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© 2002 October 18, version 1.3, Wm. J. Larson, International School of Geneva, william.larson@ecolint.ch. Corrections welcome.

Getting Started................................................. 1

The Green and Yellow Buttons .......................................................1 The Two “Minus” Keys....................................................................1 Exponents and Roots ........................................................................1 Scientific (or Standard) Notation ....................................................1 Degree and Radian Modes ...............................................................1 More Symbols and Functions ..........................................................1 Brackets..............................................................................................1 The Plus/Minus Sign.........................................................................1 If the Screen Is Too Dark or Too Light ..........................................2 To Store Numbers .............................................................................2 To Reuse A Previous Entry..............................................................2 To Change the Number of Digits Displayed...................................2 To get to the start or end of a long expression or list ....................2 Miscellaneous Tips ............................................................................2 The Greatest Integer Function ........................................................2

The green ALPHA key accesses the green functions, mostly letters.

**The Two “Minus” Keys
**

Two different keys are needed to enter -3 - 4. Use the (-) key (left of ENTER) for -3 and the - key (above +) for 4.

**Exponents and Roots
**

7³ is keyed as 7^3.

n

x = x1/n, so key in x^(1÷n).

**Or use MATH 5: x√ Example Key in
**

4

Graphing.......................................................... 2

How to Display a Graph...................................................................2 If in GRAPH there are no Axes.......................................................2 How to Set the Window ....................................................................2 How to Get a Table of Values ..........................................................2 How to Use a Split Screen to Display Two Screens Simultaneously ..................................................................................2 Graphing the Inverse with DrawInv...............................................2 Restricting the Domain in Y= ..........................................................2 How to Graph Piecewise Functions ................................................3

81

81^(1÷4) gives 3. 4 MATH 5: x√ 81 also gives 3.

**Scientific (or Standard) Notation
**

Example enter 6×10-8 Key 6 EE (-) 8. It appears on the screen as 6.E-8, but you should copy that to your paper in proper scientific notation, i.e. as 6×10-8. Key the EE button only once.

**Finding Intercepts, Maxima, Minima and Intersections .................................................... 3
**

Find the x-intercepts of a graph with zero. ....................................3 Find the y-intercepts of a graph with value. ..................................3 Find the maxima of a graph.............................................................3 Find the minima of a graph. ............................................................3 Find the intersection of 2 graphs with intersect. ...........................3 Do not use TRACE & ZOOM .........................................................3 Dimension error when graphing .....................................................3

**Degree and Radian Modes
**

To change from degrees to radians or vice versa, key MODE. Key Radian or Degree as needed and ENTER. If you prefer the mode can be overridden with ° or r, which are in 2nd ANGLE. E.g. in radian mode sin(30°) evaluates correctly as ½. In degree mode sin((π/6)r) evaluates correctly as ½.

Lists.................................................................. 4

Creating a list ....................................................................................4 Putting a list in the STAT list editor ...............................................4 Doing Arithmetic with Lists.............................................................4

Solving Equations ........................................... 4

Solving Equations from the graph screen ......................................4 Solving Equations with the Solve command ..................................4

Sequences ........................................................ 4

How to Create a Sequence ...............................................................4 To Sum a Sequence ...........................................................................4

**More Symbols and Functions
**

CATALOG contains all of the calculator’s functions (e.g. !, sinh-1, nCr, nDeriv, abs.) It’s very long. To get close to your desired command, key the first letter (in green) of the command and then ▼ down. It’s not necessary to key ALPHA first. Example put seq( on the entry line key CATALOG 3 ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ENTER.

Matrices ........................................................... 5

To enter a matrix. .............................................................................5 Add and Multiply matrices. .............................................................5 Find inverse matrices........................................................................5 How to Use rref( to Find Intersections of linear equations:.........5

Calculus ........................................................... 5

Determine a numerical derivative with nDeriv .............................5 Determine a numerical derivative with GRAPH...........................5 To graph the first derivative............................................................5 To graph the second derivative .......................................................5 To find inflection points ...................................................................5 How to Find and Draw the Tangent Line ......................................5 Calculate a numerical integral with fnInt ......................................5 Calculate a numerical integral with GRAPH ................................5 To graph the Integral .......................................................................5 Use Fnint to Solve Integral Equations with the Variable in the Limits of Integration.........................................................................6 Riemann Sums...................................................................................6

Brackets

Use ( ) for brackets, i.e. parentheses, not { }. {} delimits a list.

**The Plus/Minus Sign
**

The list {1,-1} is effectively a ± sign. Example Graph x² + y² = 1. Solve for y, i.e. y = ± 1}√(1-x²).

1 − x2

Getting Started

The Green and Yellow Buttons

The yellow 2nd key accesses the yellow functions, e.g. π, COS-1.

, and key y1 = {1, -

Example Key in the quadratic formula for 2x² + 3x - 4 = 0.

You can change the first value of x or the intervals between x’s by changing TblStart or ∆Tbl respectively in 2nd TBLSET To Reuse A Previous Entry Repeatedly key 2nd ENTER until the entry appears.3 in A. In the home screen key 2nd DRAW 8: DrawInv Y1 ENTER. So you end up going back and forth between WINDOW and GRAPH.) To display the graph. Stat List Editor. 4 + 3 × 2 will be evaluated as 10.4 to x ≥ 0. key in the brackets. Then divide it by 906. The Greatest Integer Function The greatest integer function. The first thing to try is ZOOM 6: ZoomStandard. Restricting the Domain in Y= If you want to restrict the domain of a function displayed in Y=. To get to the start or end of a long expression or list. If you want to restrict the domain of f(x) so that the inverse will be a function. The grapher will switch to the graph screen and draw the inverse. but it will be drawn. which equals 1 if the statement is true and 0 if it is false. To Change the Number of Digits Displayed To change the number of digits displayed. Example Restrict the domain of f(x) = 3x² . Hold the arrow key down till the change is sufficient. θ or n is displayed. The top half of a horizontally split screen always displays the graph. (An X. Graphing the Inverse with DrawInv To graph the inverse.851} How to Set the Window Sometimes the interesting part of the graph does not fall inside the screen or is too small to see. To do so key MODE Horiz.n button to key in your variable. In the home screen key DrawInv. key GRAPH. This then displays both solutions. If you display the function and the inverse on the same screen. unless you want a specific number of digits to the right of the decimal place (e. at the bottom of the MODE screen. This works because ≥ is a logical operator. use the π key. Thus outside If in GRAPH there are no Axes Games often turn off the axes in GRAPH!! If this has happened. To get to the start or end of a long expression or list To get to the start or end of a long expression or list. Float is often the better option. int(21/7) gives 3. How to Use a Split Screen to Display Two Screens Simultaneously Sometimes it is difficult to find the best window size. One solution is to display WINDOW and GRAPH simultaneously. Your calculator knows the order of operations. Now key the two screens you want to display. page 2 Key (-3 +{-1. If you meant (4 + 3) × 2. the symmetry between the function and the inverse will be more evident if you set the x and y axes to have the same scale using Zoom 5: Zsquare. key 2nd ◄ or ► as needed. i. DrawInv draws the inverse of whatever is in Y1.θ.4) ÷ (x ≥ 0). To get Y1. Par. then the inverse drawn will not be a function. {-2.4. divide by the restricted domain. The bottom half can display the home screen.14 or 22/7. not 3.g. depending on whether you are in Func.e. Miscellaneous Tips To enter pi. Example int(22/7) gives 3. If the Screen Is Too Dark or Too Light Key 2nd ▲ to make the characters darker or ▼ to make the characters lighter. Example Draw the inverse of Y1 = 3x² .T.g. If so.g. WINDOW or TABLE. key the function into Y=. key 2nd ◄ or ► as needed. Key Y1 = (3x² .3 STO► ALPHA A ENTER. The symmetry will be even more evident if you also graph the line y = x. using the X. Pol or Seq graph modes respectively. 1}√(9-4×2×-4) ) ÷ 4. Y=. How to Get a Table of Values To get a table of values select the correct equation in Y= and key 2nd TABLE. Key ALPHA A ÷ 906 ENTER. Graphing How to Display a Graph Enter an equation by keying Y= and typing it in. Key 386 × 57. E. . If that does not work. see Restricting the Domain in Y=. T. It may be necessary to select the correct equation in Y= by putting the cursor on the equals sign of the correct equation and keying ENTER.351 . Try several windows to be sure all of the interesting part of the graph is displayed. key 2nd FORMAT AxesOn. then choose that number. If an unneeded graph is being displayed. To Store Numbers Example Store 386 × 57. you need to use WINDOW to reset the x values at the left and right sides of the screen (called Xmin and Xmax) and/or the y values at the bottom and top of the screen (called Ymin and Ymax). then the name of the function. If Y1 fails the horizontal line test. deselect it by putting the cursor on the equals sign of the correct equation and keying ENTER. key MODE.Tips for Using the TI-83 and TI-83+ Calculators. The greatest integer function is MATH NUM 5: int(. e. y=[x] gives the largest integer less than or equal the argument. GRAPH and WINDOW or GRAPH and Y=. key VARS Y-VARS 1: Function 1: Y1 ENTER. 3 decimal places) displayed.

You will be prompted for a Left Bound and then for a Right Bound.e. it is necessary to move the cursor to a part of the screen where the function is defined before you can select the function. for an interval in x in which to search for a zero. Otherwise the closest pixel element will almost certainly not be correct to enough significant figures. The TI-83 will respond with a guess for the zero. 3. Just the same as for maximum except that you use 3: minimum. How to Graph Piecewise Functions Example graph f(x) = There are two ways. The brackets are required. Then you are prompted for a “Right Bound?” Either key in an x value bigger than the x coordinate of the maximum or move the cursor to the right of the maximum. Example Restrict the domain of f(x) = x² to 0 ≤ x ≤ 5. 1) Use the method described above for limiting the domain and graph two (or more) equations simultaneously. y1 = (x + 3)(x <=0) + 3(x > 0)(x <= 2) + (2x . If there is more than one x-intercept to find. The logical operators “AND”. TRACE. If there is more than one intersection. In each case you can respond either by keying in a value for x or by moving the cursor to the desired value. Find the maxima of a graph. i. Eventually you will zoom in enough that TRACE will give enough significant figures. etc. but accepting the TI-83’s guess usually works fine. but this is very clumsy and time consuming compared to the methods given above. This is the better option because in this case you do not get a line on the x-axis and because TABLE. just key ENTER. Dimension error when graphing A dimension error when graphing may be caused by a plot being turned on with no data in it. are easier to use since there is only one graph. If only two curves are displayed in the screen. Then you are prompted for a “Left Bound?” Either key in an x value lower than the x coordinate of the maximum or move the cursor to the left of the maximum. Find the intersection of 2 graphs with intersect. You can provide a better guess. If more than two curves are displayed in the screen. i. 2x . but half of each line is f(x) = 0. the quicker will be the search. simply turn off the plots by deselecting (with ENTER) all three plots n the Y= screen. To correct the problem. ≥. x > 0 Find the minima of a graph. Maxima. you will get the right answer. Find the y-intercepts of a graph with value. “OR”. repeat the procedure with new bounds. TRACE skips from one pixel element to the next. Intersect finds values of x and y for which two graphs intersect. so actually two lines are drawn. The logical operators ≠. Another . The intersection will be displayed in the lower part of the screen. The y-value corresponding to x = 0 (I. You can provide a better guess by moving the cursor to the intersection. you would get no graph at all. If the cursor is in a part of the screen where the function is undefined. First graph y1 = f(x) and y2 = g(x). Key y1 = x ÷ (x ≤ 0) y2 = x² ÷ (x > 0) 2) Multiply the pieces by zero and add them in one equation. are in 2nd TEST LOGIC. repeat the procedure using a guess close to the other intersection. the y-intercept) is displayed at the bottom of the screen. The x and y values corresponding to the maximum are displayed at the bottom of the screen. i. then ENTER. That is not as good a suggestion. but just keying ENTER usually works.e.e. Key y1 = x (x ≤ 0) + x² (x > 0) Note that you could not divide by the logical condition. First graph y = f(x) then key 2nd CALC select 2: zero.1)(x > 2) Finding Intercepts. are in 2nd TEST TEST. The TI-83 will respond with a guess for the intersection. The smaller the interval you provide. Key 2nd CALC select 1: Value. Use 2nd FORMAT AxesOff to see this effect. You will be prompted for the First curve and then the Second curve. etc. Multiplying the function by zero gives zero. Do not use TRACE & ZOOM Do not use TRACE &/or ZOOM to find the intersections and intercepts. etc. If the x-value of a pixel element happens to be exactly the x-value of an intercept or intersection. First graph y = f(x). Some sources recommend multiplying by zero instead of dividing. ZOOM will allow you to zoom in on an intercept or intersection.Tips for Using the TI-83 and TI-83+ Calculators. Key y1 = x² ÷ (0 ≤ x AND x ≤ 5). First graph y = f(x). because that would make the function undefined everywhere.1. Minima and Intersections Find the x-intercepts of a graph with zero. so the function is undefined there. you can deselect the extraneous curves (which I recommend) or you can use the up and down arrows to choose the 2 curves whose intersection you wish to find. Press Enter. In 2nd CALC select 5: intersect. but accepting the guess usually works fine. Example Graph. x ≤ 0 x².e. ENTER then key = 0. hidden by the x-axis. x≤0 0<x≤2 x>2 x. you get division by zero. The zero will be displayed in the lower left-hand corner after “x =”. ENTER. Key 2nd CALC select 4: maximum. page 3 of the domain. f(x) = x + 3. Then you are prompted for a “Guess?” you can key in a guess.

. seq(1/x.2. Example solve x² = 9 If x² = 9. 2.1.. but it seems to be. etc.2.) (Hint: MATH ▲. Two screens of data will appear. Lists can be added. 5. replace the zero with y. Sequences How to Create a Sequence To create a sequence use 2nd LIST OPS 5: seq(. 1.5 . (I do not understand why the CLEAR is needed. 2². 3. (I do not understand why the ▲ is needed. Then key STAT CALC1: 1-Var Stats L1.2. The bounds give the interval to be . but it seems to be.1. If any of the values of L+ and L2 are changed.1) STO⇒ L1.9. 5² Solving Equations with the Solve command The Solve command is clunky. 1. for instance if xMax is less than xMin. Alternatively convert the decimal expression to fractions. 1. Example {1. The second line i. Key STAT EDIT 1:Edit.. . Key L3 = “L1 + L1 × L2”. 9 and display it as fractions.4 in L1 Key {1. 2. OR {1. Lists Creating a list {} delimits a list. 2. Solving Equations Solving Equations from the graph screen Set the equation equal to zero. 3).4} STO⇒ L1 The data {1. The syntax for sum( is sum(list [. 2.2 1/.866 1}.333} appears in your screen. Key MATH 0: Solver. end]) or sum(seq(expression. Example Put 1. I recommend solving using the graph screen. 2. .9. Example Sum the sequence {1/.1. choose a second guess closer to the second solution than to the one already found. Example For f(x) = 1/x create the sequence with x = 0. 3}30) gives {. 4. seq(1/x. x. The list {1 .g. 4.4} are now stored in list L1. 5}. start. begin. 3.1 1/.3.e. The syntax for seq( is seq(expression. where STO⇒ is the button left of 1. end [. See Find the xintercepts of y = f(x) with ZERO. 2. To Sum a Sequence To sum a list use 2nd LIST MATH 5: sum(.e.3. E. end parameters. If so. 9) Math 1: Frac. seq(1/x. which will change if an element of L1 is changed. 7} STO⇒L1. 5) returns 15. this change will NOT be reflected in L3. Then sum(L1.3 . Example For f(x) = 1/x create the sequence with x = 1. Key ALPHA SOLVE. which seems to work OK.5 . which often works OK. After “X=” you can type a guess. graph y and find the zeros of y.) After “0=” type your equation. 2.9.3. L1 is 2nd 1. where STO⇒ it the button to the left of 1 and L1 is 2nd 1. 5}) returns 15.1. Key in Y1 = x² .2. (E. Key GRAPH.increment]).) Key CLEAR. x. Example For f(x) = 1/x create the sequence with x = 1. 0. 0. 1.2897.9. start. 2. 4².1)) returns 28. . 6. one which has a default value. The default interval is (-1099. 9 and store it to L1. sum(seq(1/x. i. 0.. . sum({1. Now we are using the optional increment parameter. 3. enter data in L1 and L2.g. end)) Example Sum the list {1.. Doing Arithmetic with Lists Lists can be manipulated in the home screen or in the STAT list editor. 5} STO⇒L1. “X=2”). gets you to 0: Solver faster than does keying ▼ 9 times. Putting a list in the STAT list editor To store a list to the STAT list editor use STO⇒. it may be better to store it to a list. 1099). Key seq(1/x. Example Create L3 = L1 + L1 × L2.2. If there are more solutions to be found.9). Or type a list directly into L1 using STAT EDIT 1:Edit. 3.1.. 9) STO⇒ L1.9 and store it to L1. . Example Sum the sequence x = 1². 4. then 0 = x² . so that L3= appears at the bottom of the screen. 2. After L3= key L1 + L1 × L2. The solution nearest to your guess is displayed. OR {1. “X=” and “bound=” appear. Key ENTER. Example Create L3 = L1 + L1 × L2. Now we are using the optional start. Σx=15 is the sum. which can be viewed with STAT EDIT 1:Edit. Unfortunately it can be hard to look at a long list in the screen. page 4 possible cause of a dimension error is invalid window settings. x. which is used if nothing is entered. 3. multiplied. Example For f(x) = 1/x create the sequence with x = 1.1. ▲. . . Each element of L3 will now contain the result of adding and multiplying the corresponding elements in L1 and L2.3. x. Move the cursor to the top of L3...2. variable. 2nd CALC select 2: zero. x. searched for a solution. View it by keying STAT EDIT 1: Edit.2. 3} + 4 gives {5 6 7} Example sin({1. 3.. . The default guess is the midpoint of the bounds. The [ ] brackets indicate an optional parameter.. 4.. variable.Tips for Using the TI-83 and TI-83+ Calculators. 3². 1/. . In FLOAT mode {1 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9} will be displayed. 3. But if you insist: Solve your equation for zero. “X=3”.

which seems to work OK.2 in this example.16x².5000x . “×”) key MATIX. How to Use rref( to Find Intersections of linear equations: rref means reduced row echelon form of a matrix.-1. Once Matrices A and B are entered. ENTER.x. ENTER. Or if you wanted the area between the curve and the x-axis. To graph the first derivative To graph the derivative of f(x) key Y1=nDeriv(f(x).x. x). page 5 sum(seq(x².g. The maxima and minima of the first derivative are inflection points. Key MATIX.1. Key Y1=nDeriv(x². as opposed to the displacement. Key in 2. 1. Hint: Often problems require the absolute value of the function. cannot be found with the TI-83. x.000. select the first matrix. An analytical derivative (e. ENTER. Example Graph the derivative of x4 . Example Find d ( x 2 − 2 x + 3) at x = 4 dx Key MATH 8: nDeriv(x²-2x+3. -1 How to Find and Draw the Tangent Line Example Find the equation of the line tangent to y = ln x at x = 2. Example Graph the derivative of x². (See “Find the maxima of a graph” or “Find the minima of a graph” as needed. Of course only matrices with the same dimensions can be added or subtracted and only matrices with the column dimension of the first equal to the row dimension of the second can be multiplied.5.45]]). Key in the matrix elements. Calculate a numerical integral with fnInt Key MATH 9: fnInt(expression. For example.x.x. you will see that happening.47][1. key x . Key ENTER to select a matrix.g. hopefully. To find inflection points Graph the first derivative and find the maxima and minima. select the first matrix. x).x.3068) displayed. Matrices To enter a matrix. The default is 10-3. variable. If you are integrating analytically. x). The area will be drawn and the integral displayed. ε. To enter a matrix press MATRIX. select the second matrix. which gives 7. key the new column dimension. key the x value at which you want the derivative and key ENTER. Add and Multiply matrices. to edit it. i. nDeriv( is MATH MATH 8: nDeriv(.) Or graph the second derivative and find its zeros (See “Find the xintercepts of a graph with zero. Of course only square matrices with a nonzero determinant have inverses. NAMES. The tangent line will be drawn and its equation (y=.x).6. The matrix dimensions (row dimension × column dimension) are displayed. lower.x.x.g. . Example Find the intersection of: 2x + 5y = 47 x = 45 Use rref([[2. key the new row dimension. to add them key MATIX. ENTER.e. Calculus Determine a numerical derivative with nDeriv Key MATH 8: nDeriv(expression. it is not an inflection point. key the x value of the lower limit. you will see that happening and take appropriate action. e.6]] which means that x = 45 and y = -8. the x value of the upper limit. which gives [[1 0 45][0 1 -8. Or graph.”) But remember that if the second derivative does not change sign at the zero. which is just above “x²”. you have to first find out where the function changes sign and do each piece separately. x^(-1) does not work.4) which gives 6. Find inverse matrices. Calculate a numerical integral with GRAPH Graph your expression. then key 2nd CALC 7: ∫f(x)dx. EDIT.value[.x. x). upper).1) gives 1. x = 2. then 2nd DRAW 5: Tangent(.. 2x . To change the dimensions. To graph the second derivative To graph the derivative of f(x) key Y1=nDeriv(nDeriv(f(x). x. which is used to calculate the derivative. Key Y1 = ln x. Example calculate ∫ 2 1 3x 2 dx Key fnInt(3x^2. key 2nd CALC 6: dy/dx.2). I recommend finding the integral graphically. Determine a numerical derivative with GRAPH Graph your expression.x). For example to find the area between y = x³ and y = ³√x or to find the total distance traveled. If you are integrating numerically. if you want the area between zeros of a function. because you can see what’s going on. Example Find the area between y = x³ and y = ³√x fnInt(abs(x^3-x^(1/3)). Y1 = abs(x^3-x^(1/3)) and use 2nd CALC 7: ∫f(x)dx. is the difference in the symmetric difference quotient (which is usually called “2h”). Key Y1=nDerive(nDeriv(x4-16x².0. key the operation (e.variable.x. but for part of this area the function is negative. NAMES. ENTER.ε]).x). A.Tips for Using the TI-83 and TI-83+ Calculators. just use abs(. The optional parameter. NAMES. To graph the Integral To graph the integral of f(x) key Y1= fnInt(f(x). 5)) returns 55.

5).5)) = 1.1. Since all of the rectangles were under the curve.. The exact value is 1. where length = 2 (because the sections are 2 units long) and where height = the smallest height in each interval i.e.5 can be factored out in front. So our estimate is 0. each below the curve.Tips for Using the TI-83 and TI-83+ Calculators.x) . Riemann Sums Example Approximate the area under y = f(x) = x² from 1 to 9 by 4 rectangles. the largest value of f(x) in each interval will correspond to the smallest value of x. x. each above the curve.5. this estimate will be too small. 25. The solution is the same except now we take the largest height in each interval i. 2. of course. To speed things up it may be useful to set Xres (in WINDOW) to a bigger number.5 × sum(seq(1/x. 3. 81 respectively.5. So our (rather poor) estimate is 2×1 + 2×9 + 2×25 + 2×49 = 168.. 25. The interval size will be (4-1)/6 = 0. 49 respectively. f(9) = 9.x).5. 49. . .e. Use Fnint to Solve Integral Equations with the Variable in the Limits of Integration Example: Solve ∫ x 1 ln x dx = 5 Key in Y1 = fnInt(ln(x).5. each under the curve. 3. f(5).572. page 6 Example Graph the integral of ln(x). this estimate was too big.e.. f(5). So our (also rather poor) estimate is 2×9 + 2×25 + 2×49 + 2×81 = 328.5. is ∫ 9 1 x 2 dx = 242. 1. e. 0. the factor of 0. Break the interval into 4 sections each 2 units long. Since the intervals are all the same size. f(3).5)) = 1. 9. Example Approximate the area under the curve y = f(x) = 1/x from 1 to 4 by 6 rectangles. Graph it and use 2nd CALC 2: zero to find the zero. This is called an upper sum.59286. 1. Example Approximate the area under y = f(x) = x² from 1 to 9 by 4 rectangles each above the curve. Key in Y1 = fnInt(ln(x).x. f(7). 1. This is called a lower sum. The exact area. Since the function is decreasing. Since all of the rectangles were above the curve. f(3).667. i.3863.5 × sum(seq(1/x.2179 . Example Approximate the area under the curve y = f(x) = 1/x from 1 to 4 by 6 rectangles. . 1. The area = sum of length × height.g. which is 5. x.1. f(7) = 1. 4. which orders the grapher to only calculate and plot only every 8th pixel element. f(1).x. 8.

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