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Technical Report 69-13

AD

A Survey of Soldier Opinions About L the Bayonet in the U.S. Army
by
James W Dees and George J Magner

HumRRO Division No 4 (infantry)

June 1969

Prepared for Office, Chief of Research and Development Department of the Army
Contract DAHC 19 69 C 0018

The George Washington University HUMAN RESOURCES RESEARCH OFFICE

This document has been

opproved for public release
and sole, its distribution

isunlimited

A Survey of Soldier Opinions About the Bayonet in the U.S. Army

James W. Dees and George J. Magner

This document has been approved for public release and sale; its distribution is unlimited.

June 1969

/

Prepared for:
Office, Chief of Research and Development Department of the Army Contract DAHC 19-69.C 0018 (DA Prot 20062107A712)

HumRRO Division No 4 (Infantry) Fort Benning, Georgia

The George Washington University

HUMAN RESOURCES RESEARCH OFFICE

Technical Report 69-13 Technical Advisory Service

The Human Resources Research Office is a nongovernmental agency of The George Washington University. HumRRO research for the Department of the Army is conducted under Contract DAHC 19-69-C-0018. HumRRO's mission for the Department of the Army is to conduct research in the fields of training, motivation, and leadership.

The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position, unless so designated by other authorized documents.

Published June 1969 by The George Washington University HUMAN RESOURCES RESEARCH OFFICE 300 North Washington Street Alexandria, Virginia 22314 Distributed under the authority of the Chief of Research and Development Department of thb Army Washington, D.C. 20310

4 (Infantry). Motivation.S. This Technical Advisory Service study was conducted at HumRRO Division No. The Infantry School. Myers organized the large number of computer readout tables. SP 4 Kevin J.FOREWORD This report presents the results of an opinion survey conducted by the Human Resources Research Office at the request of the Ad Hoc Committee formed for the establishment of a U. Brookshire and iLT Eugene S.S. Georgia. Army Infantry Human Research Unit supporting the Division. MacElrath from the office of the Director of Instruction. The Chairman 3f the Ad Hoc Committee is LTC Joseph E. MAJ William T. 2Q062107A712. directed the computer coding of the questionnaires. Jacobs is the Director of Research. The survey was begun in August 1968 and a preliminary report on the survey results was made in November 1968. O'Reilly. LTC Chester I. Jr. and SP 4 David E. Greenspan supervised the work details. Meredith P. Training. where Dr. USAIS. 0. 2LT John E. is the Chief of the U. Stokes of the Office of Data Systems provided the computer programing and analysis of the questionnaires. Leadership Research is conducted under Army Project No. Watson. SP 4 Walter P. Fort Benning. 1LT Marvin J. Charles E. under the authority of the Commandant. Arrington. T. Crawford Director Human Resources Research Office . Pesek.. Army Infantry School (USAIS) position on the bayonet. Christie. HumRRO research for the Department of the Army is conducted under Contract DAHC 19-69-C-0018. Mr.

value of bayonet training. and the Dominican Republic. (2) The bayonet/knife is regarded as being a satisfactory bayonet but an unsatisfactory knife. whether or not it includes a bayonet mount. and to the instilling of motivation and discipline. Method A questionnaire was developed to obtain information in the following six general areas: personal data. and the Dominican Republic. but it is generally felt that other combative training (unspecified) could achieve the same or greater results in a comparable period of time. is the preferred bayonet/knife style of the alternatives offered. most combat infantrymen will carry some form of cutting instrument. Concluions The present bayonet/knife is generally considered to be an inferior knife and frequently is not carried for this reason. Today. The questionnaires of 508 officers and 607 enlisted men were sufficiently complete to allow their analysis. but present training is adequate for the need in combat. Pacific World War 11. (5) The "survival knife" with a contoured bayonet handle. Vietnam. Korea. Results The results of the analysis of the questionnaire responses may be summarized as follows: (1) Bayonet combat was infrequent in both theaters of World War II. (4) Bayonet training contributes to physical conditioning. the infantryman is armed with an automatic or semiautomatic weapon. multipurpose knife/bayonet would be more acceptable than the present bayonet/knife. and value of the bayonet in civil disturbance and disaster relief operations. V . a high quality. This questionnaire was administered to 878 officers and 1192 enlisted men with combat experience. The use and value of the bayonet is presently undergoing review as part of the continuing Army process of reviewing weapons and weapon systems in the light of changing combat technology. Korea. and it is infrequent now in Vietnam. personal opinion concerning the combat value of the bayonet. recommendations for design changes for the bayonet. Presumably. (6) The bayonet is highly valued as weapon equipment for control of civil disturbances. it was at least as important a part of th. (3) More and better bayonet training would be an improvement. However. with or without a knuckle guard.weapon as the powder and ball.SSUMMARY Problem AND CONCLUSIONS When in 1647 the bayonet was first placed on the single-shot musket. Most of the questions were designed to be answered for each of five theaters of operations in which a subject had had experience-Europe World War H. thus reducing the importance of the bayonet. The overwhelming recommendation of the officers and enlisted men surveyed was to retain the bayonet in an improved utility-knife configuration. however. and the respondents considered at least one other skill (marksmanship) to be much more worthy of additional training time. combat experience. This report represents the collective experience and judgment of a sample of officers and enlisted men who were administered a questionnaire as a part of this review.

... 3 3 3 Construction of Questionnaire ..... ....... Use of the Bayonet as a Knife or Tool . Equipment for Control of Civil Disturbances ........... ....... ........... .. ..... . ... ... Number of Subjects According to Present Rank ...... 8 Percentage of Combat Situations in Which the Bayonet Was Fixed on the Weapon ....... ......... .....................CONTENTS Page P roblem ....... .... ......... ..... Tables Sources of Subjects ........ ............... ... .... . ...... .... Analysis .... .............. ........ 6 Number of Officers Who Reported the Bayonet Being Carried in Combat by the Men in Their Unit ......... .. ......... ..... ..... 5 5 6 6 6 7 8 9 10 10 12 13 13 15 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 vi' ... ................ ... ............................ ............... .......... Duty Position at Time of Combat Experience .......................... 9 Frequency of Use of the Bayonet in Various Types of Com bat Situations ........ 10 Rating of the Importance of Carrying the Bayonet in Combat ........... ... ....... ............... ....... 12 Preference for Bayonet Used as a Knife or a Sheath Knife for Hand-to-Hand Combat ..... .... ...... Effect on Morale .... .... Ceremonial Occasions ............ ...... 11 Frequency With Which Noncombat Functions Were Selected as the Most Important Noncombat Function for the Bayonet/Knife ....... .... ..... .......................... Participation in Civil Disturbance or Disaster Relief Operations ............... ........ ..... ........... ..... ................. .... Was It Used? ............................ ........ .... ................ ............... .... ............ .................... .............. ................................... Combat Experience Regarding the Bayonet ... ... 7 Number of Enlisted Men Who Reported the Bayonet Being Carried in Combat by the Men in Their Unit .............. Desired Changes in Bayonet . ......... ......... . Training Implications ... ... ...... ........ Subjects and Procedure . ....... M ethod ................................. ....... D iscussion ............... ...... .... .. 1 2 3 4 5 ........ Appendix Questionnaire Responses From Officers and Enlisted Men .................................................. ............... . .. Combat Experience . .... ....... Results ...... Was It Carried? ...... ........ .......... ..

........................ Rating of the Value of Bayonet Training for Physical Conditioning . Frequency of Ranks for Combat Skills According to Need for Additional Training Time .......................... Blade Style Preferences for Bayonet/Knife and Sheath Knife ................. Page 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 viii a ............................ Recommended Action ................Tables 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Percentage of Actions Involving Use of a Sheath Knife or a Bayonet Used as a Knife in Hand-to-Hand Combat ........................................................................................ Handle Style Preferences for Sheath Knife .... Number Reporting That the Men in Their Unit Carried Sheath Knives Instead of the Bayonet ......

A Survey of Soldier Opinions About the Bayonet in the U. Army .S.

This Document Contains Missing Page/s That Axe Unavailable In The Original Document Y" BEST AVAILABLE COPY .

Army. the technology of warfare has changed dramatically during those centuries. Army Infantry School Facult Fort Benning 325 300 16 400 0 185 U. The questionnaire was not only administered to subjects at Fort Benning.S. Thus the role of the bayonet in infantry combat has obviously changed consider-ably as modes of combat have changed. ArmN Training Center Fort (. Georgia. while there has been little change in the bayonet. However.Arm Training Center Fort Henning U. With a 300-year history. it was at least as important a part of the weapon as the powder and ball. METHOD SUBJECTS AND PROCEDURE The source of the subjects used in this study are listed in Table 1. The review of all weapons and weapon systems with reference to changing technology is a continuing process in the U.ordon 82(l Airborne Iort Bragg Total Received With Appropriate Experience Total Usable Questionnaires 58 61 78 197 190 220 838 508 1192 607 3 . in addition. Today the infantryman is armed with an automatic or semiautomatic weapon. Table 1 Sources of Subjects Mihitar) Installations Number Answering Questionnaires Offcers Enlisted Men U. Collective experience and judgment of officers and men of the Army is one of the more important sources of information to be taken into considecation in such a review.S. after the first volleys were exchanged. other weapons have lessened the probability of closing with an enemy in hand-to-hand combat.S. This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to provide a measure of collective experience and judgment of Army personnel with combat experience.S.S.PROBLEM The bayonet has been an infantry weapon since its invention and use in Irance in 1647 when it served an obviously important function for the musketcarrying infantryman. The bayonet is presently undergoing such a review. When it was first placed on the single-shot musket. it was possible to close with the enemy before he had time to reload. Arm% Infantr% School Ad'anced Course Fort Benning 197th Infantry Brigade Fort Henning 1 . the bayonet is today one of the oldest of the infantryman's weapons. regarding various aspects of the usefulness of the bayonet under present-day circumstances.

60 . some questionnaires were eliminated because a large proportion of the questions were not answered according to instructions. The survey 98 was conducted during AugustNvme November 1968. and Fort Gordon. and participation in civil disturbance and disaster relief operations is enumerated in Table 5.5 E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9 Total 10 78 205 188 76 40 21'r iILT CPT NIAJ LTC COl. the distribution of combat experience according to theater of operation is shown in Table 3. Norih Carolina. Completed questionnaires were analyzed only for respondents who had had combat experience with an American unit. " i Dominuan Nu Squad Member Fire Team Leader Squad Leader Platoon Sergeant Platoon Leader 0 0 3 7 10 1 1 3 2 4 14 3 43 31 15 103 8t 176 117 142 10 3 13 12 Company Commander Battalion Staff 2 0 2 0 7 3 141 74 4 5 2 128 91 2. 11dn1k I umber E-2 E-3 E.38 169 175 157 79 Battalion Commander Brigade Staff Brigade Commander Other 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 I 2 0 12 29 0 0 0 0 10 13 33 0 I II 147 169 4 . Also. The total number of questionnaires analyzed was 1115. Table 3 Combat Experience (Officers and Enlisted Men) Theater of Operat ion. The distribution of subjects according to rank is provided in Table 2.545 707 Total 23 15 130 1025 59 1252 Table 4 Duty Position at Time of Combat Experience (Officers and Enlisted Men) Theater of Opera-ions Duty Position Europe Pacific . Georgia. 5 72 303 75 39 10 Total 504 7 607 hspondents Europe PacifI ' I)omanican Total Officers Enlisted Men 16 7 8 7 16 84 . the distribution of duty positions for officers and enlisted men is given in Table 4.Table 2 Number of Subjects According to Present Rank Officers Rank I %urnber Enhisted but also was mailed to the indicated units at Fort Bragg.565 15 I .t E.

the frequency of the rank of I is given. A copy of the 37-item questionnaire appears in the Appendix to this report.a --. and (b) in the compilation of the interaction of two questions. such as age. For design validation. Thus.. These circumstances produced a random variation in the number of subjects tabulated for given questions and combinations of questions. and the Dominican Republic. (2) Combat experience. although there were only 508 officers in the study. 5 . For numerical response questions. the average (mean) is given. 171 CONSTRUCTION OF QUESTIONNAIRE The questionnaire was designed to obtain answers to many questions for five separate theaters of operations-Europe World War II. the questionnaire was administered to 17 NCOs stationed at the U. ANALYSIS All of the sigr. for analytical purposes. Further changes were accomplished in coordination with the USAIS Ad Hoc Committee for the establishment of an Infantry School position on the bayonet for whom the survey was being conducted. (4) Recommendations for design changes for the bayonet. (3) Personal opinion concerning the combat value of the bayonet. (6) Value of the bayonet in civil disturbance and disaster relief operations. ficance or probability values furnished in this report were obtained using the Chi Square statistic. For ranking questions. An individual subiect answered for each of the theaters in which he had had experience.S.. the questionnaire consisted of five separate sub-questionnaires. he was listed as a sub- ject in each theater where he had served. Rather than invalidate the entire questionnaire in such cases. In answering questionnaires. Vietnam.. if an individual did not respond on one of the questions his response on the paired question was not tabulated. Korea. The combined frequencies of the officer and enlisted responses are entered in the questionnaire. the following rules were applied in the analysis: (a) all meaningful responses were recorded. 545 are shown in Table 3. Difficulties found in the questionnaire in this "pilot run" were corrected. Army Infantry School (USAIS). Thus.The preponderance of subjects reported Vietna:a experience. individuals often ignore one or two questions or answer incompletely. but should not have affected the functional significance of the data.Pacific World War II. The questions were drawn from six general areas: (1) Personal data. (5) Value of bayonet training.IL. -_ Participtin76 11-) 211 89 \v Prditti~ tion 12... Table 5 Participation in Ci Disturbance or iater iCivil i nc Disaster Relief Operc tions (Officers and Enlsted Menj i . Where an individual had experience in more than one theater of operations. one for each theater of operations listed above. [ E liapd %ten T.

k ho.001). 00! for both officers and enlisted men). the effects on Chii Square analysis art very moderate ana. of the time-the proportions stating it was fixed less than 50% of the time are: 3 to 1 -Pacific World War II 10 to 1-Korea 20 to 1 -Europe World War 11 20 to 1-Dominican Republic 60 to 1-Vietnam 6 . However.)perations nut . . for practit al purposes. statistical tornparisons involving theaters of . of the men 251'r 70". the bayonet has been (arried p~roportionally less often in Vietnam than in the other four reported conflicts ombined (p <.In tddition. on the frequency with which individuals reported that their units 4arritA tilt bayonet into combat. sin( V the amkount if overlap of subjects for theaters is small (about I1J'. When Tables 6 and 7 are --ompared. omplettdN %alid.'dterCha Square. the re were 37 instances imong the officers and 100 among the enlisted mvin where an indivzdu . data were compiled (Tables 6 and 7) for officers and unlisted mcn. it must be carried into combat. The percentage of combat actions in which the bayonet wits actually fixed to the weapon is reported in Table 8.d experience in more than one theater of operitions For mathematical reasons. 900. exin be dismissed. in order for a weapon to be used. it is evidunt that mori Table 6 Number of Officers Who Reported the Bayonet Being Carried in Combat by the Men in Their Unit or or'. 39 M4 It t.1 0 0 1 1 I 10 4i IV Vi tI * 1 0 0 I Nlo 15 66i 7 lb 16 nrIon- 11 90') 1'e~i g % n ietiffl agin t to her tI.' 00 1 officers believed that the bayonet was carried into combat by the men in th( ir 'units than did enlisted men (p<. or mr of the men I I 75'. resput 11vti-'. Considering the two extremes-that is.). thom who said that the bayonet was fixed on the weapon les than 50OS of the time( versus those who said that the bayonet was fixed on the weapon more than 50's. RESULTS COMBAT EXPERIENCE REGARIfNG THE BAYONET Was It Carrie'd Since. As is evident from Tables 6 and 7. this make. This difference between responses 1) officers and enlisted men is due primarily to a difference in Vietnam (-xp(-ri( n( v.

rTotal 11 'Av I KIMld Ilejubli( -s t . Per. (. Was It Used 9 The men were also asked "What percentage of the individuals in your units actuallh engaged an enemy soldier with the bayonet " ' Of the 1236 responses.11 90't -4rmore 1 I I 1 II " ff 2 11 16 10 1 I 10 64 19 of the men I 2'23 i |-iiing %b trtim . or niore 0. . 2 t 1.sting Irt.Table 7 Number of Enlisted Men Who Reported the Bayonet Being Carried in Combat by the Men in Their Unit I Per _____ d lt. tior. 6j dn. . or .t all other. P 1.I c A)30 . A%it . f' I 1X) It is quite evident that the bayonet is being fixed on the weapon much less often in Vietnam than was the case in the other conflicts listed (p<.f I able.11 Squar. the bayonet probably does not account for a significant number of enemy casualties..- 2 8 1 16 7 ) 2 1 2 18 16 5 I *-4 g i\ I lli . The abo'0%e facts indicate that the bayonet frequently was not carried in combat. Total i~n ~ 1 Repubt 1O or les% of the men 2 102 6 31 t 2. Uf MJI Table 8 Percerntage of Combat Situations in Which the Bayonet Was Fixed on the Weapon (Officers and Enlisted Men) I heater of Optratson. 1 total. . 7 . omhined t 128 7.. when it was carried. when it was fixed. it was seldom fixed. Thus. were "none" or "almost none. r4.1. tnl m ag. *nt ." Fewer than 1o of the responses indit atd that morv than 50S of the men in their units had engaged an enemy soldier with the bavonet.i 1.i.] 7 (hl Slftuar29 6 L If .n. i )I I.gai n i .h... 103%.. . it was seldom used. rope VZOI H J 0 Theater of Operatinl . 1 I 0 .001).r i th oim-aiir..udr.

However." The subjects were also asked to rate the importance of carrying the bayonet in combat (Table 10). when asked whether the possession of the bayonet gave them or the men in their unit added confidence and aggressiveness. Thus. Effect on Morale Offense Defense.Further corroboration of this view is provided in Table 9. Feelings concerning the bayonet covered the full range from "no value" to "an indispensable weapon. Seven-hundredeighty-five. in view of the wide range 8 ." Table 10 Rating of the Importance of Carrying the Bayonet in Combat (Officers and Enlisted Men) Theater of Operations Rating Europe ww~w~~Korea 3 7 3 2 0 22 34 48 24 1 Pacific Kloorinuan Vietnmm 106 204 355 320 36 8 19 19 13 0 l I Ai indispensable weapon A very useful weapon A useful 'capon Little value No value 3 7 9 4 0 IQ 271 131 '161 37 Placing these rankings in the perspective of the previous data. ambushes. less than 50% of the men answered "yes. this being due entirely to the influence of the data from the Table 9 Vietnam conflict experience. or 70% of the responses were affirmative. Since most men felt confident of their ability to use the bayonet but did not gain any confidence from carrying the weapon. tunnel clearing) 686 709 711 339 596 Another factor to be considered is the value of the bayo- net for morale purposes. Prepared Positions llast) Defense Special Operations (patrols. However. and (b) the possession of the bayonet did not give either them or the men in their unit additional confidence or aggressiveness. The men were asked if they would feel confident of their ability in a situation which required that they use the bayonet against an enemy soldier.n All Theaters 160 81 70 I It is important to note that most subjects indicated insufficient experience to allow ranking two or more of the alternatives. No Ise of Bayonet Noted thus indicating that most of them had very little knowledge of the use of the bayonet. it would appear that most men feel that there are too few occasions to use the bayonet for it to be an important weapon. raids. The men were asked to rank four combat situations in which the bayonet was used. so the personal attitudes of the men concerning the bayonet are important. most of the men felt that they could handle the bayonet as well as was necessary. "Special operations" was the most frequently given choice. the attitude of the majority of the respondents concerning the bayonet would be: (a) They are confident in their ability to use the bayonet when necessary. Frequency of Use of the Bayonet in Various Types of Combat Situations (Officers and Enlisted Men) Combot Si~tuton I Frst Choece .

USE OF THE BAYONET AS A KNIFE OR TOOL Another question to which the questionnaire was directed concerns the effectiveness of the bayonet as a knife or tool. it is probable that the minority opinion would be strongly contradictory. or a bayonet used as a knife. as shown in Table 10. The respondents were also asked to state the percentage of the combat actions in which a sheath knife.of the response when the bayonet was rated. More than half of the men chose the sheath knife.in Korea I 72 12 11 15 Vietnan 613 252 Ito Republic 3t 18 5 Total Sheath knife llaonet Cter 713 322 161 of the officers and enlisted men questioned do not believe that the bayonet is a satisfactory combat knife. Thus. The rankings of noncombat usage of the bayonet for both officers and enlisted men are shown in Table 11. the majority Table 12 Preference for Bayonet Used as a Knife or a Sheath Knife for Hand-to-Hand Combat (Officers and Enlisted Men) Theater of Operation. In Vietnam. Table 11 Frequency With Which Noncombat Functions Were Selected as the Most Important Noncombat Function for the Bayonet/Knife (Officers and Enlisted Men) Theater of Operations Noncombat Functions Euirope Pacific I Korea Vietnam Total HDomini"b Cutting brush Cutting omen containers Prying open containers 1 6 8 5 7 3 17 39 35 371 194 162 12 21 21 106 270 229 Probing Digging 6 2 1 1 11 I1 239 39 2 1 289 57 The preference of the officers and the enlisted men for the bayonet as opposed to a sheath knife or some other choice for hand-to-hand combat is shown in Table 12. Choic Europe W.' II 14 6 3 Pacif ic AW 1I 10 1 I)on c. 9 . It is obvious from these data that knife fighting is comparatively rare. was used in hand-to-hand combat by the men in their units (Table 13). cutting brush has become the predominant noncombat function. Until Vietnam. the primary noncombat functions of the bayonet among those listed have always been opening containers and probing.

Hand Combat (Officers and Enlisted Men) Theater of Operations Pereentuge Europ. if any (Table 15). EQUIPMENT FOR CONTROL OF CIVIL DISTURBANCES Slightly over 80% of the individuals in this study rated the bayonet as indispensable or very useful weapon equipment in civil disturbance (riot control) and disaster relief operations. a large number of men carried a sheath knife in addition to the bayonet. Also. The obviously most popular choice was "retain 10 . or more 3 1 0 6 0 1 1 12 2 1 165 45 16 25 5 0 0 0 207 58 20 27 The number of men who carry a sheath knife instead of a bayonet is probably a good measure of the success of the bayonet as a knife (Table 14).) Table 14 Number Reporting That the Men in Their Unit Carried Sheath Knives Instead of the Bayonet (Officers and Enlisted Men) heater of Operations Pereentage u ) WW 11 Total 1 or of U nit . almost 80% of the men indicated the bayonet has a psychological effect upon rioters and looters. and another 13% said it enables control without gunfire. "~W11 17 ait oiia TWI epbi 8 83 769 57 93 t Tota.Table 13 Percentage of Actions Involving Use of a Sheath Knife or a Bayonet Used as a Knife in Hand.Vietnam onite I 212 193 17.I 50. it is common in Vietnam (R<.to. p<. df=4.lmost no one 10% 25% 50% 75% or more Europe AV II acifi 5 3 4 0 0 a I . Chi Square= 137.l None or almost none Less than 5% 10% 25'. When asked to rank the importance of several reasons for including the bayonet in equipment for control.39. (These data are recorded in Question 18 of the Appendix. DESIRED CHANGES IN BAYONET The subjects were asked to indicate the nature of their desired changes in the bayonet. 001).001.1 181 259 30 8 7 2 7 Republic 12 4 1 2 3 76 29 7 9 2 335 237 193 194 251 Testing: Vietnamversus all others combined. Although the abandonment of the bayonet in favor of the sheath knife was not common in any of our previous wars.

21k. Rein. I hie [)%'. The most obvious first choice for both bayonet/knife and sheath knife is the "survival knife.O001). .ion .the bayonet/knfe is "the bayonet as it is.ijrte i the ban onet7263 17 61 319 nlisted Mlen 29 96160 327 Total 16 676 68 505 124 602 192 1107 ha I I . 07. 1. 001 and( modify iiayonet to make a better multi-purpose knife" (p <. 1.a. officers and (it ' jlr dil I MC.tirg lhfI--ent v of frcq(ui-nu I(. but sharpened. The handle style preferred by the officers %%asthe contoured bayonet handle. Rletain and modify the baiyonet to pro%ide . In Table 16 the first choice blade style preferences of officers and enlisted men for the bayonet/knife and the sheath knife are listed.o1 b)itt hai~rliited W1 192 kni "t'ima Life i llmkiv kinife 10110 109 1097 18.' Table 16 Blade Style Preferences for Bayonet/Knife and Sheath Knife (Officers and Enlisted Men) %t...1 11131 1'. the enlisted men preferred the contoured handle with a knuckle 'guard. '0 1. Hilinlte bayonet and furnish a %'heatth knife ~ 5.1l The hiandle styles preferredl for a sheath knife are shown in Table 17.i and il ik Ihi) oiet to maike . ..t better miulti-purpi'se knife 1.Table 15 Recommended Action (Officers and Enlisted Men) llet iiniiintlid Act ion Offiers I Rletain thec bamonet ais it is 2. if.t1. no distinction wa madle between a bayonet handle andi a sheath knife handle.' The second choice foi. Since thu handle Style is irrelevant when a bayonet is fixed to thte rifle.harpcned 4uttiii edge t.of hoit v from 4equdi distribution.i ( ii1bar.1i' l 'kt it .

12 . The Frequency of Ranks for Combat Skills frequency with which the value of According to Need for additional training time in five comAdditional Training Time bat skills was ranked one through (Officers and Enlisted Men) five for officers and enlisted men Rank Combat Skill combined is shown in Table 18. most individuals believe that training time and resources can be better spent on at least one combat skill other than hand-to-hand combat. the majority of the men feel themselves to be at least as competent in the use of the bayonet as an enemy soldier they are likely to face. was the overwhelming first choice for additional training. which had been 117 98 Judo Karate \larkLmanship 96 99 703 218 189 89 234 356 180 402 104 4 5 1 placed in the ranking in order to compare the value of hand-to-hand combat skills with some other combat skill. Thus although bayonet training is considered to be one of the more important hand-to-hand skills. BayMode 4 175 244 214 93 I I3avonet Training Knife fighting l 2 352 229 3 178 384 181 107 5 271 131 2 3 - onet training topped the list among the hand-to-hand combat skills.Table 17 Handle Style Preferences for Sheath Knife (Officers and Enlisted Men) Questionnaire handle Styles Officers Enlisted Men Total Standard bayonet 23 37 60 Contoured ba) onet 154 133 287 Standard %%ith knuckle guard 23 47 70 Contour with knuckle guard 135 177 312 Commando knife handle 133 160 293 Commando knife handle with guard 39 59 98 TRAINING IMPLICATIONS When asked whether they felt confident in their ability to face an enemy soldier in bayonet combat. However. marksmanship. However. this does not mean Table 18 that they believe that additional bayonet training is not needed. Thus. 785 of the 1115 responses (70%) were affirmative.

Army have never engaged an enemy soldier in bayonet combat. DISCUSSION It is apparent from the results of the questionnaire that the vast majority of combat infantrymen of the U. the contribution of bayonet training to motivation and discipline was considered to be at least "worthwhile" by a majority. some commanding officers have used it as an instrument around which to rally morale. Thc possession of this weapon does not appear to give the majority of the men a significant increase in confidence or aggressiveness. Also.Since bayonet training is often mentioned as having value as a physical conditioner. Again. the increased length of the rifle with the bayonet mounted makes it more cumbersome in the dense brush of Vietnam. However. Valuable 170 160 330 when asked "Do you feel that worthhlitle 134 151 285 other combative training could Of little value 69 123 192 be substituted for bayonet trainOf no . While this approach 13 . This might well be due to the light. The value of bayonet training as a method of instilling motivation and discipline was studied in a similar manner. These facts taken together indicate that the bayonet is not considered to be an important wvapon by the majority of the combat infantrymen. the majlority do feel confident in their ability to handle the bayonet as well as is neccssary. The great majority reported that the physical conditioning aspects of bayonet training were at Table 19 Rating of the Value of Bayonet Training for Physical Conditioning (Officers and EnhstedMen) Respondents Rating Extremely valuable Total Officers 125 Enlisted Men 135 260 least "worthwhile. the subjects were asked to rate the bayonet training from this viewpoint (Table 19)." However. CEREMONIAL OCCASIONS The majority of officers and enlisted men (63%) believe the bayonet should he carried on ceremonial occasions. liloiver. The bayonet is often supported as a morale builder. thus reducing the need for an emergency weapon such as the bayonet. However. 60% of the men replied in the affirmative.alue 9 38 47 ing and achieve the same or higher level of physical conditioning in a comparable time period?".S. Data from Vietnam indicate a further reduction in emphasis from previous wars on carrying and fixing the bayonet. the wide dispersion of answers on some questions indicates that the minority opinion might be strongly contradictory. and that present training is believed by the men to be sufficient for their requirements. 56% of the officers and men believed that other combative training could achieve the same or a higher degree of motivation and discipline in a comparable time period. and that only a small number of enemy casualties result from the use of the bayonet. rapid-firing weapons with more ammunition readily available (20-round magazines) that give the Vietnam combat infantryman increased firepower.

it is appropriate to note that less than 50% of the men believed that the bayonet added significantly to the confidence and aggressiveness of the men in their unit. The preferred blade and handle styles as selected by'the men answering this questionnaire were the present survival knife with a contoured bayonet handle. and discipline in a comparable time period.could not be treated directly in this questionnaire. marksmanship.f the bayonet in these circumstances. It is possible that new riot weapons such as chemical mace may tend to diminish the usefulness (. Although the men indicated that additional training time for the bayonet would be valuable. The officers did not indicate a preference for the knuckle guard. motivation. the large number of individuals who carry a sheath knife in addition to. over 80% of the individuals in this study rated the bayonet as an indispensable or very useful weapon in control of civil disturbances. 14 . However. Whatever knife style is adopted (if any). this is primarily cutting brush. but the current opinion of the officers ane enlisted men who responded to this questionnaire is unequivocal. over 90% feel that it has a psychological effect on rioters and looters and makes it easier to exercise control without the use of gunfire. the steel from which the bayonet blade is made does not hold an edge well. and also that it was effective in instilling motivation and discipline. given their choice between additional training time for the bayonet and time for at least one other combat skill. perhaps with a knuckle guard. However they felt about the value of the bayonet in combat. prying and cutting open containers were the primary noncombat uses of the bayonet/knife. In the Vietnam conflict. Although the bayonet is intended to serve also as a knife. the majority also indicated that other combative training could achieve the same or a higher level of physical conditioning. However. the enlisted men did. the overwhelming choice was for marksmanship. attention should be given to the noncombat uses of a bayonet/knife. The men indicated that bayonet training was a good physical conditioner. In the four other theaters of operations considered. Many of the officers and enlisted men indicated that simply sharpening the bayonet would make it satisfactory. or in lieu of. the bayonet indicates that most of the men do not find the weapon to be a satisfactory knife.

....... Combined Officer-Enlisted Man Answers ......... Advisors should not be included.......... 20 II....... For positions lower than platoon leader or platoon sergeant... Personal Data ........... 3..... .S........ Enlisted Men ............ This interview should be given only to infantry officers and enlisted men who served with U...... 2. ..... answer for your platoon.... The questions that concern your unit are for the unit for which you were responsible... ....... 16 Officers .. ..... They are not important to you..... i5 ........ .............Appendix QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSES FROM OFFICERS AND ENLISTED MEN CONTENTS Page i.... 16 . Instructions for Administration of Bayonet Questionnaire 1. 18 ..... The numbers in parentheses ( ) in the questionnaire will be used in the computer analysis............. Army units............

(73) Age: 2. (75) 30. (76) 77 39 176 What was your last duty assignment? Platoon Leader Company XO Company Commander 75 12 50 6 25 5 Battalion Staff Battalion Commander Brigade Staff Brigade Commander Division Staff Corps Staff or Above Other: 16 . What is your present duty assignment? 5.5 years 41.0 Present Grade: 2LT ILT CPT LTJ LTC COL How long have you been in the Army? 8. (74) __ 72 303 75 39 10 3.I. Personal Data--Officers 1.

approximate date. If the answer to Question 7 was affirmative. 0 0 1 2 10 2 0 0 1 0 0 (78) Pacific WW II 0 0 1 0 4 2 0 0 1 0 0 (79) Korea 1 1 6 8 15 7 3 1 2 0 2 (80) Vietnam 14 2 4 9 142 141 74 12 29 0 33 (81) Dominican Republic 2 0 1 1 4 5 2 0 0 0 0 (82) Have you ever participated in civil disturbance or disaster relief operations? 76 428 Yes No 8. For each of your combat areas. and duty position. please check the duty position or equivalent you held at the tiie. please wTite in below the following: where. (77) Europe WW II Squad Member Fire Team Leader Squad Leader Platoon Sergeant Platoon Leader Company Commander Battalion Staff Battalion Commander Brigade Staff Brigade Commander Other (Specify) 7. 17 .6.

(65) 8. Age: 27.0 4. 2. (63) (64) 3 10 78 205 188 76 40 7 3. (66) 45_ What was your last duty assignment? Member of a squad 71 202 152 32 7 99 Fire Team Leader Squad Leader Platoon Sergeant 1st Sergeant Sergeant Major Other____ 19 .Personal Data-Enlisted Men 1.8 Present Grade: E-2 E-3 E-4 E-S E-6 E-7 E-8 E-9 How long have you been in the Army? years What is your present duty assignment? 5.

If the answer to Question 7 was affirmative.6. and duty position. (72) 135 (68) Pacific WW II 1 1 2 2 1 (69) Korea 13 2 37 23 9 (70) Vietna 89 82 172 108 114 (71) Dominican Republic 8 3 12 11 12 0 0 2 5 0 Have you ever participated in civil disturbance or disaster relief operations? Yes 471 No 8. 19 .rgeant Other (Specify) 7. please check the duty position or equivalent you held at the time. approximare date. For each of your combat areas. please write in below the following: where. (67) Europe WW II Squad Member Fire Team Leader Squad Leader Platoon S.

c. 75% e.t 10. b. 25% 50% 18 2 2 9 1 2 76 24 13 950 36 16 47 11 2 1. in which you persoraZZy experienced combat. In what percentage of the combat acttons was the bayonet actuaZZy fixeJ or the weapon? (11) Europe WW IKI a. 25% 50% 75% 90% or more of the men 5 3 2 4 9 1 0 1 3 8 5 6 6 14 94 458 107 92 95 265 3 7 4 43 !.243 20 .II. On the average. 11-1 108 (7) Pacific IVI (8) Korea Kor (9) Vietnam (10) Dominican Republic Total 12(c 41q 1. 10% or less of the men b. For each of the conflicts listed below. c. 90% or more of all actions 1 0 1 2 8 3 7 9 1 2 18 16 1. d. Combined Officer-Enlisted Man Answers 9. please check the percentage of combat actions in which the bayonet was carried by the men in your unit. e.100 74 35 (12) Pacific WV II (13) Korea (14) Vietnam (15) Dominican Republic Total d. c. 10% or less of all actions b. d.24"2 11. e. 10% or less of all actions 25% 50% 75% 90% or more of all actions 4 3 1 3 12 (2) Pacific IrIV 2 0 2 3 7 (3) Korea o 8 6 10 11 89 (4) Vietnam (5) Dominican Republic Total 470 90 84 80 299 5 30 5 41 4 I04 102 4. (1) Europe WW It a. what percentage of the men in your unit carried the bayonet in a combat situation? (6) Europe 1H a.7t.

12. Hasty Defense Special Operations (patrols. give a rank of 1 to the types used most frequently and ranks of 2. None or almost none b.243 13. with the bayonet fixed to the rifle? (16) Europe M1 II a. 50% or more 6 2 1 9 1. d. and 4 to the other types in order of frequency of use. _ (17) Pacific II 5 6 1 2 ___ (18) Korea 72 24 15 7 (19) Vietnam 899 98 19 3 (20) Dominican Republic 51 7 0 1 Total 17 2 _ 1. tunnel clearing) 12 2 (22) Pacific 5 0 3 (23) Koe Korea 43 16 (24) Vietnam 89 58 55 (25) Dominican Republic 13 5 3 686 709 714 1 5 8 22 2 30" 6 59E 14. 3. Rank the frequency of use of the bayonet in the following types of combat.044 140 37 13 10% 25% e. would you feel confident in your ability? Yes " : No hihy? 21 . (21) Europe 1 I Offense Defense. ambushes. (26) If you were in a situation which required that you use the bayonet on your rifle against an enemy soldier. Less than 5% c. raids. you cannot remember that an enemy soldier was ever engaged with the bayonet. place an X by that type. Prepared Positions Defense. What percentage of the individuaZs in your units actually engaged an enemy coldier with the bayonet. If for a given type.

Total 83 28 12 2 1 769 165 45 16 25 934 207 58 20 27 1. Almost no one b. 50% e. (32) Which would you prefer in hand-to-hand combat? is checked. 50% or more 17 3 1 1 0 (28) Pacific WW II 8 6 0 1 1 (29) Korea (30) Vietnam (31) Dominican Republic 57 5 0 0 0 (Check one.1S.210 18. 10% d. how many carried a sheath knife in addition? (41) (42) (38) (39) (40) Dominican Korea Vietnam Europe Pacific Republic WW II WW II a. 10% c. 25% e. 50% e. Less than 5% c. Sheath Knife Bayonet used as a Knife Other What percentage of the men in your unit carried a sheath knife instead of the bayonet? (33) Europe WW II a. Almost no one b. In what percentage of the combat actions in the combat areas below was a sheath knife (or a bayonet used as a knife) used in hand-to-hand combat by the men in your unit? (27) Europe WW I1 a.246 If "Other" 16. 75% or more 13 4 2 2 2 5 2 2 2 2 59 40 10 8 7 397 177 137 146 156 16 13 12 7 9 Total 490 236 163 165 176 1.) 665 280 152 17. Of those men who carried a bayonet. please write in your preference. 75% or more 12 4 1 2 3 (34) Pacific II 5 3 4 0 0 (35) Korea Ke 76 29 7 9 2 (36) Vietnam 212 193 174 181 239 (37) Dominican Republic 30 8 7 2 7 Total 335 237 193 194 251 1.230 22 . 25% d. 25% d. None or almost none b. 10% c.

(For each of the areas in which you had combat experience. b. Cutting open containers c. but sharpened Double edged (commando) Single edged (stilleto) 49 33b 167 33 401 109 Survival knife Bowie knife 23 . c. 21.) (43) Europe WW II a. (48) If a bayonet-knife combination were adopted. Please rank the following noncombat uses of a bayonet or sheath knife according to their relative frequency. or e) it should precede.251 II 20. Probing e. Digging 1 6 8 6 2 (44) Pacific 5 7 3 1 1 (45) Korea Koe 17 39 35 41 (46) Vietnam it 371 194 162 239 39 (47) Dominican Republic 12 24 21 2 Total 406 270 229 289 57 1. 2 for next most preferred. which of the following blade styles would you prefer? (Please rank the styles listed below. Prying open containers d. Write in any noncombat alternatives to Question 19 above which you feel should have been included and indicate which of the ranked statements (a.) The bayonet as it is The bayonet as it is. 3. and so on.19. with a I for most preferred. d. 4 and 5 to the next most frequent uses. please assign a rank of 1 to the most frequent use and a rank of 2. Cutting brush b.

(49) If a sheath knife were issued.22. 2 for next most preferred. with a 1 for most preferred. for next most preferred. and so on.) The bayonet as it is The bayonet as it is. Commando knife handle Commando knife handle with guard 21. would you prefer? (Please rank the styles listed below.) Standard bayonet Contoured bayonet Standard with knuckle guard Contour with knuckle guard VIM. (5 )id the possession of the bayonet as a weapon give added confidence alnd aggressiveness to the men in your unit? l'es No hi~li 24 . (S0) Mhtch of the following . but sharpened Double edged (commando) Single edged (stilleto) Survival knife Bowie knife 23.. with a I for most preferred. and so on. which blade would you prefer? (Please vp. the stylcb listed below. 2.

25.) 27. c. and ranks 2. The soldier is better armed with the bayonet than without it. (53) 120 238 382 336 36 Rate the importance of carrying the bayonet in combat. c. An indispensable weapon A very useful weapon A useful weapon Little value No value (Check one. (Check one. 3. It has a psychological effect upon rioters and looters. (55) Rank order the following reasons for using the bayonet in civil disturbance (riot control) and disaster relief operations.) An indispensable weapon A very useful weapon A useful weapon Little value No value 530 368 141 52 23 28. and 4 to the other reasons in the order of their importance. d. Write in any alternatives to Question 28 which you feel should have been included and indicate which of the ranked statements (a.b. b. Give a rank of 1 to the most important reason. (52) 429 682 Did the possession of the bayonet as a weapon give you added confidence and aggressiveness? Yes No Why? 26. or d above) it should precede. 29. It enables control without the use of gunfire. 876 153 27 60 a. 25 . It permits inflicting a wound that is less serious than a gunshot wound. (54) Rate the value of the bayonet in civil disturbance (riot control) and disaster relief operations.

(59) 653 458 34. 117 98 96 99 703 35. (Check one.30. (60) Considering the limited training time available. (58) 258 387 255 179 33 33. (61) 694 415 Bayonet training Knife fighting Judo Karate Marksmanship Should the bayonet be carried on ceremonial occasions? Yes No 26 . give a rank of I to the combat skill in which more training time would be most valuable. (56) Rate the value of bayonet training for physical conditioning. Give ranks of 2. (57) Do you feel that other combative training could be substituted for bayonet training and achieve the same or higher level of physical conditioning in a comparable time period? Yes No Rate the value of bayonet training as a method of instilling motivation and discipline. ) 260 330 285 192 47 Extremely valuable Valuable Worthwhile Of little value Of no value 31. (Check one. 3. 4.) Extremely valuable Valuable Worthwhile Of little value Of no value Do you feel that other combative training could be substituted for bayonet training and achieve the same or a higher degree of motivation and discipline in a comparable time period? Yes No 665 446 32. and S to the rest in order of the value of additional time.

27 .36.) Retain and modify the bayonet to provide for a sharpened cutting edge Retain and modify the bayonet to make it a mo-c suitable multipurpose knife-bayonet Eliminate the bayonet and furnish a sheath knife Eliminate the bayonet 37. (62) "6 160 676 P'2 3j Which of the following steps would you recommend? Retain the bayonet as it is (Check one. Please use the space below for any additional comments you wish to make.

or PAGES June 1969 CONTRACT OR GRANT NO. 32 %a. I. Virginia 22314 S.'€NOTES (Ztvre f report ad incluxive dte) ARMY Technical Report 9. but present training is adequate. C. A89TRACT This report presents the results of a survey conducted to determine the opinions of a sample of U.C.S.&. DISTRIOUTIOU STATEMENT This document has been approved for public release and sale. or 0 ngrs DAHC_19-69-C-0018 b. PMOJECT 1O Technical Report 69-13 9b. TOTAL NO. DD Noves 1473 Unclassified Security Classification . bayonet training contributes to physical conditioning. and tc the instilling of motivation and discipline. RAPONT TITLE Unclassified 2b. of title body of abtredt ad tndextng anotation must be entered when the overall report to clacslfle!) 2s. the Dominican Republic.R & D (Secutty clasaialtloi I. middle initial. CT.(si (Any other numbers that may be aeslgned this report) C. last name) James W. Chief of Research and Development Department of the Army Washington.Unclassified Secuity Classii:ation DOCUMENT CONTROL DATA . OPIOINATOR'S REPORT NUMBCRIS) 7b. REPORT SECURITY CLAsSIrICATION 01&INATING ACTIVITY (Corporate athor) Human Resources Research Office The George Washington Ur :versity Alexandria. and is infrequent now in Vietnam. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. No. and at least one other skill (marksmanship) is considered to be much more worthy of additional training time. 20310 13. bayonet combat was infrequent in both theaters of World War II. 2QO62107A712 d. REPORT DATE 7a. SPONSORING MILITARY ACTIVITY Technical Advisory Service Office. its distribution is unlimited. oTm1NRCPOiT No. mous A SURVEY OF SOLDIER OPINIONS ABOUT THE BAYONET IN THE U.S. The survey indicated that the present weapon was considered to be a satisfactory bayonet but an unsatisfactory knife. Army personnel regarding the present bayonet/knife. go. Magner e. Korea. more and better bayonet training would be an improvement. Dees and George J. AUTHOR4I9 (First nee. but other combative training could achieve the same or greater results. 10. D.

.Unclassi fied Security Classification KI * O DS . I[. .|jssufacail n . urnyv (... -- A Bayonet Combat Weapon Knife Riot-Control Weapon Survival Knife Unclaspf e Sc.