mkdir -p - this is used to create multiple directories.

can also be used to creat e directories one inside the other in a single step ls -l -used for longlisting ls -a -used to see all files,folders(including hidden ones) rm -r -used to delete directories which contain something in them. rm -f -delete something forcefully rm -i -prompt before deleting anything tree -a -shows even hidden files,folders in tree format tree -f -shows path for each file,folder gedit (Not shell command, GUI editor)-text editor mv-used to rename or move files cp -r -copy folders cp -p - copy things including permissions more -displays the contents of a file one screenful at a time less -similar to more but it is more efficient(we can scroll up and down as well ) head -used to display first 10 lines of a file head -<number> -displays the first <number> number of lines the above two statements hold for tail as well wc -used to count the number of lines words characters of a file( -w for words, -c for characters, -l for lines) du, du -s, du -h, -find out the size of a folder tar cvf -for creating a tar archive tar xvf -for extracting a tar archive gzip -for creating a gz archive gunzip -for extracting a gz archive bzip2 -for creating a bz2 archive bunzip2 -for extracting a bz2 archive zip -for creating a zip archive unzip -for extracting a zip archive which -shows path of the command whereis -shows the binary,manual page of the command apropos -for searching the manual pages find -search for files in a particular directory locate -search for files in the entire system grep <word> <filename> -search for a word in the file grep -A<n> - display the <n> trailing lines after each match to the word in a li ne grep -B<n> -display the <n> preceeding lines after each match to the word in a line history - shows the commands u have executed w -find out who are logged ina the system and what they are doing\ who -find out who are logged in whoami -find out who the present user is /sbin/ifconfig -find out the IP address ping -used to check connectivity ln -used to create a hard link , ln -s -used to create a soft link free -find out the free RAM space available df -find out the space availaible in partitions chmod -used to change permissions on a file ssh -used to login as somebody <syntax>=ssh user @server.ac.in scp -used to copy files from one system to another <syntax> -scp <IP address 1>:path of file <IP address of 2>:path of destination

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