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Bio4120: Principles of Physiology Exam 1

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Section 1: Compete each sentence with one of the words in square barckets. Answer on Scantron. 1. [A. Primary/B. Secondary] pathologies occur if the last endocrine gland in a reflex pathway is affected. 2. [A. Na+ /B. K+ ] ions have the highest concentration inside the cell. 3. Ependymal cells are part of the [A. central/B. peripheral] nervous system. 4. An adequate stimulus will produce a change in the membrane potential of a sensory receptor cell leading to a(n) [A. action/B. receptor] potential. 5. When a large number of presynaptic neurons innervate one post-synaptic neuron this is known as [A. convergence/B. divergence]. 6. The meninges layer closest to the bone is called the [A. dura mater/B. pia mater]. 7. Neurotransmitter is released from the [A. axon terminals/B. dendritic terminals]. 8. [A. True/B. False] The receptive field of one type of sensory receptor may overlap with that of a sensory neuron detecting a different stimulus. 9. A graded postsynaptic potential that moves the membrane potential closer to zero [A. depolarizes/B. hyperpolarizes] the neuron. 10. A change in pH would be detected by a [A. chemoreceptor/B. thermoreceptor]. 11. Two hormones that have additive effects are said to be [A. antagonistic/B. synergistic]. 12. A major "sensory association" area of the brain resides in the [A. frontal/B. parietal] lobe. 13. A portal system is characterized by [A. one/B. two] capillary beds. 14. The type of action of a neurotransmitter [A. depends on the type of receptor it activates/B. is always the same]. 15. Both temperature and pressure receptors are located in the skin. They send their information to the brain via [A. different/B. the same] neurons. 16. The Nernst equation predicts the membrane potential resulting from [A. all permeable ions/B. a single permeable ion]. 17. The dorsal and ventral horn of a spinal cord are composed of [A. gray/B. white] matter. 18. The cell bodies of sensory neurons are found in [A. ventral/B. dorsal] root ganglion. 19. The rate limiting step for [A. steroid/B. peptide] hormone secretion is activation of its synthetic enzyme. 20. [A. Sensitization/B. Habituation] is when an animal exhibits a decreased response to a nonnoxious (or irrelevant) stimulus. Page 1, v1

C. E. A and C E. B. C.Bio4120: Principles of Physiology Exam 1 name: Section 2: Multiple Choice. E. 25. B and C 22. E. C. will not occur at all as this is not the trigger zone. will begin at the normal trigger zone will begin at the point of stimulation and go towards the axon terminal as usual. The somatosensory cortex A. Choose single best response and answer on Scantron. clusters all of the somatosensory information from a particular body part into one area of the cortex. lies immediately behind the central sulcus B. the hormone is probably A. B. action potentials A. D. C. a peptide a steroid estrogen testosterone aldosterone 23. B and C the chemical synapse the dendrites the trigger zone the cell body the axon terminal 24. sends axons down into the spinal cord to talk to motor neurons C. D. The limbic system consists of A. 21. D. A. v1 . If a stimulating electrode is placed in an axon mid way between the cell body and its axon terminal and a depolarizing current above threshold is applied. D. The site where an individual neuron most often integrates information is Page 2. the cingulate gyrus the corpus collosum the amygdala A and C A. will begin at the point of stimulation and go towards both the axon terminal and cell body. D. B. B. will begin at the point of stimulation and go towards the cell body. A. If a cell responds to a hormone by increasing G-protein activity. E.

D. may be cleaved into a variety of different peptide hormones. C.all statements are correct. B and C 28. can be converted to phasic receptors by higher order innervations A and B A.. Tonic receptors Page 3. C. D. 27. A and C A. B. A. none of the above . C. B. are often secreted into the blood along with the "left-over" peptide fragments created by cleavage events. the duration of action potentials. D. E. C. the frequency of action potentials. B and C thalamus cerebrum cingulate gyrus hippocampus hypothalamus is the minimum amount of a stimulus required to activate the receptor describes the range of stimuli a receptor can not respond to is the type of stimulus that hyperpolarizes a receptor is the particular physical/chemical property a receptor can detect none of the above are slowly adapting receptors fire rapidly when first activated and then stop. B and C decreasing membrane leakiness increasing membrane leakiness increasing the diameter of the axon. C. B. E. D. v1 . all begin with a pre-pro form. An important structure for long-term learning and memory is the 30. The neural code that signals stimulus strength is A. E. A. are processed through the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi. B. B.Bio4120: Principles of Physiology Exam 1 name: 26. A and B A.. the amplitude of action potentials. E. The conduction speed of an action potential is increased by 29. B. An "adequate" stimulus 31. E. A. D. C. Identify the one phrase that does NOT complete the following sentence correctly: "Peptide hormones . D. A. E. A.

E. the correct sequence of potentials is A. pons. pons. A small peptide. v1 . it is likely that Page 4. What best distinguishes an amio acid derived neurotransmitter from a small peptide neurotransmitter? A. and thalamus thymus thyroid gland pancreas hypothalamus adrenal glands 33. cerebellum. threshold potential. A and C E. E. the corpus collosum the hippocampus the dorsal horn of the spinal cord the ventral horn of the spinal cord the peripheral nervous system it has a large diameter axon it is myelinated it has a long refractory period its trigger zone is highly depolarized it is undergoing presynaptic inhibition 37. equilibrium potential of Na+ ions hyperpolarization. threshold potential. C. the area most affected would be A. If a Schwann cell fails to perform its function correctly. hyperpolarization. equilibrium potential of Na+ ion. 0 mV. E. In order from most negative to positive. D. midbrain medulla oblongata. hyperpolarization. equilibrium potential of Na+ ions resting. E. pons. threshold potential. B. would be transported down the axon. hyperpolarization. pons. hyperpolarization. B. A. equilibrium potential of Na+ ions threshold potential. A. C. B and C 36. C. and midbrain thalamus. C.Bio4120: Principles of Physiology Exam 1 name: 32. B. While most endocrine signals are complex. B. resting. The amino acid. C. the most complex endocrine responses involve the 35. equilibrium potential of Na+ ions. but not the amino acid derivative. and cerebellum medulla oblongata. 0 mV. B. midbrain and hypothalamus medulla oblongata. 0 mV. The brain stem consists of 34. B. A. 0 mV. D. 0 mV. E. If an axon is conducting action potentials at high frequency. D. threshold potential. D. C. The small peptide would have to travel through the Golgi. resting. would be transported down the axon. but not an amino acid. D. resting. but not the peptide. resting. D.

" A. E. when more action potentials arrive at a presynaptic terminal releasing an excitatory neurotransmitter. D. the terminal begins to initate action potentials. neurotransmitter release increases thereby increasing the magnitude of the postsynaptic graded potential. v1 42. E.. E.Bio4120: Principles of Physiology Exam 1 name: 38. In the CNS. B and C 40. E. 39. projects axons to almost every region of the brain. B. B. A. D. B. D.. E. D. A. by an enzyme degrading reaction absorption by the target cell diffusion away from the target site A and B A. How would the absolute refractory period be affected if the voltage-gated Na+ channels remain inactivated? A. C. it would become longer it would merge with the relative refractory period it would remain the same it would become shorter none of the above. D. B. A tactile receptor that is surrounded by an 'onion' ring of connective tissue is known as a 43. neurotransmitter release increases thereby hyperpolarizing the postsynaptic neuron. The hormone that is released to enhance the "fight-or-flight" response is . 41. C. Identify the one phrase that does NOT complete this sentence correctly: "The reticular formation . B. neurotransmitter release decreases. C. C. the terminal becomes more depolarized but only the first batch of neurotransmitter can be released due to the refractory period. C. D. A. B. C. Merkel disc Meissner's corpuscle Pacinian corpuscle Ruffini corpuscle Hair root plexus thyroid hormone epinephrine prolactin ADH ACTH Page 5. thereby lowering the magnitude of the postsynaptic graded potential. The effect of a hormone (including neurocrines) at its target site may be diminished by A. is a diffuse set of neuronal nuclei has a major neuromodulatory role includes the basal ganglion resides in the brain stem between various axon tracts. E.

Saltatory conduction refers to A. can be summated. E. B. include depolarizing and hyperpolarizing potentials. D. C. E. D. A. E. is produced by an increased permeability to Cl . the brain stem the thalamus the somatosensory cortex the motor cortex all of the above 46. E. v1 .and/or K+ . C. The CNS must distinguish the following properties of a stimulus 49. The cerebellum receives input from A. D. B. include receptor potentials and postsynaptic potentials. can be summed with other IPSPs to trigger an action potential in the postsynaptic cell. D. 45. B. name: is a small depolarization in a postsynaptic cell. is a small hyperpolarization that triggers an action potential. is produced by an increased permeability to both Na+ and K+ .Bio4120: Principles of Physiology Exam 1 44. C. E. C. the impulse jumping from a nerve to its connected muscle the jumping of an action potential from one node of Ranvier to the next the active transport of ions across the nerve membrane nonmyelinated axons only the changes in membrane permeability that occurs with depolarization 47. B. Graded potentials A. C. D. B. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential A. A. intensity location duration nature or type all of the above melatonin thyroid hormone epinephrine thyroid stimulating hormone norepinephrine 48. D. E. Each of the following are considered an amino acid derived hormone EXCEPT Page 6. C. will decay as they are conducted through the cell. B. all of the above.

Bio4120: Principles of Physiology Exam 1 name: 50. 1. C. 4. 3. v1 . afferent neuron reaches threshold and fires an action potential 3. 5. 5. 2. 4. 4 2. 3. sensory organ detects change in environment. integration center reaches a decision about a response 5. 5. D. B. Arrange the following into the correct order: 1. 1. 4. 4. 1. 3 2. 2. effector organ initiates an output response. 4. 1 3. 5. 3 Page 7. 2. 1. efferent neuron reaches threshold and fires an action potential 2. A. E. 5.

 which one best describes the  mechanism associated with the  (3 pts)    Posterior pituitary:       (answer A or B)  This part of the pituitary is known to secrete this  hormone:                        . This system is important  because …. B is on the right.    a) Of the two shown.   Which parts function as sensor. circle the part that  represents neurons within the hypothalamus  (label each ‘hypo’).  NAME:    Section III: Various questions. its target would be             . If this cell  is releasing ACTH.  2 pts    c) Circle (and label P) the part that represents the Portal System. draw the most simple form of an endocrine reflex as  illustrated in your textbook for the parathyroid hormone.  Y and Z label the second  neuron (surrounded by a diamond) in each series.      51.  A is the series of reactions shown on the  left. (finish sentence using only space provide):  3 pts          d) Put a square (label ‘d’) around a cell that acts the most like a simple endocrine cell.  The figure at the right  reproduces two parts of a figure in the text  describing in general terms endocrine and neural  reflexes.   . (full name) 2 pts    e) Taking hints from the diagram above.  FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS VERY CAREFULLY. The hypothalamus pituitary axis plays a major  role in homeostasis. integrator and effector?      (5 pts total)        8  .  which acts on the target cell:       b) In each column A and B.

Y and Z.     a)  On this diagram. However. draw in a “stick  figure neuron” that is secreting  oxytocin.  Do  this with great care. there is NO change in the membrane potential of the postsynaptic neuron (and of course no action potential).  NAME:    52. when X and Z are stimulated simultaneously. add a cell that releases  TRH.  (2 pts)    d) Draw in the location of the endocrine  cell that secretes TSH in response to the  secreted TRH. The circles. In the diagram the dendritic tree and large cell body (grey) of a neuron is indicated with the arrow representing the initial segment of the neurons axon. labeled X. the postsynaptic neuron undergoes a membrane potential change and an action potential ensues.  Label TSH. What can you say about the graded potentials elicited by neurons X and Y and Z? Why? (6 pts)                 9  . 4 pts    c) Keeping in mind your drawing of the  portal system. Label Portal. represent synaptic terminals of incoming axons (whose cell bodies etc are not shown). the hormone that regulates TSH  secretion.”  (2 pts)          b) CAREFULLY draw in a reasonable  representation of the portal system. Be sure to place its cell body  and its axon terminals in the correct  locations. When X and Y are stimulated simultaneously.   (2 pts)        53.  Label TRH. The diagram below outlines the hypothalamus and pituitary gland with the anterior  direction as indicated by the arrow. Label it “A.

    (3 pts)  e) Indicate on this diagram what the  potassium conductance curve  should look like – WARNING: draw  it nicely and to the scale of this  diagram. C and  D. Using the diagram below of an action potential:  a.  NAME:        54.  Here. (6 points total)    10  .” where the  sodium channel INACTIVATES.  At time A.  you add a neurotransmitter  and the membrane potential  of your neuron changes as  indicated.    Use the grey lines of the  “graph paper” to draw your  answer as close to scale as  possible. provide the value for the membrane potential  if this is the “typical” neuron shown in your textbook. (Two right next to each  other is NOT acceptable) (2 pts)  d) Indicate on this diagram what the  sodium conductance curve should  look like – WARNING: draw it nicely  and to the scale of this diagram. Graded potentials can be summated in both time and space.” two uniquely different places  where the sodium channel is  CLOSED. indicate with a  TRIANGLE marked “b.  (4 pts)    What is the unit?           b) On this tracing. Draw on this  “graph paper” the changes in  membrane potential that you  observe if you add the same  amount of this same  neurotransmitter at B. you are monitoring the  membrane potential of a  neuron in culture.  (3 pts)    f) What is the area marked with an  “X” called?  Why does it occur? (2 pts)        55. At the left of each dotted line. in the small box.  (1  pt)  c) Indicate with a CIRCLE marked  “c.

 in the dashed boxes to the right of each secondary (2o) neuron. (4 pts)    b) For all four of the tertiary (3o) neurons.  The frequency of action potentials (APs)  elicited from these primary neurons is indicated on the right side of the axon as small lines. Lateral inhibition is a very important mechanism to help the nervous system locate exactly  where a stimulus hits the skin. lateral inhibition will occur between the  secondary (2o) and tertiary (3o) neurons.     a) First.  Assume that each AP has equal weight and will affect the next neuron  proportional to its frequency. followed by the pattern that occurs after lateral inhibition  is undertaken.  NAME:        56. indicate on the diagram the kind of connection(s) required between the secondary and  tertiary neurons to allow lateral inhibition to occur.  In the figure below. use small lines to  indicate the response pattern  for ALL four of the neurons. (3 pts)        11  . you need to draw in the response pattern BEFORE  the skin was hit (top dashed boxes).  (8 pts)        C) Focusing on the second column of neurons (the one located directly below the major part of  the hit).  Four adjacent touch receptors are indicated with a  bar indicating the location where the hit occurred.

        (8 pts total)  [Hint: I am interested in the flow of ions.  NAME:        57. At a pre‐synaptic terminal the incoming action potential initiates a series of events leading  to secretion of neurotransmitter.  You do not have to worry about stopping the secretion. Do not give me all  the details about channel properties.”).  I will NOT read  whole paragraphs. or long sentences as part of an answer.     Action potential arrives  at pre‐synaptic terminal    12  .]  Use only this side of this page. and the sequence of events  leading to secretion.   NOTE: flow chart only uses a small number of words in boxes to make a picture. Your textbook uses a flow chart to depict the flow of  information.    Here starting with my one box (below) you will compete a FLOW CHART of the discrete  but different steps required to convert an action potential arriving at a pre‐synaptic terminal  into neurotransmitter secretion: i. illustrate excitation‐secretion coupling as a flow chart.e. the effect of the flow. or a linear process (sometimes called “concept mapping.

No. in No. 6/2/09 Correct Answer A B A B A A A A A A B B B A A B A B A B D A D D C E A D D D A C B D D E D B E C A C B D E B E E D E Page 1. v1 . on Q-Bank Test 7 29 1 8 7 2 8 9 3 10 2 4 8 91 5 9 14 6 8 4 7 10 7 8 8 24 9 10 17 10 7 22 11 9 9 12 7 21 13 10 1 14 10 3 15 8 6 16 9 1 17 9 43 18 7 2 19 9 10 20 10 26 21 7 26 22 8 76 23 9 16 24 8 54 25 7 35 26 8 52 27 8 78 28 9 38 29 10 27 30 10 11 31 8 35 32 9 34 33 7 10 34 8 31 35 9 5 36 8 30 37 8 75 38 7 24 39 9 20 40 8 18 41 10 12 42 7 32 43 8 48 44 9 18 45 8 45 46 10 5 47 10 24 48 7 9 49 8 80 50 Answer Key for Test “Ex1 sec 1 & 2”.