II. FLUID STATICS
From a force analysis on a triangular fluid element at rest, the following three
concepts are easily developed:
For a continuous, hydrostatic, shear free fluid:
1. Pressure is constant along a horizontal plane,
2. Pressure at a point is independent of orientation,
3. Pressure change in any direction is proportional to the fluid density,
local g, and vertical change in depth.
These concepts are key to the solution of problems in fluid statics and lead to the
following:
1. Two points at the same depth in a static fluid have the same pressure.
2. The orientation of a surface has no bearing on the pressure at a point
in a static fluid.
3. Vertical depth is a key dimension in determining pressure change in a
static fluid.
If we were to conduct a more general force analysis on a fluid in motion with constant
density and viscosity, we would obtain the following:
∇ P · ρ g − a { } + µ ∇
2
V
Thus the pressure change in fluid in general depends on:
effects of fluid statics (ρ g), Ch. II
inertial effects (ρ a), Ch. III
viscous effects ( µ∇
2
V ) Chs VI & VII
Note: For problems involving the effects of both (1) fluid statics and
(2) inertial effects, it is the net
"
g −
"
a acceleration vector that controls
both the magnitude and direction of the pressure gradient.
II2
This equation can be simplified for a fluid at rest (ie., no inertial or viscous
effects) to yield:
∇ p · ρ g
∂ p
∂ x
· 0 ;
∂ p
∂ y
· 0 ;
∂ p
∂z
·
dp
dz
· −ρ g
P
2
− P
1
· − ρgd Z
1
2
∫
It is appropriate at this point to review the differences between absolute, gage,
and vacuum pressure. These differences are illustrated in Fig. 2.3 (shown below)
and are based on the following definitions:
• absolute pressure  Pressure measured relative to absolute zero.
• gage pressure  Pressure > Patm measured relative to Patm
• vacuum pressure  Pressure < Patm measured relative to Patm
• Patm  local absolute pressure due to the local atmosphere only.
standard Patm at sea level = 1atm = 101.3 kPa = 2116 lbf/ft
2
P (kPa)
Patm
Local atmospheric pressure
e.g at 1000 m Patm≈ 90 kPa
= 0 Pa gage = 0 Pa vacuum
Pressure above atmospheric
e.g P = 120 kPa absolute
or P = 30 kPa gage
P (relative to Patm)
= Pgage = 30 kPa gage
0
Absolute zero, perfect vacuum
P(abs) = 0, P(vac) = 90kPa, P(gage) =  90 kPa
Pressure below atmospheric
e.g. P = 50 kPa abs
P(relative to Patm)
= P(vac) = 40 kPa
P(abs) = 50 kPa
Fig. 2.3 Illustration of absolute, gage, and vacuum pressure
II3
Hydrostatic Pressure in Liquids
For liquids and incompressible fluids, the previous integral expression for P2  P1
integrates to
P
1
– P
2
= ρg (Z
2
– Z
1
)
Note:
Z
2
– Z
1
is positive for Z
2
above Z
1
.
but
P
2
– P
1
is negative for Z
2
above Z
1
.
We can now define a new fluid
parameter:
γ = ρg ≡ specific weight of the fluid
2
P
1
P
2
x
y
z
Free surface
Pressure = Pa
h = Z  Z
2 1
Z
Z
1
With this, the previous equation becomes (for an incompressible, static fluid)
P
2
– P
1
=  γ (Z
2
– Z
1
)
The most common application of this result is that of manometry.
Consider the Utube, multi
fluid manometer shown on
the right.
If we first label all
intermediate points between
A & a, we can write for the
overall pressure change
II4
P
A
 P
a
= (P
A
 P
1)
+ (P
1
 P
2
) + (P
2
 P
a
)
This equation was obtained by adding and subtracting each intermediate pressure.
The total pressure difference is now expressed in terms of a series of intermediate
pressure differences. Substituting the previous result for static pressure difference,
we obtain
P
A
 P
B
=  ρ g(Z
A
 Z
1)
– ρ g (Z
1
– Z
2
)
– ρ g (Z
2
 Z
B
)
Again note: Z positive up and Z
A
> Z
1
, Z
1
< Z
2
, Z
2
< Z
a
.
In general, follow the following steps when analyzing manometry problems:
1. On the manometer schematic, label points on each end of the manometer
and at each intermediate point where there is a fluidfluid interface,
e.g. A  1  2  B.
2. Express the overall pressure difference in terms of appropriate
intermediate pressure differences.
P
A
 P
B
= (P
A
 P
1
) + (P
1
 P
2
) + (P
2
 P
B
)
3. Express each intermediate pressure difference in terms of an appropriate
product of specific weight (or ρ g) * elevations change ( and watch the
signs).
P
A
 P
B
= γ (z
A
 z
1
) + γ (z
1
 z
2
) + γ (z
2
 z
B
)
When developing a solution for manometer problems, take care to:
1. Include all pressure changes.
2. Use correct ∆Z and γ with each fluid.
3. Use correct signs with ∆ Z. If pressure difference is expressed as
P
A
– P
1
, the elevation change should be written as Z
A
– Z
1.
4. Watch units.
II5
Manometer Example:
Given the indicated manometer,
determine the gage pressure at A. Pa =
101.3 kPa. The fluid at A is Meriam red
oil no. 3.
ρg
w
= 9790 N/m
3
ρg
A
= S.G.*ρg
w
= 0.83*9790 N/m
3
ρg
A
= 8126 N/m
3
ρg
air
= 11.8 N/m
3
1
2
a
A
1
10 cm
18 cm
S.G. = .83
H 0
2
With the indicated points labeled on the manometer, we can write
P
A
 P
a
= P
A
(gage) = (P
A
 P
1
) + (P
1
– P
2
)
+ (P
2
 P
a
)
Substituting the manometer expression for a static fluid, we obtain
P
A
(gage) =  ρg
A
(z
A
 z
1)
– ρg
w
(z
1
– z
2
)
– ρg
a
(z
2
 z
a
)
Neglect the contribution due to the air column. Substituting values, we obtain
P
A
(gage) =  8126 N/m
3
* 0.10 m – 9790 N/m
3
* 0.18 = 949.6 N/m
2
Ans
Note why: (z
A
 z
1
) = 0.10 m and (z
1
– z
2
)
= 0.18 m, & we did not use P
a
Review the text examples for manometry.
See Table 2.1 for values of specific weight, γ, in both B.G. and S.I. units.
II6
Hydrostatic Pressure in Gases
Since gases are compressible, density is a nonconstant variable in the previous
expression for dP/dz. Assuming the gas is an ideal gas, we can write
d P
d z
· −ρ g · −
P
RT
g or
d P
P
1
2
∫ · ln
P
2
P
1
· −
g
R
d z
T
1
2
∫
For an isothermal atmosphere with T = T
o
, this integrates to
P
2
· P
1
exp −
g z
2
− z
1
( )
RT
o
¸
1
]
1
Up to an altitude of approximately 36,000ft (l l,000 m), the mean atmospheric
temperature decreases nearly linearly and can be represented by
T ≈ T
o
 B z where B is the lapse rate
The following values are assumed to apply for air from sea level to 36,000 ft:
To = 518.69˚R = 288.16˚K (15 ˚C)
B = 0.003566˚R/ft = 0.650˚K/m
Substituting the linear temperature variation into the previous equation and
integrating we obtain
P · P
a
1−
Bz
T
o
¸
¸
_
,
g / RB ( )
where
g
RB
· 5.26 for air ( )
and R = 287 m
2
/(s
2
˚K)
Review example 2.2 in the text.
II7
Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces
Consider a plane surface
of arbitrary shape and
orientation, submerged in
a static fluid as shown:
If P represents the local
pressure at any point on
the surface and h the depth
of fluid above any point
on the surface, from basic
physics we can easily
show that
the net hydrostatic force on a plane surface is given by (see text for development):
F · PdA
A
∫
· P
cg
A
Thus, basic physics says that the hydrostatic force is a distributed load equal to the
integral of the local pressure force over the area. This is equivalent to the following:
The hydrostatic force on one side of a plane surface submerged in a static
fluid equals the product of the fluid pressure at the centroid of the surface
times the surface area in contact with the fluid.
Also: Since pressure acts normal to a surface, the direction of the resultant force will
always be normal to the surface.
Note: In most cases, since it is the net hydrostatic force that is desired and the
contribution of atmospheric pressure P
a
will act on both sides of a surface, the result
of atmospheric pressure P
a
will cancel and the net force is obtained by
F · ρ gh
cg
A
F · P
cg
A
P
cg
is now the gage pressure at the centroid of the area in contact with the fluid.
II8
Therefore, to obtain the net hydrostatic force F on a plane surface:
1. Determine depth of centroid h
cg
for the area in contact with the
fluid.
2. Determine the (gage) pressure at the centroid P
cg.
3. Calculate F = P
cg
A.
The following page shows the centroid, and other geometric properties of several
common areas.
It is noted that care must be taken when dealing with layered fluids. The procedure
essentially requires that the force on the part of the plane area in each individual layer
of fluid must be determined separately for each layer using the steps listed above.
We must now determine the effective point of application of F. This is commonly
called the “center of pressure  cp” of the hydrostatic force.
Note: This is not necessarily the same as the c.g.
Define an x – y coordinate system whose origin is at the centroid, c.g, of the area.
The location of the resultant force is determined by integrating the moment of the
distributed fluid load on the surface about each axis and equating this to the moment
of the resultant force about that axis. Therefore, for the moment about the x axis:
F y
cp
· y P d
A
∫ A
Applying a procedure similar to that used previously to determine the resultant force,
and using the definition (see text for detailed development), we obtain
Y
cp
· −
ρgsinθ I
xx
P
cg
A
≤ 0
where: I
xx
is defined as the Moment of Inertia, or
the
∫
2
nd
moment of the area
Therefore, the resultant force will always act at a distance y
cp
below the centroid of
the surface ( except for the special case of sin θ = 0 ).
II9
a
PROPERTIES OF PLANE SECTIONS
Geometry Centroid
Moment of
Inertia
I x x
Product of
Inertia
I x y
Area
b
1
h
b
b
L
y
x
L
2R
b
L
b
y
x
Fl ui d Speci fic Weight
Seawater
Glycerin
Mercury
Carbon
.0752
57.3
62.4
49.2
11.8
8,996
9,790
7,733
64.0
78.7
846.
99.1
10,050
12,360
133,100
15,570
0
0
0
h
0
y
x
y
x
x
y
R
y
x
y
x
s
R
Air
Oil
Water
Ethyl
3
1bf /ft N /m
3
bL
3
12
b L
⋅
b + b
1
( )
h
2
a ·
4 R
3 π
π
16
−
4
9π
R
4
_
,
1
8
−
4
9 π
R
4
_
,
π R
2
4
a ·
L
3
bL
3
36
b b − 2s ( ) L
2
72
1
2
b ⋅ L
b
3 ,
L
3
bL
3
36
−
b
2
L
2
72
b ⋅ L
2
π R
2
2
R
4
π
8
−
8
9 π
_
,
0 , a ·
4R
3π
π R
4
4
0, 0
π R
2
b
2
,
L
2
a
)
·
h b + 2b
1
(
3 b + b
1
( )
)
3
b
2
+ 4bb
1
+ b
1
2
(
36 b + b
1
( )
N /m
3 3
1bf/ft
II10
Proceeding in a similar manner for the x location, and defining I
xy
= product of
inertia, we obtain
X
cp
· −
ρgsinθ I
xy
P
cg
A
where X
cp
can be either positive or negative since I
xy
can be either positive or
negative.
Note: For areas with a vertical plane of symmetry through the centroid, i.e. the y 
axis (e.g. squares, circles, isosceles triangles, etc.), the center of pressure is located
directly below the centroid along the plane of symmetry, i.e., X
cp
= 0.
Key Points: The values X
cp
and Y
cp
are both measured with respect to the
centroid of the area in contact with the fluid.
X
cp
and Y
cp
are both measured in the inclined plane of the
area;
i.e., Y
cp
is not necessarily a vertical dimension, unless θ = 90
o
.
Special Case: For most problems where (1) we have a single, homogeneous fluid
(i.e. not applicable to layers of multiple fluids) and (2) the surface pressure is
atmospheric, the fluid specific weight γ cancels in the equation for Y
cp
and X
cp
and we have the following simplified expressions:
F · ρ g h
cg
A
Y
cp
· −
I
xx
sinθ
h
cg
A
X
cp
· −
I
xy
sinθ
h
cg
A
However, for problems where we have either (1) multiple fluid layers, or (2) a
container with surface pressurization > P
atm
, these simplifications do not occur
and the original, basic expressions for F , Y
cp
, and X
cp
must be used; i.e., take
II11
care to use the approximate expressions only for cases where they apply. The
basic equations always work.
II12
Summary:
1. The resultant force is determined from the product of the pressure
at the centroid of the surface times the area in contact with the
fluid.
2. The centroid is used to determine the magnitude of the force. This
is not the location of the resultant force.
3. The location of the resultant force will be at the center of pressure
which will be at a location Y
cp
below the centroid and X
cp
as
specified previously.
4. X
cp
= 0 for areas with a vertical plane of symmetry through the c.g.
Example 2.5
Given: Gate, 5 ft wide
Hinged at B
Holds seawater as shown
Find:
a. Net hydrostatic force on gate
b. Horizontal force at wall  A
c. Hinge reactions  B
8’
θ
Seawater
•
c. g.
h
c.g.
A
B
64 lbf/ft
3
15’
6’
9’
a. By geometry: θ = tan
1
(6/8) = 36.87
o
Neglect P
atm
Since the plate is rectangular, h
cg
= 9 ft + 3ft = 12 ft A = 10 x 5 = 50 ft
2
P
cg
= γ h
cg
= 64 lbf/ft
3
* 12 ft = 768 lbf/ft
2
∴ F
p
= P
cg
A = 768 lbf/ft
2
* 50 ft
2
= 38,400 lbf
II13
II14
b. Horizontal Reaction at A
Must first find the location, c.p., for F
p
y
cp
· −ρgsinθ
I
xx
P
cg
A
· −
I
xx
sinθ
h
cg
A
For a rectangular wall:
I
xx
= bh
3
/12
I
xx
= 5 * 10
3
/12 = 417 ft
4
Note: The relevant area is a
rectangle, not a triangle.
θ
•
c.g.
•
c.p.
Bx
Bz
P
Fw
8 ft
6 ft
y
c.p. θ
Note: Do not overlook the hinged reactions at B.
y
cp
· −
417 ft
4
⋅0.6
12 ft ⋅ 50 ft
2
· −0.417 ft below c.g.
x
cp
= 0 due to symmetry
M
B
∑ · 0
5 − 0.417 ( )⋅ 38,400 − 6P · 0
P = 29,330 lbf ← ←← ←
θ
•
c.g.
•
c.p.
Bx
Bz
P
Fw
8 ft
6 ft
y
c.p.
θ
II15
c.
F
x ∑
·0, B
x
+ Fsinθ − P· 0
B
x
+ 38,400*0.6  29,330 = 0
B
x
= 6290 lbf → →→ →
F
z ∑
·0, B
z
− Fcosθ ·0
B
z
= 38,400 * 0.8 = 30,720 lbf ↑ ↑↑ ↑
Note: Show the direction of all forces in final answers.
Summary: To find net hydrostatic force on a plane surface:
1. Find area in contact with fluid.
2. Locate centroid of that area.
3. Find hydrostatic pressure P
cg
at centroid,
typically = γ γ γ γ h
cg
(generally neglect P
atm
).
4. Find force F = P
cg
A.
5. The location will not be at the c.g., but at a distance y
cp
below the centroid. y
cp
is in the plane of the area.
II16
Plane Surfaces in Layered Fluids
For plane surfaces in layered fluids, the part of the surface in each fluid layer must
essentially be worked as a separate problem. That is, for each layer:
1.) Identify the area of the plate in contact with each layer,
2.) Locate the c.g. for the part of the plate in each layer and the pressure at the c.g.,
and
3. Calculate the force on each layered element using F
1
= Pc.g
1
• A
1
.
Repeat for each layer.
Use the usual procedure for finding the location of the force for each layer.
Review all text examples for forces on plane surfaces.
II17
Forces on Curved Surfaces
Since this class of surface is curved, the
direction of the force is different at each
location on the surface.
Therefore, we will evaluate the x and y
components of net hydrostatic force
separately.
Consider curved surface, ab. Force
balances in x & y directions yield
F
h
= F
H
F
v
= W
air
+ W
1
+ W
2
From this force balance, the basic rules for determining the horizontal and vertical
component of forces on a curved surface in a static fluid can be summarized as
follows:
Horizontal Component, F
h
The horizontal component of force on a curved surface equals the force on
the plane area formed by the projection of the curved surface onto a
vertical plane normal to the component.
The horizontal force will act
through the c.p. (not the centroid)
of the projected area.
b
a
cp
h
cg
F
h
y
cp
a’
b’
Projected vertical
plane
Curved
surface
II18
Therefore, to determine the horizontal component of force on a curved surface in a
hydrostatic fluid:
1. Project the curved surface into the appropriate vertical plane.
2. Perform all further calculations on the vertical plane.
3. Determine the location of the centroid  c.g. of the vertical plane.
4. Determine the depth of the centroid  h
cg
of the vertical plane.
5. Determine the pressure  P
cg
= ρ g h
cg
at the centroid of the
vertical plane.
6. Calculate F
h
= P
cg
A, where A is the area of the projection of the
curved surface into the vertical plane, ie. the area of the vertical
plane.
7. The location of F
h
is through the center of pressure of the
vertical plane, not the centroid.
Get the picture? All elements of the analysis are performed with the
vertical plane. The original curved surface is important
only as it is used to define the projected vertical plane.
Vertical Component  F
v
The vertical component of force on a curved surface equals the weight of
the effective column of fluid necessary to cause the pressure on the
surface.
The use of the words effective column of fluid is important in that there may not
always actually be fluid directly above the surface. (See graphic that follows.)
This effective column of fluid is specified by identifying the column of fluid
that would be required to cause the pressure at each location on the surface.
Thus, to identify the effective volume  Veff:
1. Identify the curved surface in contact with the fluid.
2. Identify the pressure at each point on the curved surface.
3. Identify the height of fluid required to develop the pressure.
II19
4. These collective heights combine to form V
eff
.
b
a
V
eff
P
P
P
Fluid above the surface
a
b
V
eff
P
P
P
fluid
No fluid actually above surface
These two examples show two typical cases where this concept is used to
determine V
eff
.
The vertical force acts vertically through the centroid (center of mass) of the
effective column of fluid. The vertical direction will be the direction of the
vertical components of the pressure forces.
Therefore, to determine the vertical component of force on a curved surface in a
hydrostatic fluid:
1. Identify the effective column of fluid necessary to cause the fluid
pressure on the surface.
2. Determine the volume of the effective column of fluid.
3. Calculate the weight of the effective column of fluid  F
v
= ρgV
eff
.
4. The location of F
v
is through the centroid of V
eff
.
Finding the Location of the Centroid
A second problem associated with the topic of curved surfaces is that of finding
the location of the centroid of V
eff
.
Recall:
II20
Centroid = the location where a point area, volume, or mass can be place to yield
the same first moment of the distributed area, volume, or mass, e.g.
x
cg
V
1
· xdV
V1
∫
This principle can also be used to determine the location of the centroid of
complex geometries.
For example:
If V
eff
= V
1
+ V
2
then
x
cg
V
eff
= x
1
V
1
+ x
2
V
2
or for the second geometry
V
T
= V
1
+ V
eff
x
T
V
T
= x
1
V
1
+ x
cg
V
eff
b
a
2
V
V
1
a
b
V
1
V
eff
fluid
Note: In the figures shown above, each of the x values would be specified
relative to a vertical axis through b since the cg of the quarter circle is most
easily specified relative to this axis.
II21
Example:
Gate AB holds back 15 ft of water.
Neglecting the weight of the gate,
determine the magnitude (per unit
width) and location of the
hydrostatic forces on the gate and
the resisting moment about B.
•
•
15 ft
A
B
Water
H
F
F
V
Width  W
a. Horizontal component γ = ρg = 62.4 lbf/ft
3
Rule: Project the curved surface into
the vertical plane. Locate the centroid
of the projected area. Find the pressure
at the centroid of the vertical projection.
F = P
cg
A
p
Note: All calculations are done with
the projected area. The curved
surface is not used at all in the
analysis.
•
•
A
B
a
b
h
cg
P
cg
The curved surface projects onto plane a  b and results in a rectangle,
(not a quarter circle) 15 ft x W. For this rectangle:
h
cg
= 7.5, P
cg
= γh
cg
= 62.4 lbf/ft
3
* 7.5 ft = 468 lbf/ft
2
F
h
= P
cg
A = 468 lbf/ft
2
* 15 ft*W= 7020 W lbf per ft of width
Location: I
xx
= bh
3
/12 = W * 15
3
/12 = 281.25 W ft
4
y
cp
· −
I
xx
sinθ
h
cg
A
· −
281.25W ft
4
sin90
o
7.5 ft 15W ft
2
· −2.5 ft
The location is 2.5 ft
below the c.g. or 10 ft
below the surface, 5 ft
above the bottom.
II22
b. Vertical force:
Rule: F
v
equals the weight of the
effective column of fluid above the
curved surface (shown by the dashed
diagonal lines).
A
•
c.g.
C
B
•
b
F
v
•
Q: What is the effective volume of fluid above the surface?
What volume of fluid would result in the actual pressure distribution on the
curved surface?
Vol = Vol
A  B  C
V
rec
= V
qc
+ V
ABC
, V
ABC
= V
rec
 V
qc
V
ABC
= V
eff
= 15
2
W  π 15
2
/4*W = 48.29 W ft
3
F
v
= ρg V
eff
= 62.4 lbf/ft
3
* 48.29 ft
3
= 3013 lbf per ft of width
Note: F
v
is directed upward even though the effective volume is above the surface.
c. What is the location?
Rule: F
v
will act through the
centroid of the effective volume
causing the force.
A
•
c.g.
C
B
•
b
F
v
•
We need the centroid of volume ABC. How do we obtain this centroid?
Use the concept which is the basis of the centroid, the “first moment of an area.”
Since: A
rec
= A
qc
+ A
ABC
M
rec
= M
qc
+ M
ABC
M
ABC
= M
rec

M
qc
II23
Note: We are taking moments about the left side of the figure, ie., point b. WHY?
(The c.g. of the quarter circle is known to be at 4 R/ 3 π w.r.t. b.)
x
cg
A = x
rec
A
rec
 x
qc
A
qc
x
cg
{15
2
 π*15
2
/4} = 7.5*15
2
 {4*15/3/π}* π*15
2
/4
x
cg
= 11.65 ft { distance to rt. of b to the centroid }
Q: Do we need a y location? Why?
d. Calculate the moment about B
needed for equilibrium.
M
B
∑ · 0 clockwise positive.
M
B
+5F
h
+ 15−x
v
( )
F
v
· 0
A
•
c.g.
C
B
•
b
•
F
H
F
v
M
B
M
B
+ 5⋅ 7020W + 15 −11.65 ( )⋅ 3013W · 0
M
B
+35,100W+10,093.6W· 0
M
B
· −45,194W ft −lbf
per unit width
Why is the answer negative? (What did we assume for an initial direction of
M
B
?)
The hydrostatic forces will tend to roll the surface clockwise relative to B,
thus a resisting moment that is counterclockwise is needed for static
equilibrium.
II24
Always review your answer (all aspects: magnitude, direction, units, etc.) to
determine if it makes sense relative to physically what you understand
about the problem. Begin to think like an engineer.
II25
Buoyancy
An important extension of the procedure for vertical forces on curved surfaces is
that of the concept of buoyancy.
The basic principle was discovered by Archimedes.
It can be easily shown that
(see text for detailed
development) the buoyant force F
b
is given by:
F
b
= ρ g V
b
where V
b
is the volume of the
fluid displaced by the submerged
body and ρ g is the specific
weight of the fluid displaced.
P
atm
V
b
F
b
• c.g.
Thus, the buoyant force equals the weight of the fluid displaced, which is
equal to the product of the specific weight times the volume of fluid
displaced.
The location of the buoyant force is through a vertical line of action, directed
upward, which acts through the centroid of the volume of fluid displaced.
Review all text examples and material on buoyancy.
II26
Pressure Distribution in Rigid Body Motion
All of the problems considered to this point were for static fluids. We will now
consider an extension of our static fluid analysis to the case of rigid body motion,
where the entire fluid mass moves and accelerates uniformly (as a rigid body).
The container of fluid shown below is accelerated uniformly up and to the right as
shown.
From a previous analysis, the general equation governing fluid motion is
∇ P · ρ( g − a ) + µ ∇
2
V
For rigid body motion, there is no velocity gradient in the fluid, therefore
µ∇
2
V · 0
The simplified equat ion can now be wr it t en as
∇ P · ρ( g − a ) · ρG
where
G · g − a ≡
the net acceleration vector acting on the fluid.
II27
This result is similar to the equation for the variation of pressure in a hydrostatic
fluid.
However, in the case of rigid body motion:
*
∇ P
= f {fluid density & the net acceleration vector G · g − a }
* ∇ P acts in the vector direction of G · g − a .
* Lines of constant pressure are perpendicular to
G
. The new
orientation of the free surface will also be perpendicular to
G
.
The equations governing the analysis for this class of problems are most easily
developed from an acceleration diagram.
Acceleration diagram:
For the indicated geometry:
θ · tan
−1
a
x
g + a
z
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
dP
ds
· ρG where G · a
x
2
+ (g + a
z
)
2
{ }
1
2
and
P
2
− P
1
· ρG(s
2
− s
1
)
Note: P
2
− P
1
≠ ρ g z
2
− z
1
( )
and
s
2
– s
1
is not a vertical dimension
a
a
g
G
θ
θ
Free
surface
P
2
P
1
s
a
x
a
z
Note: s is the depth to a
given point perpendicular
to the free surface or its
extension. s is aligned
with
G
.
II28
In analyzing typical problems with rigid body motion:
1. Draw the acceleration diagram taking care to correctly indicate –a, g,
and θ, the inclination angle of the free surface.
2. Using the previously developed equations, solve for G and θ.
3. If required, use geometry to determine s
2
– s
1
(the perpendicular
distance from the free surface to a given point) and then the pressure
at that point relative to the surface using P
2
– P
1
= ρ G (s
2
– s
1
) .
Key Point: Do not use ρg to calculate P
2
– P
1
, use ρ G.
Example 2.12
Given: A coffee mug, 6 cm x 6 cm
square, 10 cm deep, contains 7 cm of
coffee. The mug is accelerated to the
right with a
x
= 7 m/s
2
. Assuming rigid
body motion and ρ
c
= 1010 kg/m
3
,
Determine: a. Will the coffee spill?
b. P
g
at “a & b”.
c. F
net
on left wall.
a. First draw schematic showing the
original orientation and final
orientation of the free surface.
a b
7 cm
10 cm
∆ z
a
x
θ
6 cm
ρ
c
= 1010 kg/m
3
a
x
= 7m/s
2
a
z
= 0 g = 9.8907 m/s
2
We now have a new free surface at an angle θ where
θ · tan
−1
a
x
g + a
z
¹
'
¹
¹
;
¹
θ · tan
−1
7
9.807
·35.5°
∆z = 3 tan 35.5 = 2.14 cm
a a
g
G
θ
II29
h
max
= 7 + 2.14 = 9.14 cm < 10 cm ∴ Coffee will not spill.
b. Pressure at “ a & b.”
P
a
= ρ G ∆ s
a
G = {a
2
x
+ g
2
}
1/2
= { 7
2
+ 9.807
2
}
1/2
G = 12.05 m/s
2
∆ s
a
= {7 + z} cos θ
∆ s
a
= 9.14 cm cos 35.5 = 7.44 cm
P
a
= 1010 kg/m
3
*12.05m/s
2
*0.0744 m
P
a
= 906 (kg m/s
2
)/m
2
= 906 Pa
Note:
a
P g y G g ρ ρρ ρ ≠ ≠ ≠ ≠ ≠ ≠ ≠ ≠
a
b
7 cm
10 cm
∆ z
a
x
θ
6 cm
θ
∆ s
a
Q: How would you find the pressure at b, P
b
?
c. What is the force on the left wall?
We have a plane surface, what is the rule?
Find cg, P
cg
, F = P
cg.
A
Vertical depth to cg is:
z
cg
= 9.14/2 = 4.57 cm
∆s
cg
= 4.57 cos 35.5 = 3.72 cm
P
cg
= ρ G ∆s
cg
P
cg
= 1010 kg/m
3
*12.05 m/s
2
* 0.0372 m
P
cg
= 452.7 N/m
2
F = P
cg
A = 452.7 N/m
2
*0.0914*0.06m
2
F = 2.48 N ←
a b
7 cm
10 cm
∆ z
a
x
θ
6 cm
θ
•
cg
∆ s
cg
II30
What is the direction?
Horizontal, perpendicular to the wall;
i.e. Pressure always acts normal to a surface.
Q: How would you find the force on the right wall?
This equation can be simplified for a fluid at rest (ie., no inertial or viscous effects) to yield: ∇p = ρ g
∂p ∂x
= 0;
∂p ∂y
2 1
=0;
∂p ∂z
=
dp dz
= −ρ g
P2 − P1 = − ∫ ρ g d Z
It is appropriate at this point to review the differences between absolute, gage, and vacuum pressure. These differences are illustrated in Fig. 2.3 (shown below) and are based on the following definitions: • absolute pressure  Pressure measured relative to absolute zero. • gage pressure  Pressure > Patm measured relative to Patm • vacuum pressure  Pressure < Patm measured relative to Patm • Patm  local absolute pressure due to the local atmosphere only. 2 standard Patm at sea level = 1atm = 101.3 kPa = 2116 lbf/ft P (kPa) Pressure above atmospheric e.g P = 120 kPa absolute or P = 30 kPa gage P (relative to Patm) = Pgage = 30 kPa gage Patm Local atmospheric pressure e.g at 1000 m Patm≈ 90 kPa P(relative to Patm) = 0 Pa gage = 0 Pa vacuum = P(vac) = 40 kPa Pressure below atmospheric e.g. P = 50 kPa abs P(abs) = 50 kPa Absolute zero, perfect vacuum 0 P(abs) = 0, P(vac) = 90kPa, P(gage) =  90 kPa Fig. 2.3 Illustration of absolute, gage, and vacuum pressure
II2
Hydrostatic Pressure in Liquids For liquids and incompressible fluids, the previous integral expression for P2  P1 integrates to P1 – P2 = ρg (Z2 – Z1) Note:
Z2 – Z1 is positive for Z2 above Z1. Free surface Pressure = Pa
z
h
Z2 Z 1
P
2
=Z 2
Z
1
but P2 – P1 is negative for Z2 above Z1. We can now define a new fluid parameter: γ = ρg ≡ specific weight of the fluid
P
1
y x
With this, the previous equation becomes (for an incompressible, static fluid) P2 – P1 =  γ (Z2 – Z1) The most common application of this result is that of manometry.
Consider the Utube, multifluid manometer shown on the right. If we first label all intermediate points between A & a, we can write for the overall pressure change
II3
A . Use correct ∆Z and γ with each fluid.g. PA .z2) + γ (z2 . 2.P1) + (P1 . 4.Pa ) This equation was obtained by adding and subtracting each intermediate pressure. e. Z1 < Z2 .P2) + (P2 . Watch units. PA . On the manometer schematic.ZB ) Again note: Z positive up and ZA > Z1 . the elevation change should be written as ZA – Z1. 3. 2. II4 . Substituting the previous result for static pressure difference. label points on each end of the manometer and at each intermediate point where there is a fluidfluid interface. we obtain PA . Include all pressure changes. Z2 < Za .PB = (PA .PB) 3. If pressure difference is expressed as PA – P1.Pa = (PA. In general. take care to: 1.PA . follow the following steps when analyzing manometry problems: 1. Express each intermediate pressure difference in terms of an appropriate product of specific weight (or ρ g) * elevations change ( and watch the signs).1 . Use correct signs with ∆ Z.P2) + (P2 .z1) + γ (z1 .PB = γ (zA .Z1) – ρ g (Z1 – Z2) – ρ g (Z2 .P1) + (P1 .ρ g(ZA.2 . Express the overall pressure difference in terms of appropriate intermediate pressure differences. The total pressure difference is now expressed in terms of a series of intermediate pressure differences.B.PB = .zB) When developing a solution for manometer problems.
I.P1) + (P1 – P2) + (P2 .1 for values of specific weight. Substituting values. and S.z1) = 0. Pa = 101.Pa = PA (gage) = (PA.Manometer Example: Given the indicated manometer. we can write PA . The fluid at A is Meriam red oil no.G.6 N/m2 Ans Note why: (zA.Pa ) Substituting the manometer expression for a static fluid.8 N/m3 With the indicated points labeled on the manometer.G. See Table 2.G.18 m.10 m and (z1 – z2) = 0. γ.3 kPa. determine the gage pressure at A.za ) Neglect the contribution due to the air column.*ρgw = 0. 3. a S. units. & we did not use Pa Review the text examples for manometry. = .10 m – 9790 N/m3 * 0. II5 .z1) – ρgw(z1 – z2) – ρga(z2 . we obtain PA (gage) = . in both B.18 = 949.83*9790 N/m3 ρg A = 8126 N/m3 ρgair = 11.ρgA(zA.83 H 0 A 10 cm 1 1 2 2 18 cm ρgw = 9790 N/m 3 ρg A = S. we obtain PA (gage) = .8126 N/m3 * 0.
we can write P dP = −ρ g = − g RT dz or 2d ∫ 1 g 2dz P P = ln 2 = − ∫ P1 R1 T P For an isothermal atmosphere with T = To.16˚K (15 ˚C) B = 0. density is a nonconstant variable in the previous expression for dP/dz. Assuming the gas is an ideal gas.650˚K/m Substituting the linear temperature variation into the previous equation and integrating we obtain Bz P = Pa 1 − To g /(RB ) where g = 5.69˚R = 288.000 m).2 in the text. the mean atmospheric temperature decreases nearly linearly and can be represented by T ≈ To .000ft (l l.Hydrostatic Pressure in Gases Since gases are compressible. II6 .26 ( for air ) RB 2 2 and R = 287 m /(s ˚K) Review example 2.000 ft: To = 518. this integrates to g(z 2 − z1 ) P2 = P1 exp − R To Up to an altitude of approximately 36.B z where B is the lapse rate The following values are assumed to apply for air from sea level to 36.003566˚R/ft = 0.
the result of atmospheric pressure Pa will cancel and the net force is obtained by F = ρ gh cg A F = Pcg A Pcg is now the gage pressure at the centroid of the area in contact with the fluid. from basic physics we can easily show that the net hydrostatic force on a plane surface is given by (see text for development): F = ∫ PdA = Pcg A A Thus. since it is the net hydrostatic force that is desired and the contribution of atmospheric pressure Pa will act on both sides of a surface. II7 . This is equivalent to the following: The hydrostatic force on one side of a plane surface submerged in a static fluid equals the product of the fluid pressure at the centroid of the surface times the surface area in contact with the fluid.Hydrostatic Forces on Plane Surfaces Consider a plane surface of arbitrary shape and orientation. Also: Since pressure acts normal to a surface. the direction of the resultant force will always be normal to the surface. Note: In most cases. submerged in a static fluid as shown: If P represents the local pressure at any point on the surface and h the depth of fluid above any point on the surface. basic physics says that the hydrostatic force is a distributed load equal to the integral of the local pressure force over the area.
to obtain the net hydrostatic force F on a plane surface: 1. 2. This is commonly called the “center of pressure . We must now determine the effective point of application of F. The location of the resultant force is determined by integrating the moment of the distributed fluid load on the surface about each axis and equating this to the moment of the resultant force about that axis. The following page shows the centroid.cp” of the hydrostatic force. Determine the (gage) pressure at the centroid Pcg. or the ∫ 2nd moment of the area Therefore.g. II8 .g. we obtain Ycp = − ρ gsin θ I xx Pcg A ≤ 0 where: Ixx is defined as the Moment of Inertia. Define an x – y coordinate system whose origin is at the centroid. and using the definition (see text for detailed development). 3. Calculate F = PcgA. The procedure essentially requires that the force on the part of the plane area in each individual layer of fluid must be determined separately for each layer using the steps listed above. for the moment about the x axis: F y cp = ∫ y P dA A Applying a procedure similar to that used previously to determine the resultant force. and other geometric properties of several common areas. It is noted that care must be taken when dealing with layered fluids. Note: This is not necessarily the same as the c. Therefore. of the area. c. the resultant force will always act at a distance ycp below the centroid of the surface ( except for the special case of sin θ = 0 ). Determine depth of centroid hcg for the area in contact with the fluid.Therefore.
360 133.733 Seawater Glycerin Mercury Carbon 1bf /ft 3 64.7 846.4 49.570 II9 . L bL 3 3 36 − b L 72 2 2 b⋅L 2 y a x 0 .8 8.2 N /m 3 11.790 7.050 12.996 9. 99.3 62.1 N /m 3 10.PROPERTIES OF PLANE SECTIONS Geometry Centroid Moment of Inertia Ix x Product of Inertia Ix y Area y x b L b 2 L bL3 2 .a = 4R 3π R 4 π 8 R − 9 π 8 3 0 πR 2 2 s y x b L a = L 3 bL b ( b − 2s) L 72 2 1 2 36 b⋅ L y x R a= 4R 3π π 16 4 − R 9π 4 2 4 R − 8 9π 1 4 π R2 4 b 1 y x b h a = h( b + 2b 1 ) 3( b + b 1 ) h 3 (b 2 + 4 bb 1 + b 1 ) 36 ( b + b1 ) 0 ( b + b 1) h 2 Fluid Specific Weight 1bf/ft 3 Air Oil Water Ethyl .100 15. 0 πR 4 4 0 πR 2 L y x b b 3 . 12 0 b ⋅L y x 2R 0.0 78.0752 57.
these simplifications do not occur and the original. and Xcp must be used. the fluid specific weight γ cancels in the equation for Ycp and Xcp and we have the following simplified expressions: F = ρ g h cg A Ycp = − I xx sinθ h cg A X cp = − I xy sinθ h cg A However. Key Points: The values Xcp and Ycp are both measured with respect to the centroid of the area in contact with the fluid.Proceeding in a similar manner for the x location. Ycp is not necessarily a vertical dimension. homogeneous fluid (i. unless θ = 90 . or (2) a container with surface pressurization > Patm . Xcp = 0.e. the center of pressure is located directly below the centroid along the plane of symmetry. basic expressions for F . Note: For areas with a vertical plane of symmetry through the centroid.e. Special Case: For most problems where (1) we have a single. i.e. circles. we obtain X cp = − ρ g sinθ I xy Pcg A where Xcp can be either positive or negative since Ixy can be either positive or negative. Ycp .g. etc. take II10 .e. i.e.). isosceles triangles. and defining Ixy = product of inertia. squares. the y axis (e. o i. Xcp and Ycp are both measured in the inclined plane of the area. for problems where we have either (1) multiple fluid layers. i. not applicable to layers of multiple fluids) and (2) the surface pressure is atmospheric....
II11 . The basic equations always work.care to use the approximate expressions only for cases where they apply.
5 Given: Gate. 15’ A c.87 o Neglect Patm A = 10 x 5 = 50 ft 2 Since the plate is rectangular. The location of the resultant force will be at the center of pressure which will be at a location Ycp below the centroid and Xcp as specified previously. Example 2. 6’ B θ 8’ a.B • Seawater 3 64 lbf/ft 9’ h c. Hinge reactions .Summary: 1. 2. Horizontal force at wall . The resultant force is determined from the product of the pressure at the centroid of the surface times the area in contact with the fluid. 5 ft wide Hinged at B Holds seawater as shown Find: a. hcg = 9 ft + 3ft = 12 ft Pcg = γ hcg = 64 lbf/ft * 12 ft = 768 lbf/ft ∴ 2 2 3 2 Fp = Pcg A = 768 lbf/ft * 50 ft = 38. g. The centroid is used to determine the magnitude of the force. 4.g. This is not the location of the resultant force.A c. By geometry: θ = tan1 (6/8) = 36. Net hydrostatic force on gate b. Xcp = 0 for areas with a vertical plane of symmetry through the c.400 lbf II12 . 3.g.
II13 .
p. c.g. not a triangle. for Fp ycp = − ρ gsinθ I sinθ Ixx = − xx Pcg A hcg A Fw Bz Bx 4 θ y c. Note: Do not overlook the hinged reactions at B.417 ft 12 ft ⋅ 50 ft 2 below c.p.330 lbf ← θ • c. 6 ft 8 ft II14 .400 − 6 P = 0 P = 29.g. (5 − 0.417)⋅ 38.p.b. Horizontal Reaction at A Must first find the location. • c.g. xcp = 0 due to symmetry ∑MB = 0 P Fw Bz Bx θ y c. • c.6 ycp = − = −0.p.. P For a rectangular wall: Ixx = bh /12 Ixx = 5 * 10 /12 = 417 ft 3 3 θ 6 ft 8 ft Note: The relevant area is a rectangle. • c. 417 ft 4 ⋅ 0.p.
400*0. II15 .29. Summary: To find net hydrostatic force on a plane surface: 1. Find force F = Pcg A. The location will not be at the c.c. ycp is in the plane of the area. typically = γ hcg (generally neglect Patm ).330 = 0 Bx = 6290 lbf → ∑ Fz = 0. 2. Find area in contact with fluid. but at a distance ycp below the centroid. Find hydrostatic pressure Pcg at centroid. 5. 4. Locate centroid of that area.. 3. Bx + Fsinθ − P = 0 Bx + 38.400 * 0.8 = 30. ∑ Fx = 0.6 .720 lbf ↑ Note: Show the direction of all forces in final answers.g. Bz − Fcosθ = 0 Bz = 38.
) Identify the area of the plate in contact with each layer. Repeat for each layer. the part of the surface in each fluid layer must essentially be worked as a separate problem.) Locate the c. and 3. Use the usual procedure for finding the location of the force for each layer. for the part of the plate in each layer and the pressure at the c. for each layer: 1. 2. Review all text examples for forces on plane surfaces. That is. II16 .g.g..Plane Surfaces in Layered Fluids For plane surfaces in layered fluids. Calculate the force on each layered element using F1 = Pc.g1• A1 .
the direction of the force is different at each location on the surface. The horizontal force will act through the c. the basic rules for determining the horizontal and vertical component of forces on a curved surface in a static fluid can be summarized as follows: Horizontal Component. (not the centroid) of the projected area. Consider curved surface. we will evaluate the x and y components of net hydrostatic force separately. hcg a’ ycp Fh b’ a Projected vertical plane Curved surface cp b II17 . ab.p. Force balances in x & y directions yield Fh = FH Fv = Wair + W1 + W2 From this force balance. Fh The horizontal component of force on a curved surface equals the force on the plane area formed by the projection of the curved surface onto a vertical plane normal to the component.Forces on Curved Surfaces Since this class of surface is curved. Therefore.
Calculate Fh = Pcg A. Thus. 2. 3. not the centroid.Fv The vertical component of force on a curved surface equals the weight of the effective column of fluid necessary to cause the pressure on the surface. Vertical Component .Veff: 1. 3. Determine the location of the centroid . where A is the area of the projection of the curved surface into the vertical plane. Project the curved surface into the appropriate vertical plane.) This effective column of fluid is specified by identifying the column of fluid that would be required to cause the pressure at each location on the surface. Perform all further calculations on the vertical plane. II18 . the area of the vertical plane.Pcg = ρ g hcg at the centroid of the vertical plane. 6. ie. 4. (See graphic that follows. Identify the pressure at each point on the curved surface. 5.g.Therefore. of the vertical plane. The location of Fh is through the center of pressure of the vertical plane. to identify the effective volume .hcg of the vertical plane. Identify the curved surface in contact with the fluid.c. Determine the depth of the centroid . 7. 2. Determine the pressure . The original curved surface is important only as it is used to define the projected vertical plane. Get the picture? All elements of the analysis are performed with the vertical plane. to determine the horizontal component of force on a curved surface in a hydrostatic fluid: 1. Identify the height of fluid required to develop the pressure. The use of the words effective column of fluid is important in that there may not always actually be fluid directly above the surface.
The vertical force acts vertically through the centroid (center of mass) of the effective column of fluid. to determine the vertical component of force on a curved surface in a hydrostatic fluid: 1. Finding the Location of the Centroid A second problem associated with the topic of curved surfaces is that of finding the location of the centroid of Veff. 3. Determine the volume of the effective column of fluid.Fv = ρgVeff. Veff b P P Veff P a P fluid P b a P Fluid above the surface No fluid actually above surface These two examples show two typical cases where this concept is used to determine Veff. Recall: II19 . Calculate the weight of the effective column of fluid . Therefore. 2. 4. Identify the effective column of fluid necessary to cause the fluid pressure on the surface.4. The location of Fv is through the centroid of Veff. The vertical direction will be the direction of the vertical components of the pressure forces. These collective heights combine to form Veff.
Centroid = the location where a point area. each of the x values would be specified relative to a vertical axis through b since the cg of the quarter circle is most easily specified relative to this axis. or mass. xcgV1 = ∫ x dV V1 This principle can also be used to determine the location of the centroid of complex geometries. volume. e. For example: If Veff = V1 + V2 then xcgVeff = x1V1 + x2V2 b V1 a V 2 or for the second geometry VT = V1 + Veff xTVT = x1V1 + xcgVeff Veff b V1 a fluid Note: In the figures shown above.g. II20 . or mass can be place to yield the same first moment of the distributed area. volume.
F = Pcg Ap Note: All calculations are done with the projected area. 5 ft above the bottom.b and results in a rectangle. Locate the centroid of the projected area.W B • γ = ρg = 62. For this rectangle: hcg = 7.4 lbf/ft3 a h cg Pcg b B • A • Rule: Project the curved surface into the vertical plane.Example: Gate AB holds back 15 ft of water. Pcg = γhcg = 62. The curved surface is not used at all in the analysis. or 10 ft below the surface.5.5 ft ycp = − hcg A 7.5 ft = 468 lbf/ft 2 3 2 Fh = Pcg A = 468 lbf/ft * 15 ft*W= 7020 W lbf per ft of width Location: Ixx = bh /12 = W * 15 /12 = 281. Find the pressure at the centroid of the vertical projection. The curved surface projects onto plane a .25W ft 4 sin 90o =− = − 2.5 ft15W ft2 3 3 4 The location is 2. II21 . a.25 W ft Ixx sin θ 281.4 lbf/ft * 7.g. determine the magnitude (per unit width) and location of the hydrostatic forces on the gate and the resisting moment about B. Neglecting the weight of the gate. (not a quarter circle) 15 ft x W. Horizontal component A • Water 15 ft FV FH Width .5 ft below the c.
Mqc II22 . 2 2 VABC = Vrec .b.B . What is the location? Rule: Fv will act through the centroid of the effective volume causing the force.g. c.C Vrec = Vqc + VABC. b F v • B Q: What is the effective volume of fluid above the surface? What volume of fluid would result in the actual pressure distribution on the curved surface? Vol = Vol A .π 15 /4*W = 48.Vqc 3 VABC = Veff = 15 W .29 ft = 3013 lbf per ft of width Note: Fv is directed upward even though the effective volume is above the surface.4 lbf/ft * 48.g. the “first moment of an area. A C • • c.29 W ft 3 3 Fv = ρg Veff = 62. F v B How do we obtain this centroid? Use the concept which is the basis of the centroid. A C • • c. b• We need the centroid of volume ABC. Vertical force: Rule: Fv equals the weight of the effective column of fluid above the curved surface (shown by the dashed diagonal lines).” Since: Arec = Aqc + AABC Mrec = Mqc + MABC MABC = Mrec .
g.) xcg A = xrec Arec . of b to the centroid } Q: Do we need a y location? Why? d.t.093.5*15 .65)⋅ 3013W = 0 M F v B B b• MB + 35. Calculate the moment about B needed for equilibrium.6W = 0 MB = − 45. ∑ M B = 0 clockwise positive.100W +10. 2 2 2 2 A H MB + 5 Fh + ( − xv )Fv = 0 15 M B + 5 ⋅ 7020W + (15 −11. ie.xqc Aqc xcg {15 .{4*15/3/π}* π*15 /4 xcg = 11. F C • • c. b. of the quarter circle is known to be at 4 R/ 3 π w. thus a resisting moment that is counterclockwise is needed for static equilibrium. WHY? (The c. point b. II23 .π*15 /4} = 7.194W ft −lbf per unit width Why is the answer negative? (What did we assume for an initial direction of MB?) The hydrostatic forces will tend to roll the surface clockwise relative to B..Note: We are taking moments about the left side of the figure.r.g.65 ft { distance to rt.
units. direction.) to determine if it makes sense relative to physically what you understand about the problem. etc. Begin to think like an engineer.Always review your answer (all aspects: magnitude. II24 .
g. II25 .Buoyancy An important extension of the procedure for vertical forces on curved surfaces is that of the concept of buoyancy. The basic principle was discovered by Archimedes. directed upward. Patm Vb • c. which is equal to the product of the specific weight times the volume of fluid displaced. the buoyant force equals the weight of the fluid displaced. Fb Thus. It can be easily shown that (see text for detailed development) the buoyant force Fb is given by: Fb = ρ g Vb where Vb is the volume of the fluid displaced by the submerged body and ρ g is the specific weight of the fluid displaced. Review all text examples and material on buoyancy. The location of the buoyant force is through a vertical line of action. which acts through the centroid of the volume of fluid displaced.
The container of fluid shown below is accelerated uniformly up and to the right as shown. the general equation governing fluid motion is ∇ P = ρ( g − a ) + µ ∇ V 2 For rigid body motion. We will now consider an extension of our static fluid analysis to the case of rigid body motion. II26 . where the entire fluid mass moves and accelerates uniformly (as a rigid body).Pressure Distribution in Rigid Body Motion All of the problems considered to this point were for static fluids. From a previous analysis. there is no velocity gradient in the fluid. therefore µ∇2 V = 0 The simplified equation can now be written as ∇ P = ρ( g − a ) = ρ G where G = g − a ≡ the net acceleration vector acting on the fluid.
G = g − a } * ∇ P acts in the vector direction of G = g − a . The equations governing the analysis for this class of problems are most easily developed from an acceleration diagram.This result is similar to the equation for the variation of pressure in a hydrostatic fluid. However. in the case of rigid body motion: * ∇ P = f {fluid density & the net acceleration vector. s is aligned with G . * Lines of constant pressure are perpendicular to G . Note: P2 − P1 ≠ ρ g(z 2 − z 1 ) and s2 – s1 is not a vertical dimension II27 . The new orientation of the free surface will also be perpendicular to G . Acceleration diagram: For the indicated geometry: a θ = tan −1 x g + az dP ds and = ρG where G = {a x + (g + a z ) 2 2 Free surface θ a a z ax s a θ } P2 1 2 P 1 g G P2 − P1 = ρ G(s 2 − s 1 ) Note: s is the depth to a given point perpendicular to the free surface or its extension.
5 = 2. the inclination angle of the free surface. 6 cm x 6 cm square. and θ. c.8907 m/s2 a We now have a new free surface at an angle θ where a −1 a x θ = tan g + az θ θ = tan −1 7 = 35. Assuming rigid body motion and ρc = 1010 kg/m3. ρc = 1010 kg/m3 ax = 7m/s2 ∆z a θ x 6 cm 10 cm 7 cm a az = 0 b g = 9.In analyzing typical problems with rigid body motion: 1. Fnet on left wall. Example 2. solve for G and θ. 2. First draw schematic showing the original orientation and final orientation of the free surface. Will the coffee spill? b.807 G g ∆z = 3 tan 35. contains 7 cm of coffee. a. Key Point: Do not use ρg to calculate P2 – P1. Determine: a. Using the previously developed equations. 10 cm deep. If required. The mug is accelerated to the right with ax = 7 m/s2 . use ρ G.14 cm II28 . use geometry to determine s2 – s1 (the perpendicular distance from the free surface to a given point) and then the pressure at that point relative to the surface using P2 – P1 = ρ G (s2 – s1) .5° 9.12 Given: A coffee mug. Draw the acceleration diagram taking care to correctly indicate –a. 3. g. Pg at “a & b”.
05m/s *0. Pb? c. F = Pcg.06m2 F = 2.807 } 2 θ 10 cm θ ∆s a 7 cm ∆ sa = {7 + z} cos θ ∆ sa = 9.05 m/s2* 0.14 cm < 10 cm ∴ Coffee will not spill.72 cm Pcg = ρ G ∆scg Pcg = 1010 kg/m3*12.hmax = 7 + 2.5 = 7.44 cm Pa = 1010 kg/m *12.05 m/s 2 2 1/2 2 ax 6 cm ∆z 2 1/2 = { 7 + 9. Pcg. what is the rule? Find cg. Pressure at “ a & b.14/2 = 4.14 = 9. b.7 N/m2*0.0744 m Pa = 906 (kg m/s2)/m2 = 906 Pa Note: Pa ≠ ρ g y G ≠ g Q: How would you find the pressure at b. What is the force on the left wall? We have a plane surface.57 cos 35. A Vertical depth to cg is: zcg = 9.57 cm ∆scg = 4.0914*0.14 cm cos 35.” Pa = ρ G ∆ sa G = {a x + g } G = 12.5 = 3.7 N/m2 F = Pcg A = 452.0372 m Pcg = 452.48 N ← a ∆z a a 3 2 b x 6 cm θ θ ∆ s cg cg • 10 cm 7 cm b II29 .
Pressure always acts normal to a surface. i. perpendicular to the wall.e.What is the direction? Horizontal. Q: How would you find the force on the right wall? II30 .