determine when the data will be collected. spectral. mission parameters are specified. select the platform that will sensor data. biological. spectral.

g. data justifies the expense. RADAR. Hopefully. resulting in uncalibrated remote sensor data. . RADAR. SONAR) can be intrusive and affect the phenomenon being investigated. ••Remote sensing instruments may become uncalibrated. the information extracted from the remote sensor data justifies the expense. resulting in uncalibrated remote sensor data.. be intrusive and affect the phenomenon being investigated. Remote sensor data may be expensive to collect and analyze. LIDAR. active sensors can be. the information extracted from the remote sensor Hopefully. SONAR) can electromagnetic radiation (e. LIDAR.. Remote sensing instruments may become uncalibrated. Additional research is required to determine how intrusive these Additional research is required to determine how intrusive these active sensors can be.g.Limitations of Remote Sensing Limitations of Remote Sensing ••Powerful active remote sensor systems that emit their own Powerful active remote sensor systems that emit their own electromagnetic radiation (e. ••Remote sensor data may be expensive to collect and analyze.

The Remote Sensing Process The Remote Sensing Process The remote sensing data-collection and analysis The remote sensing data-collection and analysis procedures used for Earth resource applications are procedures used for Earth resource applications are often implemented in a systematic fashion referred to often implemented in a systematic fashion referred to as the remote sensing process. . as the remote sensing process.

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model (e. inductive. deductive) and an appropriate processing model (e. ideally at the same time as the in situ data.g. stochastic). deterministic. and sensor data and/or judge its geometric. .. deterministic.g. ideally at the same analog or digital remote sensing instruments. stochastic).g.The Remote Sensing Process The Remote Sensing Process ••The hypothesis to be tested is defined using aaspecific type of The hypothesis to be tested is defined using specific type of logic (e. and thematic characteristics are collected. inductive. deductive) and an appropriate processing logic (e. radiometric.. ••Remote sensor data are collected passively or actively using Remote sensor data are collected passively or actively using analog or digital remote sensing instruments.. radiometric. time as the in situ data. thematic characteristics are collected. ••In situ and collateral data necessary to calibrate the remote In situ and collateral data necessary to calibrate the remote sensor data and/or judge its geometric..g.

and Environmental GIS. GIS. used in Remote Sensing. and Environmental Science Research Science Research .A Taxonomy of Models A Taxonomy of Models used in Remote Sensing.

. and d) n-dimensional visualization. etc. ••Metadata. GIS databases. and the accuracy of the information are provided and the results communicated using information are provided and the results communicated using images. and image processing. c) modeling. statistical tables. etc. Decision Support Systems (SDSS). GIS databases. b) digital image processing.The Remote Sensing Process The Remote Sensing Process ••In situ and remotely sensed data are processed using a) analog In situ and remotely sensed data are processed using a) analog image processing. graphs. and the accuracy of the Metadata. Spatial images. d) n-dimensional visualization. Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS). processing lineage. processing lineage. graphs. b) digital image processing. c) modeling. statistical tables.

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  where. z . P.g. where. picture element in aadigital image) is aafunction of: element in digital image) is function of: L  f  . s x . Wavelength (()and frequency (() or at specific frequencies)...  . y . aapicture IFOV of an optical remote sensing system (e.g.. t . L (watts m-2 sr-1 watts per meter squared per steradian) recorded within the watts per meter squared per steradian) recorded within the IFOV of an optical remote sensing system (e. The amount of electromagnetic radiance.. L (watts m-2 sr-1.Remote Sensing Data Collection Remote Sensing Data Collection The amount of electromagnetic radiance.  = wavelength (spectral response measured in various bands  = wavelength (spectral response measured in various bands or at specific frequencies). the speed of light c) where . Wavelength ) and frequency ) may be used interchangeably based on their relationship with may be used interchangeably based on their relationship with the speed of light ((c)where .

. and the remote sensing system interest (e.g. the terrain target of among the radiation source (e.g. emitted.z = x.g.yy) x. i. the terrain target of interest (e.g.. .e. y.. or back-scattered radiation) are recorded by the remote sensing system.z tt= temporal information. the Sun).g. or back-scattered radiation) are recorded by reflected.y. emitted. i.g. aacorn field).e. the remote sensing system... the Sun). corn field). and the remote sensing system P = polarization of back-scattered energy recorded by the P = polarization of back-scattered energy recorded by the sensor sensor  = radiometric resolution (precision) at which the data (e.Remote Sensing Data Collection Remote Sensing Data Collection ss = x.. ) x.y. y.. location of the picture element and its size x..  = radiometric resolution (precision) at which the data (e. when and how often the information was acquired information was acquired  = set of angles that describe the geometric relationships  = set of angles that describe the geometric relationships among the radiation source (e. reflected. zzlocation of the picture element and its size ((x. when and how often the = temporal information.

Spectral Spectral Resolution Resolution .

1998 Color-infrared color composite on top of the datacube was created using three of the 224 bands at 10 nm nominal bandwidth.Airborne Visible Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Infrared Imaging Spectrometer Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Datacube (AVIRIS) Datacube of Sullivan’s Island of Sullivan’s Island Obtained on Obtained on October 26. . 1998 October 26.

Spatial Spatial Resolution Resolution .

2004 June 17. 2004 July 3. 2004 June 17.Temporal Resolution Temporal Resolution Remote Sensor Data Acquisition Remote Sensor Data Acquisition June 1. 2004 July 3. 2004 June 1. 2004 16 days 16 days .

Radiometric Resolution Radiometric Resolution 0 77-bit -bit (0 --127) (0 127) 88-bit -bit (0 --255) (0 255) 99-bit -bit (0 --511) (0 511) 10-bit 10-bit (0 --1023) (0 1023) 0 0 0 .

and vegetation) under investigation. .g. LIDAR..g. and its associated azimuth and zenith angles. the Sun for aapassive system or the sensor itself source (e.. and ••location of the suborbital or orbital remote sensing system location of the suborbital or orbital remote sensing system and its associated azimuth and zenith angles..Angular Information Angular Information Remote sensing systems record very specific angular Remote sensing systems record very specific angular characteristics associated with each exposed silver halide characteristics associated with each exposed silver halide crystal or pixel. ••orientation of the terrain facet (pixel) or terrain cover (e. The angular characteristics are function of: ••location in aathree-dimensional sphere of the illumination location in three-dimensional sphere of the illumination source (e. The angular characteristics are aafunction of: crystal or pixel.g.g. and SONAR) and its in the case of RADAR.. associated azimuth and zenith angles. the Sun for passive system or the sensor itself in the case of RADAR. and SONAR) and its associated azimuth and zenith angles. vegetation) under investigation. LIDAR. orientation of the terrain facet (pixel) or terrain cover (e.

This bidirectional nature of remote sensing data collection is known to influence nature of remote sensing data collection is known to influence the spectral and polarization characteristics of the at-sensor the spectral and polarization characteristics of the at-sensor radiance. . This bidirectional exitance from the terrain to the sensor system. recorded by the remote sensing system.Angular Information Angular Information There is always an angle of incidence associated with the There is always an angle of incidence associated with the incoming energy that illuminates the terrain and an angle of incoming energy that illuminates the terrain and an angle of exitance from the terrain to the sensor system. L. recorded by the remote sensing system. radiance. L.

digital image processing. Optimum results are often achieved using aa synergistic combination of both visual often achieved using synergistic combination of both visual and digital image processing.Remote Sensing Data Analysis Remote Sensing Data Analysis The analysis of remotely sensed data is performed using aa The analysis of remotely sensed data is performed using variety of image processing techniques. including: ••analog (visual) image processing. and ••digital image processing. . the phenomena are usually measured. Optimum results are information is used in solving problems. and analog (visual) image processing. the phenomena are usually measured. and digital image processing. and the identified. Analog and digital analysis of remotely sensed data seek to Analog and digital analysis of remotely sensed data seek to detect and identify important phenomena in the scene. including: variety of image processing techniques. Once identified. and the information is used in solving problems. Once detect and identify important phenomena in the scene.

Image Image Analysis Analysis Tasks Tasks .

rocks. minerals. soils.. minerals. the cruise missile). and analysis of Earth resources. Digital image processing is used for many applications.. water. resource information. on an assembly line). soils.. on nondestructive evaluation of machinery and products (e. xx-raying aa broken arm). broken arm).g.. the cruise missile). including: weapon guidance systems (e. . -raying nondestructive evaluation of machinery and products (e. certain atmospheric characteristics.g. and urban infrastructure.Earth Resource Analysis Perspective Earth Resource Analysis Perspective Digital image processing is used for many applications.. Earth resource information is defined as any information Earth resource information is defined as any information concerning terrestrial vegetation. concerning terrestrial vegetation. This class an assembly line). rocks.g. and analysis of Earth resources. This class focuses on the art and science of applying remote sensing focuses on the art and science of applying remote sensing digital image processing for the extraction of useful Earth digital image processing for the extraction of useful Earth resource information. including: weapon guidance systems (e. medical image analysis (e..g. certain atmospheric characteristics.g. water. and urban infrastructure. medical image analysis (e.g.

••population estimation. ••climate variability and prediction. ••characteristics of the solid Earth. ••biology and biochemistry of ecosystems. aspects of the global water and energy cycle. ••aspects of the global water and energy cycle. .Earth Resource Analysis Perspective Earth Resource Analysis Perspective Such information may be useful for modeling: Such information may be useful for modeling: ••the global carbon cycle. biology and biochemistry of ecosystems. monitoring land-use change and natural hazards. ••atmospheric chemistry. and population estimation. the global carbon cycle. atmospheric chemistry. climate variability and prediction. and ••monitoring land-use change and natural hazards. characteristics of the solid Earth.

Digital Digital Image Image Processing Processing .