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Katsina dolls, Hopi culture, New Mexico, USA The Hopi people live in the dusty, dry lands

of the American Southwest. They refer to themselves as the Hopiitu, meaning the friendly or peaceful people. They believe that all visible entities are invested with life: people, animals, plants, rocks, clouds, water and earth all have spirits. During the year, certain spirits called katsinam visit the Hopi, bringing with them rain, fertility, health and happiness. The Powamuya or Bean Dance, which takes place in February, is a very special event which celebrates the beginning of the growing season. Boys receive carved wooden lightning bolts and bows and arrows, and girls are given katsina dolls. In the evening, the katsinam appear. The Hopi dance and drum and sing for rain, health, long life and fertility. The katsina dolls, which the Hopi call tithu, are representations of the katsinam. The tithu are carved from the root of the cottonwood tree. Because they are highly valued and respected, they are not treated as playthings, but are usually hung on walls of the family room. Totem Poles, North West Coast Totem poles were not used in worship or any other religious purpose. Their carvings represented family crests or depicted family legends. They were erected as symbols of family pride and wealth or as monuments to the dead. Noh Theatre Masks, Japan The themes of Noh plays derive from folk stories, legends and historical events. The acting style is subtle and stylised, and is based on Zen Buddhism. Performance, in masks and elaborate costumes, takes place on a specially designed stage, and is accompanied by an orchestra of a flute and three types of drum. Noh masks are made from Japanese cypress. A single mask is carved and painted for a period which may stretch from 21 days to a lifetime as the carver strives to perfect his/her skill. Today, both men and women, celebrated mask carvers and their pupils, as well as amateur sculptors, carve Noh masks. Outstanding mask carvers may be designated as “Living Treasures”. Bunraku Puppets, Japan Bunraku, a complex performance style combining puppetry, chanting and music, developed in Osaka in the 18th century, but is closely related to an older puppet tradition still performed on the island of Awaji. Bunraku and Awaji puppetry uses three manipulators to achieve the life-like movements which characterise the artform. The ashi-zukai manipulates the feed of the puppet; the hidari-zukai, the left hand; and the omo-zukai, the head and right hand. Mari Llywd hobby horse, Wales, UK Throughout Europe, at different times of the year, ‘hobby’ animals – men wearing arved animal heads fixed on top of a pole – can be seen performing in street masquerades and indoor plays. They often provide the comic element of the performance, by misbehaving in a raucous manner, nipping and nudging the onlookers.

Plains Indians Amongst the Plains Indisans. Acrobatic karikpo dancers wearing masks may perform at the same time. Offerings are made to the demons. They are used in fertility plays at the annual New Yam Festival. such as a stroke. Ogoni masks. a war cap with buffalo horns marked the high status of a warrior. Each feather came from a flesh-eating bird and referred to some particularly brave deed on the part of the wearer or one of his kinsmen. The masks represent either the demon causing the disease or the sickness itself. only the most expert warriors and leaders in battle wore headdresses like these. . Most are farmers famous for producing some of the best palm wine in Nigeria. Nigeria The Ogani (Kana) people number 500. dancers in healing ceremonies to expel evil spirits wore Sanni masks. North America. Sri Lanka In Sri Lanka. ‘Sanni’ Curing Masks.000 and live in the eastern Niger delta. Ogoni masquerades are usually fastmoving and festooned with greenery. Amongst the Blackfoot. who promise to leave the patient. Headdresses. Ka-elu masks have hinged jaws so that the wearer can make them talk. Switzerland and Austrian Tyrol. smallpox or a toothache.A variety of masks were used during the masquerades in the Alpine region between Graubunden. Wood sculpture and canoes are made by men and pottery by women.

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