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**Bidirectional Chaotic Synchronization of Hindmarsh-Rose Neuron Model
**

1,2

Mada Sanjaya WS, 1Mustafa Mamat, 1Zabidin Salleh, and 1Ismail Mohd

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Malaysia. 2 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung, Indonesia. madasws@gmail.com

1

Abstract In this paper, the bursting chaotic synchronization of two neurons coupled with gap junction in the condition of external electrical stimulation is investigated. In this paper, the coupled model is established on the basis of Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model, and then the relation of bidirectional coupling strength of the gap junction and the synchronization is discussed in detail. The sufficient condition of complete synchronization is obtained from rigorous mathematical derivation. The synchronizations of periodic neurons and chaotic bursting neurons are studied, respectively. Keywords: chaotic synchronization, Hindmarsh-Rose model, gap junction.

1 Introduction

System of signals propagation from one neuron to another represent event of very complex electrochemical mechanism. Many cells are linked to each other by specialized intercellular pathways known as gap junctions. Gap junctions are clusters of aqueous channels that connect the cytoplasm of adjoining cells. They allow the direct transfer of ions and small molecules, including second messenger molecules, between cells without leakage to the extracellular fluid. As the gap junctions play an important role in the process of information transmitting among the coupled neurons system [1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 13]. Neurons can demonstrate different types of activity such as continuous spiking, bursting, etc. The Hindmarsh–Rose is one of the most popular low-dimensional

In agreement with this approach we assume it as a paradigm of both amplitude and spike timing chaos. may be applied. In Section 3. respectively. After introducing some ideas to be described in this paper. the complex behaviors including chaos are revealed. Recently.. a typical study of synchronization is the coupled chaotic identical chaotic systems [5]. sodium) and slow varying (e. there has been tremendous interest in studying the synchronization of chaotic systems. calcium) currents.g. Therefore.2686 Mada Sanjaya WS et al neuron models exhibiting chaotic bursting dynamics [2. 7. The chaotic synchronization of two coupled neurons and the influence of coupling coefficient on chaotic synchronization are studied. Over last decade. In these papers. The synchronization may play an important role in revealing communication pathways in neural system. 2 The Hindmarsh-Rose model single neuron The original model introduced in [7] is given by dx ⎫ = y + ax 2 − x 3 − z + 1⎪ dt ⎪ dy ⎪ 2 = 1 − dx − y ⎬ dt ⎪ dz ⎪ = μ (b( x − x e ) − z ) ⎪ dt ⎭ (1) where x represents the membrane potential. μ is a small parameter. With the variation of the stimulation and the initial condition of the neuron. the model of two neurons electrically coupled with gap junction is given. The conclusion is given in Section 5. more physiologically conductance-based models of spiking neurons often exhibit many of the same qualitative phenomena that we . Although different in structure.g. b and xe are parameters.. y and z describe the dynamics associated with fast varying (e. I or I(t) is an external current supplied to the cell. in Section 2. when modelling the cooperative behavior of bursting neurons. d. this model is often used as a unit. such that the adiabatic approach in which the model is decomposed into a fast and a slow subsystem. 8. we give some reviews about the nonlinear bursting model of individual neuron in external stimulation. many new types of synchronization have appeared. Since the discovery of chaotic synchronization [11. the synchronization bursting of two neurons electrical birectional coupled Hindmarsh–Rose model with gap junction in periodic external electrical stimulation are the main focus. 12]. The synchronization of neurons Fitzhugh-Nagumo model electrical coupled with gap junction in external electrical stimulation is investigated detail in [4. 10]. synchronization of coupled chaotic systems has attracted considerable attention Especially. a. 9].

since at this particular value of A. the neuron shows complex chaotic behavior.Bidirectional chaotic synchronization 2687 observe for the Hindmarsh–Rose model. Hence the stimulus frequency ω can be considered as a significant parameter that affects the behavior of neuron. 8. can be done by introducing the stimulus [4. we choose a = 3. Furthermore. For this system.1. modified Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model gives periodic bursting. It can be observed that with the variation in stimulus frequency ω . if we τ = t . 1.005. 10] represented as I (t ) = ( A / ω ) cos(ωt ) (2) to (1) where A denotes the magnitude of the stimulus. and ω refers to the frequency of given stimulus. μ = 0. (a) phase space for ω = 0.075 Hz (c) phase space for . then non-autonomous system (1) and (2) can be written as an autonomous system dx dt dy dt dz dt dτ dt ⎫ A = y + ax 2 − x 3 − z + ω cos ωτ ⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ = 1 − dx − y ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ = μ (b( x − xe ) − z ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =1 ⎭ (3) The stimulus frequency is varied while keeping the magnitude at a fixed value of A = 0. Simulation results at different stimulus frequencies are shown in Fig. d = 5. The simplest modification to Hindmarsh and Rose model for a single neuron. and I is varied .045 Hz ω = 0. xe = −(1 + 5 ) / 2 .09 Hz (b) phase space for ω = 0. b = 4.

9].075 Hz. ⎫ A = yi + axi2 − xi3 − zi + ω cosωτ i − h( xi . This network can be modeled by the system [2. i = 1.…. these neurons are coupled by variable x. 9] as dxi dt dyi dt dzi dt dτ i dt ( i ≠ j . The synapse is exitatory.…. x j ) = ( xi − Vs ) g s ∑ cij Γ( x j ) j =1 n (4) (5) in which Vs is the reversal potential. (e) time series for ω = 0. Firstly. Γ( x j ) = .n. x j )⎪ ⎪ 2 ⎪ = 1 − dxi − yi ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ = μ (b( xi − xe ) − zi ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ =1 ⎭ j =2.1 3 Chaotic synchronization of two neuron bidirectional coupled Let us consider a network composed by n Hindmarsh-Rose neurons.2688 Mada Sanjaya WS et al (d) time series for ω = 0.09 Hz. (f) time series for Figure 1 : Modified Bursting individual neuron model with A = 0.n) where the coupling function h is given by h( xi . g s is synaptic coupling strength.045 Hz ω = 0. Neurons are supposed to be identical and the synapses are fast and instantaneous. that is why the reversal potential Vs must be larger than xi(t) for all i and all t [2. and Γ so-called synaptic is modeled by a sigmoid function with a threshold 1 (6) 1 + exp(−λ ( x j − Θ s )) with Θs is the threshold reached by every action potential for a neuron.

in this case.2... the synchronization solution (4) is unstable under some condition. defined by ξ i = xi +1 − xi (i = 1. i ≠ j . By introducing coordinates transformation to the synchronization manifold.t). provided that its is fulfilled in all points of the attractor. for initial conditions from some neighborhood of the synchronization manifold given by x1 (t ) = x 2 (t ) = x3 (t ) = . In the symmetric case. n ( t → ∞ ).3...Bidirectional chaotic synchronization 2689 Complete synchronization occurs when the coupled chaotic oscillators asymptotically exhibit identical behaviors. n). Df denotes the Jacobian matrix of the individual oscillator system evaluated in the synchronization manifold and along s(t) the solution of x = f(x. 3. the local stability properties of the synchronization manifold can be derived by analyzing the stability of the fixed point δξ j = 0 of the linear non-autonomous systems of ordinary differential equation (8). for any coupling matrix C.…. three neurons in the same external simulation bidirectional coupled with gap junction (5)... j = 1. = x n (t ) = s (t ) (7) In fact. 2. 4. the synchronization solution (7) is always the solution of coupled system (4). the linearized equation for transversal perturbations takes the form & (8) δξ j = [Df ( s (t )) − nC ]δξ j . It was known that (9) is satisfied for all δξ j if and only if the real symmetric matrix Df T + Df − 2nC has negative eigenvalues everywhere throughout the attractor. the matrix 1 ( Df T + Df − 2nC ) coincides with the Jacobian matrix of the linearized 2 system (8). 8.. However. for n = 2. j = 1. n where. then [2.. i. Let us consider. 9] the inequality δξ T ( Df T + Df − 2nC )δξ j p 0 j (9) can be obtained where δξ T and Df T denote the transposed vector of transverse j perturbations and the transposed Jacobian matrix. Hence. respectively. means that xi (t ) − x j (t ) → 0. The model is described as . If we apply the Lyapunov function criteria to (8) with the Lyapunov function V = δξ j 2 . the negativeness of the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix implies the stability of δξ j = 0 . The equation (9) is a sufficient condition for synchronization. In this way..

8.10). ⎛ 2 ⎜ 2 ax − 3 x − 4 g ⎜ 1 − 2 dx ⎜ + Df − 2 × 4 × C ⎜ 2 =⎜ μb − 1 2 ⎜ 2 ⎜ A cos ωτ ⎜ ⎜ 2 ⎝ 1 − 2 dx 2 −1 0 0 μb − 1 2 0 −μ 0 Df T A cos ωτ ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟ (13) ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎠ The negativeness of the eigenvalues of the matrix (3. . 9]. 4. we have the following symmetric matrix. we have ⎛g ⎜ ⎜0 C =⎜ 0 ⎜ ⎜0 ⎝ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0⎞ ⎟ 0⎟ 0⎟ ⎟ 0⎟ ⎠ (12) Therefore. implies the stability of the chaotic synchronization [2.2690 Mada Sanjaya WS et al dx1 1 2 3 A = y1 + ax1 − x1 − z1 + ω cosωτ1 − ( x1 − Vs ) g s ( ) 1 + exp(−λ ( x2 − Θ s )) dt dy1 2 = 1 − dx1 − y dt dz1 = μ (b( x1 − xe ) − z1 ) dt dτ 1 =1 dt dx2 1 2 3 A = y 2 + ax2 − x2 − z 2 + ω cosωτ 2 − ( x2 − Vs ) g s ( ) dt 1 + exp(−λ ( x1 − Θ s )) dy2 2 = 1 − dx2 − y 2 dt dz2 = μ (b( x2 − xe ) − z 2 ) dt dτ 2 =1 dt ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ (10) Then the Jacobian matrix of the individual oscillator system without coupling (3) is given by ⎛ 2ax − 3x 2 ⎜ ⎜ − 2dx Df = ⎜ μb ⎜ ⎜ 0 ⎝ 1 −1 0 0 −1 0 −μ 0 A cos ωτ ⎞ ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎟ ⎟ 0 ⎠ (11) According to (8).

the coupled chaotic neurons are synchronous when the gap . Get that if g > 0. 4 Discussion With the parameters given in Section 2 that the neuron is chaotic : A = 0.Bidirectional chaotic synchronization 2691 (a) xj yj zj .005 < 0.09 Hz. μ = 0.9.45.005 < 0.2.045 Hz. j = 1. then the chaotic synchronization occurs. On the other hand. the two coupled neurons are synchronous.3 phase plane diagram (b) the error e1 = x 1 – x2 phase plane diagram (c) the error e2 = y 1 – y2 phase plane diagram (d) xj– xi phase plane diagram (e) yj– yi phase plane diagram Figure 2 : ω = 0. g = 0. ω = 0.9 in different initial condition.005. as shown in Figure 2. d = 5. b = 4. However. then with any coupling strength of the gap junction even if g = 0. we must notice that if the individual neuron without coupling bursts periodically.1. a = 3.

The errors e1 = x1 − x 2 → 0 . (a) xj yj zj .9.005 < 0.3 phase plane diagram (b) the error e1 = x 1 – x2 phase plane diagram (c) the error e2 = y 1 – y2 phase plane diagram (d) xj– xi phase plane diagram (e) yj– yi phase plane diagram Figure 3 : ω = 0. .2692 Mada Sanjaya WS et al junction coupling strength g satisfies the sufficient condition for synchronization.045 Hz.005 < 0. the synchronization can occur also. e2 = x1 − x3 → 0 and e3 = x 2 − x3 → 0 imply the complete synchronization. g = 0. then even the coupling strength of the gap junction g = 0.09 Hz the individual neuron without coupling bursts periodically. when ω = 0.2. As shown in Figure 2. These cases are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 respectively. j = 1.9 in different initial condition.

the synchronization occurs when g = 1. the synchronization cannot occur. when the frequency of the external stimulation ω = 0.005 < 0.9. e2 = x1 − x3 → 0 and e3 = x 2 − x3 → 0 imply the complete synchronization for this gap junction.045 Hz.2. For different initial condition. As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4.25 > 0. the individual neuron without coupling is chaotic. g = 1. .9 with errors e1 = x1 − x 2 → 0 . j = 1. if the coupling strength of the gap junction g = 0.25 > 0.9 in different initial condition.Bidirectional chaotic synchronization 2693 (a) xj yj zj .045 Hz.3 phase plane diagram (b) the error e1 = x 1 – x2 phase plane diagram (c) the error e2 = y 1 – y2 phase plane diagram (d) xj– xi phase plane diagram (e) yj– yi phase plane diagram Figure 4 : ω = 0.

Belykh. 22(2004):469–76. 94(2005):188101. W. Cells coupled by voltage-dependent gap junctions: the asymptotic dynamical limit. Gap junction wiring: a new principle in cell–cell communication in the nervous system? Brain Res Rev. and K. Semin Cell Biol. Hasler. A. 1(2006): 50-67. [9] E.O. [11] L.64(1990):821–4. When the individual neuron without coupling bursts periodically. Also we attain that if the strength of gap junction satisfies some condition the synchronization can occur when the individual neuron is chaotic. When Weak Inhibition Synchronizes Strongly Desynchronizing Networks of Bursting Neurons. Bin. Solitons & Fractals.K. Biophysics of gap junction. Chaotic synchronization of neurons coupled with gap junction under external electrical stimulation. and K. 68(2003):213–22. M. and P. it should be noted that the strength of gap junction satisfies some condition is only the sufficient condition. L. Kocarev. [2] I. and F. 25(2005):1185–1192. [10] D. A model of neuronal bursting using three coupled first order differential equations. V. Solitons & Fractals. Pecora.M. [7] J. [6] R. the strength of gap junction will not satisfy the condition all the time. Chaotic synchronization with gap junction of multi-neurons in external electrical stimulation. However. 26(1998):176–83. Yadav. Xiangyang. and A. . Bennett. B221(1984): 87–102. Chaos. Hindmarsh. Ray. BioSystems. Kalra. [4] D. M. Chaos synchronization in Chua_s circuits. NeuroQuantology. [8] W. S. Chua. References [1] S. Shilnikov. and Carroll. Mishra. This means that when the synchronization occurs. I.3(1992):29–47. the synchronization of two neurons bidirectional coupled with gap junction in periodic external electrical stimulation with Hindmarsh–Rose chaotic bursting model is studied. L. Rose. D. Phys Rev Lett. Baigent. L. Tsang. Bin. Dermietzel.M. Controlling Synchronization of Modified FitzHugh-Nagumo Neurons Under External Electrical Stimulation. Verselis. Synchronization in chaotic systems. Jiang. Synchronization of Bursting Neurons: What matters in the Network Topology. K. and M. and V. and R. 3(1993):93–108.2694 Mada Sanjaya WS et al 4 Conclusion In this paper. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. the synchronization can occur finally for any strength of gap junction. The sufficient condition for complete synchronization is investigated. Eckert. [3] M. J Cricuits Syst Comput. Itoh.101(2008): 078102. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support from Ministry of Higher Education under the FRGS Vot59146. Belykh. Chaos. PRL. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society of London. Jiang. PRL. Lange. [5] L.

New York: Cambridge University Press. Synchronization: a universal concept in nonlinear sciences. Kurths. 2001.Bidirectional chaotic synchronization 2695 [12] A. 94(2002):501–10. Weingart. [13] R. Vogel. 2011 . and J. Rosenblum. M. Pikovsky. Received: March. Biol Cell. The electrophysiology of gap junctions and gap junction channels and their mathematical modeling. and R.

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