You are on page 1of 8
ESSAY OUTLINE TOPIC : Cyber crimes in Malaysia and U.S.A. : What should we do in Malaysia? INTRODUCTION General statement 1 : Computer crime, or cybercrime, refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_crime). General statement 2 : The Oxford Reference Online defines cybercrime as crime committed over the Internet (www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html). General statement 3 : The Encyclopaedia Britannica defines computer crime as any crime that is committed by means of special knowledge or expert use of computer technology. General statement 4 : The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. General statement 5 : Some writers say that “computer crime” refers to computer-related activities which are either criminal in the legal sense of the word or just antisocial behaviour where there is no breach of the law. General statement 6 : Issues surrounding this type of crime have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding cracking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted, lawfully or otherwise. General statement 7 : Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes. CONTENT CLASSIFICATION OF CYBER CRIMES Main supporting point Supporting detail : There are 4 major categories of cyber crimes. : The 4 major categories are cyber crime against individual, cyber crime against property, cyber crime against organization and cyber crime against society (http://www.reportcybercrime.com/classification.php). Main supporting point Supporting detail : The first category is cyber crime against individual. : Cybercrimes committed against individual or persons include various crimes like transmission of child-pornography, harassment of any one with the use of a computer such as e-mail (http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/02257/more.html). Supporting detail : The trafficking, distribution, posting, and dissemination of obscene material including pornography and indecent exposure, constitutes one of the most important Cybercrimes known today. Supporting detail : This type of cyber crime which threatens to undermine the growth of the younger generation as also leave irreparable scars and injury on the younger generation, if not controlled. Supporting detail : This type of cyber crime also included the email spoofing, spamming, cyber defamation and cyber stalking. Main supporting point Supporting detail : The second category is cyber crime against property. : These crimes include computer vandalism (destruction of others' property), transmission of harmful programmes (http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/02257/more.html). Supporting detail : These crime included the credit card fraud, internet time theft and intellectual property crimes such as software piracy, copyright infringement, trademarks violations and even theft of computer source code. Main supporting point Supporting detail : The third category is cyber crime against organization. : These include crimes against government, private firm, company, group of individual (http://www.bestarticleworld.com/2009/12/article-on-society-andincreasing-cyber.html). Supporting detail : These crimes included unauthorized accessing of computer, denial of service, virus attack, email bombing, salami attack, logic bomb, trojan horse, data diddling and others cyber terrorism against the government organization. Main supporting point Supporting detail : The fourth category is cyber crime against society. : These crimes not only affect individual or any organisation but the society at large (http://www.bestarticleworld.com/2009/12/article-onsociety-and-increasing-cyber.html). Supporting detail : These crimes included forgery, cyber terrorism, child pornography, financial crimes, sale of illegal articles, web jacking, online gambling and polluting the youth through indecent exposure (http://www.cyberlawconsulting.com/cyber-case.html). COMPARISON OF CYBER CRIMES IN MALAYSIA AND USA Main supporting point : Malaysian Computer Crimes Act 1997 (CCA 1997) and the Communication and Multimedia Act 1998, which are the many cyber laws enacted in Malaysia. Supporting detail : In Malaysia, the punishment may range from 3 years to 10 years imprisonment and/or a monetary fine of between RM 25,000 to RM 150,000. Note that stiffer penalties will be given if it is found that the guilty party had intention to cause injury when committing the crime. (SANS Institute, 2002). Main supporting point Supporting detail : Strong working relationships between authorities in countries around the world can help to solve cyber crimes cases quickly. : The Malaysian Parliament website that was hacked on December 2000 was traced to IP addresses in Brazil and France. The relevant authorities in those countries were contacted for assistance in the investigation. Main supporting point : CyberSecurity Malaysia is not an enforcement agency but it is an agency under Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MOSTI). Supporting detail : CyberSecurity Malaysia only provide support to enforcement agencies such as police and victims, in ensuring that justice will prevail regardless of the "space" where a particular crime is conducted. Supporting detail : CyberSecurity Malaysia also assist in cyber forensics and analysis such as analysing evidence and providing expert witnesses for relevant cases. Main supporting point Supporting detail : Cases handled by CyberSecurity Malaysia. : In 2008, CyberSecurity Malaysia handled a total of 2,123 incidents, more than 100 per cent increase compared with 2007. But that rate was an increase in incidents and it may not correlate with cyber crime rates (http://www.cybersecurity.my/en/media_centre). Supporting detail : Malaysia saw the number of reported cyber crimes rise to 5,181 this year (2010) from 2,642 in 2009 (New Straits Times Press, 27 October 2010). Supporting detail : In the first quarter of 2011, 3,563 incidents were reported to the Cyber999 Security Incident Help Centre and of those, 400 phishing sites targeting Malaysian banks were reported. (http://www.malaysiandigest.com/news/21919-cybersecuritymalaysia-intensifies-fight-against-cybercrime.html) Main supporting point Supporting detail : Statistic of selected categories of cyber crimes in Malaysia. : Statistic derived from CyberSecurity Malaysia for cyber crime statistic year 2010 in Malaysia. (http://www.mycert.org.my/en/services/statistic/mycert/2010/main/detail/725/index.html) Supporting details : Percentage derived from the statistic according to types of cyber crime in Malaysia. 1. Content related 2. Denial of service 2. Cyber harrassment 3. Fraud 4. Intrusion 5. Intrusion attempt 6. Malicious codes 7. Spam - 0.48 % - 0.82 % - 5.18 % - 27.34 % - 26.70 % - 8.47 % - 14.82 % - 15.67 % 8. Vulnerabilities report - 0.52 % Supporting detail Main supporting point : Fraud percentage is 27.34 % and spam percentage is 15.67 %. : Statistic was derived from Federal Bereau of Investigation (FBI) in collaboration with the Internet Crime Complaint Centre (ic3) for cyber crime statistic year 2010 in USA (http://scamfraudalert.wordpress.com/2010/03/13/fbi-2009cybercrime-statistics/) Supporting detail : 1. Non-delivery Payment/Merchandise 2. FBI-Related Scams 3. Identity Theft 4. Computer Crimes 5. Miscellaneous Fraud 6. Advance Fee Fraud 7. Spam 8. Auction Fraud 9. Credit Card Fraud 10. Overpayment Fraud - 14.4% - 13.2% - 9.8% - 9.1% - 8.6% - 7.6% - 6.9% - 5.9% - 5.3% - 5.3% Supporting detail Supporting detail : Fraud percentage is 32.7 % and spam percentage is 6.9 %. : Fraud in the USA are in various types such as overpayment fraud, credit card fraud, auction fraud, advance fee fraud and miscellaneous fraud. Main supporting point Supporting detail Supporting detail Supporting detail Supporting detail Main supporting point Supporting detail : Comparison between fraud and spam percentage between in Malaysia and USA. : Malaysia USA : Fraud - 27.34 % and spam - 15.67 % : Fraud - 32.7 % and spam - 6.9 % : Fraud percentage in USA is higher than in Malaysia. While spam percentage is higher in Malaysia than in USA. : This means, fraud cases or complaints in developed country is higher than non developed country. : However, spam cases is a beginning to fraud cases. : Percentage of cyber crime for the past 11 years in Malaysia. : Percentage of cyber crime from the year 2000 to the year 2010 in Malaysia (http://www.mycert.org.my/en/services/statistic/mycert). Supporting detail Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 TOTAL Main supporting point Supporting detail Supporting detail : The table of percentage are given below : Numbers of complaints received 503 932 739 4295 15286 835 1372 1038 2123 3564 8090 38777 Percentage (%) 1.3 (lowest) 2.4 1.91 11.08 39.42 (highest) 2.15 3.54 2.68 5.47 9.19 20.86 100 : Percentage of cyber crime for the past 11 years in USA. : Percentage of cyber crime from the year 2000 to the year 2010 in USA. : The graf was derived from Federal Bereau of Investigation (FBI) in collaboration with the Internet Crime Complaint Centre (ic3). Supporting detail : Percentage table derived from the above chart. Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 Numbers of complaints received 16838 50412 75064 124515 Percentage (%) 0.8 (lowest) 2.42 3.61 5.99 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 TOTAL Main supporting point Supporting detail Supporting detail 200449 231493 207492 206884 275284 346655 343809 2078895 9.64 11.14 9.98 9.95 13.24 16.67 (highest) 16.54 100 : Comparison between numbers of complaints or cases between Malaysia and USA. : Malaysia USA : 38777 complaints : 2078895 complaints : USA is higher than Malaysia in the numbers of complaints because of the difference in : 1. Numbers of citizen 2. Numbers of computer or internet users 3. Users' awareness regarding cyber crime Main supporting point Supporting detail Supporting detail : Comparison between percentage of complaints or cases between Malaysia and USA. : Malaysia USA : Highest – 39.42 % (2004) and lowest – 1.3 % (2000) : Highest – 16.67 % (2009) and lowest – 0.8 % (2000) : Although, USA is higher in the number of complaints regarding cyber crime. But, the percentage is lower than in Malaysia when refer to the percentage of highest and lowest complaints from the year 2000 to the year 2010. Supporting detail : This is due to : 1. End users' awareness on cyber crime is more higher in USA than in Malaysia. 2. The roles played by cyber security agency in USA is better than in Malaysia. 3. Lack of cyber crimes researches in Malaysia than in USA. 4. The cyber technology in preventing and curbing cyber crimes in the USA is more advanced than in Malaysia. SUGGESTIONS Main supporting point Supporting detail : Suggestions to curb or reduce cyber crimes in Malaysia. : 1. Malaysia government should tighthen the enforcement of Computer Crime Act 1997 and the Communication and Multimedia Act 1998. 2. Malaysia government should allow more cyber crimes investigators agencies such as CyberSecurity Malaysia to take part in preventing cyber crimes in Malaysia. 3. People or end users of the Internet or computer should be educate and aware of the cyber security. 4. Malaysia government should increase the numbers of cyber professionals to improve the cyber security in Malaysia. CONCLUSION. In a nutshell, cyber security in Malaysia still need to be improve in order to prevent or reduce cyber crimes in Malaysia. In line with that, all related agencies should call for alliance in order to prevent and reduce the numbers of cyber crimes in our country. REFERENCES. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_crime. www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html http://www.reportcybercrime.com/classification.php http://library.thinkquest.org/06aug/02257/more.html http://www.bestarticleworld.com/2009/12/article-on-society-and-increasingcyber.html http://www.cybersecurity.my/en/media_centre New Straits Times Press, 27 October 2010 http://www.malaysiandigest.com/news/21919-cybersecurity-malaysia-intensifies-fight-againstcybercrime.html http://www.mycert.org.my/en/services/statistic/mycert/2010/main/detail/725/index.html http://scamfraudalert.wordpress.com/2010/03/13/fbi-2009-cybercrime-statistics