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Lecture 2: Acoustics

Dan Ellis & Mike Mandel

Columbia University Dept. of Electrical Engineering http://www.ee.columbia.edu/∼dpwe/e6820

January 29, 2009

1 2 3 4

The wave equation Acoustic tubes: reﬂections & resonance Oscillations & musical acoustics Spherical waves & room acoustics

Acoustics January 29, 2009 1 / 38

E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel)

Outline

1

The wave equation Acoustic tubes: reﬂections & resonance Oscillations & musical acoustics Spherical waves & room acoustics

2

3

4

E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel)

Acoustics

January 29, 2009

2 / 38

Acoustics & sound

Acoustics is the study of physical waves (Acoustic) waves transmit energy without permanently displacing matter (e.g. ocean waves) Same math recurs in many domains Intuition: pulse going down a rope

E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel)

Acoustics

January 29, 2009

3 / 38

mass dx ⇒ Lateral force is Fy = S sin(φ2 ) − S sin(φ1 ) ≈S ∂2y dx ∂x 2 E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. tension S. 2009 4 / 38 .The wave equation Consider a small section of the rope y S ε x φ2 φ1 S Displacement y (x).

the Wave Equation: c2 ∂2y ∂2y = 2 ∂x 2 ∂t . partial DE relating curvature and acceleration E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. 2009 5 / 38 .Wave equation (2) Newton’s law: F = ma S ∂2y ∂2y dx = dx 2 ∂x 2 ∂t Call c 2 = S/ (tension to mass-per-length) hence. . .

t) = f (x − ct) (any f (·)) then ∂y = f (x − ct) ∂x ∂2y = f (x − ct) ∂x 2 also works for y (x. general solution: c2 ∂2y ∂2y = 2 ∂x 2 ∂t ∂y = −cf (x − ct) ∂t ∂2y = c 2 f (x − ct) ∂t 2 ⇒ y (x. t) = y + (x − ct) + y − (x + ct) E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.Solution to the wave equation If y (x. t) = f (x + ct) Hence. 2009 6 / 38 .

y − moves left resultant y (x) is sum of the two waves E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.Solution to the wave equation (2) y + (x − ct) and y − (x + ct) are traveling waves shape stays constant but changes position y time 0: y+ y∆x = c·T time T: x x y+ y- c is traveling wave velocity (∆x/∆t) y + moves right. 2009 7 / 38 .

g. y (x) at t = 0 plus constraints on y at particular xs e. t) = m(t) rigid termination y (L.g. input motion y (0.t) = 0 E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.t) x y(L.Wave equation solutions (3) What is the form of y + . y − ? any doubly-diﬀerentiable function will satisfy wave equation Actual waveshapes dictated by boundary conditions e. t) = 0 y y(0.t) = m(t) y+(x. 2009 8 / 38 .

t) = 0 ⇒ y + (L − ct) = −y − (L + ct) i.Terminations and reﬂections System constraints: initial y (x.m] E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.e.t) = y+ + y– y– x=L [simulation travel1. y + and y − are mirrored in time and amplitude around x = L ⇒ inverted reﬂection at termination y+ y(x. 0) = 0 (ﬂat rope) input y (0. t) = 0 (ﬁxed end) wave equation y (x. t) = m(t) (at agent’s hand) (→ y + ) termination y (L. 2009 9 / 38 . t) = y + (x − ct) + y − (x + ct) At termination: y (L.

2009 10 / 38 .Outline 1 The wave equation Acoustic tubes: reﬂections & resonance Oscillations & musical acoustics Spherical waves & room acoustics 2 3 4 E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.

very similar to strings Common situation: wind instrument bores ear canal vocal tract E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. 2009 11 / 38 .Acoustic tubes Sound waves travel down acoustic tubes: pressure x 1-dimensional.

2009 12 / 38 . t) ξ(x) x Particle velocity v (x. t) 1 ∂ξ (Relative) air pressure p(x. t) = − κ ∂x E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. t) = Av (x. t) = ∂ξ ∂t hence volume velocity u(x.Pressure and velocity Consider air particle displacement ξ(x.

Wave equation for a tube Consider elemental volume Area dA Force p·dA Force (p+∂p/∂x·dx)·dA x Volume dA·dx Mass ρ·dA·dx Newton’s law: F = ma − ∂p ∂v dx dA = ρ dA dx ∂x ∂t ∂p ∂v ⇒ = −ρ ∂x ∂t 2ξ 2ξ ∂ ∂ 1 ∴ c2 2 = 2 c=√ ∂x ∂t ρκ Acoustics January 29. 2009 13 / 38 E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) .

t) = A And pressure: p(x. 2009 14 / 38 . t) = ξ + (x − ct) + ξ − (x + ct) ∂ Call u + (α) = −cA ∂α ξ + (α).Acoustic tube traveling waves Traveling waves in particle displacement: ξ(x. Z0 = ρc A Then volume velocity: u(x. t) = − 1 ∂ξ = Z0 u + (x − ct) + u − (x + ct) κ ∂x ∂ξ = u + (x − ct) − u − (x + ct) ∂t (Scaled) sum and diﬀerence of traveling waves E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.

Acoustic traveling waves (2) Diﬀerent resultants for pressure and volume velocity: Acoustic tube x c u+ c uu(x. 2009 15 / 38 .t) = u+ .up(x.t) = Z0[u+ + u-] Volume velocity Pressure E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.

Terminations in tubes Equivalent of ﬁxed point for tubes? Solid wall forces hence u+ = uu(x.t) = 0 hence u+ = -u- Open end is like ﬁxed point for rope: reﬂects wave back inverted Unlike ﬁxed point.t) = 0 u0(t) (Volume velocity input) Open end forces p(x. solid wall reﬂects traveling wave without inversion E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. 2009 16 / 38 .

m] E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.Standing waves Consider (complex) sinusoidal input u0 (t) = U0 e jωt Pressure/volume must have form Ke j(ωt+φ) Hence traveling waves: u + (x − ct) = |A|e j(−kx+ωt+φA ) u − (x + ct) = |B|e j(kx+ωt+φB ) where k = ω/c (spatial frequency. 2009 17 / 38 . rad/m) (wavelength λ = c/f = 2πc/ω) Pressure and volume velocity resultants show stationary pattern: standing waves even when |A| = |B| ⇒ [simulation sintwavemov.

= max (antinode) For lossless termination (|u + | = |u − |).Standing waves (2) U0 ejωt kx = π x=λ/2 pressure = 0 (node) vol.veloc. have true nodes and antinodes Pressure and volume velocity are phase shifted in space and in time E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. 2009 18 / 38 .

Transfer function Consider tube excited by u0 (t) = U0 e jωt sinusoidal traveling waves must satisfy termination ‘boundary conditions’ satisﬁed by complex constants A and B in u(x. 2009 19 / 38 . E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. t) = u + (x − ct) + u − (x + ct) = Ae j(−kx+ωt) + Be j(kx+ωt) = e jωt (Ae −jkx + Be jkx ) standing wave pattern will scale with input magnitude point of excitation makes a big diﬀerence . . .

standing wave pattern e. 2009 20 / 38 .Transfer function (2) For open-ended tube of length L excited at x = 0 by U0 e jωt u(x.e. varying L for a given ω (and hence k): U0 ejωt U0 ejωt U0 UL U0 UL magnitude of UL depends on L (and ω) E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. maximum at x = L) i.g. t) = U0 e jωt cos k(L − x) cos kL k= ω c (matches at x = 0.

e.Transfer function (3) Varying ω for a given L. t) 1 1 UL = = = U0 u(0.1. t) cos kL cos(ωL/c) u(L) u(0) L u(L) u(0) ∞ at ωL/c = (2r+1)π/2. r = 0.e. 2009 21 / 38 . at x = L u(L. i.2. resonance (amplitude grows without bound) E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. Output volume velocity always larger than input πc Unbounded for L = (2r + 1) 2ω = (2r + 1) λ 4 i...

2009 22 / 38 . m odd. .Resonant modes For lossless tube with L = m λ . e. meaning: transfer function has pole on frequency axis energy at that frequency sustains indeﬁnitely L = 3 · λ1/4 → ω1 = 3ω0 L = λ0/4 compare to time domain . c = 350 m/s ⇒ ω0 = 2π 500 Hz (then 1500.5 cm vocal tract. 17. . . . λ wavelength 4 u(L) u(0) is unbounded. ) E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. 2500.g. .

g. t) • traveling waves u+k. u+k+1. t) = pk+1(x. veloc. for uk and uk+1 : (generalized term) 2r 1+r + u+k 1-r 1+r u-k + u+k+1 r-1 r+1 r= u-k+1 Ak+1 Ak “Area ratio” 2 r+1 Acoustics E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) January 29. 2009 23 / 38 . t) = uk+1(x.Scattering junctions At abrupt change in area: • pressure must be continuous pk(x. u-k. must be continuous uk(x. u-k+1 will be different u+k uk u+k+1 u-k+1 Area Ak+1 Area Ak − + Solve e. t) • vol.

Lk Ak+1.Concatenated tube model Vocal tract acts as a waveguide Lips x=L Lips uL(t) Glottis u0(t) Glottis x=0 Discrete approximation as varying-diameter tube Ak. 2009 24 / 38 . Lk+1 x E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.

5 0 0.Concatenated tube resonances Concatenated tubes → scattering junctions → lattice ﬁlter u+k + e-jωτ1 e-jωτ1 + e-jωτ2 e-jωτ2 + u-k + + + + + + Can solve for transfer function – all-pole 1 5 0 -1 -0.5 1 Approximate vowel synthesis from resonances [sound example: ah ee oo] E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. 2009 25 / 38 + + e-jω2τ1 e-jω2τ2 + .

2009 26 / 38 .Outline 1 The wave equation Acoustic tubes: reﬂections & resonance Oscillations & musical acoustics Spherical waves & room acoustics 2 3 4 E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.

Oscillations & musical acoustics Pitch (periodicity) is essence of music why? why music? Diﬀerent kinds of oscillators simple harmonic motion (tuning fork) relaxation oscillator (voice) string traveling wave (plucked/struck/bowed) air column (nonlinear energy element) E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. 2009 27 / 38 .

tuning fork Not great for music fundamental (cos ωt) only relatively low energy E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. 2009 28 / 38 ω2 = k m .g.Simple harmonic motion Basic mechanical oscillation x = −ω 2 x ¨ Spring + mass (+ damper) x = A cos(ωt + φ) F = kx m ζ x e.

g.Relaxation oscillator Multi-state process one state builds up potential (e.youtube. etc. 2009 29 / 38 . pressure) switch to second (release) state revert to ﬁrst state.com/watch?v=ajbcJiYhFKY Oscillation period depends on force (tension) easy to change hard to keep stable ⇒ less used in music E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. vocal folds: p u http://www.g. e.

g.m] E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. .Ringing string e. our original ‘rope’ example tension S mass/length ε π2 S ω2 = 2 L ε L Many musical instruments guitar (plucked) piano (struck) violin (bowed) Control period (pitch): change length (fretting) change tension (tuning piano) change mass (piano strings) Inﬂuence of excitation . 2009 30 / 38 . [pluck1a. .

2009 31 / 38 .Wind tube Resonant tube + energy input nonlinear element energy acoustic waveguide scattering junction (tonehole) ω= πc 2L (quarter wavelength) e.g. clarinet lip pressure keeps reed closed reﬂected pressure wave opens reed reinforced pressure wave passes through ﬁnger holds determine ﬁrst reﬂection ⇒ eﬀective waveguide length E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.

2009 32 / 38 .Outline 1 The wave equation Acoustic tubes: reﬂections & resonance Oscillations & musical acoustics Spherical waves & room acoustics 2 3 4 E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.

2009 33 / 38 .Room acoustics Sound in free air expands spherically: radius r Spherical wave equation: ∂ 2 p 2 ∂p 1 ∂2p + = 2 2 ∂r 2 r ∂r c ∂t solved by p(r . t) = Energy ∝ p 2 falls P0 j(ωt−kr ) r e as r12 E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.

2009 34 / 38 . not δ(t) E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.Eﬀect of rooms (1): Images Ideal reﬂections are like multiple sources: virtual (image) sources reflected path source listener ‘Early echoes’ in room impulse response: direct path early echos hroom(t) t actual reﬂections may be hr (t).

sustained echoes in impulse response complex pattern of peaks in frequency response E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.Eﬀect of rooms (2): Modes Regularly-spaced echoes behave like acoustic tubes Real rooms have lots of modes! dense. 2009 35 / 38 .

absorption RT60 = E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.Reverberation Exponential decay of reﬂections: hroom(t) ~e-t/T t Frequency-dependent greater absorption at high frequencies ⇒ faster decay Size-dependent larger rooms → longer delays → slower decay Sabine’s equation: 0. 2009 36 / 38 .049V Sα ¯ Time constant varies with size.

2009 37 / 38 .Summary Traveling waves Acoustic tubes & resonances Musical acoustics & periodicity Room acoustics & reverberation Parting thought Musical bottles E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29.

References E6820 SAPR (Ellis & Mandel) Acoustics January 29. 2009 38 / 38 .

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