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Assessment 1: The effects of nature and nurture in smoking behavior

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA

2011

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Name: Mikky Sipaseutsak

Student ID

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Email: sipmy001@mymail.unisa.edu.au

Course code and title: (BEHL 1005) Introductory Psychology 100

School: Health Sciences

Program Code: IBHL

Course Coordinator: Mark Kohler

Tutor: Mark Kohler

Assignment number: 1

Due date: 19 August, 2011

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Further Information: (e.g. state if extension was granted and attach evidence of approval, Revised Submission Date)

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2011 I authorise the University to test any work submitted by me. using text comparison software. Signed: MIKKY SIPASEUTSAK Date: 19/8/2011 2 .Assessment 1: The effects of nature and nurture in smoking behavior I declare that the work contained in this assignment is my own.asp Note: The attachment of this statement on any electronically submitted assignments will be deemed to have the same authority as a signed statement. I understand this will involve the University or its contractor copying my work and storing it on a database to be used in future to test work submitted by others. I understand that I can obtain further information on this matter at http://www. for instances of plagiarism.au/ltu/students/study/integrity.edu. except where acknowledgement of sources is made.unisa.

142). as both fraternal and identical can show contrasting gene influence on different traits e. Majority of these studies use identical and fraternal twin participants. Nurture is the where the basis of learned attributes can develop one’s personality. friends. This suggests that both nature and nurture interact together to shape a person’s behaviour and individuality (Myers. Psychologist can study the effects of genetics and environmental influences on human behaviour.g.141). However this study had some unmeasured confounding factors which may affect the validity of the results. therefore environmental influences should not be disregarded. Nature and nurture are often connected but are separate concepts. financial status and cultural upbringing. Genetically influenced traits can be ‘turned on or off’ or respond to different environments (Myers.135). Maes et al (2006) reported that the estimates of heritability to be 71% in males and 65% in females in smoking participation. These are environmental influences which often include family. 2010. There are many contrasting evidence that shows environmental influences to play an equal or larger role than that of genetic factors in smoking behaviour. emotion stability (Myers. However the authors continues to articulate that among older 3 . p. 2010. p. Nature can be defined as the relative genetic traits that can determine aspects of human behaviour and nurture can be described as the environmental influences that form an individual’s personality. White et al (2003) found that the common environment among identical twin subjects was the main factor in smoking involvement during adolescence. p. This demonstrates that genetic traits may play a major part in the inheritability of likeliness of smoking behaviour. Genetic predisposition to smoking behaviours can be seen evident among many researched studies. Twin subjects enable social researchers to separate environment and hereditary influences.Assessment 1: The effects of nature and nurture in smoking behavior 2011 Nature and nurture are aspects in social psychology that can be observed through social interactions. 2010. This essay will examine both of these ideas and how they influence on smoking behaviour.

pp. 1475-1481. as previously mentioned gene activity is triggered by environmental elements (Myers. Psychology. pp. 9th edn. 98. A. 795-808 Myers D G 2010. 36. HH. Eaves. Another study concluded similar findings that when monozygotic twins had shared environments were found to have greater similarities in smoking behaviours (Byrnes et al. N.Assessment 1: The effects of nature and nurture in smoking behavior 2011 adolescences and young adult’s common environment and genes play almost an equal role in smoking behaviours (Maes et al. 2006). Further researched is needed to investigate the root of smoking behaviours to find effective means to reduce the prevalence of smoking. It can be clearly demonstrated that through evidence that there is a lack of clarity of how much of nature and nurture are involved in smoking behaviours. References Byrnes. which may indicate that both genetics and environmental influences have some level of degree together in smoking behaviours. Webster B. Byrnes et al (2008) also furthered inferred that there was an indirect genetic influence of the subject’s choice of friends (who smoke) which were due to hereditary factors. The evidence seems to be contrasting. vol. Neale. 2008. ‘Genetic and cultural transmission of smoking initiation: An extended twin kinship model’. Martin. ‘Does smoking among friends explain apparent genetic effects on current smoking in adolescence and young adulthood?’. Heath. M. 2006. K. Maes. vol. New York 4 . it is apparent that both nature and nurture have a role in behavioral predisposition to smoking. Worth Publishers. Hopper JL. 2010. 2008). However regardless. Psychologically. Springer Science and Business Media. smoking behaviours can be explained through both nature and nurture. Kendler. L. As genetic traits mainly act through environmental influences. British Journal of Cancer. GB.141). p. White VM.

pp. 2003.Assessment 1: The effects of nature and nurture in smoking behavior 2011 White. DJ. AJ. vol. Hill. 98. Hopper JL. VM. Wearing. 1087-1100 5 . ‘The roles of genes in tobacco smoking during adolescence and young adulthood: a multivariate behaviour genetic investigation’. Society for the Study of Addiction to Alcohol and Other Drugs.

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