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# Name: Jihan Berro Course: Biomedical Optics Instructor: Dr.

Jamal Charara Assignment number:1 Date:12-10-2011

(1) where is the exterior derivative of the differential form . then the formula holds with the right hand side zero. (3) where is the Hodge star operator. and divergence theorems respectively as follows. compact (7) which is the curl theorem. If is a function on and is a curve in . then (5) which is the gradient theorem. When is a compact manifold without boundary. (2) where (the dual space) is the duality isomorphism between a vector space and its dual. then is a vector field and an embedded compact 3- (6) which is the divergence theorem. embedded.Stokes' Theorem Derivation: For a differential (k-1)-form with compact support on an oriented -dimensional manifold with boundary . curl. the above Stokes' theorem in the three instances is transformed into the gradient. curl. given by the Euclidean inner product on . . If is a vector field and 2-manifold with boundary in . If manifold with boundary in . If is a vector field on . If is a vector field on a . If is a function on . (4) With these three identities in mind. Stokes' theorem connects to the "standard" gradient. and divergence theorems by the following relations. then is an oriented.

Let be a region in space with boundary . A special case of the divergence theorem follows by specializing to the plane. in the absence of the creation or destruction of matter. When is a submanifold (without boundary). Physicists generally refer to the curl theorem (9) as Stokes' theorem. . Then the volume integral of the divergence of over and the surface integral of over the boundary of are related by (1) The divergence theorem is a mathematical statement of the physical fact that. For example.. is a theorem in vector calculus that can be stated as follows. more commonly known especially in older literature as Gauss's theorem (e. Arfken 1985) and also known as the Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem. then (3) But (4) . Two closed forms represent the same cohomology class if they differ by an exact form. the density within a region of space can change only by having it flow into or away from the region through its boundary. if where is a constant vector . it represents a homology class. the evaluation of a cohomology class on a homology class is well-defined. Hence. Letting be a region in the plane with boundary . Divergence Theorem Derivation: The divergence theorem.de Rham cohomology is defined using differential k-forms. (8) Therefore.g. simplified forms can be used. equation (1) then collapses to (2) If the vector field satisfies certain constraints.

Therefore. where is a constant vector .so (5) (6) and (7) But . (8) Similarly. if . and must vary with so that cannot always equal zero. then .