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# Q: What is a fuzzy set? A fuzzy set is a set that is defined by a membership function.

A membership function assigns to each element in the set under consideration (the universal space) a membership grade, which is a value in the interval [0, 1]. In classical sets, objects either belong to a set or do not belong to a set; there is no other choice. By defining a set using a membership function, it is possible for an element to belong partially to a set. For example, if a door is slightly ajar, one might say that the door is open, with a membership grade of 0.2 to indicate that the door is slightly open. We might also say that the door is closed, with a membership grade of 0.8. By using a fuzzy set, we are able to indicate that the door is partially open or partially closed. Using classical logic, we would not be able to do this; the door would be considered either open or closed with no in-between. Q: What is fuzzy logic? Fuzzy logic is an extension of classical logic and uses fuzzy sets rather than classical sets. There are a few different explanations of what fuzzy logic is, so rather than add our own explanation, we will quote one explanation put forth by Lotfi A. Zadeh, the father of fuzzy logic. Zadeh says, "In its narrow sense, fuzzy logic is a logic of approximate reasoning which may be viewed as a generalization and extension of multivalued logic. But in a broader and much more significant sense, fuzzy logic is coextensive with the theory of fuzzy sets, that is, classes of objects in which the transition from membership to nonmembership is gradual rather than abrupt. In its wider sense, fuzzy logic has many branches ranging from fuzzy arithmetic and fuzzy automata to fuzzy pattern recognition, fuzzy languages, and fuzzy expert systems." Q: What are some applications of fuzzy logic? The use of fuzzy logic for creating decisionsupport and expert systems has grown in popularity among management and financial decisionmodeling experts. Still others are putting it to work in pattern recognition, economics, data analysis, and other areas that involve a high level of uncertainty, complexity, or nonlinearity. There are presently numerous applications that incorporate fuzzy logic control. Some of the more prominent applications are electronically stabilized camcorders, autofocus cameras, washing machines, air conditioners, automobile transmissions, subway trains, and cement kilns. Q: How is it that fuzzy systems have been successfully applied to such a wide variety of applications? Fuzzy "if-then" rules are often employed to capture the imprecise modes of reasoning that play an essential role in the human ability to make decisions in uncertain and imprecise environments. These fuzzy "if-then" rules are used extensively in both fuzzy modeling and control.

The theory is much easier to understand and learn with the help of a good visualization tool such as Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy sets are characterized by pairs. . fuzzy sets are defined on a discrete universal space. x1. Fuzzy Logic comes with a collection of notebooks that provide detailed discussions about more advanced topics such as fuzzy set theory. These notebooks contain step-by-step explanations of the topics. we developed Fuzzy Logic. It's possible to use these notebooks as templates for your own systems. you don't. u1. Fuzzy Logic comes with interactive notebooks that demonstrate the different functions used in fuzzy set theory. To help with this learning.Q: What were your reasons for developing Fuzzy Logic? Most fuzzy logic software packages available today are application oriented. so does the number of people who wish to learn its underlying concepts.. Although a great deal of Mathematica knowledge is not needed to use the package. In addition.. it isn't. fuzzy logic control. . 1]).. un}}.. a software package that is easy to use and contains a wide assortment of fuzzy operations and graphing capabilities. u1}. using Fuzzy Logic functions to demonstrate the ideas. {x2. xn. and the membership grades of the elements. those who are somewhat familiar with Mathematica will find it easy to extend or modify Fuzzy Logic's functions to meet their individual needs better Q: How are fuzzy sets defined in Fuzzy Logic? In Fuzzy Logic. Consequently. This notebook uses the Fuzzy Logic functions to demonstrate the theory. which consist of the elements of the fuzzy set. As fuzzy logic usage increases. un (membership grades are from the range [0. Among other things. {xn.. they provide limited support for understanding the underlying concepts of fuzzy logic. Q: Is it difficult to learn how to use Fuzzy Logic? No. u2.. u2}.. Q: Is it difficult to learn fuzzy set theory? Fuzzy set theory is somewhat difficult to learn from scratch without the proper tools.. The discrete universal space allows for quick calculations and provides unique visualization opportunities. and fuzzy arithmetic. fuzzy modeling. x2. and Fuzzy Logic contains a collection of interactive notebooks (also provided in hard copy) that provide a comprehensive introduction to each of the functions in the package. . and the package comes with detailed explanations and demonstrations of each of its functions. In addition. For one thing. {{x1. Q: Do I have to be a Mathematica expert to use Fuzzy Logic? No. A notebook containing an introduction to fuzzy set theory is also included. the ability to use Fuzzy Logic within the Mathematica environment provides many opportunities to users. it is very useful to use the Fuzzy Logic functions with and alongside Mathematica's huge standard library. Loading Fuzzy Logic is straightforward.. . It is possible to create fuzzy systems without using any functions outside of Fuzzy Logic. This package allows users to really learn and understand the concepts of fuzzy logic before they start to apply them.

provided the functions return membership grades in the range [0. you can also create a fuzzy set manually by defining the individual elements and membership grades. Q: How can fuzzy sets be viewed in Fuzzy Logic? Fuzzy Logic provides a number of functions for viewing fuzzy sets. there are plotting options that allow for a visualization of defuzzifications. Also. Fuzzy sets can be plotted in a discrete form or in a continuous representation. The package provides functions for creating fuzzy sets using some common membership functions such as trapezoidal. If you don't want to use a function at all. In addition. there is a function for creating a collection of fuzzy sets that are evenly distributed over the universal space. triangular. Also.Q: How are fuzzy sets created in Fuzzy Logic? There are numerous ways to create fuzzy sets in Fuzzy Logic. . fuzzy sets can be created with user-defined functions. 1]. or Gaussian. and any number of fuzzy sets can be plotted together.

Yu. and generalized Q: What is defuzzification? Defuzzification is a process that converts a fuzzy set or fuzzy number into a crisp value or number. Fuzzy Logic contains plotting functions for producing different types of three-dimensional plots of fuzzy relations. arithmetic. geometric. and many fuzzy set modifiers. There are numerous techniques for defuzzifying a fuzzy set. intersections (products). The following are among the aggregators that can be used in Fuzzy Logic. and means. and Weber For sums and products: drastic. In addition. Dombi. surface. Q: What are aggregation operations and the aggregation operations supported by Fuzzy Logic? Aggregation operations are operations that combine or aggregate two or more fuzzy sets. dilations. Fuzzy Logic provides a function for creating user-defined aggregators. Q: What are fuzzy relations. most of the functions that work with fuzzy sets also work with fuzzy relations. and does Fuzzy Logic support them? A fuzzy relation represents the degree of strength of the association or interaction between the elements of two or more sets. Fuzzy Logic contains a wide collection of different operators. Some of the operations that can be performed with the Fuzzy Logic package are normalizations.Q: What types of operations can be performed on or with fuzzy sets? A wide array of operations can be performed using fuzzy sets. defuzzifications. harmonic. they can. There are discrete. aggregation operations (see next question). concentrations. max. fuzzy relations can be viewed as membership matrices. including unions (sums). algebraic. some of the more popular techniques are included in Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy Logic contains all of the tools necessary to design a fuzzy logic controller. level sets. Fuzzy Logic contains a wide array of functions for creating and operating on or with fuzzy relations. and Hamacher For means: arithmetic. complements. Q: Can I do fuzzy logic control with Fuzzy Logic? Yes. inferencing operations. Frank. In fact. Using some of the Fuzzy Logic and . In addition. and wire frame-type plots. you can. Einstein. There are a number of different types of aggregation. • • • For unions and intersections: min. Q: Can fuzzy relations be graphed like fuzzy sets? Yes. which are also supported by Fuzzy Logic. including many nonstandard operators that are not found in many other fuzzy packages. Defuzzification is used in fuzzy modeling and in fuzzy logic control to convert the fuzzy outputs from the systems to crisp values. Dubois-Prade. bounded. Hamacher. making it easy for users to experiment with aggregators or add their own aggregators. Yager.

Fuzzy Logic provides functions for creating digital fuzzy sets with different numbers of the membership grade levels. subtraction. Clustering involves the task of dividing data points into homogeneous classes or clusters so that items in the same class are as similar as possible and items in different classes are as dissimilar as possible. you can. Fuzzy Logic contains a notebookthat shows you how to create a fuzzy model of a mathematical function. Q: Does Fuzzy Logic support fuzzy clustering? Yes it does. This gives users complete control over how functions work. A single-input/single-output model can visualize very efficiently by FuzzyGraph. you can. Fuzzy Logic contains functions and a notebook demonstrating some fuzzy arithmetic operations. The package contains a notebook that gives a thorough description of how to perform these simulations. and constant multiplication. These functions include fuzzy addition. it does. we expect that fuzzy chips will play an increasingly important role in control automation. multiplication. Q: Can I use Fuzzy Logic to do multi-input/multi-output fuzzy modeling? Yes. With the advance of VLSI technologies. and how to build the model. Step by step the notebook goes through how to create input and output variables. and all source code is available to the user. One of the strengths of Fuzzy Logic is that it is written in the Mathematica language. Q: Can I extend the functionality of Fuzzy Logic by adding some of my own functions? Yes. It's quite easy either to customize functions from existing code or to create functions. The c-means algorithm has applications in medical image segmentation. you can also perform simulations with your fuzzy controller. Fuzzy Logic contains functions and a notebook demonstrating the c-means algorithm. how to design rules. The model is then tested and compared to the actual mathematical function. Q: Can Fuzzy Logic participate in the digital revolution? It definitely can. These digital fuzzy sets create the opportunity to process digital images and to apply them to multi-valued logic.Mathematica functions. . Q: Does Fuzzy Logic support fuzzy arithmetic? Yes.

Klir. engineers. AMTDC. "The demonstrations of Fuzzy Logic were an important activity at the 1995 IFSA Congress in São Paulo. "Wolfram Research's usual care and attention has resulted in an easy to use. Packages you may want to use include MechanicalSystems.. comprehensive and robust set of utilities. Finance Essentials. Yager of the Machine Intelligence Institute at Iona College and Dimitar Filev of the Ford Motor Company. "I was impressed by all the capability of Fuzzy Logic. this package is the best fuzzy logic software currently available on the market. The presentation of the commands in the context of solved problems.. It is also possible to use Fuzzy Logic with software other than Mathematica by using MathLink. we have used Fuzzy Logic with LabVIEW using MathLink. • George J.Q: Can I use Fuzzy Logic with other Mathematica applications from Wolfram Research? Yes. Michigan. Distinguished Professor of Systems Science in the Watson School of Engineering and Applied Science at Binghamton University (SUNY). and Neural Networks." Professor Klir is coauthor of the popular books Fuzzy Sets. Uncertainty. I am sure that Mathematica's Fuzzy Logic is more robust and complete than its competitors' toolboxes. including Professor Ronald R. says.)." • Professor Klir has also said.. For example. the father of fuzzy logic. Q: What do others who have used Fuzzy Logic say? We have received several comments on Fuzzy Logic. In our opinion. Since Fuzzy Logic is written in the Mathematica language. Time Series.. you can. Brazil.It is also user friendly and easy to learn." We have also received encouraging comments from Professor Lotfi A. and Information (1988) and Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications (1995). in Redford. and from other distinguished professors in the fuzzy field.. Digital Image Processing." • Brian Cogan writes in Scientific Computing World. "Fuzzy Logic is a very powerful tool for a wide range of users (educators.Fuzzy Logic employs colorful illustrations of fuzzy sets and fuzzy relations that are pedagogically pleasing. etc. Hoffman says. • Paul C. and the ease of use of this package should make it of great interest to teachers and students of fuzzy logic. I have heard many favorable comments about the package from Congress participants. you will be able to use it smoothly with some of the other Mathematica applications. at least in terms of education.. . the excellent graphical output. Zadeh. researchers.

Q: Where can I get help if I have technical questions about Fuzzy Logic? For assistance in operating Fuzzy Logic. . contact our Technical Support department by sending email to support@wolfram. Inc. Fuzzy Logic can be purchased from Wolfram Research.Q: What do I need to run Fuzzy Logic. Pricing and ordering information is available in our online store. and how do I order it? The current version of Fuzzy Logic requires Mathematica 5 and is available for all Mathematica platforms.com.