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DBO #1


Danny Lee

John Winthrop’s prominent quote, “So shall we keep the unity of the spirit in the bond of peace… We must consider that we shall be as a city upon a hill” (Document A) alludes that the harmony and concurrence in between the settlers were significant during the process of establishment of the new-fangled society. Early colonist societies faced numerous sources of jeopardy and predicaments: territorial conflict with Indians and other colonist nations, new environment with endemic diseases, new policies, different income source and the harsh weather. Such reasons provided justifiable reasons for the settlers to form unity, and majority of newcomers had such concept and idea in their minds. The early settlers from Britain split into two distinct groups, New England and Chesapeake region, each of them spilt depending on the financial institution behind the establishment of the colony. Although the ideas and motives they had were common concepts from equivalent perspectives, their lifestyle, religion, and culture soon differentiated one from another by the 1700. The differences in development of New England and Chesapeake region occurred due to the different characteristic of the settlers, general environment and the security that the colony offered which depended mainly on the outer environment and the inner circumstances of the civilization. The two groups of settlers were different from each other which they had distinct characteristics regarding composition, religion, and motivation, causing a massive difference to the way how two colonies would develop. John Porter’s Ships List of Emigrants Bound for New England (Document B) depicts the names, occupations, and ages of people who were moving into Weymouth in the March of 1635. The list consisted of 43 colonists which their average age turned out to be 17.4 years old approximately, and sex ratio of male to female was reaching 2:1. The young average age and high women ratio demonstrated that a lot of family-based immigrants, including children, women and infants, moved to New England. On the other hand, Ship‟s List of Emigrants Bound for Virginia (Document C) reflects average age of 22.9 years with sex ratio of male to female almost reaching 6:1. The higher average age and dominant male ratio alludes that settlers in Virginia were mostly young single men who came for financial benefit. Along with compositional difference, the motivation, religion also differed from each other. New England colony was initiated with strong religious motivation derived from separatist Protestants and Pilgrims who set up Plymouth colony. Non separatists, who were loyal to True Church of England, set up the Puritan based colony around New England area. Peaceful

mixed economy was able to settle into the society where the colony possessed ministers. Such changes helped Chesapeake Colony to become an oligarchy society. Articles of Agreement written in Springfield in 1636 exhibits several points that contrast the atmosphere of Chesapeake region. After they settled. The document alludes that economic principles were based on firm religious matters that controlled the moral and ethical standards of the society. which is that receiving such moderate profit as may enable them to serve God and their neighbors… they do not enrich themselves suddenly and inordinately…. New England and Chesapeake region. helped the regions expand into two distinguishable societies. ‘Prices and wages be duly set at each of our General Courts annually… recommends that all tradesmen and laborers consider the religious end of their callings. food. VA at 1609. disaster regarding climate. Fish. The disparity between general environment of the two different colonies. which motivated settlers to gain wealth in order to escape from such reality. Wage and Price Regulations in Connecticut written in 1676 mentions. King James I chartered Virginia Company with authority to colonize North America between 34th/45th parallels in 1606. the document states. The security of the colony was also the key reason that established New England as a safe place where firm religious and educational environment could be established. „That everyone shall have a share of the meadow or planting ground‟. fur and livestock became colony’s export products. and Indian hostility occurred. Settlers in Virginia soon began to experience reformation including economic diversification. the difference in the characteristics of settlers developed them into two dissimilar societies. because the religion was their main theme at the time. tobacco. educational and conciliatory. „We intend that our town shall be composed of forty families. the motivation for building the colony around Chesapeake area was different from that of New England. which group of people led by Captain John Smith landed on Jamestown. Yet. The colony provided every settler with equal chances along with essential religious practices to follow. New England was English majority society where expansion of the agricultural economy was difficult due to harsh climate. 2 . and plantation of cash crop. Therefore. (Document D) In addition. However. head rights system. … rich and poor‟. and document written in Springfield further expresses the importance of equal opportunity and balanced society based on principles of religion.DBO #1 APUSH Danny Lee environment and Indian hospitality soon shaped the colony religious. and their friendly relationship with Native Americans made them a pacifist society.’ (Document E).

spare clothes … were ever welcome to purchase supplies. Chesapeake region was composed of two groups. Such statements reflect upon an insecure atmosphere that existed during the early colonial period at the Chesapeake region. and therefore. which quite differed from the early democratic society that was being formed in New England region. The article states „This gives men fearful apprehensions of the danger they leave their estates and families in.DBO #1 APUSH Danny Lee Although the colony had gone through the first sturdy winter. the need for fundamental key factors to survival was significantly large. and the worker who works hard to become an owner of some sort. Development of cash crop such as tobacco and sugar reigned in the Chesapeake region. „When the large ship departed … those of us that had money. Squanto and Wampanoag Sachem both provided early settlers with crop and shelter. The foremost matter of the colony was financial benefit. (Document F) demonstrates the gap between rich and poor. while they are drawn from their houses to defend the borders… whom we may reasonably expect upon any small advantage the enemy may gain upon us…‟ (Document G). The effects of such structure are well described in Captain John Smith‟s History of Virginia written in 1624. In Chesapeake region. The hospitality Native Americans provided set grounds for protection and diplomatic society which caused more religious and political development possible to be made. Slavery prevailed around 1619. In short. and African Americans and indentured servants were the majority. The first paragraph of the recorded document. the gap between rich and poor caused society to become oligarchy based public. Also. economy was ahead of religion. survival was the key issue to the settlers. which brought the need for survival up 3 . Governor Berkeley and His Council on Their Inability to Defend Virginia Against a Dutch Attach in 1673 strongly depicts the insecure environment that Chesapeake region had at the time. shelter and clothes which all of them could be gained only if someone was financially stabilized. the owner who benefits financially. The rest of us patiently obeyed our vile commanders … more than half of us died‟. and such effort to take over the territorial benefit irritated the Native Americans circumscribing the colony. from the Indians colony received numerous support. which the young single male population dominated. Chesapeake region was colony built based on mercantilism doctrine. which the top class survived and benefited from the new continent while the bottom class of the colonists perished in predicaments and plights. Especially. bringing high tension and hostility between settlers and Indians. Key factor to the survival was food. the when the environment was hostile.

economic region always busy with energetic young workers who came to achieve their dream. the racial diversity reached its summit at the West Indies and South. Because the people who seek wealth came from all over the European continent. religious society composed of big sized families and people with high life expectancy. Their society consisted of pre-democratic government based on religion and principles of equality. Settlers had options when they came to religion. economic structure and religious structure of the two societies established the discrepancy between New England and Chesapeake region. The population was mostly British. bringing down the life expectancy. uneducated slaves and servants were the majority. the different motives. because the society did not embrace many other cultures and ethnicity since they believed that diversity might disintegrate the society. As described. outer environment of the colonial land. boroughs and counties. and the security that was provided. female ratio. In conclusion. and the government focused on the better economical profit and efficiency than religion. these differences could definitely be contributed to the characteristics and motives of the early settlers. By 1700. 4 . although both established by English descendents.DBO #1 APUSH Danny Lee to the most vital matter of the era. New England was educated. New England and Chesapeake region. literacy rate and religious activities. House of Burgesses took control of the Chesapeake region. Chesapeake region was industrial. due to the labor based society and its structure. were totally different region. Yet. which they could choose from among parishes. which shaped and formed the civilizations overtime into two poles apart colonies.

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