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Table 12-1 h Essential Oils Suitable for Chronic Pain

Common Name Botanical Name Application Black pepper Piper nigrum Topical Clove bud a, b Syzygium aromaticum Topical Frankincense Boswellia carteri Inhaled, topical Ginger c Zingiber officinale Topical Juniper Juniperus communis Topical Lavender (Spike) d Lavandula latifolia Topical Lavender (True ) Lavandula angustifolia Inhaled, topical Lemongrass e Cymbopogon citrates Inhaled, topical Marjoram (Sweet) Origanum majorana Inhaled, topical Myrrh Commiphora molmol Topical Peppermint Mentha piperita Topical Rose Rosa damascene Topical Rosemary f Rosmarinus officinalis Inhaled, topical Verbena Aloysia triphylla Inhaled, topical Ylang ylang Cananga odorata Inhaled a _ Clove bud is safer than clove leaf. Phenols can be harsh on the skin. b _ Best avoid regular use of clove with patients on anticoagulant therapy. c _ The CO2 extraction contains gingerol thought to have analgesic action. d _ Spike lavender can be a stimulant; best avoid regular use in hypertension. e _ Lemongrass contains aldehydes; avoid in high concentrations on sensitive skin. f _ Rosemary is a stimulant; best avoid regular use in hypertension or epilepsy.