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Space and the City

Constructed Space


'Skatehut' (Rhode Island) with wooden ramps and bowl by Custom Skate Ramps,168 'Ramp House' (Carolina Beach, North Carolina), 169'Rotz' (Biddeford, Maine), also by Custom Skate,170 'Middle School' (Wilmington, North Carolina), 171 'Charleston Hangar Bowl' (Charleston, South Carolina) constructed by Payne (4.15), 'Skate Zone' (Atlanta, Georgia) also constructed by Payne, 172and 'Mike McGill's Indoor Skatepark' (Tampa Bay area, Florida).173 A total of more than 120 skateparks in at least 43 states were in operation in and more than 165 in at least 38 states in 1997, many of which were indoor and/or wooden ramp-based facilities.174 Unlike the 1970s skateparks, the us in 1991-92,

many of this new generation of skateparks were owned and managed by skaters, a factor which undoubtedly contributed to their success.175Alternatively, some of these skateparks, such as the 'Kennedy' warehouse facility in San Jose, California, 176the Powell-Peralta warehouse in Amsterdam 177 with ramps constructed by Payne,178 and another warehouse in Dewsbury, Yorkshire, 179were constructed as indoor private ramps open only to club members, an arrangement adopted mainly to help with financing and insurance costs. In other countries, elaborate, Brazil), 181'Thomas




have ranged from the (S60 Paulo,

such as 'Skate Ranch' (Vancouver, Canada), 180 'Ultra'

Punkt' (Hamburg, Germany), 182and 'Titus Warehouse' (Munster, (Bandung, West Java, Indonesia).185 In the

Germany), 183to the moderate, such as 'Simon's Skatepark' (Dublin, Ireland), 184to the very basic, such as 'Hobbies' (Bristol),187 'Pioneer' ramp skateparks have included 'Skate Shack' (Barrow-in-Furness), 186'Skate & Ride' (St. Albans), 'Rock City' (Hull), 'Fast Eddies' (Whitley Bay), (liverpool), 188'Re-Hab' (Wakefield, owned 'Fearless Ramp Base' (Essex), 'liverpark'

by Donna and Stephen Jagger) (4.16), 189'Radlands' (Northampton, owned by Chris lnce}, 190 the lottery-funded 'Mount Hawke' (Cornwall), 191 and the Sony-sponsored 'Playstation' (london). Similar ramp-based facilities were also built in countries Denmark, such as Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czechoslovakia,

175. 176. 177.

'Pay Your Dues', p. 52. Kendall, interview, p. 74. 'Where?',

no. 88 Wune 1990), p. 40. (second series), no. 41 (April 1990), p. 5.

178. 'News', 179. 180. 94-5. 181 'Where?,


no. 83 [lonuory

1990), pp. 38-9.

Lance Mountain, Brooke, Concrete

'Ramp Locals', TransWorld


vol. 6 no. 1 (Februory



Wave, p. 166.

183. 184.


The Annuol, no. 1 (1997), n.p. Thrasher, val. 12 no. 3 (March 1992), pp. 26-7. Thrasher, val. 17 no. 7 Wuly 1997),
and 'In and no. 117 (February 1993), pp. 16--20.

Seren Aaby, 'European Meltdown', 'Simply Simon's', R.A.D,

185. Wez Lundry, 'Jumpin' in Java: a Solo Mission to Indonesia', pp.42-3. Bays', Skateboard!


Wooden bowls being built at Charleston Hangar Bowl (c. 1991), with design and

186. Meany, 'Barrow Around Barrow', 187.

(second series), no. 42 (May 1990), pp. 44-5;

construction by Tim Payne.
168. Kevin Wilkins, and 43. 'New England Hat Spats', TransWorld

SkB Action (May 1990), pp. 40-5.
a Nearly Comprehensive Indoor Skatepark Guide',



Surfer, no. 14 (March


vel. 9 no. I I (November

1997), n.p 188. Ibid. Ben, 'Sleepless in Wakefield',

1991), pp. 38-9 169. 170. Wilkins, 171. 172. 173. 174.

'Last Coast of the Carolinas', 'New England',

Thrasher, vel. 10 no. 10 (October 1990), pp. 51-4.
n.p. vel. 14 no. 1 Uanuary 1996), p. 113.


no. 137 (February/March


n.p.; and 'Undercover',

p. 43.

Trans World Skateboarding,


'King Rod!', R.A.D.,

no. 116 llonvcry


pp. 16-20;


n.p.; 'Five Years On',

Dan Fisher, 'Pay to Play', Thrasher, vol. 11 no. 9 (September 1991), p. 37. 'Info', p. 92; and Dan Fisher, 'Rampage', Borden, 'Appendix A: Skateparks'.

Around', 191

Surfer, no. 23 Uanuary/February,
'New Wood Mount Hawke',

1998), n.p.: and Steve England, 'What Goes Around Comes

Thrasher, vol. 9 no. 8 (August 1989), p. 30.

Xtreme, no. 4 (September 1997), pp. 28-9. Sidewalk Surfer, no. 20 (September 1997), n.p.

'Viva Las Pools'. refusing to accept it as a pre-existent world and instead (re)producing 5. 'New Blood'. 6 no. the body (such as that of the skateboarder) can project its symmetries and actions onto that architecture. Then they contemplate one another with eye and gaze.79 Objects touch one another. an interplay of _91 Where the architectural space of modernity tends to homogeneity. production of new moves took place. what it's for. and each is a unique. vol. 6 no. One truly gets the impression that every shape in space. p. 7 Uuly 1988). vel. verticals.77 76. 108. inspiring physical discomfort and erasing localization. but are nonetheless demanding in their line of attack. p. every spatial plane. a process of resistance and re-creation occurs. Brian Brannon.. a process described by one skater as the 'instinct to direct a body mass through the "unseen corridors" called lines' . feel. What is this architectural form for? To what purpose can it be put? What is the relation of ground. 'Del Mar'. pp. in an ever-renewed to-and-fro of reciprocal shifting colours. constitutes a mirror and produces a mirage effect. Morizen 80. Skateboard!. The spaces created are thus 78. It forgets that space does not consist in the projection of an intellectual representation. The lines a skater takes are like fingerprints. Not only is the Sartrean look returned.104 Skateboarding. and referred back to. Lefebvre. 199-200 and 286. that within each body the rest of the world is reflected. its fat lip exists as an earthly exit for sky-bound wheels78 The skater's body here interrogates architecture as another body in relation to its own actions. Space and the City Body Space 105 A I I This process takes place through a very precise (although undoubtedly limited) questioning of architecture put forward by skateboarding. 3 (March 1986). Production of Space. It quivers at the sight of a pool rider's bare trucks . designed by lain Urquhart (1980). 'Return to the Beatie Bowl'. interview. 19 [lune 1979). 1986). . does not arise determine skate moves. Billy Runaway. fusing geometry and the visual. 10 (October/November 82. 72. 30. gestures and so forth. Simon Napper. Thrasher. 183. These questions are unconcerned with architecture's historical purpose. But that's its cement cries to be ground to the bone. and is instead absorbed into the body-board-terrain relation.4 Architectural design as the projector of bodily flow. Production of Space. the brain. resisting the intellectualization. active production. Lefebvre. p. 45. 81. p. 8 no. Foche. smell and hear one another. the total body. textures. its round edge protrudes to be pulverized. p. p. vol. Thrasher. architectural 'logic of visualization' and 'optical formant' which modern space imposes over other sensesB2 at Livingston skatepark.. but architecture ceases to be purely the Other. Davis. Variable transitions of pool section architecture on its own terms. 79. Thrasher. surfaces? Ask the coping. no. part of skater as well as of the terrain.76 Insofar as skatepark forms do partially A narrow and desiccated rationality of this kind overlooks the core and foundation of space. 77. 55. 98. lights and forms80 And in the (deep) end The line that you give Is equal to the grind That you get81 reflection.

Morizen Fiiche. 65. 40-5. 3. Blood'. 26 [lune 1997). ramps. 'Young.48 As Thrasher inferred through a long list of urban elements.v' was the first 'gnarly street issue' to be largely devoted to particular promoted streetstyle as the new force in skateskaters such as John Lucero and Richard Armejo onto the most quotidian of urban elements. p. Powell-Perclto. p. 126 (17-23 April Thrasher. Big Brother. 1995). For urban skaters the city is the hardware on their trip. 18. p. Thrasher. p. 6 Uune 1989). 42. 'Venice'. ramps or skateparks. advertisement. SkateBoarder. pp. 45. 41. encountered in the modern city: 40.44 began radically extending skateboarding fundamental move was the 'ollie'. Eric Dressen and JesseMartinez. 7. Skaters can exist on the essentials of what is out there. Although this new street skating took place right across the US. and Jesse Martinez. Thrasher. vo! 6 no. along with a plethora of other locals. Interview.2 An early instance of the new street skating. vol. Independent. p. 53. 'New lowboy. 9 no. 4 no. Stacy Peralta.42 but Thrasher Thrasher in publicizing California who.walls. Sian liz Evans. Natas Kaupas. vol. Space and the City Urban Compositions 179 with lines such as 'Free on the Streets'.45 Alan Gelfand's being adapted to the street. 8 no. 11. no. 46. 3 (March 1986). deprived of the by now defunct Skate City skatepark in Whittier. Action Now. 32-9. 9 (September 1984). 4 (April 19821. once more a specific concentration took place in the beach cities of Los Angeles. decks. 48. interview. pp. no. the impact-adhesion-ascension procedure by which the skater unweights the front of the skateboard to make it pop up seemingly unaided into the air. no. . 2 (September 43. pp.46 As Natas Kaupas put it. 'No Parking'. 52-7. Their The first coverage of the new street skateboarding came in Action Now. vel. In particular. 17 Uuly 1987).47 skatepark-based invention (see Chapter Five) now Or in the words of Stacy Peralta. p. I attempt to make everything skateable . invert move to a road-side curb 11980). whatever.40 while Powell-Peralta marketed back-tobasics 'Street Issue' the April 1982 streetstyle43 boarding. vol. 2 no. Thrasher. John Smythe (pseudonym for Craig Stecyk). curbs. 5 (May 1988). 'new blood' Dogtown skaters such as Natas Kaupas. pp. Any terrain. Gifted and Board Stupid'. 40-7. 1981).178 Skateboarding. steps and street furniture of the Santa Monica strand and Venice Boardwalk. pp. Steve Rocco applying the skatepark-based 47. Thrasher. 44. The Big Issue (london). vol. 7 (February 1980). skateboard terrain but involved anything was no longer restricted to pools. interview. 'Street Sequentials'. 8 no. 102-3. 40. Peralta 'Skate'. 6 no. advertisement (September 1980). vol. exploited the ollie in order to ride up onto the walls.

Rhode Island. 1 February 1998).66 It is important not to underestimate the sheer quantitative nature of this phenomenon. 61 1996). UK. advertisement. 107. As one advertisement put it. Salman Agah. vol. Marina Cherry Hill during the late 1970s. vel. Similarly. 49. B-movie Thrashin' (Fries Entertainment. no. Californian 180 0 Mark Gonzales ('the Gonz') did more than any other to usher in the new streetstyle skating. 16 no. 7 no.67 while Pravda and regional newspapers were reporting a skateboarding boom in the USSR. Sweden. Poland. Ed Templeton. Steven Spielberg. they're freestyling in the Arctic. 'Everything Under the Sun'. 60. Graeme Clifford. Skater of the Year: a Twenty Year Retrospective. pp. Chris Senn. 64. advertisement. Chicken Boy McCoy. 4 (1987) and Gleaming 1986). pp. 'Off the Wall'. Simon Woodstock and Jeremy Wray. Kris Markovitch. interview. val. Thrasher. Matt 63. posted on DonsWORLD [cccessed March 1995). David Winters. Reese Forbes. Chad Muska. Thailand. 1997). Tom Penny. Thrasher. and 'The Mag' 62. .51 Other 1980s streetstylers included lance Mountain. 83 lJanuary 1990). everyday activities ~illions of practitioners ('Everybody. in leah Garchik. 57-8. interview. pp. p. and Airwalk. Daewon Song. Omar Hassan. Of course this new skating was not just about new terrains. vol. advertisement.3). Providence. p. with moves such as the first boardslide on a handrail and nosegrinds (7. Santa Cruz. 4. Kevin Thatcher. Rob Dyrdyk. 42-5. plus others in South America and elsewhere. but a mode of engagement. summer 1994). Willy Santos. Dir. Everywhere!'? streetstyle is based on the in cities worldwide conducted ). p. Andrew Reynolds. Peralta. 11 [November 15 no. 6 no. Chet Thomas. Ilate San Francisco Chronicle Handrails. inside front cover. vol. John lucero. way the world looks at a skateboard. Mike Vallely. Germany. Frankie Hill. they're concrete carving on the Berlin woll69 59. John Cardiel. Australia and Canada. 7 Wuly 1997). Space and the City Urban Compositions 183 Alley Army bunker Bank Bedroom Bench Bevel Bike path Brick wall Bridge Building Bumper Car Casting pond Construction site Couches Crack Culvert Curb Downtown Drainage ditch Driveway Dumpster Full pipe Garage Gas pump Graveyard Gutter Half-pipe Hand railing Hill lane divider launch ramp lawn loading dock Mailbox Meteorite crater Mountain Parking lot Picnic table Plank Planter box Playground Pond Pool Public park Quarter pipe Ramp Reservoir Road Road obstacles Roller rink Run off Schoolyard Seawall Sewer pipe Shopping mall Sidewalk Skate park Slide Slope Spillway Stairs Statue Street sign Street Tennis court Train track Tree Truck Tube Wall Wheelchair ramp49 ESPN coverage of the multi-sport Xtreme Games59 ) or occasionally on terrestrial channels (often integrated into programmes on snowboarding60 and general youth culture61 ). benches and gaps are 'Board Stupid' [Globol Productions/Channel 'Passengers' [Chorinel 4. PowellPeralta was receiving letters from countries such as Czechoslovakia. 'Corporate Death Burger: Xtreme Games. 16. Dir. 1 lJanuary 1997). UK. vol. SkateBoarder's I. 17 no. R. 20. vol. 1 [lcnuor y 1997). 50. p. Eric Koston. 2 (February 1982). 68. 56-9. p. 'Pier 7 locals'. certain skate spots . p. [Chonnel 5. January 1997). Thrasher. 11 (November 1997). Rodga Harvey. Ivory Serra. Kelch. Top streetstyle professionals in the 1990s included. 69. Matt Hensely. Mike Carroll. Thrasher. 1996'. stairs. Trans World Skateboarding. 6 [lonucry 1981 17 no. 49. 1975-1995'.s? Mark Gonzales changed the Thrasher. Thrasher. 'The Urban landscape'. interview. vel. 51. 7 no. Other mass coverage came from films like Back to the Future (Dir. vol. 'Rant and Reel'. Action Now. UK. 8 July 1994). Kareem Campbell. and James Thrasher. 65. 1986). 17 no. TransWorld Skateboarding. 'Thrasher Magazine Thrasher. the 'Chartres Cathedral of skateand Pier 7 in San Francisco64 . 15 no. 11 [November 60. 66. Jason lee. the canvas of his rnosterwork.62 Police Academy the Cube (Twentieth Century Fox/Rank. p. 20. mid-1980s). 52-7. Geoff Rowley. 6 Uune 1987). 2 no. 10 [October/November Visiting UK skaters were amazed in 1984 to see Gonzales do 3-foot-high ollies from the flat onto a wall. pp. New Zealand. MetropoliS. vol.such as the Embarcadero boarding'63) ('EMB'. 1988). 67. 94. Marc Spiegler. Peralta. Thrasher. interview.180 Skateboarding. 50. But more than any other phase of skateboarding. Simple.68 Feature it: people are building ramps behind the Iron Curtain. p.became as well known globally through del Rey and videos and magazines as had skateparks such as Pipeline. rather than on the extreme moves of its most spectacular professionals in extravagant purpose-built facilities or events. With the streets of Southgate as his playground. every skater is yet 'another nobody'. among many others. Already in the early 1980s.AD.

speed. 'Scory Places'. handrails.a state referred to by one skater as a 'cotton wool padded. hundreds of steps. 1967).190 Skateboarding. 110 If' terms 0 architecture. the deserted walkways heading off to somewhere that hasn't been built yet. to 123. we trod upon a concrete and asphalt inconsistencies paved over by a more biped-friendly to our contrived civilization. it is here that they can transcend themselves . blocks. times. Monks Magazines. Bowman.123 Such elements have no meaning as such. speaking and sound 113. Writings on Cities. 1 (April 1995). p. the architects and the artists'. with visitors' bodies controlled by an 'organised malls. 'Ears'.. 2 (n. 112. 1995).a signal. vol. PhilChapmon.p. 46. pre-arranged and pre-packaged so as to ensure an absolute minimum of time consuming. n. curbs and a million other concrete constructions have been put to new walking' of contrived route. Skateboarders target the space-times of the urban degree zero. pp.. Mobility of buildings.~ It is here. I IS However..v such as Milton Keynes 116takes place outside buildings. . Everything around us. 98.114 Our feet wrapped in cotton and leather.. 10. life in the 116.117 New towns feel like they're waiting.121 of mass culture. banks. 4 no. bus benches. p.Routledge. absolutely dead . Sidewalk Surfer. 20. 'Fine Times'. Lefebvre.c. countering the routinized phenomena of privatized urban space and the corresponding pacification of urban experience by enacting a different space and time for the city. Lowboy. that skaters consider themselves to be 'one step ahead of the pedestrian or static eye. liB For the experiencer of such architecture. reinscribing themselves onto functional everyday spaces and the streets. 7. Warp. pp. 21 (October/November 1997). II. passivity and ennui are not the only possible responses to such reductive architecture. Shoring'.AD. w Projected onto the terrain. seeing skateboarding 'a challenge to our everyday concepts of the functions as ". 98 Uuly 1991). Resistance to the zero degree 'concrete craziness' of places field of precise and imperative utilitarian objects that condition us and with which we cannot converse. as 'f a simp Ie witness.. 121. different spaces of the traditional the constraints of traffic. 112 In such places. the neutralization of symbols states coldly what is. p. 1995). Finding. benches. desolate wastes. 'Comment'. It is here that student meets worker. Sewers. Roland Borthes. the urban having lost the characteristics of the creative oeuvre and of appropriation. TomHodgkinson. 122. Lefebvre. and Lefebvre. Worland. The Birth of the Museum (London. right down to the most mundane aspects of our daily lives is pre-planned. Electronic Bat Eggs/Mad 117. the lack of qualitative differences I n and corresponding surfeit of instructions is experienced as banal monotony. and reason reduced to a function again recovers speech.p. Matthew Pritchard. 111. 'Seorching. there is a similarly reductive effect.Mad and Dangerous Know?'.. It is -like fire hydrants.until the skaters bring them a 'poverty units and of daily life' derives from the failure to replace the symbolisms. You don't think so? Look around you.Introduction to Modernity. 120. n. R. Lefebvre. even by the builders.. 113.I09 . Please pay cashier First. The empty buildings. living. 'Skote and Destroy'. Midweek. 110. Everyday Modern World. III with benches that have never been sat on . gaps. "~ IIII 1/ sheath. p. 95 ond 280. in the streets. then. where culture is alternatively disjointed or non-existent. the neatly landscaped bitsin-between abandoned life. 15. metropolitan dwellers are simply witnesses to the functioning of the city. 127-8. R. Skaters create their own fun on the periphery uses. 119. and where security cameras are 'endlessly re-shooting the most interesting of feature films: everyday life'. 183-4. sidewalks and traffic lights . 18. carparks. gestures. pp. an~ to the closed world we create for ourselves out of this massively unlimited city'. no. . TV programmed world' .d. 25.120 ln such cities worldwide. 'Milton Keynes'.p. imparting only a message. The crosswalk signal turns red too Fast. 122For example. of the museum. p. rhythms and city with anything other than dwelling . curbs. streets. 'PleaseUsethe Handrail'.Explosion. Don't even think of merging into my lane. no. Space and the City Urban Compositions 191 Or again: We live in a bland culture governed by the sacred principle of CONVENIENCE.My calling card has too many numbers on it.AD. 1 18. It is this which skateboarders recognize in statements such as: 109. p. a handrail is a highly functional object whose time and use are wholly programmed. Writing Degree Zero (London:Cape. no.inlerview. p. 114. everything'. Miki Vukovich. conscious involvement from us. a material element within an urban semantic With our eventual adaptation IIII " now take its sheltered nature for granted. 119 finding at Milton Keynes 'an infinite number of skate spots . In Barthes' concept of 'zero point'. n. 79 (September1989). stairways and elevators .. no.. Tony Bennett. . the topographical habitat.'Rod. where the experience of urban space is like that flowerbeds. p. London(18 Januory 1990). we've adjusted and is orderly and efficient: sidewalks. 115. // Thus for skateboarders towns such as Milton Keynes were perceived as having 'no real identity'.

such streetstyle skateboarding takes its vitality from unexpected eruptions of meaning. 1 no.126 In particular. Space and the City Urban Compositions 193 Empty of cars. 'In the Streets Tadoy'. by the way.7 The sudden eruption of meaning against the utilitarian message of the handrail. balanced perilously on the skateboard deck. 103.ol/ieing onto the rail and. advertisement. vel. 1 Donuary 1981 I. 'Shudder Speed'. p. Trans World Skateboarding. 16. City streets are a reality. object.127 Where signals have no expressivity beyond direct signification. 11 (November Lelebvre. p. they are not purely ideational. a symbolic parole to the univalent langue of the city as technical is a critique of the emptiness of meaning in zero degree How. does skateboarding create this critique? What is the precise ground on which it acts? The answer lies less in the realm of semantics.. mean adding another traffic light. 15 no. In the case of the handrail. Skin Phillips. 19971. Most people think handrails are for those with mobility problems. 10 (October 1991 I. A curb is an obstacle until you grind across it. doesn't As a critique of the signal. Skateboarding arc hitectu re. While cities are made from social relations as conceived by thought. . Danny Barley (1997). 124 Or: Go on. 'Searching. Christian Hosoi says they are for ollie nose grinds. 128 life is but a dream. 1 1 no. the skateboarder's reuse of the handrail . vel. City Street Wheels. actions which retranslate the objects of the city. then. p. 128.125 this. 125. (Photograph Matthew Worland) Skateboarder: 129. The whole logic of the handrail is turned on its head. A wall is but ledge until you drop off it. vol. A cement bank is a useless slab of concrete until you shred it. sliding down the fulcrum line of the metal bar _ targets something to do with safety and turns it into an object of risk (7. 29. 126. Finding'. 50.129 124. skateboarding is a lived utterance. skateboarders do something. 'Gasbag'. Thrasher. 16. 10 (October 1985). car-parks have only form and no function'.7). p. put something back into the community . vel. and more in the realm of sensory rhythms and the physical. 5 no. Writings on Cities.192 Skateboarding. The urban is not a soul. Thrasher. a philosophical entity. 12. 127.. a spirit. 7. Thrasher. p. p.

Sharing'.. 7. Finding. magazine (September 1989).'lIrrernJ ( is Do 'hinkRad and aruund. Psychogeographic mapping of everyday urbanism in R.16 'Searching..... . L·lving. SCilrfoldlu ..AD. nr-w Silt'. t• bitt> of pi)' .wero building.

hits of Illy is scaffolding SCtur<"rnl 15 .. LMNG.Il("" 1~~ld . the open 1rHndcd.·..I>t. a.. HU apply: new '!..Iit('.. ·ldin~.·"[<·. All You fJ <I'WI. wero no 'hinkRad I{'A'!) <. Sp ace and the City Ur b an Compositions 225 SEARCHING. seck.. Old com-rete wiutlng rtn-rc Ior new t:)'(_·sand a .- n(·\V(~S(·. Skateboarding.

for the skater it is the outdoor spaces. which form the socio-spcce of self-identity and construction .92 In particular. val.. Foche. 'Skate'. 1967). n. Editorial. pp. 13 Uanuary/February in Lefebvre. do. while. Our home life is exposed on the pavement."! It's the only thing that I know how to no one .97 as 'small bait in a sea of corporate sharks'98 they in no way seek to Thrasher cover proclaiming 'Skaters of the World Unite' over an image of Lenin was simply rhetoric. pp. Morizen Thrasher. vo]. Writings on Cities. 'introduction'. 'World on a Cleaning 95. 3 (March 1986). 6 [lune 1992). Writings on Cities.. 90. the skateboarder poses in response the question of 'who am I?' (8.89 skateboarders use their particular appropriation of the city to construct themselves and their relations with others. then. 8. (Photograph Matthew Worland) Eleonore Kofmon and Elizabeth Iebos. nature of production. 8 no. 9 no. p.88 a spatialized version of the 'marketing orientation' which urban architecture. Thrasher. and everyone's welcorne. no. 100 to Modernity. 'Lost in Transposition'. Sidewalk Surfer. vol. Borden. asphalt and concrete Irornework. 92.4 1997). comes from its engagement with the spatial consumption and its reassertion of use values. 40. Everybody joins in with us. 4. 35. Man for Himself (Greenwich: Fawcett.Y? Skaters are a different breed. . I 00 encourages people to playa role. 77.i" The meaning of skateboarding.75-89. Thrasher (February 1983). 89. 'New Blood'. 'Comment'. 2 (February 1989). pp. This is a true dialectic of the social and the spatial. and Erich Fromm. Not a breed apart. each produced through the other.. Lefebvre. Editorial. 235-6. the rhythm of the city as external to the self and the rhythm of the self as intimate forms of consciousness and behaviour are counterposed. vel.. exchange. not interiors. Don Cotes. 339-40 and 359. 'Skcter's Edge'. pp. A gift of freedom: questioning the self and the city. Bonnie Blouin. 7 Uuly 1988). pp. 7-8. 6 no. xi-xiv. 'if the Skaters Are United. p. p. 97. p. rejection of society already together with the subcultural values of a generalized identified above. front cover and pp. 100 (September 1991). Introduction 98.p. 'We're not out to fight the world' . 96. Thrasher. Significantly. its subcultural attitudes have no substance except as produced in space in relation to 88. In terms of the kind of society this might indicate.j? The skater is not a separate entity from his terrain . pp. Rota'. 47. Ged Wells. clearly skateboarders as a group of young people are not about to take over the revolutionary fundamentally alter anything. They Can Never Be Divided'. 'Thick Edge'. A breed that exists within a steel. 91. no. 84-7.. conversely. Wander. and if I ever stopped doing it I would be is my only identity for better or worse. let's get rid of the cars and put all the furniture into the street. p.99 A highlighting a feature on skaters in different countries worldwide. Peralta. Rather than allowing architecture and the city to dictate who he or she is. 93. 99. Skateboarder: Howard Cooke (1996).244 Skateboarding. RAD.a theme implicit throughout both Lefebvre's writings93 and skateboarding subcultural practice. it was not the skaters as individuals but their performance of moves which they promoted We must therefore consider that the spatial act of is meaningless devoid of its subcultural attitudes. Skateboarding he is the terrain with all its mission of the proletariat. 94. Thrasher. 60-7. when as 'studies in non-conformity'Y" skateboarding Thrasher first showed the new street skating. 12 no. Space and the City Performing the City 245 of its inhabitants. Lefebvre. One big living room.4). intricate pieces.