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Micropump with piezoelectric plastic

Harris Khan Evan Leingang Kevin McLennan
BMEn 5910: Introduction to BioMEMS Dr. Saliterman

Project Goal
• Polymeric Piezoelectric Materials in Fluid Pumping • Currently Fabricated but with Ceramic • Polymer Advantages
Easier and Cheaper Manufacturing Larger Strains and Displacements Increased Biocompatibility

Testing • Other Potential Applications for a Plastic Piezo Pump .Presentation Overview • Current Drug Delivery Methods • Future Prospects of IDDS • Design Challenges of IDDS • Overview of Polymer Piezo Pump Fabrication Techniques. Analysis.

stomach irritation and bleeding ·Patients sometimes forget to repeat doses · Unpleasant · Painful · Can leave scars · Unpleasant · Painful · Difficult & Messy application · Unpleasant odors · Feelings of Greasiness · Tendency to smudge/wear off · Blurring of vision · Discomfort · Hard to administer to young children Injectable Respiratory/Nasal · Maximum Surface Area · Only required chemical enters body Delivery · Lower Doses · More Economical Topical ·Applied straight to region Ocular or Otic ·Delivered straight to point of necessity .Conventional Drug Delivery Methods Type Oral Advantages · Convenient · Simple to administer · Compact · Cheap · Painless · Fast · Effective Disadvantages ·May cause nausea.

etc…) Implantable Pump Systems . Transurethral.Implantable Drug Delivery Systems • Safe • Effective • Reliable • Categories: Biodegradable/Nonbiodegradable Implants Newest Atypical Class of Implants (Intraocular.

Design Challenges of IDDS • Disadvantages: Cost:Benefit Ratio too High Therefore Restricts their Use over Conventional Dosage Forms More Complicated Manufacturing Technology Regulatory Concerns .

Polymer Piezo Pump – Design Requirements • Goal: Design Implantable drug delivery pump utilizing predominately plastic components • Variable flow rates • Delivery accuracy • Reservoir must be easily filled from outside body • Minimum life of 2 to 5 years before replacement • Biocompatible with Drug / No toxicity or carcinogenicity in body • Leak proof • Must permit wireless communication Programming Diagnostics Battery Status • Must Be Failsafe – Alarms and Notification of Failure • Inexpensive .

1 – 100 µL • Valveless • Reservoir – refillable via external port • On-board battery/power supply • Wireless communication to a PDA. cell phone or other electronic device • Approximate size of pumping system: 10 mm x 15 mm .Polymer Piezo Pump – Theory of Operation • Actuating material: piezo polymer (PVDF) film • Stroke volume ~ 150 nL • Delivery rate range: 0.

et al. et al. 1999 Xia. 2005 .Polymer Piezo Pump Bohm.

minimal design complexity. and piezo actuators are extremely reliable Piezo pumps do not require manufacturing tolerances to be held as tightly as in mechanically-driven pumps • Ceramic piezos are brittle. which limits their fracture resistance and deformation Polymers are elastic and can absorb large amounts of impact energy Large strains are possible with polymers less power is required to generate equivalent amounts of strain when compared with ceramics .Polymer Piezo Pump – Advantages Design Advantages • Other methods of implantable drug delivery involve complex electro- mechanical systems potential for electrical or mechanical failure is high A piezo pump has few moving parts that can fail.

Polymer Piezo Pump – Advantages Design Advantages • Polymer material is relatively inexpensive compared to silicon • Properties of polymers can be readily changed by additives • Polymer devices are radiolucent in x-rays. safe in MRIs. and do not produce artifacts in CT films • Many types of polymers are sterilizable Manufacturing Advantages • Ceramic-based MEMS must be fabricated using expensive clean-room technology borrowed from IC industry Conventional plastic manufacturing processes like injection molding may be implemented to form these parts • • • • Extremely high tolerances can be met Very small dimensions can be achieved Inexpensive Easily scalable to mass production .

Limitations of the Technology • In addition to the design and manufacturing challenges faced by all bioMEMS devices. there are specific hurdles related to plastic piezo technology that would need to be addressed Miniaturization comes at a cost Lower force output of polymer piezo when compared to ceramic piezo Piezo actuation forces are proportional to the area of the piezo material Carcinogenicity / Toxicity There is the potential for certain polymers to have negative interactions with the body significant testing would be required Power requirements High voltages are required to achieve piezoelectric behavior. especially in PVDF films Significant advances in electrical engineering / battery technology might be necessary to realize this device .

and PEEK have all been successfully implanted for long-term applications . polyethylene. circuit board components and “all plastic” electronics • Implantability of polymers in the human body Polyurethane.Current Research Areas • Replacement of electronic components with plastic Conductive polymers are being researched for use as wiring.

Fabrication Production of PVDF Film • Piezo films need to be manufactured in such a way that: A high density of permanent molecular dipoles are present The molecular dipoles are oriented or aligned to achieve the disired piezoelectric response The dipole alignment can be sustained once it is achieved Large strains are possible when the material is mechanically stressed • Standard plastic film extrusion techniques may be employed to produce the PVDF film • The film must be mechanically stretched to align the piezoelectric domains • Application of a high electric field may be utilized during processing to increase alignment .

Fabrication Fabrication of Individual Piezo Actuators From the Extruded Film • Micro hot embossing may be utilized to form individual PVDF piezo actuator parts Fu. 2004 • Polymer bond fusion technology to bond plastic housing together • Stereolithography .

or stereolithography may be used to fabricate the other plastic components Santa Clara University 1998 Assembly of Components • Polymer bond fusion technology could be utilized to bond materials together . micro molding.Fabrication Production of Housing Parts • Conventional injection molding.

Piezoelectric Polymer Applications • Medical • Actuators • Sensors • Industrial • Space .

Medical Applications – Drug Delivery • Diabetes management ▫ Open loop insulin delivery • Direct brain infusion of neurotransmitters ▫ Parkinson. Intrathecally delivered drugs via bioMEMS devices can eliminate these effects . help slow or lessen effects • Spasticity caused by spinal cord injuries or multiple sclerosis ▫ Oral drugs may cause drowsiness. confusion and weakness. balance dopamine deficiency ▫ Alzheimer.

Medical Applications .Cancer • Chemotherapy ▫ Implantable pump permits timed delivery ▫ Timed treatments during Circadian cycle more effective less toxic cause fewer side effects • Pain management ▫ Intrathecally delivered morphine sulfate Successful where oral medications failed .

Medical Applications .Analysis • µTAS (Micro Total Analysis System) ▫ Micropumps move fluids throughout chip ▫ Sensors utilizing piezo polymers • LOC (Lab on a Chip) ▫ Defense interests include biological and chemical detection ▫ Portable field analysis equipment • Genomics arrays ▫ Human Genome Project-improving DNA analysis .

microphones .Piezoelectric motors • Advantages ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ power efficiency torque/mass ratios compact size efficient self holding force MRI safe High frequencies (up to 5 MHz) • Applications ▫ Camera auto focus lenses ▫ Watch motors ▫ Compact paper handling Ultrasonic piezoelectric motor • Audio equipment ▫ Loudspeakers.

Similar to noise reduction headphones . the system observes the bend and sends electric power to the piezo element to bend in the other direction.Piezoelectric sensors • Diesel engines ▫ Clamp on pressure transducers ▫ Fuel injectors • Aircraft design and manufacturing • Vibration reduction ▫ Shock wave and impact sensors ▫ Less stringent preparation-not affect by prior loading PVDF Stress Sensor ▫ When the material is bent by a vibration in one direction.

Robotic Applications • Robotic grip ▫ Piezo sensors respond to changes in temperature. pressure and strain ▫ Prevent slipping and improve overall grip performance ▫ Eliminates overshoot of target force .

Space Applications • High reliability low power pumps for fluid management during planetary missions -automated chemical processes • Circulation pump for fluids in water storage system to prevent bacteria growth on walls • General actuator for a variety of space applications including automation and robotic • Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-6) ▫ Piezoelectric polymer films launched into low Earth orbit ▫ Ultra light mirrors in space telescopes .

"A high-performance silicon micropump for an implantable drug delivery system". 125. "Design. 156-161. Ghantasala MK. 413-417. <http://www. 2001 Xia F. pp. Sensors and Actuators A. van Lintel H. Proceedings of the SPIE.References Ranade. 2005 Santa Clara University Design Center. Zhang QM. modeling and fabrication of piezoelectric polymer actuators". VV: Drug delivery systems. "Electroactive polymer based microfluidic pump".scu. 121. Spinks G. pp. 5276. Implants in drug delivery. Rey-Mermet G. 113-118. 1998 Santa Clara University. 2004 Maillefer D. Hirschi R. Boda W.scudc. The Injection Molding Machine. Vol. "Design and test of a high-performance piezoelectric micropump for drug delivery". The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. The 14th IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems. Harvey EC. 1990:30:871 Harrison Fu Y. 346-352. Tadigadapa S. Zhigana Y. Guangming C. 2006 Junwu K. Taijiang P. Sensors and Actuators A. 24 April 2007.htm> .

Questions? .